Institutions for the Arts & Amusement
Masonic and other lodges

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Eneas Mackenzie

Year published

1827

Pages

594-598

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'Institutions for the Arts & Amusement: Masonic and other lodges', Historical Account of Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Including the Borough of Gateshead (1827), pp. 594-598. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43391 Date accessed: 01 August 2014.


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MASONIC LODGES.

A Masonic Lodge existed in Newcastle at an early period. (fn. 1) The records of St. John's Lodge, the first held under the Grand Lodge of England, commence in the year 1725. In 1730, the Brethren of this Lodge met in the Flesh Market, and ordered a play, called "The Committee," at the Moot-hall theatre. They afterwards assembled at various places until the year 1777, when they erected an elegant Masonic Hall in Low Friar Street. It contained an excellent organ, and two paintings by Bell; one representing St. John, the other a portrait of Mr. Francis Peacock, roper, the Grand Master of the Lodge. In front of the building was a Greek inscription, signifying, "The darkness comprehendeth it not." At its dedication, an excellent band, and the best vocal performers from the choir of Durham cathedral, assisted. "A pathetic exhortation was delivered by Mr. Huntley, and an elegant oration, displaying the antiquity, progress, and excellence of the order, by the Rev. Dr. Scott of Simonburn. The festival was held in the new Assembly-room, when near four hundred of the brethren dined together at three tables." In a short time, extravagance and the introduction of politics ruined this Lodge; and Alderman Blackett, who had a mortgage on the hall, sold it and the other property of the Lodge for £320.

St. Nicholas' Lodge was established in Newcastle on November 29, 1764, and appears to have been first held in a house on the Quayside, from whence it was removed into the Flesh Market in December, 1770. It was afterwards held at various places, until its final incorporation with the Athol Lodge.

The Athol Lodge (fn. 2) had a very humble beginning. One Cockburn, a Quayside labourer, having, in 1804, taken offence at the conduct of St. Nicholas' Lodge, to which he belonged, resolved to erect one of his own. His first pupil was William Brown, a cooper, who was instructed in the Butchers' Field. Candidates were afterwards admitted at the Barley Mow in Sandgate; and the number of these spurious Masons increasing, the Brethren of St. Nicholas' Lodge became alarmed, seeing "the craft was in danger." But the outlaws, despising all threats, boldly removed to the Star and Garter, in Mosley Street; after which they sent a deputation to a Lodge belonging to the 2d regiment of Lancashire militia, then stationed at Sunderland, by whom were made Masons legitimately. On their return, they remade the rest of their brethren. By the influence of this military lodge, they procured a charter, No. 131, under the constitution of the Duke of Athol. After this, the Athol Masons removed to Mr. Lowes', the Half Moon Inn, Bigg Market, where they remained until 1808, when they took possession of the Masonic Hall in Bell's Court. The rivalry between this Lodge and St. Nicholas' continually increased, and Masonic processions became very frequent. At length, in 1814, the Duke of Athol resigned his supremacy over his sect of Masons, and the Prince of Wales did the same over his portion of the mystic craft; when the Athol and St. Nicholas' Lodges were united under one charter (No. 26), granted by the Duke of Sussex as the sole Grand Master of the order. A union also took place between St. Edwin's and the Union Masonic Lodges in Gateshead. The united brotherhood in Newcastle continued their meetings in Bell's Court until the year 1824, when they removed to the old library-room of the Literary and Philosophical Society, in the Groat Market. But, since the union, the spirit of Masonry has greatly declined in Newcastle.

ORANGE LODGES.

An Orange Lodge, No. 69, was established in Newcastle in June, 1807, and which is now held at the Cock Inn, Head of the Side. It is governed by a Master, Deputy Master, Treasurer, Secretary, and a Committee of five members. His Royal Highness the late Duke of York was Patron of this fraternity; and the late Sir Thomas Burdon, Knt. was at one time Deputy Grand Master of the northern district. This "Loyal Orange Lodge" consists of above 700 members, of whom upwards of 200 compose a benefit society.

A member of this Lodge writes, "This is exclusively a Protestant association, whose object is to protect every loyal subject, of whatever religious persuasion he may be, from violence and oppression. We assume the name of King William the Third, Prince of Orange, whose glorious memory we will perpetually cherish, as the establisher of the true religion in this United Kingdom."

Another Orange Lodge, No. 74, was formed at Mr. Newton's, sign of the New Dolphin, in the Close, above two years ago. There is also attached to this Lodge a select benefit society, consisting of above 90 members.

FREE GARDENERS.

Anciently, men of almost every trade or mystery of any consequence had some peculiar sign and pass-word. Hence, a Scotch Gardener, by a motion, could instantly discover whether a stranger had entered the profession regularly. This simple sign of recognition received some additions, and, being in late times engrafted upon Free Masonry, and formed into a system of degrees, is now known by the name of Free Gardenry.

The St. Michael Pine-apple Lodge of Free Gardeners, in Newcastle, was first formed in 1812, by warrant from the St. George's Lodge of North Shields, which derived its existence from a Lodge composed of soldiers belonging to the Forfar regiment of militia. This Lodge, which is numerous, meets at the Nag's Head, in the Old Flesh Market. Solomon's Lodge of Free Gardeners, which assemble at the sign of the Angel, in the Butcher Bank, was instituted in 1822, by warrant from the Venerable Bede's Lodge at South Shields.

The Melon Lodge of Free Gardeners, in Gateshead, was formed on February 8, 1813, by warrant from the St. Michael Pine-apple Lodge of Newcastle, with the approbation of the Old Adam Lodge at Sunderland.

FREE AND EASY JOHNS.

The Newcastle Lodge of Free and Easy Johns was the third Lodge of the kind in England, being No. 3, and preceded only by those of London and of Dover. It was first formed in 1778, and could soon boast of consisting of more than 1000 members. It is an association merely for convivial purposes; but there is a ceremony of initiation, a pass-word, grip, &c. In August, 1784, Charles Brandling, Esq. M. P. presented this Lodge, of which he was a member, with a large silver goblet, on which his arms were engraved, with a suitable inscription. This Lodge assembles at the Blue Posts public house, in Pilgrim Street. Another Lodge, No. 13, has since been formed, and meets at the sign of the Cock, in St. Nicholas' Square. There is also a Lodge of Free and Easy Johns in Gateshead.

ODD FELLOWS' LODGES.

The First Northumberland, the Second Northumberland, the Albion, the St. Mary's, the Trafalgar, the Wellington, and the Mariner's Lodges of Odd Fellows, meet at different inns and public houses in Newcastle, and the Burns Lodge in Gateshead. A new order of Odd Fellows have lately opened the Tyne Union Lodge in Newcastle, and St. George's Lodge in Gateshead. The latter Lodges have adopted some new ceremonies, and profess to be very particular in the admission of members.

The ceremonies of different Lodges have never been uniform. In general, the officers are, a Noble Grand with his two supporters, a Vice Grand and two supporters, a Noble Father who is a past Noble Grand, a Secretary, a Warden, and a Tyler or Guardian. All the officers excepting the Warden and Guardian, when admitting a member, wear scarlet robes, variously ornamented. The Warden wears a cocked hat, and the Guardian a black robe and a mask, representing a merry devil's head, with two horns. The Noble Grand's mask resembles a very old man's face, with a long beard and nose. The Warden the same. The Vice Grand's resembles an ugly old man's face, with a tremendous nose. The brothers wear all sorts and sizes. The object being conviviality, the ceremonies are brief. (fn. 3)

Footnotes

1 Free Masonry is sometimes traced up to Adam. Paine, Hutchinson, Clinch, and others, contend that it originated with the Egyptian priests. The Chevalier Ramsay argues that it arose during the Crusades. Barruel thinks it is a continuation of the Society of Knight Templars. Finch and Pivate assert that it was instituted by Oliver Cromwell. Professor Buhle attributes it to a hoax played off by a young man, between the years 1610 and 1614. Mounier confidently ascribes its invention to the English Jesuits. Others are satisfied that Masonry was made subservient to the interests of the Stuart family; first by Ashmole and other royalists during the civil wars, and subsequently, according to Professor Robison, by the Scotch Jacobins. This opinion seems to be in some degree confirmed by the "Degree of Scotch Masters," where a dagger is introduced, a traitor assassinated, and revenge is the pass-word. Failing in serving the Stuarts, it became, say some modern writers, under Weishaupt and other philosophers, an instrument by which it was intended to overturn all the thrones in Europe! Sir C. Wren, Preston, and Henry state, apparently on good authority, that Free Masons were originally moveable societies of architects and workmen, distributed into classes, every tenth man being called a warden, while a master in chief superintended the whole. They dwelt in huts near the building, and conversed by private signs. As money lessened in value, they found it necessary to demand an increase of wages; but King Henry VI. made it a capital offence to belong to these "trade combinations." (fn. 4) Still the operative Masons continued their union at Kilwinning in Scotland, at York, and in London; and Sir C. Wren was the last Grand Master of the English Masons. During the reign of Queen Ann, Masonic associations declined so rapidly, that the usual meetings were discontinued; but, in 1717, the four Lodges in London agreed to admit men of various professions, and to make new regulations. This once more raised Masonry into notice and esteem; and, in 1723, the printing press was first called to its aid, and in its new character it was introduced into various countries, where it has gone on increasing.
The degrees of Masonry are, the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and the Master, including the Royal Arch. There are many other degrees, not recognized in 1813 by the Grand Lodge of England, viz. The degree of "Mark Man,"—"Mark Master,"—"Architect,"—"Grand Architect,"—"Superintendant, or Scotch Master,"—"Secret Master,"—"Perfect Master,"—"Intimate Secretary,"—"Intendant of the Building, or Master in Israel,"—"Past Master,"—"Excellent Masons,"—"Super-excellent Masons,"—"Second Election of Nine,"—"Elect of Fifteen,"—"Priestly Order of Israel,"—"Provost and Judge, or Irish Master,"—"Grand Grand Kadesh,"—"Order of Misraim,"—"Le Orion, or Egyptian Masonry,"—"No Whites, or Prussian Knights,"—"Sublime Knights Elected,"—"Knights of the White Eagle or Pelican, or the Rosy Cross of St. Andrew,"—"Knights of the East,"—"Brothers of the Red Cross Sword of Babylon,"— "Knights of the Red Cross of Rome and Constantine." The Rosicrusians, or Knight Templars, is the ne plus ultra of Masonry. But this is not a proper place to enter into the peculiarities of these different degrees.
The usual officers of a regular Lodge are, the Worshipful Master, Past Master, Senior and Junior Wardens, a Senior and Junior Deacon, an Inner Guard, and a Tyler. The secrets consist of words, signs, and grips. The working part is composed of catechisms or lectures upon the merits, purposes, and ceremonies of Masonry. The interior of a Lodge consists of ornaments, furniture, and jewels. Jews, Turks, infidels, madmen, and women, are not permitted to enter a Scotch Lodge. The Irish Masons are very liberal; and the French Masons have improved on the ceremony of making a Master Mason. Finch has published much on Masonry; and Dr. Hamming and Mr. W. R. Wright, able masons, have remodelled his Masonic documents. There are few accomplished Free Masons in Newcastle.
2 When the London Lodges, in 1717, altered the constitution of Masonry, they neither asked the consent nor the advice of the York Lodge, which was admitted to be the most ancient. They also constituted themselves the Grand Lodge of England, and afterwards ventured to license Lodges within the diocese of York. This assumption of power gave much offence to other Masons, who pretended to greater purity, and who, in 1742, seceded, and denominated themselves Ancient Masons. They continued without a head until 1772, when the Duke of Athol was installed Grand Master of the "most ancient and honourable fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons," in presence of the Masters of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland. The other party, called Modern Masons, in 1770, petitioned parliament to grant them a charter of corporation, investing them with the power of punishing every Free Mason in England who did not pay them quarterage! It is scarcely necessary to say that this petition was rejected.
3 The Ancient Order of Druids seem to have no Lodges in Newcastle for "Marking a Flat," so that our curious townsmen remain ignorant of the history of the "Great Togodubiline," and of the sublime words, "Serelonius Paulinus" and "Mona." There was lately a club in this town, called "P. D." or "Regular Take-ins."
There are at present a number of convivial clubs in Newcastle. One of the most respectable and intellectual is Burns' Club, which meets annually to celebrate the birth-day of the Scottish bard, on which occasion many of his songs are sung, and recitations from his works are delivered.
4 There is a MS. in the Bodleian Library, said to be in the hand-writing of King Henry VI. containing an examination of a Free Mason. It was copied by Leland and commented upon by Locke. It is said that as the Masons pretended to be masters of the Black Art, the terrified monarch granted them his protection. Sir Isaac Newton called Free Masonry "the Science of Sciences!!"