Aberdour - Anderston

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Institute of Historical Research

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Samuel Lewis

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1846

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23-45

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'Aberdour - Anderston', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 23-45. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43416 Date accessed: 22 August 2014.


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Aberdour

ABERDOUR, a parish, in the district of Deer, county of Aberdeen; comprising the village of Pennan, and containing 1645 inhabitants, of whom 376 are in the village of New Aberdour, 8 miles (W. by S.) from Fraserburgh. The name of this place is supposed to have been derived from a Gaelic term Aber, signifying "mouth" or "opening," in reference to the rivulet Dour, which finds an entrance into the sea, a short distance below the manse. There are numerous cairns and tumuli, containing stone coffins with the ashes and bones of human bodies, indicating the parish to have been originally the theatre of military conflicts; and the castle of Dundargue, also, stands here, which Sir Thomas Beaumont fortified and garrisoned, in right of his wife, who was daughter to the Earl of Buchan, when he accompanied Edward Baliol, who came to claim the kingdom of Scotland. This castle was of great importance in the feudal times, and is famed for a long siege in 1336, when Henry de Beaumont, the English Earl of Buchan, capitulated to Murray, Regent of Scotland, during the captivity of David Bruce. On the coast is a cave called Cowshaven, which is celebrated as the hidingplace of Lord Pitsligo, after the battle of Culloden; but this retreat, from which he was obliged to fly, was at last discovered by the impressions on the snow, of the footsteps of a woman, who regularly supplied him with food.

The parish contains 15,165 imperial acres, of which 5873 are cultivated, 5608 are moor or green pasture, 3496 moss, 88 wood, and 101 roads, &c.; its form is altogether irregular, consisting of a kind of zig-zag boundary, some parts of which dart off to a considerable extent. The northern boundary runs for about seven miles along the shore of the Moray Frith, which is broken by numerous openings and caves, some of which penetrate for a long distance into the land. The coast in general is bold and rocky, and on the estate of Auchmedden stands the colossal Pitjossie, an immense natural arch, which strikes the beholder with astonishment, when viewed from the summit of the adjoining cliff, and is said to rival the celebrated Bullers of Buchan. On the coast are also the three small bays of Aberdour, Pennan, and Nethermill, the beaches of which consist of large quantities of stones washed down the Dour burn and other streams, and thrown back by the violence of the sea, on the occurrence of a storm. The surface, generally, is unequal, the eastern division being flat and low, while the estate of Auchmedden, on the western side, rises about 200 or 300 feet above the level of the sea; on that property are several deep ravines and dens, which, with the numerous plants and adjacent scenery, present a striking and romantic appearance. In the south-eastern extremity are three farms, entirely cut off from the rest of the parish by the lands of Tyrie, and which some suppose to have been originally grazing land for the cattle belonging to the tenants on the sea-coast; but others think that, at the time the parish was erected, they formed a separate estate belonging to the proprietor, who, wishing to have all his property in one parish, included them within the bounds of Aberdour. In the south-west of the parish, on the farm of Kinbeam, is a fresh-water loch, called Monwig, situated in a large and deep moss; it is 200 yards long, and 22 broad, and in some parts very deep; and the dark mossy water, of which it consists, is covered, in the season, with flocks of wild geese and ducks. There are also several small streams, all of which run into the Moray Frith; and near Pitjossie, in the glen of Dardar, is a cascade, the water of which, after dashing from the top of a rock into three successive basins, glides gently for 100 yards, until it falls into the Frith.

The soil near the coast is a strong loamy clay, which, with good husbandry, yields fine crops, but in many other parts it is cold and mossy, exhibiting merely cultivated patches of land; the produce raised chiefly comprises oats, turnips, potatoes, barley, bear, and hay. Great improvements have taken place in agriculture within the last thirty years, especially upon the estate of Aberdour, where a regular and scientific system of drainage has been adopted. The bog, moss, and moor, with which the arable land was mixed, have been removed; bridges and roads have been constructed, and a proper rotation of crops introduced and observed; which, together with the application of the most approved methods of cultivation, have entirely altered the character of the parish. In other parts, however, there is a deficiency of good inclosures, arising from the scarcity of stones for building dykes; but the farmsteadings are in decent condition, and generally covered with tiles or thatch. The rocks on the shore, which are lofty and precipitous, are a coarse sandstone, passing frequently into conglomerate, and greywacke slate; the loose blocks are primary trap or granite, and in some parts are seen convolved masses of clay and limestone, in which have been found the fossil remains of fish. There are several quarries of granite and sandstone, and two of millstone, one of which, in the rocks of Pennan, though now but little worked, is said to contain some of the best stones in Britain; the stones from this quarry were formerly in great repute, and sent to the south and west of Scotland, but the high price set upon them, has greatly lowered the demand. The chief mansion is Aberdour House, an old building, occupying a very bleak situation; and there are several other residences, particularly one on the estate of Auchmedden, the glens of which, justly celebrated as the beds of the finest collection of plants to be found in Scotland, include some scarce specimens of botanical treasure.

The parish contains the villages of New Aberdour and Pennan, the former erected in 1798; the inhabitants are employed in agricultural pursuits, with the exception of a few engaged in fishing, at Pennan. The manufacture of kelp was formerly carried on to a considerable extent, but has been greatly reduced, in consequence of the repeal of the duty upon Spanish barilla, which is now generally used in its stead. The white-fishing at Pennan, on the estate of Auchmedden, employs six boats, with four men each, who pay a rent to the proprietor of £20 sterling, and some dried fish; and several long boats annually proceed to the herring-fishing in the Moray Frith, which abounds with the best fish of almost every description, excepting salmon, very few of which are to be obtained. There are two meal-mills in the parish, the one at Aberdour, and the other at Nethermill, both built partly of granite, and partly of red sandstone. Four annual fairs are held at New Aberdour, for cattle, merchandise, and hiring servants, of which two take place at Whitsuntide and Martinmas, one in the middle of April, and the other in the middle of August; and there is also a fair called Byth Market, occurring twice in the year, in May and October, upon a moor in the south of the parish, where cattle are sold. The turnpike-road from Fraserburgh to Banff touches the parish, at the two points of Bridgend in the east, and Cowbog in the west, and is rendered available to the parishioners by an excellent junction road, constructed some years since by one of the heritors. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen; the patron is A. D. Fordyce, Esq.; the minister's stipend is above £200, with a manse, built in 1822, and a glebe of about 7 acres, valued at £14 a year. The church, which is conveniently situated at the northern extremity of the village of New Aberdour, was erected in 1818, and contains about 900 sittings. There is a parochial school, where Latin is taught, with all the ordinary branches of education, and of which the master has a salary of £32, and about £15 fees, with a house. The chief relic of antiquity is the castle of Dundargue, situated upon a lofty precipice overhanging the sea; and at a place called Chapelden, are the ruins of a Roman Catholic chapel, on a hill opposite the Toar of Troup. Mineral springs are found in every direction, the most famed of which is one named Mess John's Well, a strong chalybeate, celebrated for its medicinal virtue; it issues from a rock about 200 yards west of the burn of Aberdour, and has a small basin, like a cup, to receive the water that drops, which basin is commonly said to have been formed by John White, laird of Ardlaw-hill, during the contest of religious parties.

Aberdour

ABERDOUR, a parish, in the district of Dunfermline, county of Fife; including the island of Inchcolm, and the village of Newtown; and containing 1916 inhabitants, of whom 307 are in Easter, and 469 in Wester, Aberdour, 8 miles (S. W.) from Dunfermline. This place takes its name from its situation at the mouth of the Dour, a rivulet which flows into the Forth near the village; it was anciently the property of the Vipont family, of whose baronial castle there are still considerable remains. The castle, with the lands, passed, in 1125, from the Viponts, by marriage, to the Mortimers, of whom Allen de Mortimer granted the western portion of the lands to the monks of Inchcolm, in consideration of the privilege of being allowed to bury in the church of their monastery on the island, about a mile distant from the shore. When conveying the remains of one of that family to the abbey for interment, a violent storm is said to have arisen, which compelled the party to throw the coffin into the channel, which, from that circumstance, obtained the appellation of "Mortimer's Deep." The ancient castle is a stately pile of massive grandeur, situated on an eminence, on the east bank of the water of Dour, and commanding an extensive view of the Frith of Forth; in front, is a spacious terrace, overlooking the gardens, into which are several descents by flights of steps. It was partly destroyed by an accidental fire, about the beginning of the 18th century, since which time it has been abandoned, and suffered to fall into decay; but the roof is still entire, and several of the apartments are in tolerable preservation, though used only as lumber-rooms. At a small distance, is the old church, now a roofless ruin; it contains the ancient family vault of the Morton family, and is surrounded by a small cemetery.

The parish, which is bounded on the south by the river Forth, is about three miles in length, from east to west, and nearly of equal breadth, comprising about 6240 acres, of which 3240 are arable, about 1800 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The surface is broken by the ridge of the Collelo hills, which traverses the parish from east to west, and of which the summits are richly wooded, and the southern acclivities in profitable cultivation. Towards the river, along which the parish extends for more than two miles, the ground is, for the most part, tolerably level; but on the east, the coast is rocky and precipitous, rising abruptly into eminences which are wooded to the margin of the Forth. On the face of the hills, walks have been laid out, commanding diversified prospects; and on the west, is a rich bay of white sand, surrounded with trees, from which the ground rises towards the west, into eminences crowned with thriving plantations, which, stretching southward, terminate in a perpendicular mass of rock washed by the sea, by which, and by the headlands on the south-east, the harbour is securely sheltered from the winds. To the north-west of the harbour, the surface again rises into a hill richly wooded, adding greatly to the beauty of the scenery, and commanding, on the right, a view of the island of Inchcolm, with the picturesque ruins of the abbey, and, on the left of it, the town of Burntisland, with the coasts of Lothian, the city of Edinburgh, and the Pentland hills in the distance.

The soil on the north side of the ridge of hills, which has a considerable elevation above the sea, is cold and sterile, but on the south side more genial and fertile; and generally a rich black loam, in some parts alternated with sand. The chief crops are, wheat, oats, barley, beans, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is much improved, and the farm-buildings are substantial and commodious. The substratum abounds with coal, of which an extensive mine on the lands of Donibristle, belonging to the Earl of Moray, is in operation, about 2½ miles from the village; and on Cottlehill, coal is also wrought. Freestone of white colour, and of compact texture, was formerly quarried to a great extent, and much of it was sent to Edinburgh and Glasgow, for ornamental buildings; and on the lands of the Earl of Morton, is a quarry of stone, admirably fitted for piers and other purposes where great durability is requisite, and from which large blocks were used in the construction of Granton Pier. Aberdour House, the seat of the Earl of Morton, is a spacious mansion, on the west bank of the Dour, opposite to the ancient castle, and surrounded with pleasure-grounds richly wooded, and tastefully laid out. Hillside is a stately mansion, commanding views of the Frith of Forth, the opposite coasts, and the adjacent scenery; and Whitehill Cottage, and Cottlehill House, are also finely situated. The village of Aberdour is divided into two portions called Easter and Wester, by the river Dour, over which is a handsome bridge; and to the south of the western portion, is the village of Newtown, consisting of Sea-side-place and Manse-street. The beauty of the surrounding scenery, the numerous retired walks in the neighbourhood, and the fine sandy beach, have rendered these villages places of favourite resort during the summer months, for bathing; and for the accommodation of the numerous visiters, lodging-houses are extensively provided. Steamers ply twice in the day from Edinburgh, during summer, and pinnaces daily from Leith harbour, throughout the year.

The manufacture of coarse linen was formerly carried on extensively, by hand-loom weavers; but it has greatly decreased. On the Dour, about a mile from the old village, is an iron forge, in which spades, shovels, and other implements are made, and of which the great hammer is worked by water power; there are also a brick-work, and some saw-mills of recent establishment. Considerable quantities of coal are shipped from the harbour, for exportation; and several foreign vessels arrive weekly, for freights of coal, from the mines: between the harbour and Burntisland, is an oyster-bed belonging to the Earl of Morton, which is leased to the fishermen of Newhaven. A fair is held on the 20th of June, chiefly for pleasure. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunfermline and synod of Fife. The minister's stipend is £207. 14. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13 per annum; patron, the Earl of Morton. The church, erected in 1790, and repaired in 1826, is a plain building. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school is attended by about 100 children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average £30 per annum. An hospital was founded in Wester Aberdour, by Anne, Countess of Moray, who endowed it for four aged widows, of whom three are appointed by the family, and one by the clerk of the signet; each of the widows has a separate apartment, with an allowance of coal and candles, and £5 per annum in money. On the summit of a hill on the farm of Dalachy, was a cairn, on the removal of which, during agricultural improvements, were found a stone coffin containing a human skeleton, several earthern vessels containing human bones, a spear-head of copper, and various other relics. The field adjoining the garden of the old manse is called the "Sisters' land," from its having been anciently the site of a Franciscan nunnery. The place gives the title of Baron to the Earl of Morton.

Aberfeldy

ABERFELDY, a village, chiefly in the parish of Dull, and partly in that of Logierait, county of Perth, 6½ miles (N. E.) from Kenmore; containing 823 inhabitants. This is a considerable and thriving village, situated on the southern bank of the river Tay, and on the great Highland road. It is surrounded with thick and luxuriant woods of hazel and birch; and in its vicinity are the falls of Moness, remarkable for the beauty and grandeur of the scenery, and the majesty of their torrents, which rush furiously from precipice to precipice, with a tremendous and fearful roar: the ascent is from the village, and is attained by pleasing and varied walks, with seats at intervals for the accommodation of the visiter. The river is here crossed by a bridge, erected by General Wade. There are places of worship for Independents and members of the Free Church; and a savings' bank.—See Dull.

Aberfoyle

ABERFOYLE, a parish, in the county of Perth, 14 miles (W. by S.) from Doune, and 20 (W. by N.) from Stirling; containing 543 inhabitants. This place derives its name from the situation of the church, near the mouth of a rivulet called, in Gaelic, the Poll or Foile, which forms a confluence with the river Forth, at this place an inconsiderable stream. The lands originally formed part of the possessions of the ancient family of the Grahams, earls of Menteith, and on failure of heirs male, about the end of the 17th century, became the property of the ancestors of the Duke of Montrose, the present sole proprietor. The parish, which is in the south-western portion of the county, forms the extreme precinct of the Highlands, in that direction, and extends for nearly fourteen miles from east to west, and from five to seven miles from north to south; comprising the beautifully romantic vale of Aberfoyle, which abounds with all the varieties of highland scenary. The vale is inclosed by lofty mountains on the one side, forming a part of the Grampian range, of which the highest in this parish are, Benvenue, having an elevation of 2800, and Benchochan, of 2000 feet above the sea. From both these mountains, beneath which lies the celebrated scenery of the Trosachs, are obtained extensive views of the "windings of the chase," and the most interesting parts of the surrounding country described by Sir Walter Scott, in his poem of the Lady of the Lake.

In the vale of Aberfoyle are the lochs Katrine, Ard, Chon, Auchray, and Dronky. Loch Katrine, which is about 9 miles in length, and one mile broad, has a depth of about 70 fathoms; and the lofty, and in some parts precipitous, acclivities on its shores, are richly wooded nearly to their summits, adding greatly to the beautiful scenery for which it is so eminently distinguished. Loch Ard, about 4 miles in length, and one mile in breadth, is divided into two portions, the Upper and Lower Ard, connected by a channel 200 yards in length; it is bounded, on one side, by the lofty mountain Ben Lomond, of which the richly-wooded declivity extends to its margin. On a small island in the lake, are the ruins of an ancient castle built by the Duke of Albany, uncle of James I. of Scotland. Loch Chon, about 2½ miles in length, and one mile in breadth, is beautifully skirted on the north-east by luxuriant plantations, and on the south-west by the mountain of Ben Don, 1500 feet in height, and of which the sides are covered with forests of aged birch and mountain ash. Loch Auchray, in the Trosachs, and Loch Dronky, which is two miles long, and about half a mile broad, are both finely situated, and embellished with rich plantations. Between the mountains, are several small valleys, about a mile in length, and a quarter of a mile in width, formerly covered with heath, but which have been cleared, and brought into cultivation. The river Forth has its source at the western extremity of the parish, at a place called Skid-N'uir, or "the ridge of yew-trees," issuing from a copious spring, and flowing through the lochs Chon and Ard, about half a mile to the east of which latter, it receives the waters of the Duchray, a stream rising near the summit of Ben Lomond, and which is also regarded as the source of the Forth, though the former is the larger of the two.

The arable lands bear but a very inconsiderable proportion to the pasture and woodlands. The upper, or highland, part of the parish, which is by far the greater, is divided principally into sheep-farms, upon which scarcely sufficient grain is raised to supply the occupiers and their shepherds; the lower grounds are chiefly arable, and in good cultivation, yielding grain of every kind, for the supply of the parish, and also for sending to the markets. The soil in the lower portions is fertile, producing, not only grain, but turnips, with the various grasses, and excellent crops of rye and clover; the farmbuildings, with very few exceptions, are commodious, and mostly of modern erection, and the lands are well drained. The sheep are of the black-faced breed, and great attention is paid to their improvement; the cattle on the upland farms are of the black Highland breed, and in addition to those reared on the lands, great numbers are pastured during the winter, for which many of the farms are well adapted by the shelter afforded by the woods; the cattle on the lowland farms are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed. The whole of the woods, from the head of Loch Chon to the loch of Monteith, in the parish of Port of Monteith, are the property of the Duke of Montrose; they consist of oak, ash, birch, mountainash, alder, hazel, and willow, and are divided into twenty-four portions, of which one is felled every year, as it attains a growth of 24 years, within which period the whole are cut down and renewed, in succession. On the west side of the mountains, is limestone of very superior quality, of a blue colour, with veins of white, and susceptible of a high polish; it is extensively wrought near the eastern extremity of the parish, for building, and for manure, solely by the tenants of the several farms. To the west of the limestone range, is a mountain consisting almost entirely of slate, occurring in regular strata, in the quarries of which about 20 men are employed. The prevailing rocks are conglomerate and trap, or whinstone; but the want of water carriage, and the distance of the markets, operate materially to diminish their value.

The village is situated near the eastern extremity of the parish: the making of pyroligneous acid affords employment to a few persons. A post-office has been established, as a branch of that of Doune; and fairs are held in April, for cattle; on the first Friday in August, for lambs; and on the third Thursday in October, for hiring servants. The lakes and rivers abound with trout, pike, perch, and eels; and char is also found in Loch Katrine. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., of which part is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe containing 15 Scottish acres of good land, partly arable and partly meadow; patron, the Duke of Montrose. The church, built in 1774, and thoroughly repaired in 1839, is a plain structure, containing 250 sittings: divine service is also performed occasionally, by the minister, in the schoolroom. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £28, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £6 per annum. Near the manse are the remains of a Druidical circle, consisting of ten upright stones, with one of much larger dimensions in the centre. The Rev. James Richardson, whose son was professor of humanity at Glasgow; and the Rev. Patrick Graham, eminent for the variety and extent of his talents, and employed in revising an edition of the Sacred Scriptures in the Gaelic language, were ministers of the parish.

Aberlady

ABERLADY, a parish, in the county of Haddington, 4 miles (N. W.) from Haddington; containing 1050 inhabitants, of whom 537 are in the village. This place is situated on the Frith of Forth, and near the mouth of the small river Peffer, supposed to have been anciently called the Leddie, from which circumstance the name Aberlady is said to have been derived. A strong castle was built here in 1518, by John, grandson of Sir Archibald Douglas, of Kilspindy, treasurer of Scotland during the minority of James V., but who, partaking in the rebellion of his family, forfeited his estates, and died in exile. The parish is bounded on the north and north-west by the Frith, and comprises about 4000 acres, chiefly under tillage, with very little permanent pasture, and only a small portion of woodland. The surface is generally flat, but having a very gradual slope, from the coast to the south and south-east; and though attaining no considerable elevation, even at the highest point, it still commands a richly-varied and extensive prospect over the Frith of Forth, in its widest expanse, the Pentland hills, the city of Edinburgh, with its castle, and the Grampian hills. The soil near the coast is light and sandy, in some parts clayey, and on the more elevated lands a rich and fertile loam; the system of agriculture is in an improved state; tile-draining has been extensively practised, and on all of the farms are threshing-mills, of which many are driven by steam. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the rearing of live stock; but the number of sheep and cattle is increasing, and it is not improbable that, in due time, the farmers will be distinguished for improvements in the breeds of stock. The chief substrata are limestone and whinstone, and coal is supposed to exist in some of the lands; the limestone is not worked, but along the coast, the whinstone is quarried extensively; clay of good quality for bricks and tiles is found, and about twenty persons are employed in works for that purpose. Ballencrieff, the seat of Lord Elibank, is a handsome mansion, in a richly-planted demesne, commanding some fine views of the surrounding country. Gosford, the seat of the Earl of Wemyss and March, and upon which immense sums have been expended, was anciently a possession of the noble family of Acheson, whose titles as barons, viscounts, and earls, have been chosen from this place, where was formerly a village that no longer exists. The mansion is beautifully situated, and contains an extensive and choice collection of paintings, by the most eminent masters of the Flemish and Italian schools. Luffness is an ancient mansion, considerably enlarged and improved, but still retaining much of its original character; the grounds are well planted, and laid out with exquisite taste. The village is pleasantly situated, near the influx of the Peffer into the Frith, and is neatly built; a subscription library has been established, and there is also a parochial lending library. At this part of the coast is a small haven, where vessels of seventy tons may anchor at spring tides, but from which their return to the sea is difficult when the wind happens to be westerly; the haven is the port of Haddington, but the trade carried on is insignificant.

At a very remote period, there appears to have been an establishment of Culdees near the village, which was probably subordinate to the monastery of Dunkeld, on the erection of which place into a bishopric, David I. conferred the lands of Aberlady and Kilspindy on the bishop, in whose possession they remained till the Reformation. Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, granted these lands to Sir Archibald Douglas, in 1522, and in 1589, they were resigned to the crown, and the church of Aberlady became a rectory, independent of the diocese; the patronage remained with the Douglas family, from whom it passed to others, and ultimately to the Earl of Wemyss, the present patron. The parish is in the presbytery of Haddington and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; the stipend of the incumbent is £280. 11. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £27. 10. per annum. The church, rebuilt in 1773, is a neat and substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 525 persons; four handsome silver cups, for the communion service, were presented by the Wedderburn family. The parochial school affords a liberal course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4½., with £34 fees, and a house and garden. Till very lately, there were some remains of the castle of Kilspindy, already noticed, situated between the village and the sea-shore; but they have now totally disappeared. On the margin of a small stream which separates the parish from that of Gladsmuir, are the ruins of Redhouse Castle, apparently a place of great strength, the erection of which is referred to the 16th century; the lands belonged, in the 15th century, to the family of Laing, of which one was treasurer of Scotland in 1465, bishop of Glasgow in 1473, and high chancellor in 1483. The more ancient portion of the house of Luffness was formerly inclosed within a fortification, raised to intercept the supplies sent by sea to the English garrison at Haddington; the fortification was demolished in 1551, but the house was preserved. Near the site was once a convent of Carmelite friars, to whom David II. granted a charter; at Ballencrieff, and at Gosford, were ancient hospitals, of which there are now no remains. Along the coast, stone coffins and human bones have been frequently dug up, supposed to have been those of persons slain in some conflict near the spot.

Aberlemno

ABERLEMNO, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 6 miles (N. E.) from Forfar; containing, with the chapelry of Auldbar, 1023 inhabitants. This place is named from the small river Lemno, the word Aberlemno signifying "the mouth of the Lemno," which stream, after flowing a few miles towards the south-west, and winding northerly around the western extremity of the hill of Oathlaw, strikes off to the east, and falls into the Esk, about a mile from its source. The parish is separated on the north, by the Esk, from those of Tannadice and Careston, and measures about 6 miles in length, and 5 in breadth, in some places. It forms part of a hilly district situated towards the south of Strathmore, the higher portions, which are bleak, being principally covered with broom and heath, while the lower grounds are generally fertile, though in one direction subject to inundations from the Esk. The hill of Turin is the highest, the others attaining only a moderate elevation; it rises about 800 feet above the level of the sea, commanding extensive prospects, and contributing greatly, by the plantations of fir on its slope, to the improvement of the scenery. The lake of Balgavies, on the southern boundary, affords good pike and perch angling, and yielded formerly a large supply of marl for manuring the lands. The inhabitants, with the exception of a few engaged in weaving and in quarrying, follow agricultural pursuits, and the farmers pay much attention to the rearing of cattle, considerable numbers of which, with large quantities of potatoes, are sent to the London market. There are four meal and barley mills, driven by water, and all the large farms have threshing-mills. Several quarries of fine slate stone, of a greyish colour, are in operation, supplying a good material for building.

The neighbourhood abounds with old castles, and the remains of strong places, some of which are still inhabited, and are beautified with trees of the finest wood in the parish, especially the houses of Auldbar, Turin, and Balgavies; the first of these consists of an ancient and a modern portion, and is inhabited; that of Balgavies is comparatively modern, a single vault only of the ancient structure remaining. The house of Carsegownie has been lately partially stripped of its antiquated and feudal appearance; but the castle of Flemmington, a little to the east of the church, retains all the distinguishing features of the predatory era in which it was erected. The Auldbar turnpike-road, joining the railway station of the same name to Brechin, passes through the place, as well as a portion of the turnpikeroad from Forfar to Montrose; and there is a parish road from Forfar to Brechin, running in a north-easterly direction, through the whole length of the district. The parish is in the presbytery of Forfar and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the Crown and the family of Smythe; the minister's stipend is £228. 6. 6., with a manse, and glebe valued at £15 per annum. The church was built upon the old foundation, from about 3 feet above the ground, in the year 1722, and accommodates 450 persons with sittings. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with fees producing between £12 and £14. There is a library of miscellaneous works. The most interesting relic of antiquity is the ruin of the castle of Melgund, said to have been built by Cardinal Beaton, and still indicating, by its extent and strength, its former magnificence: on the summit of Turin hill, are the remains of an ancient fort called Camp Castle, commanding most extensive views, and supposed to have been raised as a watch-tower. There are numerous tumuli and cairns, and several obelisks or monumental stones, ornamented with various devices, one of the chief of which is in the churchyard, exhibiting on one side a cross in bold relief covered with flowers, and on the other numerous martial figures, thought to be memorials of important military achievments in days of old. The title of Viscount Melgund is borne by the Earl of Minto, proprietor of nearly half of the parish.

Aberlour

ABERLOUR, a parish, in the county of Banff, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from Dufftown, on the road from Elgin to Grantown; containing, with the village of Charlestown, 1352 inhabitants. This parish, formerly called Skirdustan, signifying, in the Gaelic tongue, "the division of Dustan," its tutelary saint, derived its present name from its situation at the mouth of a noisy burn, which discharges itself into the river Spey. It is situated in the western part of the county, and extends for nearly seven miles along the south bank of the Spey, from the hill of Carron on the west, to the mouth of the river Fiddich on the east. The surface is very uneven; towards the southern part is an almost unbroken chain of mountains, consisting of the Blue Hill, the East and West Conval hills, the mountain of Benrinnes, and the broad hill of Cairnakay, with part of the hill of Carron, on the border of the Spey, and separated from Benrinnes by a narrow valley. A deep and narrow pass called Glackharnis, of great length, and of uniform breadth at the bottom, separates the mountain of Benrinnes from the Conval hills, and is remarkable for the great height and regularity of its declivity on both sides. The mountain, as its name implies, is precipitous in its ascent, and sharp on the summit, and has an elevation of 2756 feet above the sea, and of 1876 feet from its base, being the highest in the county for many miles around. From the top, are seen the Grampian hills to the south, the interesting valley and hills of Glenavon to the west, and to the north the mountains of Ross, Sutherland, and Caithness; it embraces a fine view of the sea, for several miles, along the coasts of Moray and Banffshire, and forms a conspicuous landmark for mariners. The Conval hills are spherical and of similar form, and profusely covered with heath; and between these and the Benrinnes, is a fine valley, the south part of which, consisting of sloping land, including the district of Edinvillie, is divided on the north-east, by a brook, from the lands of Allachie, and on the north from the district of Ruthrie, by the burn of Aberlour. To the north-west of Ruthrie, is the district of Kinnermony; the lands of Aberlour are watered by two rivulets, descending from the Blue hill, which, uniting, form the burn of Allachoy, which separates them from the district of Drumfurrich. These several districts contain some good tracts of holm land, and form the principal arable grounds of the parish, of which, upon the whole, not more than onehalf is under cultivation. The Soil, near the river, is a rich deep loam, mixed with sand; towards the hills, is a deep clay, lying on a substratum of rough gravel, and covered with a thin alluvial soil; and towards the centre of the parish, is a richer alluvial soil, resting on a bed of granite. In the neighbourhood of Glenrinnes, limestone is quarried for agricultural purposes, and, by many of the farmers, burnt upon their own lands. The principal crops are, barley, oats, wheat, and peas; and the barley produced here weighs more, per bushel, than that of the heavier soils of the adjoining parishes. The Morayshire breed of black-cattle is raised, and the sheep are of the hardy black-faced kind; several of the farms are inclosed with fences of stone, and the farm-buildings generally are substantial and commodious. Alexander Grant, Esq., is the chief resident proprietor, whose handsome seat of Aberlour is in the parish; on the estate, a column of the Tuscan order has lately been erected. There are several flourishing plantations of fir in the hilly districts; and of elm and ash near the river, the banks of which are, in some places, decorated with birch-trees of very luxuriant growth.

The river Spey, from the rapidity of its current, and the narrowness of its channel, frequently overflows its banks, and damages the neighbouring lands. In 1829, a very destructive flood occurred, in which the waters rose to the height of nearly twenty feet above the ordinary level, sweeping away the entire soil of several fields, with all their crops, and leaving upon others a deposit of sand and rough gravel, to the depth of several feet. A cottage and offices were carried away; and the dry stone arches which formed the approach to the bridge of Craig-Ellachie, were entirely destroyed, leaving only a few yards of masonry on which the end of the arch rested. This bridge, which consists of one metal arch, more than 160 feet in span, abutting on a solid rock on the north side of the river, and supported on the Aberlour side by a strong pier of masonry, built on piles, was erected in 1815, at an expense of £8000, of which one-half was defrayed by government, and the other by subscription. The rivers Spey and Fiddich afford excellent salmon and trout; the fishing season commences in February, and closes in September, and the parish also abounds with various kinds of game. On the burn of Aberlour, about a mile above its influx into the Spey, is a fine cascade called the Lynn of Ruthrie, in which the water falls from a height of 30 feet, and, being broken in its descent by a projecting platform of granite rock, which is richly covered with birch-trees and various shrubs, presents an interesting and highly picturesque appearance. A large distillery was formerly carried on at Aberlour, which afforded a market for grain to the neighbouring farmers; and fairs are held annually, in the recently-erected village of Charlestown. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the presbytery of Aberlour and synod of Moray; Lord Fife is patron, and the stipend of the incumbent is £287. 8. 2. The church, a well-arranged structure, erected in 1812, is situated to the north of Charlestown, at a distance of about 300 yards from the ruins of the old church, near the influx of the burn of Aberlour into the Spey; Mr. Grant has lately made an addition to the length of the edifice, and erected a handsome tower. In the valley of Glenrinnes is a missionary establishment, and a chapel of ease has been erected, of which the minister has a stipend of £60 per annum, royal bounty, with a manse, glebe, and other accommodations provided by the heritors. The parochial school affords instruction in the Latin language, arithmetic, and the elementary mathematics; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4½., with a house and garden, and the fees average £40.

Aberluthnott

ABERLUTHNOTT, Kincardine.—See Marykirk.

Abernethy

ABERNETHY, a parish, in the counties of Inverness and Elgin, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Grantown; containing, with Kincardine, 1832 inhabitants, of whom 1083 are in Abernethy proper. This parish, to which that of Kincardine was annexed about the time of the Reformation, derives its name from Aber, signifying in Gaelic, in conjunction with Nethy, the "termination of Nethy." which is descriptive of the situation of the church, near the entrance of that river into the Spey: Kincardine, or Kinie-chairdin, implies the "clan of friends." The united parish, which is 15 miles long, and from 10 to 12 broad, contains about 120,000 acres, of which about 3000 are in tillage, 40,000 forest and plantation, and 77,000 uncultivated. It extends from the borders of Cromdale to Rothiemurchus, and the lower end of it falls within the county of Inverness; it is bounded on the west, throughout its entire length, by the river Spey. The surface is mountainous and woody, interspersed with corn-fields; the only rivers are the Spey and the Nethy, the latter of which, in dry weather, is merely a brook, but, when swollen, is of sufficient size to allow of the passage of floats of timber into the Spey. There are several lakes, also, in Kincardine, the chief whereof is the oval basin in Glenmore forest, which is nearly 2 miles in diameter. The soil in some parts is deep raith, but frequently thin and dry, and in some places wet and cold; wood is abundant, and about 7000 acres on one estate are under fir of natural growth. Some farms exhibit the appearance of superior husbandry, having substantial and commodious buildings, with implements of the best kind; and improvements have been carried on for a considerable time, to the advance of which, the plentiful supply of lime in the parish, and of native fuel for preparing it, has greatly contributed: every farmer, however small his ground, has a lime-kiln in use. Parallel to the river Spey, extends a range of mountains, a branch of the Grampians, which exhibits a great variety of rock; commencing with the well-known Cairnegorm, which is its southern extremity, granite stretches to the north, for several miles; then appears primary limestone, and this is succeeded by trap and micaceous schist.

A regular "manufacture" of timber has been carried on in the Abernethy district, for more than 60 years. The Duke of Gordon, in 1784, sold his fir-woods of Glenmore, in the barony of Kincardine, for £10,000 sterling, to an English company, who exhausted them; and from the forest of Abernethy, there are still forwarded yearly, by large rafts in the river Spey, great quantities of timber, to Garmouth or Speymouth, of which much has been formed into vessels of large burthen, at the former place, and considerable quantities sent to the royal dockyards in England. The trade was immense during the war, but is now considerably diminished, although still employing a large number of the population. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray; the Earl of Seafield is patron, and the stipend of the minister is £234. 2. 1., with a glebe of the annual value of £7. The church in the district of Abernethy, a commodious structure, with seats for 600 persons, was erected eighty years since; and that of Kincardine, a well-built and finished edifice, 7 miles distant from the manse, containing about 330 sittings, in 1804. There is a parochial school, in which Latin, mathematics, and the usual branches of education are taught, and of which the master has a salary of £25. 13., with £22 fees, &c. and a house; and a Gaelic school at Kincardine is chiefly supported by £17 a year from the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Several ancient remains are to be seen, particularly of Druidical circles; and on rising ground, near the church, is an old building, of which, however, no satisfactory account has ever been afforded. The topaz called cairngorm is found in considerable numbers in the mountain of that name; and at the end of Lochaven is an interesting natural curiosity, in the form of a cave, commonly called Chlachdhian, or "the sheltering stone," and which is surrounded by vast mountains. It is sufficient to contain a number of persons, and people take shelter in it frequently, for security from rain and wind, after hunting or fishing, and sometimes being driven by necessity.

Abernethy

ABERNETHY, a burgh and parish, partly in the district of Cupar, county of Fife, but chiefly in the county of Perth, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Newburgh; containing, with the village of Aberdargie, 1920 inhabitants, of whom 827 are in the town of Abernethy. This place, originally called Abernethyn, a word signifying "the town upon the Nethy," is supposed, by some, to have derived its name from the small stream flowing through the centre of the parish, and denominated Nethy from the old British term neith, or nid, implying a "turning" or "whirling stream." But others are of opinion that the appellation has been received from Nectan or Nethan, one of the Pictish kings, who founded the place, and of whose kingdom it was the capital. The most ancient and credible of the Scottish historians agree in representing this locality as the metropolis of the Pictish nation, both in civil and religious matters; but the particulars relating to the erection of the church are variously described. The Pictish Chronicle states the edifice to have been raised by Nethan, or Nectan I., about the year 456, as a sacrifice offered to God and St. Bridget, for the recovery of his kingdom; and Fordun asserts, that St. Patrick himself introduced St. Bridget and her nine nuns into the religious establishment of Abernethy. Others, however, are of opinion, that the church was founded and endowed towards the close of the 6th century, by King Garnard M'Dourmach, or in the beginning of the 7th century, by Nethan II., his immediate successor. The church, shortly afterwards, was made the head of an episcopal see, and here was the residence of the metropolitan of the Pictish kingdom, and probably of all Scotland, until the Picts were subdued by one of the Kenneths, and both the see, and the residence of the bishop, were transferred to St. Andrew's, the head of which was afterwards acknowledged as the national bishop. Abernethy was subsequently comprehended in the bishopric of Dunblane, founded in the 12th century, by King David I., out of the national bishopric of St. Andrew's. After the removal of the see from this place, the church became collegiate, and was in the possession of the Culdees, of whom but little is known with certainty, except that this parish was their principal seat, and that here they had a university for the education of youth, in which was taught the whole of the sciences, as far as they were then known. In the 12th century, by a charter of King William the Lion and of Lawrence de Abernethy, the church and advowson of Abernethy, with its pertinents, were conveyed to the abbey of Arbroath; and about the year 1240, the altarage of the church, with certain lands, was given to the Bishop of Dunblane, who, in return, among other things, engaged to provide for the service of the church, to enrol it among his prebendal institutions, and to instal the abbot of Arbroath, as a prebendary or canon, with a manse and privileges similar to those of the other canons. The ancient monastery, in 1273, became a priory of canons regular, and a cell of Inchaffray; all the Culdee institutions yielded to the increasing power of the Romish church, and this priory seems to have been afterwards converted into a provostry or college of secular priests, and the church, with a provost, was a collegiate establishment. The church, at the Reformation, was valued at £273 per annum, and was afterwards a parsonage.

The civil occupancy of the principal lands appears to have taken place at an early period; in the 12th century, Orme, the son of Hugh, received the lands of Abernethy, from King William the Lion, and from them both himself and his posterity took their name. Alexander de Abernethy, a descendant, swore fealty to Edward I. in 1292, and was appointed by Edward II., in 1310, warden of the counties between the Forth and the Grampians, but his lands are supposed to have been forfeited after the battle of Bannockburn, or to have been continued in the family only by the marriage of his daughters, the eldest of whom, Margaret, was united to John Stewart, Earl of Angus, who thus obtained the lordship of Abernethy, and whose grand-daughter, Margaret Stewart, married William, Earl of Douglas. This family of Douglas, during the earlier periods of their history, were numerous and powerful, and are supposed to have resided near the house of Carpow; and many of the most illustrious branches of the earls of Angus have been interred in this spot. It was at Abernethy that Malcolm Canmore did homage to William the Conqueror, according to the account of Fordun, Winton, and others; but so many different opinions exist on the point as to render it altogether doubtful.

The town, which is of great antiquity, and, by ruins discovered eastward of it, is supposed to have been once much more extensive, is situated near the confluence of the Tay and Earn rivers, on the south-eastern border of the county, and adjoining Fifeshire in that direction, in which county a small portion of it stands. The lands in the vicinity, and throughout the greater part of the parish, are interesting and beautiful, consisting of large tracts, highly cultivated, forming, on the north, a portion of the rich vale of Strathearn, enlivened by the rivers; on the south, the lands are, for the most part, hilly, occupying about two-thirds of the whole area, and belonging to the picturesque range of the Ochils. About a mile to the east, is the mansion of Carpow, a neat modern structure; a little beyond it, is a small stream which separates Abernethy from the parish of Newburgh, in Fifeshire, and to the west is the mansion called Ayton House, skirted by the Farg rivulet, which joins the Earn at Colfargie, after flowing through the romantic scenery of Glenfarg. Not far from this, in the south-western district, situated three-quarters of a mile from the town, is Castle Law, a steep grassy elevation, 600 feet high, the summit of which is the seat of a vitrified fort. It commands a beautiful view of Strathearn and the carse of Gowrie, with the interjacent Tay, where there is an island named Mugdrum, belonging to this parish, a mile in length, comprehending 35 acres of the richest arable land, and which is thronged, in autumn and winter, with various kinds of water-fowl, and sometimes is visited by very fine wild swans.

The town contains a library, but has no other institutions of interest; a large portion of the inhabitants, both male and female, as well as those residing in the villages of Aberdargie and Glenfoot, in the parish, are employed in weaving linen-yarn, for the manufacturers of Newburgh. The trade consists chiefly in the sale of grain and potatoes, the former being sent to the weekly market of Newburgh, and the potatoes taken to Ferryfield, on the estate of Carpow, where there is a stone pier, and thence conveyed to the London market. The Earl of Wemyss has fishings on the Earn, and there are others on the Earn and Tay, belonging to the estate of Carpow. A brick and tile work is in operation; and a bleachfield has been formed at Clunie, in the eastern district, which has, to some extent, caused an increase in the population. The turnpike-road from Perth to Edinburgh passes through the parish; several good roads, also, are kept in repair by statute labour, one of which leads from Perth to Cupar, in which line a new bridge was erected over the Farg, a few years since; and there are two ferries, the one at Cary, and the other at Ferryfield. Cattle-fairs are held on the 12th February, the fourth Wednesday in May, and the second Thursday in November; they are, however, in a very low state. Abernethy is a burgh of barony, held under Lord Douglas, and had a charter from Archibald, Earl of Angus, Lord of Abernethy, dated 23rd August, 1476, in which mention is made of a royal charter of erection, in his favour, by King James II. By a charter of William, Earl of Angus, dated 29th November, 1628, the privileges were confirmed, and, among others, the right of fairs and markets, the customs of which were to be applied to the use of the burgh, except they amounted to more than 100 merks Scots yearly, when the surplus was to be accounted for to the superior. The practice of the burgh has fixed the number of bailies at two, and the councillors at fifteen, who appoint their successors, and by right of charter, the burgesses elect their magistrates; the fee for admission as a burgess, to a stranger, is 10s. 6d., and to the son of a burgess, half that sum. The bailies formerly exercised both a civil and criminal jurisdiction, to a small extent, but their authority has been lately challenged; they still, however, hold courts for petty offences, from which there is no appeal but to the court of justiciary or session.

The parish comprises about 7030 acres, of which 2568 acres are comprehended in the northern division, forming the lowest part of the vale of Strathearn, and the remainder consists of a portion of the Ochil hills; the soil of the former is deep rich clay, black earth, and sand, and that of the latter, tilly, and resting on whinstone, among which numerous valuable pebbles have, at different times, been found. All kinds of grain and green crops are raised, of the first quality, on the lower portion, where the lands are cultivated to the highest degree; the hilly part contains 950 acres of permanent pasture, 850 in plantations, and 2660 arable, the last producing oats, barley, turnips, potatoes, &c., and the whole farming of the parish is of the most approved kind. The rocks between the Tay and the Ochils consist principally of the old red sandstone, and the substrata of the Ochils comprise chiefly the clinkstone, amygdaloid, porphyry, and claystone varieties of the trap formation. Gneiss, primitive trap, and quartz are found in boulders, especially on the hills, and quarries are in operation of the greenstone and clinkstone rocks, supplying a material for roads and coarse buildings. Zeolites of great beauty are found in Glenfarg, and agates, jaspers, &c., in many places; limestone, also, exists in Auchtermuchty, and in the Glenfarg quarry have been found scales of the ichthyolites.

The parish is in the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the gift of the Earl of Mansfield; the minister's stipend is £256. 5. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The church, built in 1802, is a plain but commodious edifice, containing 600 sittings. There are places of worship belonging to the Free Church and United Associate Synod, and another at Aberdargie connected with the Relief Church. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has the maximum salary, and some fees, together with about £13. 13., chiefly arising from a bequest by Lord Stormont, of £200, in 1748, and another producing £1. 13., for teaching. On the top of a hill behind Pitlour, are the remains of an ancient fort called the "Roman camp," supposed, by some antiquaries, to have been occupied by the army of that nation before the great battle with Galgacus; and in the south-western extremity of the parish, in Fifeshire, is the ruin of Balvaird Castle, situated among the Ochils, the property of the Earl of Mansfield and his ancestors, since the time of Robert II., and which conferred a title on Andrew Murray, of Balvaird, who was settled minister of Abdie in 1618, knighted in 1633, and created Lord Balvaird in 1641. Many Roman antiquities have been discovered, leading to the supposition that this people had an important military station here, and a Roman road is said formerly to have existed, leading to Ardoch, and another to Perth; but the most interesting relic of former times, and that which has excited the greatest interest, is a round tower, to which there is nothing similar in Scotland, except at Brechin, and the origin of which is altogether involved in obscurity. It stands at the entrance of the church, near the site containing the old college and ecclesiastical establishment, and also the ancient church taken down in 1802; and contains a clock, and an excellent bell which has been used, from time immemorial, for ecclesiastical purposes, and, to a certain extent, by the burgh, for civil purposes. The building is 74 feet high, 48 feet round outwardly at the base, and consists of 64 courses of hewn freestone, diminishing a little towards the summit, where there are four windows, equidistant, facing the four quarters of heaven, each 5 feet 9 inches high, and 2 feet 2 inches wide. The walls, at the bottom, are 3½ feet thick, and opposite to the north is a door, 8 feet in height, and 3 feet wide, arched overhead; the building is flat at the top, having a large projecting moulding for the uppermost course of stones, and, being entirely hollow, and without staircase, is ascended by scaling ladders attached to wooden platforms. The Rev. John Brown, for 36 years minister of the Associate Burgher congregation at Haddington, and author of the Self-interpreting Bible, and other theological works, was born at Carpow, in 1722.

Abernyte

ABERNYTE, a parish, in the county of Perth, 10 miles (W.) from Dundee; containing 280 inhabitants. The name of this place is of Gaelic origin, referring to the situation of the principal village, near the confluence of two rivulets, one of which is supposed to have obtained the appellation of Nyte. Very little is known concerning the transactions that anciently occurred here; but a battle is said to have been fought in the parish, between two powerful families, the Grays of Fowlis, and the Boyds of Pitkindie, in which the latter were victorious; and upon the top of a hill called Glenny-law, are two cairns, thought to have been raised in consequence of this engagement. The parish, including Glenbran, annexed to it quoad sacra, is about three miles in extreme length, and two in breadth, and contains about 1703 acres under cultivation, 172 in good pasture, and about 341 in plantations, consisting chiefly of larch and Scotch fir; it is bounded on the north by the Sidlaw hills. The district lies among those hills that rise gradually from the Carse of Gowrie to the top of the ridge of Dunsinnan, the highest point of which in this parish, called King's Seat, is 1050 feet above the sea. The most cultivated part of the parish is situated 300 feet above the level of the Tay, and about three miles in a direct line from that river. The numerous hills and vales in the locality, impart to the scenery a picturesque character, and fine prospects may be had from several of the heights; there are many rivulets among the valleys, and at the head of a romantic dell is a beautiful cascade, the waters of which are thrown from a perpendicular height of almost forty feet.

In the lower parts, the arable land is, in general, of a light fertile soil, lying frequently on gravel, and sometimes on clay, or on a mixture of both; in some parts, the earth runs to a considerable depth. The portions of the higher grounds which are not planted, are covered with coarse grass or heath. All the usual white and green crops are produced, of good quality; the best system of agriculture is followed, and great advantages are said to have resulted from the consolidation of small farms. The use of bone-dust for turnip husbandry, and the practice of turning the sheep to eat off the turnips, have proved of much benefit; the implements of husbandry are good, and the farm-houses and buildings have mostly been placed upon an excellent footing; but the fences, which form an exception to the generally improved appearance of the parish, are deficient in extent, and sometimes in very bad order. The rocks are sandstone, with amygdaloid containing agates or pebbles. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dundee, in the synod of Angus and Mearns; patron, the Crown; there is a commodious manse, with a glebe of nearly 7 arable acres, and 3 of pasture, and a large garden; and the stipend is nominally £150, but has lately fallen short of this sum. The church, built in 1736, and recently repaired, is situated at the lowest extremity of the parish. A tabernacle was built about forty-five years since, by Mr. Haldane, for missionaries, and is now occupied by a congregation of Burghers; and there is a parochial school, in which instruction is given in every branch of education, and of which the master has the maximum salary, with about £27 fees. Several Druidical circles yet remain; and in the parish is also the "Long Man's Grave," a noted spot at the road-side, north-east of Dunsinnan Hill, of which the traditionary account states that one, guilty either of suicide or murder, was buried there.

Abertarff.

ABERTARFF.—See Boleskine and Abertarff.

Abington

ABINGTON, a village, in the parish of Crawford-John, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Crawford; containing 135 inhabitants. It is situated on the road between Glasgow and Carlisle; and near it are vestiges of gold-mines, said to have been explored in the reign of James VI., and with some success. A school here is aided by a heritor, with £6 per annum.

Aboyne and Glentanner

ABOYNE and GLENTANNER, a parish, in the district of Kincardine O'Neil; county of Aberdeen, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Kincardine O'Neil; containing, with the burgh of barony of Charlestown, 1138 inhabitants. The Gaelic words, A, signifying a "ford," and boinne or buinne, a "thin rippling water," have originated the appellation of the first of these places, on account of its proximity to a ford on the Dee; and the name Glentanner is said to be compounded of the Gaelic terms Glean-tan-ar, meaning "the glen of scanty arable land." The date of union is uncertain; but, previously to 1763, there was a church in each place, the two being served by one parochial minister. Glentanner, before the union, formed a separate chapelry, and Aboyne was then united to Tullich, an intermediate chapel being situated at Braeroddach, equally distant from the churches of Aboyne and Tullich. On the south bank of the Dee, and surrounded by a burial-ground, the remains still exist of the old church of Glentanner, called, on account of its heather thatch, the "black chapel of the moor." The portion of Aboyne on the north side of the Dee was an important barony, the burgh of which, now named Charlestown, formerly Bunty, is near Aboyne Castle; but the tolbooth was destroyed at the close of the last century, and all traces of the pot and gallows have nearly disappeared. The Knights Templars once had possessions here, given to them by the Bissets; from that body they passed to the Frasers, of Cowie, and from them to Lord Keith, whose daughter, Elizabeth, having married Sir John Gordon, of Huntly, carried the lands and castle to the Gordons, with whom they have remained. The main outline of the Parish is irregular, rendering the statement of an accurate measurement difficult, besides which, there is a detached portion, containing about sixty persons, situated on the left bank of the Feugh, about nine miles south-east from the church, and separated by the parish of Birse. The length from east to west, between extreme points, is supposed to be thirteen miles, and the breadth 12 miles, comprising 37,000 acres, of which a small part is arable, and the remainder moorland, natural pastures, and wood. This is a mountainous and woody district, watered by numerous rivulets, among which are the Tanner, the Feugh, the burn of Dinnet, and that of Dess, beautifully winding in different directions, but all in subordination to the stately and majestic Dee, which here pursues its course through the middle of the parish, Aboyne lying chiefly on the northern, and Glentanner on the southern, bank. The district is bounded on all sides either by rivers or mountains, and is skirted on the west, south, and east, by ranges of the Grampians. The climate is serene; during heavy falls of snow and the blowing of the keener winds, it is intensely cold, but it is considered salubrious, particularly about the banks of the Dee, and near the Tanner. Invalids frequently resort hither in summer, to enjoy a picturesque and romantic seclusion, and to drink the goats' whey for which the place is celebrated; and the heath-clad hills and Alpine forests, ascended by steep and craggy slopes, afford exercise for the more hardy, who, having reached the summits, are amply repaid for their labour by the fine views around them, embracing Aberdeen, Montrose, and many other objects of commanding interest.

The soil near the rivers is a thin alluvial deposit, formed, in consequence of the rapidity of the currents, chiefly of sand and gravel; but, advancing towards the hills, the earth is stronger, and of better quality, consisting of a black or clayey till: extensive tracts of peatmoss are found on the higher grounds, and, to a large extent, supply the inhabitants with fuel. The only grain raised is oats and bear; the farms vary much in size, some being mere crofts, and others more than 100 arable acres in extent, but the latter are few in number, and the average dimensions are from twenty to fifty acres. Between 5000 and 6000 sheep, chiefly of the Linton breed, are pastured upon the hills and moorlands; and the black cattle, to the rearing of which much attention is paid, comprise the Aberdeenshire horned and the Buchan polled breeds, crossed, not unfrequently, with the short-horned. The rocks mostly consist of granite, existing in various forms, according to the proportions of its constituent parts; gneiss is also common, and ironstone, limestone, topaz, crystallized quartz, and fullers'-earth are found. About 4500 acres of natural fir, a remnant of the ancient Caledonian forest, still remain in Glentanner; and on the estate of Balnacraig, where stand the old mansion-house of the same name, and the house of Carlogie, about 1400 acres are covered with Scotch fir, in a thriving state, like most of the other wood in the parish. There are also 2144 acres of plantations near Aboyne Castle, the ancient seat of the earls of Aboyne, consisting chiefly of Scotch fir, with many sprinklings of larch, oak, ash, beech, elm, and other varieties. The castle, the grounds of which are ornamented with an artificial lake of thirty-two acres, interspersed with wooded islets, was partly rebuilt in 1671, by Charles, first Earl of Aboyne, and the east wing was added in 1801, by his great-great-grandson, the Marquess of Huntly; the mansion is surrounded with beautifully-wooded hills, commanding extensive and interesting views.

The village of Charlestown has a daily mail to Aberdeen, the turnpike-road from that city terminating here, though the communication is continued by good commutation roads, on each side of the Dee, to Ballater and Braemar; there are also commutation roads leading hence in the direction of Tarland and other places, and the parliamentary road to Alford commences here. Numerous bridges cross the different streams; and at Aboyne, nearly opposite the church, is an elegant suspension bridge, erected in 1831, by the Earl of Aboyne, in place of a former one built in 1828, and swept away by the great flood, in August in the following year. The trade in the sale of grain and cattle is principally carried on with Aberdeen; and besides the cattle sold for this city, or forwarded by the steamers to the London market, large numbers, in a lean state, are sent to the south of Scotland, or to England. Fairs are held at Candlemas, Michaelmas, Hallowmas, and in June and July, on a green between the village of Charlestown and the church. The parish is in the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Marquess of Huntly. The minister's stipend is about £150, part of which is received from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of 20 acres of very poor land, assigned in lieu of the old glebes of the two parishes, when a central church was built for the united parish, in 1763: the present edifice, containing 628 sittings, is very handsome, and was erected in 1842, at an expense, exclusive of carriage, of £900. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £26, with £28 in fees, and a portion of Dick's bequest. The antiquities comprise Piets' houses, cairns, tumuli, and the remains of encampments, of the history of which nothing is known. Aboyne gives the inferior title of Earl to the Marquess of Huntly.

Acharacle.

ACHARACLE.—See Aharacle.

Acharn

ACHARN, a village, in the parish of Kenmore, county of Perth; containing 42 inhabitants. It is a small place, of which the residents are entirely engaged in agriculture. The Acharn burn, a feeder of Loch Tay, runs through the eastern portion of the parish.

Ackergill

ACKERGILL, a village, in the parish of Wick, and county of Caithness. It was anciently called Aikrigill, and lies on the shore of Sinclair bay, and on the road between Staxigo and Keiss. The lands were formerly a possession of the Keiths, earls marischal, whose residence was Ackergill Tower, a spacious rectangular structure, of which the walls, thirteen feet in thickness, and crowned with battlements, are eighty-two feet in height; it is in a state of entire preservation, and, from its antiquity, has a venerable and impressive aspect.

Adamsrow

ADAMSROW, a village, in the parish of Newton, county of Edinburgh; containing 249 inhabitants.

Afton-Bridgend

AFTON-BRIDGEND, a village, in the parish of New Cumnock, district of Kyle, county of Ayr; containing 261 inhabitants. It is situated on the banks of the Afton, a small stream tributary to the river Nith, into which, flowing northward through Glen-Afton, it merges near New Cumnock, and gives name to a barony, wherein is a lead-mine. The parochial church is between the villages of Afton-Bridgend and New Cumnock.

Aharacle

AHARACLE, or Acharacle, late a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Ardnamurchan, partly in the district and county of Argyll, and partly in county Inverness; containing 2016 inhabitants. It is about twenty-four miles in its greatest length, and ten in breadth, and is formed, for the most part, of the eastern portion of Ardnamurchan, and includes the islands of Shonaveg, Portavata, and Shona. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Mull and synod of Argyll; the stipend of the minister is £120, subject to a deduction for communion elements, and there is a manse, with a glebe valued at £2.10. The church, which stands at the west end of Lochshiel, and about four miles distant from the nearest boundary of the district, the Western Ocean, was built in 1829, and contains 270 sittings: another place of worship connected with the Establishment, is distant from the parochial church about eleven miles. A great portion of the population are Roman Catholics.

Aigash Isle

AIGASH ISLE, in the parish of Kiltarlity, county of Inverness. It is formed by a division into two branches of the river Beauty, and is of an oval figure, and about a mile and a half in circumference, comprising an area of fifty acres. It is chiefly whinstone, and rises, in a slope, about a hundred feet above the level of the water; and being covered with natural oak, birch, alder, and other trees, it presents, with the surrounding rocks, a beautiful and picturesque appearance. The islet communicates with the main land by a bridge.

Ailsa

AILSA, an island belonging to the parish of Dailly, in the district of Carrick, county of Ayr. This island lies in the Frith of Clyde, between the shores of Ayrshire and Cantyre, from the former of which it is distant eight miles; it is a rugged rock, about two miles in circumference at its base, rising precipitously from the sea, to an elevation of 1100 feet, and accessible only on the north-east side, where a small beach has been constructed. The rock is basaltic, and in several parts assumes the columnar formation: at a considerable elevation, are the remains of ancient buildings, supposed to have been originally a castle, with a chapel. A small portion of its surface affords a scanty pasturage; but it is frequented only by various aquatic birds, of which the most numerous are the solan geese; and the sole income arising from the island, is derived from the sale of feathers, for the collection of which, during the season, a person resides on the spot. It was in contemplation, some time since, to make this island a fishing station, for the supply of Glasgow and Liverpool by the numerous steamers which pass this way, and the erection of some buildings for that purpose was commenced, but the idea was subsequently abandoned. The island gives the British titles of Marquess and Baron to the family of Kennedy, who are the owners of the property.

Aird

AIRD, a village, in the parish of Inch, county of Wigton; containing 18 inhabitants. It is situated near the head of Loch Ryan bay, about a mile eastward of Stranraer, and the same distance south-west of the parochial church.

Airdrie

AIRDRIE, a burgh and market-town, in the parish of New, or East Monkland, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 32½ miles (W. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing 12,418 inhabitants, and comprising the late quoad sacra parishes of High Church, and East, South, and West Airdrie, in which are respectively 1983, 2556, 4666, and 3213 persons. This place, which is comparatively of recent origin, is advantageously situated on the road from Glasgow to Edinburgh, and appears to have been indebted for its rise to the numerous mines of coal and ironstone with which the parish and adjoining district abound, and which, within the last half century, have been wrought with increased assiduity and profit. Its situation within a moderate distance of the capital and other principal towns, with which it has facility of intercourse, by means of the Monkland canal, and good turnpike-roads, has rendered it important as a place of trade, and as the residence of numerous persons engaged in collieries and mines; and it is rapidly increasing in population and prosperity. The town is regularly built; the houses are of neat appearance, and the streets are well paved, lighted with gas, and watched, under the provisions of an act of 1 and 2 Geo. IV. A theatre, likewise, is supported by the inhabitants. The principal trade carried on in the town, is that of weaving, in which many persons are employed; and a large cotton factory has been recently established, which affords constant occupation to a large number, in spinning, carding, and other branches of the manufacture. There are a tan-work, brewery, and extensive distillery. The Monkland canal, passing by the town, affords ready communication with Glasgow, to which place coal is likewise forwarded by the Ballochney railroad, which joins those of Kirkintilloch and Garnkirk; and great quantities of coal and mineral produce are also conveyed to the Clyde and Forth canal, whence they are forwarded, eastward to Edinburgh, and westward to Greenock. The market, which is well supplied, and numerously attended, is on Thursday; and fairs, chiefly for cattle, are held generally about the end of May and the middle of November.

The town was erected into a burgh of barony by act of the 1st and 2nd of Geo. IV., by which the government was vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and seven councillors, assisted by a town-clerk and other officers. The provost and bailies are elected from the council, by a majority of the burgesses and other inhabitants possessing the elective franchise; the former, with two of the bailies, annually, the third bailie retaining office for two years. The town-clerk is chosen annually, by the proprietor of the Rochsolloch estate, but is subject to the controul of the magistrates and council; and the provost and bailies are justices of the peace within the burgh, in which, however, the county magistrates have concurrent jurisdiction. The bailies hold courts monthly, for the recovery of debts under 40s. The burgh unites with those of Lanark, Hamilton, Falkirk, and Linlithgow, in returning one member to the imperial parliament; the right of election is vested in the resident burgesses and £10 householders, and the provost is the returning officer. The town-hall, recently erected, is a neat edifice, comprising also a policeoffice, and a small prison for the temporary confinement of offenders previously to their committal by the county magistrates. There is also a public building called the Masons' Hall, which is connected with the trade of the town. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the controul of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr: the parochial church of East Airdrie, which contains 631 sittings, was erected, as a chapel of ease, in 1797; and a new church for West Airdrie, having 1200 sittings, was built by subscription, in 1835, at a cost of £2370. The stipend of the minister of the former is £120, derived solely from seat-rents; and that of the minister of the latter, £105, derived from seat-rents and collections. There are also two places of worship for South Airdrie and High Church, a town school, and meeting-houses for members of the Free Church, Independents, Roman Catholics, the United Secession, and other congregations.

Airlie

AIRLIE, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Kirriemuir; containing 868 inhabitants. The name of this place, written in ancient records Errolly, Erolly, Irolly, and Airlie, is altogether of uncertain derivation, but is supposed, by some, to come from the Gaelic term Aird, signifying the "extremity of a ridge," which description is applicable to the locality of Airlie Castle. The parish is situated at the western extremity of the county, bordering on Perthshire, and measures, in extreme length, 6 miles, from east to west; and the breadth varies from ½ a mile to 4 miles; the whole comprising 8600 acres, of which 6848 are cultivated, 1365 under wood, and 387 in pasture, waste, &c. The southern part of the district lies in the vale of Strathmore, from which the land rises towards the north, in a succession of undulated ridges, forming a portion of the braes of Angus, and the southern Grampians. In this direction, the Isla pours its waters through a deep rocky gorge, out of the higher into the lower country; and the ravine, separating at Airlie Castle into two channels, makes courses, respectively, for the Isla and Melgum streams. The scenery about this spot is highly picturesque, and is, to a great extent, indebted for its attractions to the romantic Den of Airlie, extending for above a mile from the confluence of the two streams. The pellucid stream of the Isla, sweeping in some places over a rocky channel, pursues its winding course among the thickly-wooded and precipitous braes; and the pleasing landscape in this part is completed by the interesting feature of the Kirktown, situated about 1½ mile south-east from the castle, and less than a mile east of the river. All the streams are famed for their abundance of fine trout, and are the favourite resorts of anglers; the Isla and Melgum are also much visited by salmon. In the Dean is found the fresh-water muscle, often mistaken for the pearl oyster, common in the South Esk, and some of the rivers are frequented by numerous migratory birds, some of them being of very rare species.

The soil runs through the several varieties of brown and black loam; in the better portion of the district, and in the northern part, it is a thin and barren earth, on a tilly subsoil, requiring much furrow-draining and deep ploughing to render it profitable. There are also many gravelly, sandy, and clayey admixtures, in different places, some of which, if allowed to remain long in grass, become overspread with broom; but, though much of the land is either very poor or only of moderate fertility, there are some rich tracts, particularly a long and broad strip of deep alluvial loam, along the whole course of the Dean river. The agriculture of the parish has been greatly improved since the beginning of the present century, and deep and extensive drains have been constructed; furrow-draining, by tiles and stones, has been practised, and shell-marl is much used as manure. The number of sheep and cattle, and the superiority of the breeds, furnish a striking contrast to the state of the district, in these respects, about thirty years since, most of the thinner soils being now covered with flocks of native black-faced sheep, besides regular stocks of Leicesters, in other parts; and in addition to the Angus, a very fine description of cattle is seen on several of the larger farms, which is often crossed with the Teeswater. Since the introduction of steam navigation, large quantities have been sent to London, in addition to those sold at Edinburgh and Glasgow, and they obtain the highest prices.

The strata consist entirely of the old red sandstone, with the exception of a trap-dike crossing the channel of the Isla, near Airlie Castle. The upper beds are in general too friable for use, crumbling almost as soon as they are exposed to the air, but those at a considerable depth are of tenacious consistence, and, having several varieties of fine and coarse grain, are capable of being applied to many purposes. Most of the rocks are overlaid with debris of different depths, and above are usually beds of sand and gravel; at Baikie is a bed of marl, once covering 40 acres, and six or seven yards deep, but which has been much exhausted for agricultural use, and there are also extensive mosses, in which horns of deer and oxen have been found. Many plantations have been formed in the present century, comprising the usual trees; but they are, to a great extent, in a pining state, especially the larch, very many of which have been entirely destroyed by blight and canker. Airlie Castle, a plain modern residence, situated at the north-western point of the parish, on a lofty precipice, is the property of the family of Ogilvy, who became connected with the parish in 1458, when Sir John Ogilvy, of Lintrathen, received a grant of the barony from King James II. One side of the ancient castle only remains, the rest having been burnt down by the Earl of Argyll, in the year 1640, during the absence of the Earl of Airlie, a zealous supporter of the royal cause, which event is celebrated in the popular ballad entitled "Bonnie house of Airlie." Lindertis House is a handsome edifice, of recent date, beautifully situated on the northern slope of Strathmore, and commanding fine views of an extensive range of country. A considerable number of the inhabitants of the parish are engaged in weaving coarse linens for Dundee houses; several public roads, leading to most of the great thoroughfares, pass through the place, and the railway from Newtyle to Glammis passes along the southern border. The parish is in the presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the Earl of Strathmore; the minister's stipend is £219. 1. 5., with a manse, and a glebe of 9 acres valued at £12 per annum. The church is a very neat edifice, rebuilt in 1781, and repaired in 1844. A Free Church place of worship has been recently erected. The parochial school-master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house, and £13 fees. Near Cardean, are the remains of a Roman camp, and also of the great Roman road which ran from this spot, along the valley of Strathmore.

Airntully

AIRNTULLY, or Arntully, a village, in the parish of Kinclaven, county of Perth, 8 miles (N.) from Perth; containing 159 inhabitants. This place, of which the houses are scattered in every direction, was of greater extent than it is at present; and though it has, of late years, considerably decreased in size and population, it still exhibits a striking picture of the ancient villages of the kingdom. It is now chiefly inhabited by weavers for the linen manufacturers of Cupar-Angus, Blairgowrie, and Newburgh; and attached to each of their cottages, is a portion of land sufficient to maintain a cow, and to yield meal and potatoes for the supply of their families.

Airth

AIRTH, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 6½ miles (N.) from Falkirk; containing, with the village of Dunmore, 1498 inhabitants, of whom 583 are in the village of Airth. The Gaelic term ard, or ardhé, signifying a hill, is supposed to have given the name to this place, in which the eminence called the Hill of Airth is a conspicuous feature, and forms a striking contrast to the level district by which it is surrounded. The parish is situated on the shore of the Forth, which is its boundary on the north and east, for about 8½ miles, and contains the three small landing-places or harbours of Newmiln, Airth, and Dunmore; its length, from north to south, is 6½ miles, and its breadth 3½, comprising 16,400 acres, mostly in tillage. The small river Pow is the only water besides the Forth; it rises in the parish of St. Ninian's, and, after being crossed by several stone bridges, falls into the latter river near Kincardine ferry. The prevailing soil consists of alluvial deposits from the Forth; and the layers of shells, at a small distance from the surface, on the lower grounds, have led to the opinion that this portion of the parish formed originally a part of the bed of the river. Most kinds of grain and green crops are raised, averaging, in annual value, £100,000; and the general husbandry, which has been for some time on the advance, is now considered equal to that of the best cultivated districts. The rocks comprise distinct varieties of sandstone, differing in colour, texture, and extent, and there are several quarries. Argillaceous rock also exists, of the fireproof species, on which rest beds of coal, belonging, with their appropriate strata, to the great coalfield of Scotland, though they are not at present worked, the pits formerly in operation, near the village of Dunmore, having been closed since 1811, on account of their exhausted state. The plantations are chiefly in the vicinity of the beautiful hill of Airth and Dunmore Park, the most prominent and striking portions of the parish, on the former of which is situated Airth Castle, a very ancient building, with a handsome new front, surmounted in the centre by a tower, the whole forming a picturesque object from every part of the surrounding country. In Dunmore Park is the mansion of the Earl of Dunmore, built in the Elizabethan style, about twenty years since, upon an extensive lawn richly studded with all kinds of trees, and encompassed with grounds thickly planted, like those of the Castle, with larch, Scotch fir, birch, oak, and beech. About 185 acres of land, recovered from the sea, have been added to the Airth estate, and 150 to that of Dunmore, within the last fifty years, and are secured by embankments of mud and turf, defended by substantial stone facings; and considerable tracts of moss are annually recovered by the employment of what are called "moss lairds," who, by hard labour, are gradually reducing the large extent, amounting to between 300 and 400 acres, receiving for their work £24 per acre.

The parish is traversed by the Glasgow turnpike-road, on which the Alloa and Kirkcaldy coaches travel daily; there is also constant communication with Edinburgh, by means of steam-boats plying on the Forth, throughout the whole year. Over the small river Pow, up which the tide flows, for above a mile, is the Abbeytown bridge, situated on the road from Airth and Dunmore to Carron and Falkirk, having received this name from a town, as is supposed, to which it led, in a direct line, and near which was an ancient abbey. There are two old ferries, called Kersie and Higgin's Neuck, the latter about a mile across, and the former half that distance, at which, on each side of the river, is a pier for the accommodation of passengers at all states of the tide. The harbours of Airth, Dunmore, and Newmiln are within the jurisdiction of the custom-house of Alloa, and there are four registered vessels belonging to the parish. An annual fair is held on the last Tuesday in July, chiefly for the hiring of servants as shearers. The parish is in the presbytery of Stirling and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of the family of Graham; the minister's stipend is £281. 12., with a manse, and a glebe of 10 acres, including the site of the manse and garden, valued at £27 per annum. The church, which is conveniently situated, was built in 1820, and is capable of accommodating 800 persons. There is a place of worship for the Burgher denomination. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin, arithmetic, book-keeping, and the usual elementary branches; the master has a salary of £34, and £40 fees. The poor enjoy the benefit of several considerable bequests; a savings' bank was instituted in 1821, and there are two friendly societies, one of which is connected with the weavers of the parish, who carry on a manufacture to a very limited extent. The family of Murray derive the title of Earl from their ancient seat of Dunmore, in the parish.

Airthrie

AIRTHRIE, Stirling.—See Allan, Bridge of.

Aithsting

AITHSTING, Shetland.—See Sandsting and Aithsting.

Aldhouse

ALDHOUSE, a village, in the parish of East Kilbride, Middle ward of the county of Lanark. This place, which includes Crosshill, lies in about the centre of the parish, and contains a branch of the parochial school.

Alexandria

ALEXANDRIA, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Bonhill, county of Dumbarton; containing 3397 inhabitants, of whom 3039 are in the village, 4 miles (N.) from Dumbarton. The village is on the west bank of the river Leven, and its population has, of late years, very considerably increased, owing to the establishment of bleach-fields and print-fields in the parish; the persons employed here, in these works, are very numerous. The church is a handsome edifice, and contains about 1000 sittings; the minister's stipend is £206. 17. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £6. 13. 4. per annum, and a right to fuel on a moss, commuted for £4 worth of coal, and 13s. 8d. money. In the village is a place of worship for Independents.

Alford

ALFORD, a parish, in the district of Alford, county of Aberdeen, 26 miles (W. N. W.) from Aberdeen; containing 1037 inhabitants. This place, of which the name is of uncertain derivation, is situated in the south-western portion of a district nearly in the centre of the county, called the How of Alford, a valley comprising also the parishes of Keig, Tough, and Tullynessle and Forbes, and entirely surrounded with mountains and hills. The only event of historical importance, is the battle of Alford, which took place here on the 2nd of July, 1645, and terminated in the entire defeat of the army of the Covenanters under General Baillie, by the royal forces under the command of the Marquess of Montrose, and in which Lord Gordon, the eldest son of the Marquess of Huntly, was killed. On the field of battle, of which the site is marked out by an upright stone, the body of a horseman, in complete armour, was found within the last century, by some men digging peat; and cannon-balls, military weapons, coins, and other relics have been discovered near the spot. The parish is about seven miles in extreme length, and nearly three miles in breadth, comprising an area of 8715 acres, of which 4767 are arable, 1169 woodland and plantations, about 200 rich meadow, and the remainder mountain pasture, moss, and waste. The surface is partly diversified with ranges of nearly contiguous hills, of circular form, of which the bases have an elevation of 420, and the summits of 800, feet, and which increase in height towards the mountain of Callievar, on the western boundary, which has an elevation of 1480 feet above the sea. The principal river is the Don, which forms the northern boundary of the parish, and is here about 120 feet wide, flowing from east to west, between verdant banks of great beauty. The river Leochal has its source in the parish of Cushnie, is scarcely 25 feet in breadth, and flows into the Don; the burn of Bents, a still smaller stream, skirts the parish on the east, and the burn of Buckie, the smallest, flows through the eastern portion of the parish. The Don and the Leochal abound with trout; there are also numerous springs of excellent water, and some slightly chalybeate.

The soil is mostly a dry friable loam, well adapted for turnips, and, in some parts, of great depth and fertility; the crops are, oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is in an improved state; much waste land has been reclaimed; the farm buildings are, in general, substantial and commodious, and the lands are inclosed with stone dykes. Great attention is paid to the improvement of live stock, for which the hills afford good pasture; the sheep, with the exception of a few of the black-faced, are usually of the Leicestershire and Merino breeds, reared chiefly for their wool, and about 800 are generally fed in the pastures. The rearing of black cattle, however, is the main dependence of the farmers, and about 2000 are kept, chiefly of the Aberdeen polled kind, and a cross between it and the short-horned. The plantations are, larch, Scotch and spruce firs, beech, elm, ash, mountain ash, lime, plane, oak, willow, birch, and poplar. The rocks are principally of the primitive formation, chiefly micaceous schist, and granite, of which latter there are several varieties, some resembling the grey granite of Aberdeen, and others the red granite of Peterhead; many of the rocks are almost in a state of decomposition. Haughton, the seat of the principal landed proprietor, is an elegant mansion of dressed granite, beautifully situated on the bank of the Don, in a wide demesne tastefully laid out, and embellished with thriving plantations. Breda, another seat, and Kingsford, recently built, are also handsome houses.

The village consists, for the most part, of houses of neat appearance, to each of which is attached a portion of land, and extends for about three-quarters of a mile along the road to Aberdeen. A post-office has been established, and facility of communication is afforded by good roads, and by substantial bridges across the various streams, one of which, over the Don, an elegant structure of granite, was erected in 1810, by the Parliamentary Commissioners, at a cost of £2000. Fairs are held for black cattle, horses, and sheep, on the Tuesday before the second Wednesday in June, and the Friday after the second Thursday in September (O.S.); and markets for black cattle and grain, on the first Monday in every month, from October till May. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen; the minister's stipend is £206. 17. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £6. 13. 4. per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1804, and enlarged in 1826, is a neat structure, containing 550 sittings. The parochial school is attended by about 80 children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., augmented, by the proceeds of bequests, to £38, and the fees average about £15 annually. On the summit of a hill called Carnaveran, supposed to signify, in the Gaelic language, "the Cairn of Sorrow," is a cairn in the form of a truncated cone, 120 feet in diameter at the base, in removing a portion of which were found several coffins of flat stones.

Allan, Bridge Of

ALLAN, BRIDGE OF, a village, in the parishes of Lecropt and Logie, county of Stirling, 4 miles (N.) from Stirling; containing 561 inhabitants. This village, which is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Allan, formerly consisted only of a few irregular and detached cottages, and derived its chief importance from an ale and porter brewery that had been established here, towards the close of the last century. From its proximity, however, to the mineral spring of Airthrie, and the well of Dunblane, of which the water, discovered in 1814, has been found to possess similar properties, but of milder operation, the village has rapidly increased in extent and population, and, on the failure of a project for conveying the water of the latter, by pipes, into the town of Dunblane, has, in that respect, attained precedence as a place of fashionable resort. An excellent inn for the accommodation of visiters, and numerous houses for the reception of families residing here during the summer months, have been erected within the last few years, and are fully occupied; and good shops, amply stored with articles of every kind, have been opened for their convenience. The environs abound with pleasing scenery, among which the grounds of Keir House form a conspicuous feature; and are interspersed with handsome villas, inhabited by opulent families. The river, near the village, rushes with impetuosity, through a deep glen richly wooded, forming an interesting and secluded retreat. The spring of Airthrie rises on the high grounds above the village, on the estate of Airthrie, and was discovered several years since, during the working of a coppermine; the water is a saline aperient, similar to that of Cheltenham, but not so strong, containing, as its chief ingredients, common salt, muriate of lime, and sulphate of lime, and has been fast advancing in reputation, especially for scorbutic complaints. The water of Dunblane Well has been analysed by Dr. John Murray, an eminent physician, and found to contain, in one imperial pint, 24 grains of muriate of soda; of muriate of lime, 18 grains; of sulphate of lime, 3.5 grains; of carbonate of lime, .5 grains; and of oxide of iron, .17 grains. The woollen manufacture is carried on to a small extent, for which there is a mill at the hamlet of Keir; and there is also a paper manufactory. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship.

Allanton

ALLANTON, a village, in the parish of Edrom, county of Berwick, 1¼ mile (S.) from Chirnside; containing 267 inhabitants. This village, which is situated at the confluence of the rivers Whitadder and Blackadder, is neatly built, and inhabited chiefly by persons employed in the manufactories in the neighbourhood; some of the houses are detached, and surrounded with pleasant gardens. A considerable traffic is carried on in coal, which is brought from the county of Northumberland, and also from Eyemouth, to which place it is sent, by sea, from Newcastle; and there is a daily delivery of letters in the village, by a branch from the post-office at Dunse. A place of worship in connexion with the Free Church has been erected.

Alloa

ALLOA, a burgh of barony, sea-port town, and parish, in the county of Clackmannan, 7 miles (E.) from Stirling; containing, with the villages of Cambus, Coalyland, Holton-Square, and Tullibody, 7921 inhabitants, of whom 5434 are in the burgh, and 2457 in the East quoad sacra parish. This place, of which the name, in various documents Aulewoy and Alloway, is supposed to signify, in the Gaelic language, "the way to the sea," includes also the ancient parish of Tullibody, memorable for the erection of its village, in 834, by Kenneth M'Alpine, on the plain where he encamped the main body of his army, previously to the victory which put an end to the Pictish dynasty in Scotland. In 1149, David I. erected, and annexed to the abbey of Cambus Kenneth, which he had founded on the field where the battle took place, the church of Tullibody, which he endowed with land, and with some islands in the Frith of Forth, for the maintenance of the officiating priests. In 1559, the French forces under General D'Oysel, who were stationed on the coast of Fife, on the appearance of the English fleet made a precipitate retreat to Stirling; but, being retarded in their progress by Kirkcaldy of Grange, who had broken down the bridge of Tullibody, they unroofed the church, and, converting the timbers into a temporary bridge, effected their escape across the Forth. The church, thus exposed to the injuries of the weather, soon fell into a state of dilapidation; and the parish of Tullibody, about the time of the Reformation, became united to that of Alloa. In 1645, the Earl of Montrose, on the night before the battle of Kilsyth, encamped his forces in the woods of Tullibody, and was hospitably entertained by the Earl of Mar, in his castle of Alloa.

The family of the Erskines, ancestors of the earls of Mar, were distinguished, at an early period, for their eminent services; and John, the 5th earl, who became Regent of Scotland, was entrusted with the guardianship of Mary, Queen of Scots, who, during her infancy, remained under his protection, at Alloa Castle, till 1548, when, by order of the estates of the kingdom, he conveyed her to the court of France. John, the 6th earl, was appointed guardian to the infant monarch, James VI., who spent many of his earlier years at Alloa, and also at Stirling. The castle of Alloa, anciently one of the residences of the Scottish kings, was, in the 13th century, given by David II. to Lord Erskine, in exchange for the estate of Strathgartney, in the county of Perth. Of the ancient edifice, one tower only is now remaining, 89 feet in height, and of which the walls are 11 feet in thickness; the other portions of the buildings which constituted the family residence, were destroyed by an accidental fire in 1800, and a splendid mansion has been since erected by the Earl of Mar. This is a spacious structure, of white freestone from a quarry in the park, beautifully situated on a gentle acclivity, within about 200 yards of the old tower, and inclosing a quadrangular area 180 feet in length, and 120 feet in breadth. The principal front occupies the whole width of the area, and is an elegant specimen of the Grecian style; and the interior contains numerous stately apartments, superbly decorated. Four entrance lodges, also, have been recently built; but the whole of the arrangements are not yet completed.

The town is situated on the Frith of Forth, and, though irregularly built, consists of several good streets, of which John-street, planned in the year 1704, is about 80 feet in width, leading to the quay, and terminating in a gravel-walk, shaded by a row of limetrees on each side, and forming a pleasant promenade. The old houses in the principal streets have been mostly taken down, and replaced with modern buildings of handsome appearance; and many of the shops display much elegance of style. The streets are well paved, and lighted with gas from works erected in 1821, by a company of shareholders, at an expense of £3000; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water, conveyed into the town by pipes, from springs in the vicinity. Considerable additions have been made to the town, which is rapidly extending towards the west; and within the few last years numerous villas have been erected, in that direction. The Clackmannanshire library, founded here in 1797, is supported by annual subscriptions of ten shillings each, and contains a collection of more than 1500 volumes; there are also a reading and news room, and an assembly-room. A mechanics' institution was established in 1826, and was, for some time, well supported, but, of late, has not been so warmly patronized; connected with it, is a library of 470 volumes.

The principal Manufacture is that of woollens, which, though formerly of very limited extent, has latterly much increased, and for which several additional mills have been erected on a large scale; there are at present six factories, of which four are worked by steam. The chief articles are, yarns, plaiding, shawls, tartans, druggets, blankets, and cloth of various kinds, together affording employment to 200 men, 72 women, and 90 children; and connected with these factories, is an extensive establishment for the manufacture of machinery. The glass manufacture, for which works, commenced at an early period, were extended by a joint-stock company, in 1825, produces glass bottles equal to those of Newcastle, in Northumberland. There are eight extensive breweries, of which five are in the town; and the ale produced is in high repute, and is sent, in large quantities, to London, and exported to the continent, North and South America, the East and West Indies, and other places. Large distilleries are conducted at Cambus and Carse Bridge: at that of Cambus, nearly 6000 gallons are produced weekly, consuming about 374 quarters of malt, and feeding 400 head of cattle; there are 60 men employed in the establishment, and the amount of duty paid to government, exceeds £50,000 per annum. The distillery at Carse Bridge is nearly equal in extent. Extensive tanneries are carried on at Tullibody, in which leather is made to the amount of £20,000 annually; and there are also works for the manufacture of glue, belonging to the same company, and mills, driven by steam, for grinding bones for manure, together affording employment to about 40 men. The iron-foundry, and works for the manufacture of steam-engines, are also very extensive, employing nearly 100 men. There are large potteries for white and coloured earthenware, of every kind, and the manufacture of bricks and tiles occupies more than 40 persons; the fire-bricks made here are considered equal to those of Stourbridge, and adjoining the works is a commodious wharf for shipping the produce. Ship-building is also carried on; vessels of 300 or 400 tons' burthen are frequently built, and in 1845, a vessel of 800 tons was built here, for the foreign trade. Boat-building is carried on, and there is a dry dock for repairing vessels; the making of sails and ropes is also considerable, and there are numerous mills, driven by water and steam.

The port, which includes the creeks of Kincardine and Stirling, and has recently been made a bonding port, carries on an extensive coasting, and a considerable foreign, trade, the latter chiefly with Holland and the Baltic. The principal exports are coal, pig-iron, woollen goods, glass, ale, whisky, leather, bricks, and tiles; the chief imports, coastwise, are, grain, malt, wine, groceries, wool, and fullers'-earth, and, from foreign ports, timber, deals, hemp, oak-bark, and bones for manure. The amount of registered tonnage, including the creeks, is about 19,000 tons, of which about 10,000 belong to Alloa; the number of vessels that entered inwards, in 1838, was 600, and the number that cleared outwards, 1250. The harbour is accessible, at high water, to vessels of large burthen, which may lie in safety at the quays, which are commodiously adapted to the loading and unloading of their cargoes, and on which is a custom-house. The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, the latter being the principal, and fairs are held on the second Wednesday in Feb., May, August, and November; the August fair, which is the most numerously attended, is for hiring servants, and for general business, and the other three are for cattle. The post-office has a considerable delivery; and facilities of intercourse with Edinburgh, Stirling, and the several towns on the Forth, is afforded by numerous steamers. The town was erected into a burgh of barony, in the reign of Robert Bruce, and is governed by a baron bailie, appointed by the Earl of Mar; the courts of the sheriff and justices of peace, have been transferred from Clackmannan to this town, and a county prison has been just completed.

The parish, which is bounded on the south by the Forth, and on the east partly by the Black Devon, is of very irregular form, comprising about 5000 acres, of which 4375 are arable, 514 woodland and plantations, and the remainder waste. The surface, though not mountainous, is beautifully diversified with hills of moderate height, and fertile valleys. From the higher of the eminences, of which none exceed 400 feet in elevation above the Forth, are views of picturesque and romantic character; a fine tract of rich carse land extends along the banks of the Forth, and the scenery, enriched with wood, and interspersed with streams, is of very pleasing aspect. The river Devon flows through the south-western portion of the parish, into the Forth, at the village of Cambus, about two miles from Alloa; and the Black Devon, after forming part of its eastern boundary, takes a westerly course, and flows through the parish, into the Frith of Forth, at Clackmannan. A large reservoir called Gartmorn Dam, 160 acres in extent, and 37 feet in depth, was formed by John, Earl of Mar, about the year 1700, by throwing a dam-head across the Black Devon, at Forest Mill; the bed of that river was thus raised 16 feet above its former level, and from it he carried an aqueduct of four miles in length, for the supply of this reservoir, which he constructed for driving the machinery of the Alloa colliery, and of several mills.

The soil of the lower lands is richly fertile, but of the higher, thin and light, on a cold tilly bottom; the principal crops are, wheat, barley, and oats, with the various green crops. The system of husbandry has been much improved, under the auspices of the Clackmannanshire Agricultural Society; the lands have been well-drained, and partially inclosed, and the farm-buildings are commodiously arranged. The cattle are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, with a few of the short-horned, though no great number are reared; and a few sheep, of various kinds, are fed for the butcher. Very little of the ancient forests of Clackmannanshire is now remaining; the principal woods are those of Tullibody, in which are many stately trees of venerable growth. The plantations consist mostly of oak and other hard-wood trees, intermixed with firs; they are regularly thinned, and are in a thriving state. The substrata are, sandstone of different colours, clayslate, limestone, and coal, which last occurs in seams varying from a few inches to nine feet in thickness; of the sandstone, two quarries are wrought, to a very moderate extent, the one of white, and the other of a reddish, colour. The coal is extensively worked in three several fields, the Coalyland, the Carse Bridge, and the Sauchy, which extends into the parish of Clackmannan; the average quantity annually raised amounts to nearly 80,000 tons, which are conveyed by railroads to the harbour at Alloa. Tullibody House, the seat of Lord Abercromby, and the birth-place of General Sir Ralph Abercromby, is pleasantly situated on the bank of the Forth, in a richly-planted demesne, abounding with fine old timber, and surrounded by thriving plantations. Shaw Park House, the seat of the Earl of Mansfield, formerly the property of the Cathcart family, is a handsome mansion on elevated ground, about two miles to the north of the Forth, and commanding a very extensive view, embracing the windings of the river, with the castle of Stirling, and the mountains of Ben Lomond, Ben Ledi, and Tinto, in Clydesdale.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Stirling and synod of Perth and Stirling; patron, the Crown. The minister's stipend is £299. 3. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £63; there is also an assistant minister, who receives the interest of two bequests, one of £800, and the other of £500. The parish church, erected by the heritors and feuars, in 1819, on a site given by the late John Francis, Earl of Mar, is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a lofty spire, together 207 feet in height, and contains 1561 sittings: the steeple of the old church is still remaining, and near it is the mausoleum of the Erskine family. The ancient church of Tullibody, which had been in disuse from the time of the Reformation, was restored about ten years since, and again appropriated to the purposes of divine worship. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Secession, Independents, Wesleyans, and Swedenborgians; and an episcopal chapel, erected in 1840 from a design by Mr. Angus. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with an allowance of £16 in lieu of house and garden, and the fees average £25 per annum. The Alloa academy was erected in 1824, by subscription, and for some few years, a salary was received by the rector, whose present income is derived solely from the fees, of which a portion is paid to an assistant; the course of studies is extensive, and the fees vary from 5s. to 11s. 6d. per quarter. In repairing the road, in 1828, about 20 sepulchral urns, of Roman pottery, were found, containing burnt bones, placed in an inverted position, on a flagstone; also two stone coffins, about 3 feet in length, in each of which was a pair of bracelets, of pure gold, highly polished, but without ornament, one pair of which was purchased from the workmen, by Mr. Drummond Hay, and deposited in the Antiquarian Museum, Edinburgh. Several Roman coins have been discovered in different parts of the parish; and a few years since, a brass coin was dug up, having the letters S.C. on the one side, and on the other, the legend "Augustus Tribunus." About a mile to the east of the town, is an ancient upright stone called the Cross, near which, about 40 years since, human bones were found, and a coffin of flagstones, 3 feet in length, on which were cut two small figures of the cross.

Almond-Bank

ALMOND-BANK, a village, in the parish of Methven, county of Perth; containing 245 inhabitants. The population is engaged principally in the public works on the river Almond; and a portion finds employment in a hand-loom weaving establishment at Woodend, in the vicinity of the village. There is a flourishing unendowed school here, the teacher of which is nominated by the patron of the parish, who, with some other persons, makes a contribution for his support. In digging a trench in the neighbourhood, the skull of an animal was recently discovered, supposed to be of the ox tribe, which existed wild in Scotland some centuries ago; it measured, from between the centre of the horns to the nose, two feet four inches, and the horns were sixteen inches in circumference, in their thickest part. The curiosity fell to the possession of the late Lord Lynedoch.

Alness

ALNESS, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 9 miles (N. E. by N.) from Dingwall; containing 1269 inhabitants, of whom 202 are in the village. This parish, which takes its name from two Gaelic words signifying a "burn," or small river, and a "point," is about 20 miles in extreme length, and 5 in average breadth. It is bounded on the north by Kincardine parish; on the south by the Cromarty Frith, which is here 2 miles broad; on the east by the parish of Rosskeen, from which it is separated by the river of Alness; and on the west by Kiltearn, from which it is separated by the river Auldgrande. The surface, towards the Frith, is for the most part flat, but, in the northern part, mountainous and wild; the climate is dry and salubrious, and the general appearance of the parish is pleasing, being well-wooded, and presenting an agreeable variety of moor and well-cultivated land. In the northern quarter, are two fresh-water lochs, one of which, called Mary, is distinguished both for its great depth and the lofty and abrupt mountain scenery in its vicinity; the salmon and salmon-trout taken in the Frith and rivers, are of very superior quality, and would be numerous were it not for the illegal depredations committed during the interdicted season. The chief rock in the parish is the old red sandstone; immense boulders of granite and gneiss are seen in different places, especially in the moorland districts, and some iron-ore has also been discovered, about 5 miles from the Frith, embedded in a gneiss rock. The only village is Alness, which is nearly equally divided between this and the neighbouring parish of Rosskeen, by the river of Alness; in the Rosskeen portion, a market is held for the sale of cattle, monthly. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dingwall and synod of Ross; the family of M'Kenzie, of Cromarty, are patrons, and the minister's stipend is £230. 19. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The church, which was built in 1780, is in good condition, and holds 800 people. A Free Church place of worship has been just erected. The parochial school affords instruction in every branch of education; the master has a salary of £34, with £20 fees. There is also a school supported by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, of which the teacher has a salary of £15, and land valued at £5 per annum, with the school-fees. Another is maintained by the funds raised under the auspices of the General Assembly, and its master receives a salary of £20, and has a house, and a small piece of ground. At Multivie, in the parish, two cairns were opened some years since, and found to contain human bones of a remarkably large size.

Altivaig

ALTIVAIG, a small island, in the parish of Kilmuir, county of Inverness. It is one of several islets extending from Aird point, southward, to Ru-na-Braddan, on the north-eastern coast of the Isle of Skye, and is about two miles in circumference, and very fertile; it has a harbour, with good ground for anchorage, but from being open to the North Sea, it is judged to be unsafe. The soil is appropriated to the pasturage of sheep.

Alva

ALVA, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Stirling; containing 2216 inhabitants, of whom 2092 are in the village. The name of this place, the orthography of which has successively passed through the different forms of Alueth, and Alvath, or Alveth, to that of Alva, is of Gaelic origin, and is supposed to be derived from the term Ailbheach, signifying "rocky," and to have been applied to this spot, as descriptive of the general character of its hills. The parish is locally situated in Clackmannanshire, and formerly belonged to that county, by which it is bounded on all sides except the north, where it touches Perthshire; but, after the beginning of the 17th century, it was annexed to the county of Stirling, though four miles distant from its nearest point, to which it has since been united in all respects, till associated, for political purposes, under the Reform act, to its ancient shire. It comprises about 4120 acres, of which 867 are arable, 3072 natural pasture, including 140 or 150 acres of cultivated grass, and 181 are wood. The lands, on the north, consist principally of the Alva hills, which constitute the most interesting and beautiful portion of the Ochil range, forming here a rich mineral district, traversed in all directions by large flocks of sheep, and ornamented with numerous cascades. At the base of these lofty elevations, commences a valley, a part of which, stretching towards the south, covers the rest of the parish, and is replete with richly diversified and highly picturesque scenery, embracing, at its margin, the river Devon, which runs along the boundary of the parish in this direction, and contains, like most of the burns, abundance of excellent trout. The most lofty of the Ochils, Bencloch, or Bencleugh, rises 2420 feet above the Devon, and is situated at the north-eastern extremity of the parish, commanding, from its summit, not only fine views of local scenery, but, in the distant prospect, the whole Grampian range, with part of thirteen counties, and their villages and towns.

The soil has several varieties; that in the vicinity of the Devon, which overflows its banks two or three times in the year, is a rich, sandy, alluvial earth, of great depth, and forming what is termed haugh land. Next to this, northerly, is a strong clay, after which follows a tract of moss, from 50 to 100 yards broad, and, in some parts, 7 feet deep; and the remaining portion of the arable ground, extending to the hills, is a rich hazel mould, mixed occasionally with gravel and small stones. The system of agriculture is in a highly improved state; the crops consist of wheat, oats, barley, peas, beans, clover, potatoes, and turnips, and a small portion of ground is annually planted with woad for dyeing. The hills belong to the trap formation, and contain heavy spar, onyx, and, among many other pebbles, that called the Ochil eye, which is said to be peculiar to this range. The chief celebrity of the parish, however, as a mineralogical district, has arisen from its treasure of silver ore, which was discovered and worked, between the years 1710 and 1715, by Sir John Erskine, who is said to have derived from it £4000 per week, and an aggregate of £40,000 or £50,000, the material being so pure as to afford 12 oz. of silver from 14 oz. of ore. Attempts to obtain the precious metal were afterwards renewed, in 1759, by a branch of the same family, who had purchased the barony, when veins were discovered of lead, copper, iron, and cobalt; but the silver was found in such small portions, that the pursuit was abandoned, and the cobalt being so plentiful, and of such good quality, was worked extensively, and has since proved a source of considerable wealth to the different proprietors. The woods and plantations are so extensive and beautiful that they form a prominent feature in the scenery, and invest this place with a peculiarly sylvan appearance, especially when contrasted with the surrounding country. Woodhill, elevated 1620 feet above the lowest ground, is shrouded with almost every description of rich foliage, for more than two-thirds of the ascent, the plantations around the base comprising oak, elm, ash, beech, and larch, with various species of pine, planted by Sir John Erskine. Those on the east and west sides of the hill were planted by Lord Alva, and subsequent proprietors of the mansion of Alva, which is on a projecting part of the eminence, and commands very extensive prospects. The old mansion of the Stirlings, of Calder, in Clydesdale, who possessed originally these estates, and afterwards of the Erskines, was enlarged and modernised in 1820; it is surrounded by elegantly laid-out grounds, interspersed with stately ashtrees and several venerable oaks, and the road to the village church, about a mile distant, is through an avenue of richly verdant foliage.

The village, which is of considerable extent, but of very irregular form, having been built at different periods, and increased by cottages and houses erected on ground leased under Sir John Erskine and Lord Alva, has been doubled in size within the last fifty years; it has been known for its manufacture of serges, ever since the latter part of the 17th century. A woollen-mill was first established in 1801; the number of mills has now increased to eight, besides many smaller works, and the present articles wrought are, plaidings, blanketings, and coarse stuffs, those of chequered cassimeres, carpets, shawls, and trowser-cloths having more recently been added. The quantity of wool annually consumed is about 480,000 pounds, chiefly from the Cheviot sheep; and in the manufacture of these articles, which are sold at Stirling, Perth, and Edinburgh, but chiefly at Glasgow, about 560 persons are employed. The parish is in the presbytery of Stirling and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of James Johnstone, Esq.; the minister's stipend is £157. 5. 4., with a manse, and a glebe, valued at £27 per annum. The church was formerly mensal, and belonged to the bishoprie of Dunkeld; the edifice was built in 1632, by Alexander Bruce, then proprietor of Alva, and was entirely rebuilt in 1815, at the expense of James Raymond Johnstone, Esq., with seats for 586 persons, and is at present in very good repair. The cups for the communion service were made from the silver found in the parish, and presented by Lord Alva, in 1767. The parochial school is situated in the village; the master has a salary of £29. 18. 10., and £28 fees. The only antiquities are, several large stones supposed to be Druidical. The hawk used formerly in sporting, of the species falco peregrinus, is a native of this parish, and has nestled, from time immemorial, in a lofty perpendicular rock called Craigleith: from this place, Mary, Queen of Scots, procured falcons, after her arrival from France, and a short time since, a pair of these birds were sent by the proprietor of Alva, to the Duke of St. Alban's, king's falconer in England.

Alvah

ALVAH, a parish, in the county of Banff, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Banff; containing 1407 inhabitants. The origin of the name of this place, which, in different records, is variously spelled, is altogether involved in obscurity; but authentic sources of information still remain, throwing light on the apportionment of its lands, in early times, to several distinguished families; and in 1314, a charter was granted by Marjory, relict of John, Earl of Atholl, and Lord Strath-Alveth, conveying the patronage of the kirk, with considerable property here, to the abbot of Cupar. The parish, from which that of Forglen was disjoined, prior to the middle of the 17th century, is situated near the north-eastern extremity of the county, separated from the Moray Frith by only a small intervening portion of the parish of Banff, and is bounded on the east by the shire of Aberdeen, where the line of division is very nearly marked by the course of the river Doveran. It comprises 11,133 acres, of which 6955 are cultivated, 3428 waste and pasture, and 750 wood, and exhibits throughout an uneven and rugged surface, occasionally marked by lofty elevations, among which the hills of Alvah and Maunderlea are the most conspicuous, the former rising 578, and the latter 738, feet above the sea. The scenery in the western and south-western portions, is dreary and wild, and takes its character chiefly from the numerous eminences connected with the Hill of Maunderlea, which stretches in a northerly direction from the parish of Marnoch. In the other parts it possesses great picturesque beauty, being ornamented by the silvery meanderings of the Doveran, and the lofty and majestic hill of Alvah, which, rising from the midst of rich and well cultivated lands surrounding its base, displays a profusion of sylvan beauty on its sloping sides, and commands, from its tabular summit, diversified views in several directions. The Doveran, being, in one place, impeded by a rocky barrier stretching from east to west, takes a curve for about a mile, when, meeting with an outlet through a chasm, the precipitous sides of which are united by a massive arch, erected in 1772, by the late Earl of Fife, it resumes its former direction, and passes through some very bold and romantic scenery. The sides of the rocky chasm, after expanding themselves, form a lofty acclivity on each side of the intermediate basin, and, rising like the walls of a majestic amphitheatre, about 100 feet above the stream, exhibit a grotesque and imposing assemblage of shrubs, trees, and mosses.

The soil, in the eastern part of the parish, through which the river takes its course, consists of an alluvial loam of considerable depth, incumbent upon blue clay containing admixtures of clay-slate, and in the remaining portion of the lower grounds, the earth rests upon a coarse diluvial clay, mixed in some places with ferruginous sand, shingles, and occasionally boulders. In the higher grounds, it has a subsoil frequently of a very sandy nature, much interspersed with shingles, and pieces of greywacke slate and other rocks. The annual average amount of produce is £19,800, of which upwards of £10,000 are derived from oats, and the remainder from turnips, potatoes, hay, and pasture, and a small quantity of bear and barley. The cattle are of the Aberdeenshire breed, or approximating very closely to it; but, within the last few years, the Teeswater, or short-horned, have been introduced upon several of the best farms, where they thrive well, and are often used for a cross with the native cow. Within the present century, considerably more than 2000 acres of waste have been improved, a large portion of which was covered with furze and heath; and fenny or boggy grounds have also been reclaimed to a great extent, by draining. Lime is employed for manuring the lands, and bone-dust has been recently applied, in soils adapted to it, with great advantage. The rocks consist principally of clay-slate and greywacke; the latter is succumbent, and interlined with thin veins of quartz, and the line of bearing, with a trifling variation, is from north-east to south-west, dipping to the north-west. The angle of elevation of the clay-slate varies, and increases from the low grounds, where the rock is almost horizontal, till it arrives at nearly a perpendicular, towards the top of the hill of Alvah. The plantations, including about 300 acres formed in the course of the present century, contain mostly Scotch fir and larch, among which are trees of beech, ash, oak, elm, plane, &c. The chief mansion is, the House of Montblairy, built in 1791, and since repaired and considerably enlarged, situated on the west side of the Doveran, on a sloping bank, in the midst of thriving and beautiful plantations, and containing a gallery of fine portraits of illustrious individuals. Dunlugas, about half a mile distant, on the opposite bank of the river, was erected in 1793, of granite, and is a spacious structure, ornamented with a lawn in front, stretching to the margin of the river, and embellished with several lofty trees; the back-ground, with its plantations of thriving and sable firs, furnishing a striking contrast to the surrounding scenery. The parish contains six meal-mills, a malt-mill, a lint-mill, and thirty-one threshing-mills, the last of which have been erected during the last thirty years: and a distillery, built about fifteen years since, on the estate of Montblairy, at an expense of £4000, was till lately in full operation, and capable of producing 40,000 gallons of spirits annually.

The parish is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Sir Robert Abercromby, Bart.; the stipend of the minister is £178. 15. 5., and there is a manse, built in 1764, and repaired in 1815, with a glebe containing between 6 and 7 acres, valued at about £25 per annum. The church is a plain edifice, erected in 1792. There is a parochial school, the master of which gives instruction in Latin, occasionally in Greek and French, and in all the ordinary branches of education; he has a salary of £30, in addition to the fees, with a house, and a portion of the Dick bequest. The antiquities are few and unimportant, consisting chiefly of several cairns and Druidical circles, not of sufficient consideration to merit notice. The ruins of the ancient castle, which formerly stood near Montblairy, and is supposed to have been built by one of the Stewarts, earls of Buchan, are no longer visible; and those of the old chapel, near the same spot, have been removed of late years. On the estate of Sandlaw, and in several other places, large trees have been found, at a great depth below the surface; and memorials of the ancient cultivation of the soil, may be traced over about 1000 acres of land, at present the poorest in the district. Alvah is celebrated for its fine springs, the principal of which, called Comes-well, and mentioned by that name in a charter more than 500 years old, discharges twenty-seven gallons per minute of water almost as clear as that produced by distillation; and there are also several chalybeates, the most famed of which are, the Red Gill well at Brownside Hill, and a spring on the hill-head of Montblairy. Dr. George Chapman, author of a treatise on education, was born here in 1723; and Major-Gen. Andrew Hay, who fell on the 14th of April, 1814, at Bayonne, in the fifty-second year of his age, and to whose memory a monument was erected in St. Paul's Cathedral, at the public expense, was a resident.

Alves

ALVES, a parish, in the county of Elgin, 5 miles (W.) from Elgin, on the road to Inverness; containing, with the hamlets of Coltfield and Crook, 913 inhabitants. This parish, which is about 5 miles long, and of nearly the same breadth, and contains about 12,000 acres, is bounded on the north by the parish of Duffus, the Moray Frith, and part of Kinloss; by the hill of Pluscarden on the south; by New Spynie on the east; and by Kinloss and Rafford on the west. The surface is slightly diversified with hill and dale, and consists of pasture and arable land, with a considerable quantity of wood, though but little water. The soil, in general, is a deep rich loam, upon a clay bottom, though, in some places, it is of a lighter quality; the land is portioned into 25 large farms, which are cultivated in the best manner, but about 100 acres consist of Scotch fir, and one-sixth part of the parish of new plantation. All kinds of produce are raised, and a great part of the grain is shipped at Burgh-Head, or Findhorn, and sold in the London market. The cattle are usually of a mixed breed between the Aberdeenshire and the Highland, with a few of the polled from Buchan; great improvements have been carried on, for some years past, in draining, making of extensive inclosures, recovering of mosses, and the erection of good farm-houses and offices. The rocks consist of freestone, of which quarries are regularly worked; there is a quarry supplying millstones, and in several places a considerable depth of peat-moss occurs. There are two mansion-houses; Milton-Brodie, an ancient edifice, at the west end of the parish, to which a handsome front has been recently added, greatly improving its appearance; and the house of Newton, a plain building, at the east end, with a pleasing lawn before it. The population are agricultural, and live, for the most part, in groups of houses; the fuel formerly in use was peat, but the cutting of it has been recently prohibited, and at present great efforts are made by the poor to obtain English coal, cargoes of which are imported from Sunderland, and landed at Burgh-Head and Findhorn. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Elgin and synod of Moray; the Earl of Moray is patron, and the minister's stipend is £ 215. 1. 8., with a good manse, recently built, and having convenient offices and garden, and a glebe of four acres of land, worth £9 a year. The church, built in 1769, is a long narrow edifice, containing sittings for 590 persons. There is a place of worship in connexion with the Free Church; also a parochial school, of which the master teaches Latin, Greek, and the mathematics, in addition to the ordinary branches of education, and has a salary of £34. 4. Another school is maintained by subscription; and a parochial library is supported, which contains about 200 volumes.

Alvie

ALVIE, a parish, in the district of Badenoch, county of Inverness, 9 miles (N. E.) from Kingussie; containing, with part of the quoad sacra parish of Insh, 972 inhabitants, of whom 73 are in the village of Lynchat. This place is supposed to have derived its name, signifying the "Isle of swans," from the situation of its ancient church on a peninsula, in the north-west extremity of the parish, formed by Loch Alvie, which, from time immemorial, has been frequented by numbers of that aquatic fowl. The parish, which is intersected by the river Spey, extends for nearly twenty miles in length, from north to south, including the outline of the hills which terminate in the Grampian range; and varies from two to six miles in breadth, from east to west. It is calculated to comprise about 84 square miles, or 53,600 acres, of which 2574 are arable, 1842 meadow and pasture, and the remainder, exclusively of some large tracts of wood and plantations, moorland and waste. The surface is generally high, that portion of the strath of Badenoch which is within the parish having an elevation of nearly 650 feet; and is diversified with numerous hills and mountains, of which the Grampians, forming the southern boundary, rise to the height of 4500 feet above the sea, and those on the north-west boundary, though of inferior elevation, attain a very considerable height.

The river Spey, which rises in the braes of Badenoch, near Lochaber, flows through the parish, in a direction nearly from west to east; and the small river Feshie falls into the Spey, near the church; salmon are sometimes taken in the Spey. Loch Alvie is about a mile in length, and half a mile in breadth; the average depth is about 11 fathoms, and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly picturesque. The Soil is generally light and gravelly, with the exception of the meadow-lands on the banks of the Spey, which are luxuriantly rich; the chief crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips, with the various grasses. The system of husbandry has been gradually improving, and, on some of the larger farms, is in a very advanced state; on the smaller farms, it has made comparatively little progress. There are very few inclosures, and the farm-buildings are of inferior order; little attention is paid to the rearing of live stock; the sheep are commonly of the black-faced, and the cattle of the Highland black breed. The hills and mountains are composed chiefly of gneiss, intersected with veins of granite and red porphyry; the granite occurs in two varieties; the white, which is preferred for building, and more easily dressed, and the red, which is harder and more durable. Limestone is quarried on the lands of Dunachton; and veins of lead are found in the gneiss at Tyncaim, and the burn of Raitts, on the lands of Belleville.

The principal seats are Belleville and Kinrara. The former is a spacious and elegant mansion, built after a design of the architect Adam, by James Macpherson, translator of Ossian's poems, and beautifully situated in a picturesque demesne, embellished with stately timber and thriving plantations; within a cluster of larches, is an obelisk of marble, erected to the memory of Mr. Macpherson, and on which is his bust, fine sculptured. Kinrara, a handsome mansion in the cottage style, built by the late Duchess of Gordon, and in which she resided, during the summer months, till her decease, is in a highly romantic and sequestered spot, about two miles from the church of Alvie. In the grounds, is a monument of granite, erected by the late duke, to the memory of the deceased, whose remains were brought from London, and interred, at her own request, in a spot which she had selected; and on Tor Alvie, to the north-west of the cottage, is a monument erected by the present duke, to the officers of the 42nd and 92nd regiments who fell in the battle of Waterloo. At Lynviulg, about half a mile from the church, is a branch post-office; and facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-road from Edinburgh to Inverness, which passes through the whole length of the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray; the minister's stipend is £158. 4. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £5 per annum; patron, the Duke of Richmond. The church, situated on the shore of Loch Alvie, is a plain structure, built in 1798, and repaired in 1832, and contains 500 sittings. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £28. 18. 9., with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. in lieu of garden, and the fees average about £20 per annum. Another school, of which the master has a salary of £20, with £10 fees, is supported by the General Assembly. At Delfour, about a mile to the west of the church, are the remains of a Druidical temple, consisting of two concentric circles of upright stones, of which the inner circle is 25 feet, and the outer, which consists of larger stones, is 55 feet in diameter; near it is an obelisk, 8 feet 6 inches in height, and both are situated in the middle of an arable field which is under cultivation. At Raitts, are the remains of an artificial cavern, anciently the haunt of banditti.

Alyth

ALYTH, a parish, partly in the county of Forfar, but chiefly in that of Perth, 17 miles (N. W.) from Dundee; containing 2910 inhabitants, of whom 190 are in the county of Forfar, and 1846 in the village, which is a burgh of barony. This place appears to have derived its name, signifying, in the Gaelic language, an "ascent," from the gradually sloping eminence on which its ancient church, and the older portion of the village, are built. The most ancient document where its name occurs, is a charter of Alexander II., in 1232, granting the lands of Bamff, in the parish, to Nessus de Ramsay, ancestor of Sir James Ramsay, Bart., the present proprietor of that estate; the remainder of the lands belonged, for many generations, to the Lyndesays, earls of Crawford, till the year 1630, when they were purchased by the Ogilvy family. During the wars of the Covenanters, the army of the Marquess of Montrose was frequently stationed in the immediate neighbourhood; and during the siege of Dundee by General Monk, a meeting of the principal inhabitants, held in the village, to deliberate on the best means of defence, was surprised by a detachment of the English, who took many of the members prisoners. The parish is bounded on the south-east by the river Isla, and is about fifteen miles in length, and from one mile to six miles in breadth, comprising 34,160 acres, of which about 8100 are arable, 1070 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow and pasture land. The surface is diversified with ranges of hills, of which those of Alyth, Loyall, and Barry divide it into two unequal districts; the southern is in the valley of Strathmore, and the northern includes the forest of Alyth, and the Black-lunans, which last are in the county of Forfar. The height of the lands varies from 130 to nearly 1700 feet, ascending from the Isla to the summit of Mount Blair; the hill of Kingseat has an elevation of 1178 feet, and the hills of Alyth, Loyall, and Barry, rise about 700 feet above the sea. The principal rivers are, the Isla; the Ericht, a tributary of the Isla; and the burn of Alyth, which rises in the forest of that name, and falls into the Isla at Inverquiech, about two miles to the east of the village. Salmon occasionally ascend the river Isla, and trout are found in most of the streams, and in some, pike.

The soil is greatly diversified; on the level lands near the river, it is a deep rich black loam; in the Blacklunans district, a lighter, but fertile, loam; on the sides of the hills, a fine sharp gravelly soil, well adapted for oats, turnips, and potatoes; and in many parts, peat moss, and moor, of which a considerable portion might be brought into cultivation. The lands have been drained and inclosed, and much waste has been reclaimed; the farm-buildings, and the houses of the cottars, are substantial, and the lands near the Isla, which were exposed to frequent inundation, have been protected by embankments. The hills afford good pasture for sheep, of which from 2000 to 3000 are reared in the parish, all of the black-faced breed; the cattle, on the uplands, are of the native Angus breed, and, on the lower farms, a cross between the Angus and the Teeswater. The rocks are generally trap and conglomerate; and the principal substrata are, mica, and clay-slate, sandstone of the old red formation, with some small beds of a light grey colour, and a yellowish compact limestone, well adapted for building. The natural wood, of which but little remains, is birch, hazel, and alder; and the plantations, of which the greater part is of recent date, are larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, interspersed with various kinds of hard wood; but the larches are not in a thriving state. Bamiff House is a handsome mansion of great antiquity, with many modern additions and improvements, pleasantly situated about three miles from the village, in grounds commanding some fine views. Balhary, another seat, is a modern mansion, on a rising ground on the north bank of the Isla; and Jordanstone is also a handsome residence.

The village is on the burn of Alyth, and consists of several streets of good houses, of which those in the older part of it are of great antiquity; the inhabitants are well supplied with water, and there are three bridges of stone over the burn, of which the handsomest was recently built, by Sir James Ramsay, to improve the approach to Bamff House. Most of the population are employed in weaving coarse linen, for the manufacturers of Dundee, producing annually more than 10,000 webs, of 150 yards each; there is a fulling-mill in the village, and also at Inverquiech. The place was erected into a burgh of barony, in the reign of James III.; a baronial court is held on the first Tuesday in every month, under a baron bailie appointed by the Earl of Airlie, who is superior of the burgh, and a sytem of police has also been established. A market, well supplied with provisions, was formerly held on Tuesday; and fairs for sheep and cattle, are held on the Tuesday after the second Thursday in March; the second Tuesday, and the 25th, of June; the last Tuesday in July; the Tuesday before the 10th of October; the first Tuesday and Wednesday, and the Tuesday after the 11th, of November; and the second Tuesday in December; all O. S. A post-office under that of Meigle has been established here; and facility of communication is maintained by good roads, kept in repair by statute labour, and by the Dundee and Newtyle railway. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns; the minister's stipend is £229. 19. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, situated in the village, is a handsome and spacious structure in the Norman style, built in 1839, from a design by Mr. Hamilton, and contains 1290 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Associate Synod, and Original Seceders, and a small Episcopal chapel. The parochial school was erected in 1835; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house, and an allowance in lieu of a garden, and the fees average £20 per annum. Five boys and five girls are instructed and clothed from a rent-charge of £30 on the Ballindoch estate. On Barry Hill are some remains of a Pictish encampment, and of a narrow bridge over the fosse by which it was surrounded; and on the south side of the hill are several upright stones, supposed to commemorate some warlike exploit. Stone coffins, containing human bones, have been dug up near them. At the influx of the burn of Alyth into the river Isla, are the ruins of the ancient castle of Inverquiech; and at Corb, on the south-west of the forest of Alyth, are the remains of a castle, probably a hunting-seat of the earls of Crawford. The place gives the title of Baron to the Earl of Airlie.

Amisfield

AMISFIELD, a village, in the parish of Tinwald, county of Dumfries, 5 miles (N. E.) from Dumfries; containing 140 inhabitants. This place, anciently Emsfield, was erected into a burgh of barony by Charles I., with a weekly market and fairs; at present, it consists merely of a few old thatched houses, which the proprietors are allowing to go to decay. Amisfield Castle, long the seat of the ancient family of Charteris, stands west of the high road from Dumfries to Edinburgh, and is a quadrangular building, having a high tower of picturesque appearance on the south-west, and a more modern erection, now the dwelling-house, on the east. Near the village are distinct vestiges of a Roman fort.

Amulrie

AMULRIE, a village and district, in the parish of Dull, county of Perth, 11 miles (N. by E.) from Crieff; containing 406 inhabitants. It is situated on the road between Crieff and Aberfeldy, and is watered by the small river Bran, which flows hence in a north-eastern direction, and falls into the Tay at Inver, opposite to Dunkeld. Here is a sub post-office; and an excellent inn, much frequented by visiters to the neighbouring lake of Freuchie, is distant about a mile and a quarter westward of the village. Fairs for cattle and sheep are held on the first Tuesday and Wednesday in May, and the Friday before the first Wednesday in November. There is a chapel in connexion with the Established Church, under the patronage of the Committee of the General Assembly; the minister has a stipend, paid from the royal bounty, of £65, including £5 for communion elements, with a house and garden, a few acres of land, and fuel.

Anabich

ANABICH, an island, in the parish of Harris, district of Lewis, county of Inverness; containing 41 inhabitants.

Ancrum

ANCRUM, a parish, in the district of Jedburgh, county of Roxburgh, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Jedburgh; containing 1407 inhabitants, of whom 499 are in the village. This place, of which the name, anciently Alnecrumb, is derived from the situation of its village on a bend of the river Alne, now the Ale, consisted formerly of two villages distinguished by the appellations of Over and Nether Ancrum, of the former of which nothing now remains. The principal event of historical importance is the battle of Ancrum Moor, which originated in an attempt made in 1545, by Sir Ralph Evers and Sir Bryan Layton, to possess themselves of the lands of the Merse and Teviotdale, which had been conferred upon them by a grant of Henry VIII., King of England. The Earl of Angus, who had considerable property in that district, determined to resist this attempt, and a battle between his forces and those of the English took place, on a moor about a mile and a half to the north of the village, in which the latter were defeated, with great loss. In this conflict, both the villages of Ancrum were burnt to the ground; the village of Nether Ancrum was soon afterwards rebuilt, but of the other nothing remains but the ruins of one or two dilapidated houses. The Parish comprises about 8400 acres, of which one-half is arable, 820 woods and plantations, and the remainder meadow and pasture; the surface is pleasingly undulated, rising in some parts into considerable eminences, and presenting a continued variety of level plains and sloping heights. The Teviot, which forms the southern boundary of the parish, and the river Ale, which traverses it from east to west, are the only rivers; the banks of the latter are highly picturesque in several parts of its course, rising in some points into precipitous masses of bare rugged rock, and in others overhung by rocks richly wooded; both the rivers abound with excellent trout, and are much frequented by anglers.

The soil is greatly varied; on the banks of the Teviot it is luxuriantly rich, and of great depth; in other parts of less fertility, and in some almost sterile. The chief crops are oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, turnips, peas, and beans; the system of agriculture is in an improved state; draining has been carried on to a considerable extent, and much of the inferior land has been rendered productive. Much attention is paid to the rearing of live stock, for which the pastures are well adapted; the sheep are mostly of the Leicestershire breed, and a cross between that and the Cheviot, and the cattle are all of the short-horned kind. The woods contain many stately trees, and the plantations are extensive and well managed. The principal substrata are, red and white freestone, which are both of good quality, and extensively wrought for the supply of the surrounding district. Ancrum House, the seat of Sir William Scott, Bart., is a spacious and venerable mansion, in an extensive and richly-wooded park, stocked with deer. Chesters is a handsome modern mansion, romantically situated at the mouth of a deep and thickly-wooded dell, on the bank of the Teviot; and Kirklands, in the later style of English architecture, is beautifully situated on a wooded height on the bank of the Ale, forming a strikingly picturesque object in the landscape. The village is on the south bank of the Teviot; facility of communication is maintained with Jedburgh and other market-towns in the vicinity, by good roads, and the turnpike-road from Edinburgh to Newcastle passes along the eastern boundary of the parish for several miles.

The parish is in the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; the stipend of the incumbent is £223. 16. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum; patron, Sir W. Scott. The church, which anciently belonged to the see of Glasgow, having been annexed to it on the dissolution of the abbey of Lindisfarn, was rebuilt in 1762, and is a neat and substantial edifice, adapted for about 520 persons. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £28. 15. fees, and a good house and garden. Till very lately, there were considerable remains of what were called the Maltan Walls, which inclosed an area of about an acre and a half; this is supposed to have been the site of a preceptory of the Knights of Malta, or St. John of Jerusalem, said to have been established here in the reign of David I.; and in the adjacent field, numerous human bones, and frequently entire skeletons, have been discovered by the plough. Within the area of the walls, were various vaults and subterraneous passages, apparently the foundations of the ancient building; but even those portions of the outer wall which alone were left standing have disappeared, and little but the site is now left. On the hill behind Ancrum House, are the remains of a circular fort, with a triple intrenchment; and in the parish are numerous caves, formed as places of retreat in times of danger, one of which was the favourite resort of the poet Thomson, and still bears his name. A monument has been raised over the tomb of Lilliard, a Scotch female who fell in the battle of Ancrum Moor, covered with wounds, while fighting with desperate valour, and was buried on the spot where she fell. The place confers the title of Earl on the Marquess of Lothian.

Anderston

ANDERSTON, a burgh, and lately a quoad sacra parish, consisting of part of Barony parish, in the suburbs of the city of Glasgow, county of Lanark, 1 mile (W.) from Glasgow; containing 3759 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its founder, Mr. John Anderston, of Stobcross, who, in 1725, formed the plan of a village, and divided the lands of one of his most unproductive farms into building lots, thus laying the foundation of a very considerable suburb to the city. It is on the north side of the river Clyde, and though of irregular form, and comparatively less modern appearance than others of the suburban districts, it contains many well-built and handsome houses; the lands to the north are chiefly garden-ground, and on the banks of the river are several pleasing villas, inhabited by some of the most opulent merchants of Glasgow. A considerable part of the population are employed in the cotton manufacture, in the iron-foundries, and in the production of machinery; many are mariners, belonging to the port, and there are several shops of various kinds, for the supply of the inhabitants.

The town was erected into a burgh of barony, by royal charter, in 1824, and the district, which includes parts of the lands of Stobcross, Gushet, Parsonscroft, and Rankenshaugh, is wholly within the parliamentary boundary of the city of Glasgow. The government is vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and eleven councillors, annually elected by the burgesses; the bailies and treasurer from the councillors, and the provost from the burgesses generally. The magistrates exercise civil jurisdiction in pleas not exceeding 40 shillings in amount, and criminal jurisdiction in all cases within the Police act; courts for the former are held weekly, or every alternate week, and for the latter four times in the week; in both of which, the town-clerk acts as assessor. The burgesses, on admission, pay a fee of £2. 2. The corporation have power to hold a weekly market and two annual fairs; the fairs were formerly held, but they have been discontinued. The parish was formed in 1834; the minister's stipend is £300, derived from the seat-rents, of which £80 are secured by bond. The church was originally built as a chapel of ease, in 1799, at a cost of £2500, raised by subscription, and has been subsequently repaired; it is a neat structure, and contains 1246 sittings, A school for this parish, and for that of St. Mark, has been erected at an expense of £1700, of which £850 were subscribed by the two parishes, and the remainder granted by the treasury; it is a spacious building, containing three schools, attended by 600 children paying very moderate fees. There is also a Free church.