A DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE BOROUGH AND PARISH OF GATESHEAD.
HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH.
SOME Roman remains having been found in Gateshead, Dr.
Stukely supposes that it was a fortified place of the Romans.
Camden, and other antiquaries, supposed that Gabrocentum of the
Notitia was here, an opinion sufficiently exploded by Horsley;
though Dr. Stukely, after finding the place called Ad Capræ Caput, by Bede, and seeing a goat's head used at it as a sign, found
that Gabrocentum, in British, signified goat's head, and therefore
continued in Camden's opinion. But it is doubtful where Ad
Capræ Caput was situated. Simon of Durham says that Bishop Walcher was murdered at Ad Caput Capræ, which, in another place, he calls Gotesheved. In Brompton it is Cattesse hevede. As gate signifies a street in antient and the present vulgar
language, Brand thinks that Gateshead means the head or end of the road, because a
branch of Watling-street ended here.
The first certain notice of Gateshead, which proves that the place had a church,
and was in all probability even then an ancient and considerable vill, is the outrageous
murder of Bishop Walcher in the year 1080. In 1164, Bishop Hugh Pudsey granted
a charter to the burgesses of Gateshead, of which the chief privileges were, liberty of
forest, freedom from toll within the Palatine, and in general wards all such advantages as were enjoyed by the burgesses of Newcastle. The survey of Boldon Buke
states, that Gateshead, with the profits of the borough, the mills, fisheries, and bakehouses, with three parts of the arable land, were farmed under 60 marks rent. The
remaining parts were in the hands of the bishop.
The most important portion of the history of this borough, is that of the perpetual
disputes betwixt the see of Durham and the powerful and wealthy corporation of
Newcastle, for the free navigation of the river Tyne, and the right of building quays
and ballast-shores on its banks. The confirmation of the right of the mayor and
burgesses of Newcastle to hold the conservatorship of the Tyne, ended these disputes
in favour of Newcastle.
In 1552, during the temporary dissolution of the see of Durham, an act was obtained, which severed Gateshead from the bishopric, and annexed it to Newcastle;
but one of the first acts of Queen Mary's reign was the restoration of the borough of
Gateshead to its pristine state. Yet Bishop Tunstall, probably as a peace-offering to
the grasping corporation of Newcastle, granted to the mayor and burgesses a lease of
the Salt Meadows, for 450 years, under £2, 4s. rent; and of the borough tolls, during the same period, under £4, 6s. rent. In 1578, Bishop Barnes granted a lease of
the manors of Gateshead and Whickham to Queen Elizabeth, for 79 years; but, in
1582, a new lease was granted, for 99 years, including all the pits, mines, wastes,
and royalties, under £117, 15s. 8d. reserved rent. Next year, the queen consigned
this lease to the corporation of Newcastle; and, after many changes, it expired in
1682. In 1716, Bishop Crewe demised the manor of Gateshead, for 21 years, to
William Coatsworth, Esq. (excepting the third part of Tyne Bridge, and the advowson of the two rectories), under the yearly rent of £235, 11s. 4d. The lease has since
been renewed to the Coatsworths, and is now vested in their descendant, Cuthbert
Neither the origin of the borough of Gateshead, nor of the freehold property vested
in the burgesses, can be traced to their original source. In 1551, the burgesses were
in possession of Wynde Mylne Hill, Langflatt, and Stoneflatt. In 1563, they litigated their common right in Redheugh and Herelaw with the Whites of Redheugh.
A decree, 30 Elizabeth, recognizes the usage of pasturing the town fields. In 1607,
cows were stinted in these pastures, at fourteen-pence a head. In 1814, an act was
obtained for enclosing the borough lands, or town fields, consisting of the Windmill
Hills, Bensham, the High and Low Swards, Threstley Close, the Low Flatt, Middle
Flatt, and Bull Close. These lands, amounting to 158 acres, 1 rood, were divided
according to the proportions of borough-tenure and common right. They are now
well fenced and highly improved. The borough-holders and freemen have built two
houses on the Windmill Hills.
The Fell, (fn. 1) formerly "a wide, spongy, dark moor," was bounded on the east by the
Roman Causeway, on the south by Wreckon Dyke, on the west by Eighton, Chowdene, and Darwin Crooke, and on the north by Saltwellside, Whinney House, and
Beacon House grounds. By a survey taken in 1647, it contained 1300 acres; but
about 1703, Sir Henry Liddell claimed a considerable part of it, which was settled in
1715, in a cause between him and the bishop of Durham; and as the borough-holders
did not object to the decision, Sir Henry proceeded to inclose the part he had claimed.
The bishop of Durham, as lord of the manor, is seized of the soil and royalties; (fn. 2) and
the borough-holders and freemen of the borough not only claimed right of common,
but also the privilege of letting stints, and allowing cottages to be built and inclosures
to be made upon the Fell. In 1734, Mr. Ellison and Mr. Carr, the bishop's lessees,
were permitted to enjoy a moiety of the small annual rents received for the cottages.
The borough-holders of Gateshead long neglected the herbage of the Fell; but in
1809, an act was obtained for dividing it. The commissioners were empowered to
set out such parts as they pleased for roads, drains, quarries, watering places, &c. and
one acre as a church-yard: of the residue, one-sixteenth part was appropriated to the
bishop of Durham as lord of the manor, and another sixteenth part to the boroughholders and freemen of Gateshead, in compensation for their exclusive right of letting
stints: the rest of the Fell (except a part for making two waggon-ways) was divided
amongst persons having right of common. The whole Fell contained 631 acres,
0 roods, 21 poles, exclusive of roads, quarries, wells, &c. The allotments contained
595 acres, 1 rood, 19 poles; and the cottages and garths sold by the commissioners,
35 acres, 3 roods, 2 poles. (fn. 3) The claims of 17 freemen, 129 owners of ancient burgages, and 9 owners of various freehold estates, were allowed; and 45 claims were
withdrawn or awarded against. At the time of the division, there were 430 cottages
upon the Fell; 90 of which were pulled down as prejudicial to the division, and 340
were enfranchised, amongst which were 8 public houses.
Foresters appear to have been appointed by the bishop in regular succession.
Roger de Tickhill, who held that office in 1348, had an allowance of three-halfpence
a day; and the same wages were continued from that time to 1438, when the
"Park-keeper" had a halfpenny a day added to his salary for the "custody of the
tower" of Gateshead, with other profits, and a robe, or 3s. in lieu of it, every Christmas-day.
From the earliest period on record, this town was governed by a Bailiff, appointed
by the bishops of Durham. The names of several persons who filled this office occur
as witnesses to charters in the vestry, from 1316 to 1620, when it was held by Sir
Thomas Riddell, Knight. The borough petitioned the bishop to appoint them a
new one in 1772, setting forth that since the death of Robert Delaval, whose patent
was dated in 1681, that officer had been discontinued. At present, the Stewards of
the borough are the substitutes of this ancient officer. They are annually elected by
the borough-holders and freemen. Stewards were first appointed in 1695. Previous
to that year, the church-wardens of the parish appear to have discharged the duties
of these officers; as the receipts and disbursements of the borough are, up to that
time, included in the church-wardens' accounts. (fn. 4)
The bailiff of Gateshead occurs as holding a court in this town in 1415; and, in
1614, a head-court of the corporation of Newcastle was held here, before Thomas
Riddell, Esq. bailiff, and George Nicholson, steward. Lord Crewe's lease to Mr.
Coatsworth comprises the right of holding a Halmote-court, &c. in the manor of
Gateshead, which of late years has been annually kept, by direction of Cuthbert
Ellison, Esq. the lord of the manor, under the presidency of his steward, Nathaniel
Clayton, Esq. The neighbouring magistrates also hold a petty sessions every Saturday, in their room, in the Goat Inn. Bishop Tunstall, in 1557, incorporated the
barkers and tanners of Gateshead; and in 1594, Bishop Toby Matthew, by charter,
confirmed the dyers, fullers, blacksmiths, locksmiths, cutlers, joiners, and carpenters;
and the cordwainers in 1602. In 1661, Bishop Cosin incorporated in one company,
at their own request, the drapers, taylors, mercers, hardwaremen, coopers, and chandlers; and, in 1671, the occupations of free masons, carvers, stone-cutters, sculptors,
brick-makers, tilers, bricklayers, glaziers, painters, stainers, founders, nailors, pewterers, plumbers, millwrights, sadlers and bridlers, trunk-makers, and distillers. In
1726, the church-wardens of Gateshead granted a lease of 21 years, of a house on the
west side of the church-yard, as a meeting-house for the companies of dyers, fullers,
blacksmiths, locksmiths, cutlers, joiners, and carpenters.
DESCRIPTION OF THE BOROUGH.
The borough (fn. 5) or town of Gateshead consists chiefly of the High Street, one continued line of buildings of various and irregular appearance, extending from the end
of Sunderland road to the head of the Bottle Bank. The latter, which is a continuation of the High Street, is evidently named from the Saxon word botle, and signifies
the bank of the village. The lower part of this street, extending from the west end
of Hillgate to the Tyne Bridge, is now called Bridge Street. In 1790, Church Street,
which turns eastward to the church, and avoids the steep descent of Bottle Bank,
was formed. Pipewellgate runs from the Tyne Bridge westward, and parallel to
the river, 330 yards. It is a very narrow and dirty street. (fn. 6)
Bailey Chare leads
west above 708 yards. (fn. 7)
Ellison Street, which also runs westward, has been only recently formed. Further south is Jackson's Chare, which formerly led to the coalpits worked in the town fields. West Street
(fn. 8) extends from the west end of Jackson's
Chare to the west end of Bailey Chare. It contains several good houses, which enjoy
the prospect of the vale of the Tyne. On leaving the Tyne Bridge, the first street
leading eastwards is Hillgate, formerly St. Mary's Gate, which runs parallel to the
river 254 yards. The Church Stairs and Church Walk run along the north side of
the church-yard; and Canon Street, which leads to Oakwellgate, bounds the south
side. Oakwellgate lies nearly parallel to the High Street, and is wide and airy. (fn. 9) A
long range of houses, called East Street, has been lately built between the north side
of the Quarry Field and Nun's Lane. There are a few lesser passes and avenues, called
Oakwellgate Chare, Oakwellgate Lane, East Bailey Chare, Gordon's Entry, and
Gateshead, in ancient days, had a borough market. (fn. 10) Its internal trade, though now
confined to shops, is still very considerable; and its extensive manufactures in iron
and glass would impart consequence to any place. The depressing influence of
Newcastle has ceased to be felt, and an union of interests has converted the inhabitants of both sides of the river into one community. In 1814, an act was passed for
"cleansing, lighting, watching, and improving certain streets" in Gateshead. (fn. 11) Since
that time, the foot-paths in the High Street have been much improved; but the
commissioners of the turnpike road certainly do not perform their duty in causing the
streets to be properly cleansed. In 1818, a joint share company was formed for lighting the town with gas, which establishment is still continued. A Subscription Newsroom was instituted January 3, 1820. It is remarkable that the Gateshead Society for
the Prosecution of Felons was the first society for that purpose established in Great
Britain. The Post-office was established in 1772, and at first intended to be only
temporary during the rebuilding of Tyne Bridge; but as it was found a great convenience to the town and neighbourhood, it has since been made permanent.
ST. MARY'S CHURCH.
According to tradition, the old church in which Bishop Walcher was killed stood
in the field on the north-east side of the rectory, once called Lawless Close, and
afterwards the Miller's Field. The origin of the present edifice is uncertain. It is
mentioned in 1291 as being at that time worth £13, 6s. 8d. a year. Hodgson says,
"The shape and hewing of its stones prove that it has been built out of the ruins of
some Roman edifice." The aisles are formed by light octagonal pillars, supporting
on each side five arches. The transept opens into the aisles under similar arches.
The body of the church is old; but the tower or steeple, and a portion of the west
end of the nave, were rebuilt in 1740, (fn. 12) when a new west door was opened: the old
entrance is by the south porch. The chancel opens into the nave, under a wide
pointed arch. There were formerly three recesses in the wall within the altar-rails,
for officiating ministers; but when the chancel was repaired by Dr. Prosser, the recesses were removed. The windows are modern and uniform. The south transept
has an elegant window of stained glass, presented to the parish, in 1819, by Mr. Joseph Price, glass manufacturer. It represents the Annunciation of the Virgin, and
the arms of the borough and of eminent families connected with it. The church is
regularly stalled with old oak, carved with fleurs de lis, and with the prince's feather.
There are also several coats of arms. The font is a large bason of black marble.
Six bells were purchased by contribution in 1730. In Bourne's time there were
eight bells. The whole were new hung in 1773. The four spires were taken down
in 1764, and the roof altered. The parishioners, on January 16, 1820, agreed to purchase a new organ by subscription. The present one was built by Messrs. Wood,
Small, and Co. of Edinburgh, and cost 500 guineas. It is an excellent instrument;
and its powers were beautifully unfolded by Mr. Ingham, the organist, at a Sacred
Oratorio held in this church by the Amateur Choral Society on October 31, 1827. (fn. 13)
Monumental Inscriptions.—Robert Trollop (architect of the Town Court in Newcastle, 1659) prepared his own tomb, a heavy square pile, the lower part brick, the
upper stone, sometime ornamented with golden texts beneath the cornice. On the
north side, according to tradition, stood the image of Robert Trollop, with his arm
raised, pointing towards the Town-hall of Newcastle, and underneath—
"Here lies Robert Trollop,
Who made yon stones roll up.
When death took his soul up,
His body fill'd this hole up."
On a stone without the altar-rails,—"Here sleeps Mrs. Judith Weld, who was to
three godly ministers a good wife; to Christ a faithful servant, to the church a virtuous member for piety, prudence, and patience. She departed this life 1656. In
Jesu Domino splendida resurgam." At the west end of the nave is a long Latin
epitaph on Brian Borrett, merchant; and a mural monument to the memory of Andrew Wood, M. A. rector. Under the belfry is a quaint epitaph, in rhyme, on Thomas Arrowsmith. This church is rich in plate. The parish register begins in
1559–60, and has been well kept.
Gateshead Rectory, (fn. 14) valued in the king's books at £27, 13s. 4d. is in the gift of the
bishop of Durham. The rector is master of King James' Hospital; and there belong
to him the fishery of Friar's Goose, with the liberty of drying nets, and 40s. paid
annually by the grassmen for Parson's Flatt and Bull's Acre. He is entitled to great
and small tithe throughout the parish, excepting some portions covered by moduses.
He pays annually to the bishop of Durham 1s. 8d. and to the dean and chapter of
Durham 3s. 4d. for St. Edmund's lands; and £2, 13s. 4d. to Kepyer School, in
Houghton-le-Spring. The Parsonage-house, which was enlarged in 1814, at the rector's expense, nearly adjoins the church on the east. It is a good house, with gardens,
and commands a view towards the river. The glebe consists of a field at High Team,
a field between the Middle and Stoney Flats, a field on the south side of the Hexham
road, another at Bensham, and the Rectory-field adjoining the Parsonage-house.
The present curates of this parish are, the Rev. George Cooper Abbs, and the Rev.
G. T. Ricketts, M. A. The Rev. John Tyson is the alternate Sunday evening lecturer.
The Hospital of St. Edmund the Confessor and St. Cuthbert
(fn. 15) was founded in 1248,
by Bishop Farnham, who endowed it with the whole village of Ulkistan; the old
lordship of Gateshead; the wood of Benchelm, containing 43 acres, and lying between the arable land of St. Trinity and the road leading to Farnacres; and with 29
acres of escheated land in Alures-acyres. By the confirmation charter, it was to consist of four chaplains or priests; one of them to be master, and eat at the same table,
and sleep in the same chamber with his three brethren, and pay each of 20s. a year.
It had a clear revenue of £18 a year in 1292. In Bishop Skirlaw's time it is called
"the hospital of St. Edmund the king," and is said to have consisted of "brethren,
sisters, and paupers;" and, in 1448, Bishop Neville appropriated it, with its revenues,
to the convent of St. Bartholomew, in Newcastle, by the name of "the hospital of St.
Edmund the bishop." This grant was made on account of a fire that had happened
in the nunnery, and misfortunes which had reduced them to great distress, and in
consideration of their finding two priests to officiate in the chapel here. In 1544, it
had a clear yearly revenue of "£7, 7s. 9d. which Doctor Bellasses now master of the
same hath towards hys lyvyng, and giveth out of the same four marks by the year
to a prieste to say masse there twyse in the weke for the commoditie and easement
of the parishioners that do dwelle farr from the parish churche." After the dissolution, it remained in the hands of the crown; but masters were regularly appointed
to it. Robert Claxton succeeded Dr. Bellasses, and from him the principal farm of
the hospital derives its present appellation.
The original chapel of St. Trinity seems to have fallen into disuse after the union
of the Hospitals of St. Trinity and St. Edmund. The ruined chapel that remains
stands opposite to the Hexham road end, It is in that style of architecture that pre
vailed in the reign of Henry III. from 1216 to 1272. The west front has a doorway, under a deep pointed arch, ornamented with a profusion of mouldings and
niches. The south side has five lancet windows betwixt alternate buttresses. The
north side has four similar lights, and two small doors; one under a narrow pointed
arch, and another under a trefoil head. The east front has three lancet lights. The
building seems to have consisted of one aisle, 25 yards long, and 6½ broad. Several
steps to the altar still remain, near to which is an antique grave-stone. The remains
of the ancient house of St. Edmund stand to the east of the chapel, and exhibit the
ruins of a building in the style of Elizabeth or James. A heavy stone gateway
faces the street. This house, after the dissolution, became the seat of the Riddells, a
branch of the ancient baronial family of Northumberland. Sir Thomas Riddell's
house and gardens suffered severely by the Scots under Lesley; and on January 28,
1746, being the seat of a Catholic family, it was gutted, plundered, and set on fire by
a Protestant mob. The mansion-house, now the property of C. Ellison, Esq. was
after this suffered to fall into ruins, and the stones have been nearly all used for
The charters of the hospital of St. Edmund being lost, and its revenues partly converted to purposes of private emolument, it was refounded by King James I. in January, 1610, by the name of "King James' Hospital, in Gateshead." The new
society was ordered to consist of a master, who shall always be the rector of Gateshead for the time being, and of three poor brethren, who were ordered to receive
£3, 6s. 8d. each, during the life of the first master, John Hutton, then appointed;
and, after his death, the full profits of the hospital were to be divided, one-third to
the master, and two-thirds to the three poor brethren. In 1810, an act of parliament
was passed, which empowered the master and brethren to grant leases of their property, in parcels not exceeding one acre, for a term of not more than 99 years; and
also enabled the bishop of Durham to make laws for the government of the hospital,
and to augment the number of poor brethren, of whom there are now thirteen, viz.
three elder and ten younger brothers, the former of whom have each a yearly stipend
of £25, and a suit of clothes, with a house, (fn. 16) and an allowance of coals. The younger
brethren must be single men, of the age of 56 years, or upwards, and of good character, not possessing more than £20 a year. They each receive £12 per annum, and a
suit of clothes every two years. The rents arising from the lands and mines belonging to the hospital are, according to the schedule annexed to the act passed in 1810,
worth £455 yearly, one-third of which is enjoyed by the master, and a salary of £40
is paid to the chaplain. The whole of the appointments are made by the rector of
Gateshead, as master of the hospital. In 1808, the chapel of King James' Hospital
having long been in ruins and neglected, a subscription was opened for the erection
of a new chapel, to serve also as a National School. The building was completed in
1810, at the cost of £1331, 12s. It stands a little to the south of the old chapel, and
its dimensions are 80 feet by 40. Adjoining the south side, 2 roods and 23 perches
of ground was purchased and consecrated for a cemetery. Divine service is performed on Sundays by the chaplain, the Rev. John Tyson.
Gateshead Fell Church.—In 1809, an act passed "for building a church on Gateshead Fell, and for making the Fell a distinct rectory and parish." By the act for enclosing this waste ground, one acre was set out for the scite of the church and
church-yard, which was vested in trustees, who were empowered to raise £1000 by a
rate within the district of Gateshead Fell. After many delays, the foundation-stone
of the new church was laid on May 13, 1824; and the building was finished (fn. 17) and
consecrated on August 30, 1825. It contains 1000 sittings, half of which are "declared to be free and unappropriated for ever." The benefice is in the patronage of
the bishop of Durham; and the Rev. William Hawkes, L. L. B. is the first incumbent. This new parish, in 1821, contained 472 inhabited houses, and 2420 inhabitants. At present, the population is estimated at about 3000.
The Presbyterian meeting-house, in Bailey Chare, was first opened on January 1,
1786, and is in connection with the Church of Scotland. The present minister, the
Rev. Hamilton Murray, succeeded Mr. Seivewright, who resigned for a living in
Scotland. The Rev. W. M'Connel was the predecessor of the latter. He was an amiable, unassuming man, an excellent mathematician, and an adept in various branches
of natural philosophy. The Wesleyans have a neat meeting-house in High Street,
one on the Low Fell, and another at the Blue Quarries on the High Fell. The Independent Methodists possess a meeting-house on the Low Fell, and another at
Wreckington on the High Fell.
INSTITUTIONS FOR EDUCATION, SUPPORING THE POOR, &C.
Anchorage School.—This school occupies a very large and airy room, above the
vestry of St. Mary's church, and is said to have derived its name from anchorage-dues in
that part of the Tyne formerly belonging to the bishop of Durham having been paid
here. It was repaired by the church-wardens in 1658; and soon after that period, the
"Four and Twenty" held meetings in it. When it was first used as a school is not
known; but it must have been before 1693, for, in that year, a Mr. John Tenant is, by
order of a vestry meeting, discharged from teaching school any further "in a certain
room over the vestry of St. Mary, in Gateshead, commonly known by the name of the
Anchorage;" he having come there "without the consent of, and in opposition to, Mr.
George Tullie, rector of the said parish, whom we conceive to have a right to place a
schoolmaster in the room above-mentioned." Theophilus Pickering, D. D. rector of
Gateshead, by deed, dated January 9, 1701, gave to certain trustees the sum of £300
to be by them laid out in the purchase of some rent-charge, or land, for the perpetual
maintenance of a free school in Gateshead; and directed that the yearly proceeds of
his bequest should be settled upon the Anchorage, in case "no other building be obtained or erected, by any person or persons, in as convenient a part of the town for
this end and purpose." This sum of £300 is now in the hands of the corporation of
Newcastle, who pay to the master 4 per cent. interest, amounting to £12 annually;
for which, and £3 a year paid by the scholars (each paying 1s. per quarter), he teaches
15 children. By Dr. Pickering's deed of gift, a copy of which is given in Brand's
History of Newcastle, vol. i. p. 669, the master is required "to teach, or be ready to
teach, all the children of the parish of Gateshead the Latin and Greek tongues, as
also to write and cast up accounts, and also the art of Navigation or Plain Sailing:"
but during the time of the present master, and at least five of his predecessors, the
number of free scholars has been limited to 15; and in addition to the branches of
learning mentioned above, Reading, English Grammar, Geography, and Mathematics, are now included in the departments taught. Mr. James Charlton is the present
master, and, with his two assistants, Mr. Robert Gillan and Mr. James Richardson,
has now under tuition upwards of 90 scholars, including the 15 free scholars. The
master and free scholars are appointed by the rector of Gateshead. (fn. 18)
Chapel School.—This school was established in 1808, in Mr. Methuen's Long
Room, and is conducted according to Dr. Bell's plan. It was removed to St. Edmund's chapel in 1810, and hence called the Chapel School. It is attended by about
350 children, viz. 220 boys and 130 girls. All the children of the parish of Gateshead are admissible into this school on arriving at the age of six years, and paying a
penny a week. Several donations, increased by interest, and the surplus of annual
subscriptions, amounting to £300, form, it is hoped, "a permanent establishment for
the institution." The interest of this sum, amounting to £12 a year, is applied towards the payment of the master's salary; the deficiency being made up by an annual subscription, and the weekly contributions of the boys. The salary of the
mistress is paid by the weekly contributions of the girls, and a subscription by
several ladies of the parish. Mr. William Armstrong and his wife are the present
In 1819, "the Church of England Religious Tract Society" was formed in Gateshead; and, in 1821, "the District Committee" for the deanery of Chester Ward in
aid of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. "The Gateshead
Friendly Society," formed January 1, 1813, on the model of the Castle Eden Society,
deserves particular notice. On December 30, 1826, it consisted of 68 ordinary members, who had, from the commencement, disbursed £430, 10s. 5d. and had a capital
of £918, 3s. 3d. It is partly supported by the annual subscriptions of honorary
members. "The Amicable Society of Tradesmen," in Gateshead, on January 2,
1826, had a capital of £2670, 7s. 7d. It consisted of 72 members, and had existed
The Alms-house, now the Poor-house, on the east side of the High Street, has been
noticed before. There are several charitable funds which have been bequeathed, in
trust for the poor, to the rector, churchwardens, and overseers of the poor.
Annual Amount of Charitable Donations to the Poor of Gateshead Parish.
|October 26, 1619, Henry Smith, Esq. of London, payable out of the manor of Longstake Harrington, in Southampton
|September 2, 1624, Anthony Hebson, glover and parish-clerk of Gateshead, out of various premises in that town
|February 26, 1640, Henry Hilton, of Hilton Castle, Esq. £16 a year, ceased in 1739
|November 16, 1648, Andrew Aldworth, of Newcastle, physician, out of premises in Oakwellgate
|August 29,1660, Ralph and James Cole, Esqrs. out of premises now the property of Mr. Thomas Easton
|January 16, 1673, Elizabeth Collinson, rent of two fields near Easington
|February 7, 1676, Matthew Bates, master and mariner, out of premises in Hillgate
|March 9, 1680, Sir William Blackett, Bart. out of premises at the north end of Tyne Bridge
|September 26, 1689, John Bowman, tobacco pipe maker, a house in Hillgate, now occupied by six poor women
|December 18, 1696, Thomas Rawling, of Newcastle, Hoastman, half of Oakwellgate malting—his executrix, Elizabeth Grey, gave the other half—rent
|June 1, 1703, Jane Sutton, widow, chargeable upon a house in the Front Street
|December 15, 1723, Thomas Reed, shipwright, £1 on the Butt Houses in Hillgate, not paid
|July 16, 1728, Thomas Powell, of Newcastle, gentleman, the Poor-house, built by his executors
|February 27,1746, Hannah Thompson, spinster, on a house west side of the Front Street, near the pump
|Rent of two allotments in Bensham, in right of Oakwellgate malting and the Poor-house
|Interest of £105 in the Saving Bank in Newcastle (fn. 19)
The following benefactions in money were left for distribution:—1654, Dr. Rand, £6, 13s. 4d.—1660,
James Cole, Esq. £5.—1661, Mr. Madeson, £10.—1673, Bishop Cosins, £5.—1684, John Mather, £10.—1821, T. E. Headlam, Esq. £20.—1822, Thomas Harvey, Esq. £50—1824, Thomas Patten, Esq. £10.
Since June 21, 1821, the parochial affairs of Gateshead, as far as regards the maintenance of the poor, have been regulated by a select vestry, (fn. 20) consisting of the rector,
the four churchwardens, the four overseers, and twenty of the principal rate-payers.
The tenth report of the select vestry contains the following table, shewing the rental
collected upon, the rate per pound, the amount of rate collected and disbursed, the
sum paid for county-rate, the number of poor and illegitimate children, and the average expense of maintaining each person in the poor-house, per week, including
clothing, for the last seven years:—
|Years ending Apr. 1.
||Rental actually collected upon, incl. stock in trade.
||Rate per pound.
||Amount of rate collected.
||Amount of rate disbursed.
||Paid for county-rate.
||No. of out-poor.
||No. of casual poor.
||No. of illeg. childr.
||No. in poor-house.
||Average exp. of each person in Poor-house, including clothing.
The churchwardens' receipts, for the year ending at the visitation in 1827, were
£339, 6s. 9d.; and the disbursements £250, 10s. 6d. The receipts of the surveyors
of the highways, for the year ending October, 1827, were £367, 12s. 3½d.; and the
disbursements £303, 1s. 11¼d. The rate levied under the Street Act amounts to
about £500 per annum. (fn. 21)
Those parts of Gateshead parish that are situate without the town, are well peopled
and cultivated. (fn. 22)
Redheugh, a mile west from the town, was held in 1280 by a family
of that name. In the reign of Henry VI. it came into the possession of the Whites.
Sir Francis Liddell, Knt. bought the estate about 1620; and his descendants conveyed it to Francis Earl of Derwentwater. In 1748, Lady Mary Ratcliff sold it to
Dr. Askew, grandfather of the present proprietor. It is now the residence of William Cuthbert, Esq. Saltwellside, a pleasant mansion about 2½ miles south of the
Bridge, belonged to the Hedworth family in 1595. In 1640, Sir Alexander Hall
devised this manor to his brother-in-law, Ralph Maddison, Esq. (fn. 23) It was purchased of the Liddells, of Moor-house near Carlisle, by Joseph Dunn, Esq. the late owner,
and is now the residence and property of his brother, Michael Dunn, Esq. Field
House, half a mile south of Gateshead, is the property and residence of George Barras, Esq. Deckham Hall, which lies east of the old Durham road, near the toll-bar,
in 1614 belonged to Thomas Deckham, Gent. It was sold a few years ago, by
George Wooler, of Fawnlees, near Wolsingham, to the late William James, Esq.
Gateshead Park, in 1340, belonged to the Gategangs, "lords of Pipewellgate." The
present mansion-house was built by Mr. Coatsworth, and is now the property of
Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. but the residence of Isaac Cookson, jun. Esq. Wreckington
village bounds Gateshead parish on the south. It is so named from the Roman road,
called the Wrecken Dyke, or road, which led from the station at Lanchester to the
estuary of the Tyne. A hiring, held on the second Monday of April, and the first
Monday in November, was established here in 1822.