THE FIFTEEN BYE-TRADES.
MASTERS AND MARINERS, CALLED ALSO THE TRINITY HOUSE.
It is very difficult to trace the origin of those marine establishments called Trinity
Houses, though they are not very ancient. They probably arose from the mutual
formation of Masters and Mariners into a society, for the promotion of their interests,
and the relief of their indigent and distressed brethren and widows, at a time when
all charitable institutions assumed a religious character. They afterwards, by royal
grants, or the powers conferred by the Lord High Admiral of England, rose into
consequence, and have tended to promote and protect the navigation and commerce
of the kingdom. (fn. 1)
"The Guild or Fraternity of the Blessed Trinity of Newcastle upon Tyne" first
occurs as a corporate body, purchasing by their feoffees the scite of their present
house, on January 4, 1492, of Ralph Hebborn, Esq. of Hebborn, for which a red
rose, if demanded, was to be paid yearly at Midsummer for ever. It was then called
"Dalton Place;" and by a resolution of the house in writing, still preserved, and
dated January 4, 1505, a hall, chapel, and lodgings for their brethren, were ordered to
Robert Hebborn, Esq. son of their former benefactor, by a deed dated September
9, 1525, conveyed to this fraternity some additional buildings on the north side of
Dalton Place, for which they were to pay yearly, on the vigil of St. Peter and Paul,
if demanded, a pottle of wine. (fn. 2) At this time, it appears, they had an altar or chantry
called Trinity Altar in All Saints' church, which they had probably founded long
before. About 1530, they had either confirmed or granted to them the duty of
primage and pilotage.
King Henry VIII. on October 5, 1536, granted a new charter of incorporation to
this guild, consisting of men and women, to have a common seal, implead and be
impleaded, with licence to build and imbattle two towers, the one at the entrance of
the haven of Tyne, and the other on the hill adjoining, in each of which a light was
to be maintained every night, for the support of which they were empowered to receive 4d. for every foreign ship, and 2d. for every English vessel entering the port of
Tyne. This charter was confirmed by Edward VI. in 1548, and by Queen Mary in
Queen Elizabeth, in 1584, by charter, refounded this society by the name of the
Master, Pilots, and Seamen of the Trinity House of Newcastle upon Tyne. Another
charter was granted by King James I. dated January 18, 1606, constituting this society, under the above name, a body politic, and appointing a master, twelve elder
brethren, two elder wardens with their two assistants, and two younger wardens with
the like number of assistants. They were to have a common seal. Their jurisdiction
was extended to Blyth, Sunderland, Hartlepool, Whitby, and Staithes—power is
given them to impose fines on their offending brethren, and to appoint pilots for the
river Tyne, with its creeks and members, who are to have for conducting every laden
vessel 12d, for every foot it shall draw, and for every foot a light ship shall draw 8d.
The duty of primage was confirmed to them from vessels from beyond the seas coming into the river, or its creeks and members: 2d. per ton of wine, oil, and other
things sold by the ton (fish killed and brought in by Englishmen excepted), and 3d.
per last of flax, hemp, pitch, tar, or other things sold by the last. Aliens are to pay
this duty before they leave the port, and free merchants and inhabitants of Newcastle
within ten days after their landing: all this to go to the support of twelve poor brethren, or their wives, or shipwrecked mariners. Lightage was also confirmed to
them: of every owner's ship, English born, 4d. each time; and of every owner's ship
that is an alien, 12d. The buoying, canning, marking, and beaconing of the river
Tyne was also confirmed to them; for which they are to receive of each ship, whose
owner is English, and burthen above 20 chaldron of coals, 4d.; of the same when
under 20 chaldron, 2d.: and of every alien, 6d. They were also impowered to hold
lands and tenements under £30 per annum clear value.
In 1607, the officers of the port of Newcastle were empowered by the Privy Council to enforce the duties of buoyage and lightage; and in 1617, the council ordered
that the merchants of Newcastle should pay only 1½d. primage for every last of corn
brought into that port. In 1618, the Trinity House ordered a gallery to be built in
All Saints' church.
King Charles I. in June, 1633, was escorted to Tynemouth by this society. In
the following year, they completed the purchase of a parcel of waste ground at PowPans, near North Shields, of George Ward, Esq. and which formerly belonged to
Tynemouth monastry. About the same time, the present chapel of the Trinity
House was fitted up and beautified; and in 1636, the bishop granted a warrant permitting the vicars of Newcastle to preach in this chapel for ever,
The Scots, under General Lesley, had possession of this house in 1640. In 1642,
the society paid £100 to Sir John. Marley, for the maintenance of the garrison of
Newcastle; and, in the same year, £66, 13s. 4d. in plate and money, for the same
purpose. When the town was taken in 1644, this house was plundered by the Scots.
In 1645, the solemn league and covenant was administered in the chapel of this
house; and in 1655, the brethren suggested to the council of trade the necessity of
erecting two light-houses on the Fern Islands, with the owner of which they had
been treating concerning such erection. This appears to have been approved of, as
the agreement was signed the following year. In 1661, this house made a voluntary
gift of £100 to the king; and, on October 21, 1664, his majesty, by a new charter,
confirmed the privileges formerly granted to the house, with an exemption to the
brethren thereof from serving in the trained bands, juries, and all other land-services,
and as the members of the Trinity House at Deptford Strand are exempted; laying
also an additional duty of 2d. upon every ship, towards the maintenance of the lighthouses, and the like sum in addition to what was formerly paid for buoys; as also an
addition of 6d. and 4d. to the former duty of pilotage, to be paid by strangers only.
MASTERS AND MARINERS.
When Clifford's Fort, at the entrance of the Tyne, was built in 1672, the government enclosed about 509 yards of ground, including the light-house, belonging to
the Trinity House, with a high wall towards the land, and a breast-work towards the
sea, leaving a little door for the keeper of the light-house to go out at to mark the
time of the tide; but even this door was afterwards built up, against which assumption of power the house remonstrated in the year 1725.
In 1675, this society induced Mr. Angel, of London, merchant, to erect the Spurnlights, though opposed by the Trinity Houses of Deptford Strand and Hull. Mr.
Angel agreed to pay them £40 per annum for 1000 years. A halfpenny per ton
was laid on English, and one penny per ton on all foreign vessels, for the support
of these lights. This house, in 1680, opposed an attempt made by Sir E. Villars to
obtain an additional toll for the support of Tynemouth light-house. In 1687, King
James II. granted a new charter to this fraternity, with an addition of pilotage.
On February 24, 1728, this house gave public notice that Tynemouth bar, which
had of late been much altered, was become so very good again, that ships might pass
it with as much, or rather more water than ever; and that the light-houses, being
rebuilt, would be lighted on the 25th of March following. In 1765, this fraternity
petitioned parliament that all ballast should be laid upon the land; and in 1769, they
petitioned the Lords of the Admiralty against the projected canal from Coventry to
Oxford. In 1770, they offered a reward to such seamen as should, within four weeks,
volunteer into the royal navy. In the following year, they transmitted an address of
thanks to the Lord Mayor of London and Alderman Oliver, "for the supporting,
with a patriotic, manly firmness and dignity, the freedom and privileges of their
fellow citizens of London, and the natural rights of their fellow subjects in general."
In 1800, the master and brethren of the Trinity House of Newcastle, assisted by a
committee of 15 ship-owners, applied to parliament for an act for the increase of their
dues, the confirmation of their rights, and such new regulations as would promote
the public good. They represented that the pilotage fixed by the charter of James
II. had become an insufficient compensation for the labour, peril, and industry of the
pilots. The toll was also proposed to be levied upon vessels sailing northwards, for
the maintenance of beacons and buoys at Holy Island. In the session of 1801, a bill
passed, authorising the house to augment their lightage, buoyage, and pilotage, and
to make several necessary regulations.
The framers of this act had neglected to introduce a clause to compel the sale of
scites; and when the house endeavoured, in 1805, to procure a proper place for building the Low Light-house, they were involved in great difficulties. They then petitioned the Board of Ordnance and the Duke of Northumberland for a lease or grant
of part of the shore or sand-bank south of Clifford's Fort. After much altercation, a
scite was procured at the Low Light Quay from Lord Collingwood and Co. containing 194 yards at five guineas a yard. Having, in digging the foundation, gone a
foot or two beyond the quay, the duke's agent ordered the workmen to desist; but
at last a compromise took place, and 20 guineas were paid for the encroachment upon
the shore. The light-house was finished and lighted in May, 1810.
The premises belonging to this corporation, at the head of Trinity Chare, are, considering the situation, remarkably light, airy, and clean. The south yard contains,
on the east, an alms-house, built in 1782, and, on the south, another, built in 1820.
The school-house forms the north side of the yard. The alms-houses in the low and
high yard are also very neat and convenient. The Trinity Hall is spacious, and ornamented with the portraits of King William and Queen Mary; the Bombardment of
Algiers, painted by Carmichael, in a rich frame; and several other naval subjects.
The Board-room is very neat, and adjoins a convenient office for the secretary. The
vestibule of the chapel is very handsome, and adorned by several curiosities. Several
marine monsters are suspended from the roof. A glass-case contains a complete model of the Ville de Paris, taken from the French. In another is a neat model of the
Victory, made of bone, a model of the life-boat, &c. This entrance is separated from
the chapel by a beautiful wainscot screen. The chapel, which is 37 feet by 25, contains 23 pews, capable of accommodating 100 persons, and are ornamented with
carved work, probably as finished in 1636. The aisle between the pews is 7 feet 3
inches wide. There is a pulpit and a reading-desk, a stove in the centre, and, on the
north side, an elevated seat for the master. (fn. 3)
This fraternity at present support, within their house, twelve men and thirteen
widow pensioners, each having an allowance of 28s. per month, a coat and hat to the
men, and a gown and petticoat to the women, once in two years. They are provided
with coals, and have the gratuitous advice of the surgeon of the establishment when
necessary. When sick, they are allowed wine, &c. if judged proper; and on all occasions they are treated with attention and kindness. There are also two classes of
out-pensioners. Of the first, or Master's class, there are 60 upon the list, which is
the number to which it is limited: each receives £7 per annum, and 20s. extra for
each child under 14 years of age. The second class is limited to 40 pensioners, of
which 23 are now upon the list, each receiving £5 per annum, and 20s. extra for
children under 14. The summoner and the matron have apartments within the
house. The total number of the brethren of this society is 340. The officers on
July 2, 1827, were as follow, viz.—
Master, Fenwick John Shadforth, Esq. Deputy Master, Mr. Thomas Smith. Elder Brethren, Mr.
John Anderson, Mr. John Ostle, Mr. Valentine Hutchinson, Mr. Rowland Hodge, Mr. George Fothergill,
Mr. James Harle, Mr. William Burnett, Mr. Robert Airey, Mr. Charles Jackson, Mr. John Currie, Mr.
John Thomas Carr, Mr. George Hodge. Younger Electors, Mr. William Helmsley, Mr. John Carr, Mr.
Christopher Heymers, Mr. William Benson, Mr. Joseph French, Mr. Robert Clay. Younger Wardens,
Mr. Thomas Shadforth, Mr. Henry Liddell. Younger Assistants, Mr. John Fram, Mr. Francis Archibald
The following is the summary of receipts of the Trinity House for the years specified, extracted from the society's books: (fn. 4) —
Specialties.—Thursday, January 8, 1818.
|Bond of the mayor of Newcastle to Mr. George Stephenson, on trust for the Trinity House
|£1200 pounds in the 3 per cent. consols, bought in the year 1806
|£800, bought in the same stock in the year 1807
|£1600, bought in the same stock 1816
|£1003, 15s. 3d. in the navy 5 per cent. annuities, bought in 1817
|Lent to the committee for building the new light-house at North Shields
|Cash in Sir M. W. Ridley's bank, since the 21st of August
|Balance this day
An estimate of the value of the property belonging to the Trinity House, adjoining the same:—
||Trinity Hall, Board-room, office, and cellars underneath
||Entrance-hall, chapel, and cellars
||Cellar, beadle's and nurse's house
||Alms-house, low yard, containing 7 rooms
||Alms-house, high yard, 6 rooms
||School-rooms, cellars, &c.
||Alms-house, south yard, 8 rooms, &c.
||Cellars, warehouses, and lofts
||Cellar, warehouses, and lofts
||Cellar, warehouses, and lofts
J. Davison, Surveyor.
Secretaries to the Trinity House, with their Salaries.
|John Cleburn, 1605
|William Nicholson, 1609
|Robert Chambers, 1616
|Robert Harragatt, 1626
|William Parker, 1627
|William Gibson, 1634
|Thomas Stobbs, 1659
|George Swaddell, August 2, 1669
|John Bee, October 6, 1701
|Thomas Brown, 1715
|Henry Shadforth, December 7, 1725
|Robert Bailiff, August 1, 1728
|Thomas Peighin, August 21, 1733
|Thomas Aubone, January 8, 1739
|Purvis Sissons, June 21, 1785
|Henry Shadforth, November 2, 1795
|Thomson Chapman, December 12, 1808
|Edward Henderson, deputy, 1818
|Henry Shadforth, ditto
The old ordinary of this society, the original of which is still in their possession, is
dated the last day of August, 1527. By the authority of the mayor, sheriff, and
aldermen, justices of the peace, with the consent of their own body, it enjoins them
to assemble yearly at the feast of Corpus Christi, go together in procession, and play
their play and pageant of "The Bearing of the Cross," at their own expense; each
brother to be at the procession when his hour is assigned, on pain of forfeiting 6d.
To take no Scotsman born to apprentice, nor set any to work under a penalty of 40s.
for each default, whereof half to go to the fellowship, and half to the work of Tyne
Bridge, without any forgiveness; to admit any person who had served an apprenticeship with a brother of the society, a member thereof, on the payment of 13s. 4d. and
12d. for a pot of ale; as also any man of that craft, being the king's liege man, and
desirous to be of the fellowship, a brother thereof, with power to set up shop on the
payment of £20, and 12d. for a pot of ale. The searchers to search four times a year
at least. That any brother falling into poverty should be supplied out of the common
box, at the discretion of the stewards and the twelve; and that any brother misbehaving at meetings, should forfeit six pounds of wax for every default; and that any
brother lying in wait to beat, slay, or murder any of his brethren, should be put out
of the society for ever; that any brother calling another "Scot," or "mansworn," in
malice, should forfeit 6s. 8d. without any forgiveness; that every apprentice should
serve seven years, and pay at his entrance a pound of wax; that they should settle
their accounts every year, on the Monday after Corpus Christi day, and choose their
stewards in manner following: the whole society first to choose four discreet brethren, who, after being sworn, should choose other four, which eight, being all sworn,
should choose the stewards and searchers for the year: that every brother should
be "at the Sante Augustine's" in the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, and
go "the none of the same day to the dirige and sowle masses to be done for the brederes and susters" of the fellowship, on pain of forfeiting 6d. for each default; that
every brother take for the working of a dozen broad cloth 4s.; for a dozen "strates
wollene" 20d. to be measured by the long wand; for a dozen lyn-cloth, yard broad,
bleeched, 12d.; also "sise and brood-lynn and hardone," 10d. a dozen "sanclothe," 12d.; a dozen "karsais," 18d.; for a dozen lyn-cloth, five quarters broad,
Another ordinary, having the sanction of the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle,
in Guildhall assembled, dated August 12, 1608, and inrolled in the books of the corporation, confirmed to them that no foreigner or person not free of the fellowship,
living in or about the High Castle, near the liberties of that town, should take any
work in prejudice of this society, on pain of forfeiting £5 for each default. And
that none should buy any linen or hardone yarn, to carry out of the precincts of the
said town, under a penalty of 40s. This society has a warrant renewed yearly from
the mayor of Newcastle, to seize bad yarn, &c. and still continue to receive annual
contributions from the pedlars, who keep booths on the Sandhill.
In 1682, Carliol Tower was repaired by this society for a meeting-house. It was
again repaired and beautified in 1821; when the company paid £50 towards the expense, and the corporation the remainder. There are 13 members in the company,
They possess no property except the tower.
BARBER-CHIRURGEONS, WITH CHANDLERS.
The ancient ordinary of this society, dated October 10, 1442, (fn. 5) enjoined that they
should go together in procession on Corpus Christi day, in a livery, and afterwards
play the "Baptizing of Christ" at their own expense. Every man to be at the procession when his hour is assigned him, at the New Gate, on pain of forfeiting a
pound of wax; to go also with their pageant, when it should be played in a livery,
on the like pain; that no alien born should be taken apprentice, or allowed to work
within the town, or without, under a penalty of 20s.; that the society should uphold
the light of St. John the Baptist, in St. Nicholas' church, as long as they were of
ability; that no barber, apprentice, nor servant should shave on a Sunday, neither
within the town nor without, by a mile's space.
There is another ordinary of this society, dated September 25, 1671, confirming
the former, and making them a body politic by the name of the Barber-Chirurgeons,
and Wax and Tallow Chandlers, ordering them to meet yearly, and choose two
wardens, who were to be sworn; that apprentices should serve seven years; and that
when any brother had taken a cure in hand, no other should meddle with it till it
was completed, on pain of forfeiting 20s. for the first, 30s. for the second, and 40s.
for the third default, half of which to go to the brother who first dressed the patient.
It further enjoined, that none should wash, dress, or trim on a Sunday, on pain of
forfeiting 2s. for every offence, giving the company power to make bye-laws, and to
choose annually two searchers, who were to be sworn.
In 1648, this society petitioned the corporation for a scite whereon to build a
Meeting-house, with land for a garden, to be planted with medicinal herbs; when a
portion of the Austin Friars' garden was granted them for 61 years, at the annual
rent of 6s. 8d. This lease was renewed on November 4, 1771, for the like period of
61 years from the expiration of the old one. Their present hall, which was built in
1730, stands upon piazzas, having a grass plot in front, with gravel walks adorned
with statues. The company consists of 45 members. Their only property, exclusive
of the Hall, is an adjoining house, which yields a yearly rental of £17. A benefitsociety has been formed by many of the members of the fraternity; but no benefits
are to be paid until a stock of £500 be accumulated. Three-fifths of this sum has
been subscribed. (fn. 6)
The ordinary of this society, dated August 8, 1636, signed the day following by
the judges of assize, who certify their having perused and ratified the same, enjoins
them to meet yearly on the 27th of December, to choose two wardens, and the like
number of overseers; prohibiting them from working on Sundays and holidays observed by the church, giving them power to make bye-laws, and restricting apprentices from working tide-work till they had served three years.
Another order of this society, dated August 6, 1674, was also confirmed by the
judges; as was another also, dated July 26, 1689. Besides the above, this fraternity
have since made many additional orders by their own authority.
This society, which consists of 22 members, have no property except their hall in
the Wall Knoll, or Carpenter's Tower, and which was built in the year 1716. They
suffered a severe loss lately, and at present not more than five or six members
attend. (fn. 7)
The ancient ordinary of this society, dated January 20, 1426, enjoined them to go
together yearly at the feast of Corpus Christi in procession, as other crafts did, and
play their play at their own charge; each brother to attend at the hour assigned him
at the procession, on pain of forfeiting a pound of wax; that none should take a
Scotsman born to apprentice, nor set any such to work, under the penalty of 40s.
whereof 26s. 8d. to go to the fraternity, and 13s. 4d. to "Sente Nicholas Kyrkwarke."
No brother to take any more than one apprentice in seven years. All turners and
pulley-makers coming to Newcastle, to be bound by the same ordinary. An after
clause forbade the employing of any Dutchman; and, by another after clause, the
company of ropers was united with this society.
By an ordinance of the corporation of Newcastle (17th of Elizabeth) which consolidates the companies of coopers, pulley-makers, turners, and rope-makers, it is ordained, "That none of these companies shall take any apprentice but one in four
years, except the children of brethren;" and by a bye-law of this consolidated company, in the year 1786, it was enacted, "that for the enrolment of every apprentice
so taken, a brother shall pay £10, or any apprentice at all during the servitude of another, £5." (fn. 8)
January 30, 1650, the corporation of Newcastle ordered this company a lease for
seven years of a place in the Manors, to be a meeting-house. The company of Plasterers appear to have met with this society soon after the restoration. The following
entry occurs in their books:—"June 5, 1667, received of the Plaisterers for their
part of the plaistering of the new meeting-house, £1, 4s. 6d." October 7, 1699, a
warrant was granted to this society by the mayor of Newcastle, to search all herrings,
&c. a power which is still continued in their hands. In 1725, a legacy of £20 was
left by Mrs. Margaret Stephenson to this society, to be divided, and let out to two
brethren for a certain number of years, without interest. The company consists of
70 members. Previous to 1791, they met in a room above the Water Gate, on the
Sandhill. At present, they hold their meetings at a tavern, but have petitioned for
Pink Tower, which it is expected will soon be converted into a handsome meetinghouse.
HOUSE CARPENTERS, ANCIENTLY CALLED WRIGHTS.
An ordinary of this society, dated July 3, 1579, constituted the House Carpenters
and Joiners a body corporate of themselves, with perpetual succession and power to
sue and be sued, &c. in the courts of Newcastle; ordered that they should meet
yearly, and choose three wardens, two of whom were to be House Carpenters, and
the third a Joiner; and that whenever the general plays of the town, called Corpus
Christi plays, should be played, they should play the "Burial of Christ," which anciently belonged to their fellowship: that no apprentice should serve less than seven
years; no Scotsman to be taken as such under penalty of 40s. nor to be made free on
any account. It further enacted, that the Joiners should work at the sealing of
houses within, the making "dorments and windows," "drawn tables of frame-work,
and tables with turnposts," "buffet-stools," "forms," "cupboards," "almeries," "pressers," "chairs, and sconces of frame-work," "Casements," "trellising of windows,"
"buttries of framed work," "framed chists," and all others pinned with wood, "as
also every other kind of joiner's work." That the two trades should occupy in common the making of buttries, or any other kind of work with "sealing linck," i. e. one
board growen in another, and nailed with iron nails; "chists for corpses, and all other
chists not pinned with wood;" "removing of beds, cupboards, and draw-tables, together with making of doors and windows mulder work." And that half of their fines
should go to the maintenance of the great bridge, and the other half to the fellowship. (fn. 9)
George Collingwood, House-Carpenter, departed this life the 23d December, 1698,
who, by his last will, devised to the stewards and society of this house 40s. to be paid
on the 1st of May yearly for ever, and to be employed towards the putting out an
apprentice to one of this company of House-Carpenters yearly.
Sir Fenwick Bulmer, Knt. a free burgess of this town, presented to the incorporated
company of House-Carpenters, April 19, 1824, the sum of 100 guineas; the interest
to be divided amongst the poor widows of this company at Christmas annually for
ever. (fn. 10)
In consequence of the intended removal of the West Gate, over which they formerly had their hall, a plan for a new meeting-house was laid before the company,
May 27, 1805, and approved. The new building, which is of stone, was finished in
1812: it is a handsome structure, situated nearly on the scite of the old gate, and was
estimated to cost upwards of £1000. The company consists of 114 members.
The ordinary of this society, dated September 1, 1581, constituted them a body
incorporated of themselves, with perpetual succession; enjoined them to meet yearly
to choose two wardens, who might sue and be sued in the courts of Newcastle, make
bye-laws, &c. That whenever the general plays of the town, anciently called Corpus
Christi plays, should be played, they should play "The Burial of our Lady St. Mary
the Virgin;" every absent brother to forfeit 2s. 6d.: that no Scotsman should be
taken apprentice, under a penalty of 40s. nor ever be admitted into the company on
any account whatever; each brother to be sworn; that apprentices should serve
seven years; that at the marriages and burials of brethren, and their wives, the company should attend to the church such persons to be married or buried; that one half
of their fines should go to the maintenance of the great bridge, and the other half to
the said fellowship. July 1, 1674, the society appear to have met in the White
Friar Tower, with the Wallers, or Bricklayers, and Metters.
George Maxwell, Mason, who died September 14, 1732, bequeathed the rental of
five messuages in Newcastle to this society, for the relief of brethren reduced to poverty by sickness, and of their necessitous widows. May 19, 1742, this fraternity,
on their petition, obtained of the corporation of Newcastle a grant of the Cutler's
Tower, in the Carliol Croft, which they have since repaired in a handsome manner.
The company consists of 15 members. They possess part of the public house in the
Close known by the sign of the Waggon, and some property at the foot of the
The ordinary of this society, dated March 28, 1589, separated them from the
House-Carpenters, and constituted them a fellowship of themselves, with perpetual
succession. It enjoined them also to elect two wardens, who might sue and be sued,
&c. in the courts of Newcastle, make laws, &c. and that whenever the mayor, aldermen, and sheriff of Newcastle, commanded any general play to be set forth, or martial exercise to be performed, they should appear, and perform such parts in them as
should be respectively assigned them, on pain of forfeiting 2s. 6d. for every time
they were absent; that apprentices should serve seven years, five of which to elapse
before a second could be taken; that no Scot should be taken apprentice, or ever admitted into the fellowship. It enjoined also the appointment of two triers of work,
as expressly and particularly named in the joint ordinary of the House-Carpenters
and Joiners. (fn. 11) .
MILNERS OR MILLERS.
This fraternity formerly had their meeting-house over Pilgrim Street Gate, in
which there was an escutcheon with this inscription:—"Mrs. Margaret Stephenson,
relict of Mr. John Stephenson, merchant of Newcastle, departed this life August 23,
1729, and, by her last will and testament, gave to the company of Joiners of Newcastle aforesaid, twenty pounds, to be lent to two such brethren of the said fellowship,
as shall want stock to set up with, for four years without interest, and so to be transferred to other two such brethren of the said Joiners at the end of every four years
for ever." On another ibid.—"Barbara Farbridge, relict of Charles Farbridge, a brother of the company, died April 13, 1743, aged 60, bequeathed to the poor widows
of deceased brethren twenty pounds, the use of which to be paid by the stewards on
St. Peter's day, yearly, for ever." (See page 113.)
The present hall of the society, built at their charge, is situated in High Friar
Street. It is a handsome and commodious structure of brick. On the front of the
building is this inscription, "Joiners Hall, erected 1802." The society consists of 48
MILNERS OR MILLERS.
The ordinary of this society, dated September 20, 1578, citing another of older
date, constituted 20 free millers a fellowship, with perpetual succession, and enjoined
them to choose two wardens every year, who might sue and be sued, &c. in the
courts of the town; and that when the general plays should be performed, they
should play the ancient one of the society, called "The Deliverance of the Children
of Isrell out of the Thraldome, Bondage, and Servitude of King Pharo," on pain of
forfeiting 20s. for absence; that no stranger or alien born should be taken apprentice,
or set to work, on pain of 6s. 8d.; and that apprentices should serve seven years;
that no corn should be ground upon Sundays; that each miller in the counties of
Northumberland or Durham, who brought corn from Newcastle market, should pay
them an acknowledgment of 6d. per annum, and pay 2s. 6d. every time he should be
found in the wheat or malt market before two o'clock in the afternoon on market
days, unless to fetch away the corn which his customers had bought there; and that
none such foreign millers should buy corn there, under a penalty of 2s. 6d. for each
default. It further enjoined, that the wardens of this society should make oath in
the town-chamber concerning the fines, half whereof to go to the support of the
Newcastle part of Tyne Bridge. April 8, 1672, a singular order occurs in the books
of this fraternity, that if any brother should attend the burial of another with a black
hat, he should be fined 6d. for every such default. This society at present consists
of 14 members. They have no hall, but hold their meetings at a tavern,
FELT-MAKERS, CURRIERS, AND ARMOURERS.
The ordinary of this society, dated October 1, 1546, enjoined them to go together
in procession at the feast of Corpus Christi, bear the charges of the lights, pageants,
and play, and be there at the hour assigned them, on pain of forfeiting a pound of
wax. It further enjoined, that none born out of the king's dominion should work
with them, unless he were denizen, or for urgent causes to be admitted by the mayor
and justices of the peace, on pain of paying £40 sterling; that they should not work
on holidays, or on Saturdays longer than five o'clock at afternoon, on pain of forfeiting a pound of wax; that each brother should be sworn on admission; and that the
Armourers, Curriers, and Hatters, should not interfere in each others occupations.
March 27, 1671, order for the seizure of French hats, except such as were sold by
those of the company. In 1719, this society made an order, that no Quaker should
be taken apprentice, on pain of forfeiting £100. July 3, 1620, they made an agreement to repair Herber Tower for a meeting-house. There are at present 15 members.
COLLIERS, PAVIORS, AND CARRIAGE-MEN.
The ordinary of this society, dated July 30, 1656, appears to have been a mutual
agreement signed and sealed by themselves, to remain in force till they should obtain
one under the authority of the magistrates of Newcastle. (fn. 12) It ordered that no stranger, not having duly served an apprenticeship to their calling, should be set to work,
on pain of forfeiting the sum of 40s.; and that any brother working a day's work
privately, should forfeit 6s. 8d. for each default; and that they should choose a warden yearly, on the feast of St. Mark, who should keep the books of the fraternity,
and do all other offices belonging to a steward, as in other companies. In their old
books their officers are styled "a box-master, and two key-keepers." They have at
present two stewards. The society consists of about 10 meeting members. The tower
near St. Andrew's church, where they meet, appears to have been rebuilt about April,
1707. In 1771, it was thoroughly repaired and beautified at the expense of the society.
The ancient ordinary of this society, dated March 12, 1451, enjoined them to go
together in a livery, yearly, at the feast of Corpus Christi, and play their play at their
own expense; each to be at the procession when his hour was assigned him, on pain
of forfeiting a pound of wax: that no apprentice should serve less that seven years,
nor a second be taken till the first had served six; that no brother should take a Scot
to apprentice, on pain of forfeiting 40s.; that if any brother had taken a slate quarry,
or any place to cover with slates, none should undermine him, under a penalty of
13s. 4d.; that none should work upon St. Catherine's day, on pain of forfeiting a
pound of wax. An order was added, December 28, 1460, that no brother should
take less than 6s. 8d. for handling a rood of slate covering.
Another ordinary, dated September 28, 1579, cited an agreement between the
Slaters and Bricklayers, and incorporated the societies with perpetual succession, enjoined them to choose two wardens annually, who might sue and be sued, make byelaws, &c.; that at the general Corpus Christi plays, they should play "The Offering
of Isaac by Abraham," where every brother was to attend, on pain of forfeiting 2s. 6d.
Another ordinary of this society, dated March 16, 1677, separated them from the
company of Wallers, Bricklayers, and Dawbers, alias Plasterers; and made them in
deed and name a fellowship, by the name of Slaters and Tylers; ordered them to
meet yearly on St. Catherine's day; to work no kind of black mortar or clay, but to
make ovens and chimneys, or funnels. March 30, 1619, the Joiners appear to have
granted the use of their hall to this society. November 11, 1654, they appear to
have met with the Coopers in the Manors. (fn. 13)
In 1821, Gunner Tower, a little to the south of Forth Lane, was converted into a
meeting-house for this society, which at present consists of 35 members.
PLUMBERS, PEWTERERS, AND GLAZIERS.
The ordinary of this society, anciently consisting of Goldsmiths, Plumbers,
Glaziers, Pewterers, and Painters, and dated September 1, 1536, enjoined them to go
together on the feast of Corpus Christi, and maintain their play of "The Three
Kings of Coleyn;" to have four wardens, one Goldsmith, one Plumber, one Glazier,
and one Pewterer or Painter; to be sworn on admission not to interfere with each
other's occupation; that no Scotsman born should be taken apprentice, or suffered to
work in Newcastle, on pain of forfeiting 3s. 4d. one half of which to go to the upholding of Tyne Bridge, and the other to the society. Among other orders in the
old books of the society, the following occurs: "September 7, 1730, no brother to
lend his diamond, except to a free brother of this company, on pain of forfeiting
6s. 8d." (fn. 14) This society, which consists of 50 members, hold their meetings in Morden
Tower. (See page 110.)