Clairtown (St) - Corstorphine

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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Pages

200-218

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'Clairtown (St) - Corstorphine', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 200-218. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43427 Date accessed: 30 October 2014.


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Clairtown, St.

CLAIRTOWN, ST., a village, in the parish of Dysart, county of Fife, ½ a mile (E.) from Kirkcaldy; containing 1511 inhabitants. This village immediately adjoins that of Pathhead, with which it has become incorporated, and of which it forms the more modern portion, being separated only by the great road to Dundee. It is built upon the estate of Sinclair, the property of the Earl of Rosslyn, extending in one continued line for about a mile northwards. The inhabitants are chiefly weavers.—See Pathhead.

Clarebrand

CLAREBRAND, a hamlet, in the parish of Crossmichael, stewartry of Kirkcudbright; containing 54 inhabitants.

Clarencefield

CLARENCEFIELD, a village, in the parish of Ruthwell, county of Dumfries, 6½ miles (W. by N.) from Annan; containing 86 inhabitants. It is situated near the road between Dumfries and Cummertrees, and a short distance west of Ruthwell church. On each side of the village is a stream which discharges itself, at the distance of about a mile, into the Solway Frith.

Clarkston

CLARKSTON, late a quoad sacra parish, including the villages of Arden and Ballochney, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 1¼ mile (E.) from Airdrie; containing 4526 inhabitants. The parish was formed of the south-eastern portion of that of New Monkland and part of that of Shotts; it was seven miles in length, and three in breadth, lying chiefly along the south side of a pretty high dorse, which runs from west to east. The soil is in general a cold clay; in some parts is deep moss, and on the lands of Auchingray and Brownieside are considerable plantations. Agricultural improvement in this quarter has been much neglected, owing, in some measure, to the distance from which lime can be obtained, but chiefly to the attention of the proprietors of land having been turned to successful searches after minerals, by which large fortunes have been realised. Numerous iron-mines are now in operation, and the whole district abounds in coal. Contiguous to the village, are the Clarkston cotton, and Moffat paper, mills, and at the village of Gartness is an iron-rolling mill: the ores are forwarded to another parish to be manufactured. The Ballochney and Whiterigg railway runs along the north side of the district, which is also intersected by the middle road from Glasgow to Edinburgh. Besides the villages of Clarkston, Arden, and Ballochney, are five villages of considerable size, and many of smaller extent and more recent erection, for the accommodation of the miners and other work-people, of whom the increase of late years has been very great; and in various places are handsome seats and modern residences. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The church, which is of plain rubble workmanship, was erected in 1836–7, at a cost of about £1480; it contains 730 sittings, and is surrounded by a neat burial-ground. The stipend of the minister is £70, and the patronage is vested in the male communicants. There are four schools, built by masters of public works. In the east corner of the district, is the great reservoir for supplying the Clyde and Forth canal.

Clarkston

CLARKSTON, a village, in the parish of Cathcart, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Cathcart; containing 180 inhabitants. It lies on the south-western confines of the parish, and on the road from Eaglesham to Cathcart. In the village is a good school, chiefly frequented, from its contiguity to Busby, in the parish of Mearns, by the children of that place; the master has an endowment of £10 per annum, from the proprietors of the public works at Busby.

Clashnessie

CLASHNESSIE, a village, in the late quoad sacra parish of Stoer, parish of Assynt, county Sutherland, 13 miles (N. W. by W.) from Assynt; containing 194 inhabitants. This place is seated at the head of a small bay bearing its own name, and on a promontory in which are several lakes, and numerous indentations round the coast. On the north-east are Oldernay bay and island.

Clathy

CLATHY, a village, in the parish of Findogask, county of Perth, 4½ miles (N. N. E.) from Auchterarder; containing 120 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Dunning to Balgowan, and is the only village in the parish.

Clatt

CLATT, a parish, in the district of Alford, county of Aberdeen, 10 miles (S.) from Huntly; containing 524 inhabitants. The Gaelic word Cleith, or Cleit, signifying "concealed," appears to have given the name to this place, in consequence of its secluded situation, it being hidden from view on all sides. The parish is in the western extremity of the Garioch district, and measures about four miles in length, and from two to three in breadth, comprising 5130 acres, of which 2800 are under cultivation, 250 pasture, 200 wood, and the remainder waste and undivided common. It consists of an uninterrupted plain, with the exception of a portion of hilly ground on the north-west, and some rising grounds on the declivity of the Suie and Coreen hills, which bound it on the south, and belong to a mountain range extending from east to west, for more than twenty miles. The Water of Bogie separates the parish, on the north, from that of Rhynie; and it is also indebted, for a considerable relief to its generally uninteresting aspect, to the meandering course of the Gady stream, which, receiving numerous mountain rivulets, turns twelve threshing-mills and a meal-mill, within the distance of two miles, and, after traversing a well-cultivated country, falls into the Urie. The land which has been longest in cultivation consists of a rich, deep, loamy soil, lying on a bed of sand or rock; and the basis of most of the remaining portion of the best land is clay, appearing under various modifications, according to the manures which have been applied. The other parts comprise alluvial matter, with sand and clay, especially on the lands recovered by draining; light earth on sand or rock, in the higher grounds; and heath, moor, and peat-moss. Agriculture is carried on with all the modern improvements, and the quality of the soil generally is favourable to the production of rich and heavy crops; but a serious obstacle is presented by the deficiency of shelter, the parish having an elevation of 600 feet, and being in the vicinity of a mountain 1300 feet high. Great and successful efforts, however, have been made to advance husbandry to a high state of excellence, and within the last twenty years more than 300 acres of moss and moor have been reclaimed by extensive drainage; larch and Scotch fir have recently been planted on the hills along the southern boundary, and there are some on the lower grounds which present an agreeable appearance. The breed of cattle has been greatly improved, and is a cross between the native and the short-horned. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2940. Granite, whinstone, serpentine, and clay-slate, are the principal rocks, and, in many parts, are so near the surface as to render the expense of quarrying unnecessary. There is, however, a mine of rock composed of hornblende, quartz, and felspar; and near the mansion-house of Knockespoch, the residence of the principal heritor, a species of variegated marble has been discovered, but too soft and splintry for use.

The village of Clatt, beautifully ornamented with many old ash and plane trees, is a decayed burgh of barony, containing only a few houses. It received its erection from James IV., in 1501, with power to appoint bailies and other officers, and to hold fairs every year, and a weekly market, which latter has long since fallen into disuse, though some of the inhabitants remember the ancient cross. There are still fairs held at Whitsuntide and Martinmas, the former for the sale of sheep and black-cattle, and the hiring of servants, and the latter for grain, and as a feeing-market. The parish is in the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £158. 11. 4., of which about a seventh part is received from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £9 per annum. The church, which is a very ancient edifice, was thoroughly repaired and re-seated in 1828, and contains sittings for 290 persons. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin, book-keeping, mathematics, and all the usual branches; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 4., with a house, an allowance from Dick's bequest, and £10 fees. This parish was the scene of a fray, in 1572, between the rival clans of Forbes and Gordon, in which the latter slew Arthur Forbes, son of Lord Forbes, and commonly called Black Arthur from his dark complexion, and carried the pursuit to the gates of Castle-Forbes, now Druminnor, the family seat of the clan Forbes. Near the village is an eminence called "Gallows Knoll," the ancient place of execution.

Claybarns

CLAYBARNS, a village, in the parish of Newton, county of Edinburgh, ¼ of a mile (E. by S.) from Newton; containing 187 inhabitants. It lies east of the high road from Dalkeith to Edinburgh.

Clayhouse

CLAYHOUSE, a village, in the parish of Borthwick, county of Edinburgh, 2 miles (E. by N.) from Carrington; containing 84 inhabitants. It is in the northern part of the parish, a short distance east of the high road from Middleton to Cockpen, and derives its name from an ancient inn, built of clay, which stood by the way-side, and of which a part still remains, though materially altered. The village borders on a detached portion of Temple parish, and several cottages have lately been erected in the neighbourhood.

Clayslap

CLAYSLAP, a village, in the Barony parish, and within the jurisdiction of the city of Glasgow, in the county of Lanark. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the several works in the immediate vicinity.

Cleish

CLEISH, a parish, in the county of Kinross, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Kinross; containing, with the villages of Kelty and Maryburgh, 681 inhabitants. This place, of which the name is of uncertain derivation, is distinguished by its having formed part of the route taken by Mary, Queen of Scots, on her flight from the castle of Lochleven, which circumstance is commemorated by the insertion of a stone in a bridge at the eastern extremity of the parish, recording that event, and marking out the road. The parish is about six miles and a half in length, and one and a half in average breadth. The surface is diversified with hills, which form a continuous range between this parish and Dunfermline, and of which the highest is Dumglow, rising 1215 feet above the sea; the summit is flat, commanding an extensive view over the surrounding country, from almost every part of which it is a conspicuous object. The next in height are the hills called the Ingans, which are all more than 1000 feet in elevation. The chief stream is the Gairney, which, after forming the boundary of the parish for nearly five miles, falls into Loch Leven; it abounds with trout of a small size, and there are some smaller streams issuing from the lakes, and numerous springs of excellent water, affording an abundant supply. Of the several lakes, Loch Glow is two miles and a half in circumference, and the others of very inferior extent; the fish found in them are, pike, perch, eels, and a few trout. The scenery has been much improved by recent plantations, and there are some fine specimens of stately timber, some of which are of extraordinary growth; the slopes of several of the hills, and the summits of others, are finely planted. Blair-Adam, the seat of Sir Charles Adam, is a handsome residence, pleasantly situated.

The soil is much varied; in the lower grounds, clayey, intermixed with a little gravel; in other parts, of a lighter quality; with some portions of deep moss, which, when brought into cultivation, is extremely rich. The chief crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips, with various grasses, which grow luxuriantly in many parts; and the hills afford good pasture for sheep and cattle. Very important improvements have been made, by which a large extent of unprofitable land has been brought into cultivation; draining has been carried on with great spirit, and the system of husbandry is in a very forward state. Considerable attention is paid to the rearing of stock; the sheep pastured on the hills are generally of the black-faced breed, and those on the lower lands, of the Leicestershire breed; the cattle are the Kinross-shire, Angus, and Fifeshire. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5535. The principal substrata are, whinstone, greywacke, and sandstone, of which the hills are mostly composed; limestone is quarried, and coal is found here in seams of upwards of thirty feet in thickness. Whinstone is wrought for mending the roads, and there are extensive quarries of freestone; from one of the quarries, about 14,000 cubic feet are raised annually. At Blair-Adam, is a post-office, a branch of that of Kinross; and facility of communication with the neighbouring towns is maintained by good roads, of which the turnpike-roads from Queensferry and from Dunfermline to Kinross pass through the parish. Cleish is in the presbytery of Dunfermline and synod of Fife, and patronage of Harry Young, Esq.; the minister's stipend is £156. 15. 4., of which about a half is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum. The old church, erected in 1744, was accidentally destroyed by fire in 1832, and the present church, erected in its place, is a handsome edifice, adapted for a congregation of 500 persons. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with £26 fees, and a house and garden.

Clettisle

CLETTISLE, in the parish of Assynt, county of Sutherland. It is situated on the western coast of the county, and is a high rock, considerably above the greatest tide and surge, and, except in one or two places, is of difficult access. Its form is somewhat round, and on its summit is excellent herbage.

Cleughbrae

CLEUGHBRAE, a hamlet, in the parish of Mousewald, county of Dumfries, 6 miles (E. by S.) from Dumfries; containing 53 inhabitants. It is on the high road from Annan to Dumfries.

Clifton

CLIFTON, a village, in the late quoad sacra parish of Strathfillan, parish of Killin, county of Perth; containing 159 inhabitants. It lies in the north-western portion of the parish, near Tyndrum, and is a small place, formerly occupied by miners employed in working a lead-mine in the vicinity.

Climpy

CLIMPY, a small hamlet, in the parish of Carnwath, county of Lanark, 7 miles (N.) from Carnwath. This place, situated in a coal district, in the northern part of the parish, is inhabited by persons employed in the collieries. There was formerly a chapel, which is fallen into decay, and the cottages are in a ruinous state.

Closeburn

CLOSEBURN, a parish, in the county of Dumfries; containing 1530 inhabitants, of whom 123 are in the village, 2½ miles (S. S. E.) from Thornhill. This place, anciently called Kill-Osburn, from Cella Osburni, was formerly remarkable for its very ancient castle, which belonged, for many centuries, together with the parish, to the family of Kirkpatrick. By a charter in the possession of a branch of this family, it appears that Ivon de Kirkpatrick obtained a confirmation of the lands, granted to his ancestors by Alexander II., in 1232. The parish of Closeburn was afterwards annexed to the abbey of Holyrood House, and the parish of Dalgarno, now included within the limits of Closeburn, to the abbey of Kelso; but the family of Kirkpatrick possessed the patronage of both churches, as well as the larger part of the lands. In the year 1606, these churches were united by the General Assembly, held at Linlithgow, in which union they continued till 1648, when they were disjoined, and so remained until 1697, when Dalgarno was again annexed to Closeburn.

The parish is ten miles in extreme length, and seven and a half in extreme breadth, and contains 30,189 acres. One of its principal features is the valley of Closeburn, situated in the mountain range, composed chiefly of transition rock, which runs across the island from the German to the Atlantic Ocean. The surface of the parish gradually rises from the western extremity, till it attains its highest elevation at the north-eastern boundary, at which part Queensberry hill, one of the highest in the south of Scotland, and sometimes called the Queen of Hills, rises 2140 feet above the level of the sea. The land in the western and midland districts is chiefly in tillage; but there are considerable plantations towards the east and north, and in this direction the high grounds consist of extensive moors, unfit for the plough, though affording good pasture for sheep. The river Nith runs along the south-western, and the Cample along the western, boundary of the parish; and among the numerous smaller streams, the most distinguished is the Crickup, which, falling over a precipice ninety feet high, forms the celebrated cascade known by the name of "Grey mare's tail." The course of this stream is beautified by much bold and romantic scenery, especially at Crickup Linn, a second fall, where the stream, running through old worn massive rocks, and shrouded from the eye in its passage by rich and varied foliage, presents a singularly interesting scene, which the author of Waverley has compared to the retreat of Balfour of Burleigh, in Lanarkshire.

Along the river Nith the soil is a fine rich loam; higher up, it is a sandy gravel to the depth of twenty feet, well adapted to barley and turnips; and as the ground further rises, it is of the same nature, but strong and deep, with a mixture of clay, which feature it retains till it reaches the high land. About 5683 acres are under tillage, and 23,006 in pasture; the natural woods and plantations cover about 1500 acres. All kinds of grain are produced, with green crops; the cattle consist of the Galloway and Ayrshire breeds, to the raising of which great attention is paid, and the sheep are of the short black-faced breed. A lime rock was discovered many years ago, of great extent, of which advantage was taken by the proprietor of the parish, who applied the contents of it so plentifully, that very large quantities of sterile ground, much of which was moor, was brought into cultivation; and from this period the inhabitants date the rise of their present flourishing system of husbandry. A plantation of ninety acres was recently cut down, consisting of Scotch fir sixty years old, and was disposed of for £10,000; the soil upon which it grew was poor and sandy, and not worth sixpence per acre when the trees were planted. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,873. The rocks consist of greywacke, limestone, and old red sandstone. The limestone quarry consists of two distinct beds of different qualities, separated from each other by about eighteen feet of impure limestone; the upper bed is of too caustic a nature for the soil, but the under bed is wrought, and supplies an immense quantity of lime manure. Closeburn Hall, the seat of Sir Charles Stuart Menteath, Bart., is a spacious structure after the Grecian style, and situated in one of the most beautiful valleys in the south of Scotland. There are two turnpike-roads, one of which connects Annandale with Nithsdale, and the other forms a part of the great road from Carlisle to Glasgow, by Dumfries, and, at a distance of four miles northward, has a branch to Edinburgh. The Ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Penpont and synod of Dumfries; patron, Sir Charles Menteath. There is a substantial and commodious manse, with a glebe of 11 acres, valued at £19 per annum; the minister's stipend is £234. 19. 3. The church was built in 1741, and has, within these few years, been thoroughly repaired; it is a handsome building, conveniently situated, and will accommodate 650 persons with sittings. The principal school, which is of some eminence, is a free school, conducted by a rector and assistants. It was endowed in 1723, by John Wallace, Esq., a native of the parish, and a wealthy Glasgow merchant, who left £1600, part of which was to be appropriated to the erection of premises, and the remainder to be invested in land for the master's salary, which at the present time amounts to £500 a year. In this valuable institution, called Wallace Hall from the name of its founder, the children of the parish may obtain gratuitous instruction in Greek, Latin, book-keeping, and all the ordinary branches of education. The chief relic of antiquity is the castle, which is a vaulted quadrilateral tower, about fifty feet high, thirty-three long, and forty-five broad; the walls of the ground-floor are twelve feet thick, and it is conjectured, from the general style of the building, that it must be 800 years old. There are also several large cairns in the parish.

Clova

CLOVA, county Forfar.—See Cortachy.

Clunie

CLUNIE, a parish, in the county of Perth, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Blairgowrie; containing 763 inhabitants. This place, which is of remote antiquity, is distinguished as the scene of a battle between the Caledonians and the Romans under Agricola. In a field near the Hill of Gourdie, are still remaining several mounds, in a parallel direction, separated by trenches of equal length, called the "Steeds Stalls;" and here the advanced guard of the Caledonian army was posted to watch the movements of the Roman army, which was encamped on the plains of Inchtuthill, about two miles to the south. There are also, in several places, numerous cairns and tumuli, which are generally supposed to have been raised over the bodies of those who fell in the engagement. On the summit of an eminence to the west of Loch Clunie, called the Castle Hill, are some vestiges of a very ancient structure, said to have been a summer palace of Kenneth Mc Alpine, King of the Scots. He conquered the Picts, and united the two kingdoms, the respective boundaries of which are pointed out by two immense heaps of stones, one in the north-west, and the other in the north-east of the parish. The barony anciently belonged to the see of Dunkeld; and about the commencement of the sixteenth century, an episcopal palace was erected on an island in Loch Clunie, by Bishop Brown, who died in 1514. This, together with the barony, now the property of the Earl of Airlie, was granted by Bishop Crichton, about the time of the Reformation, to his brother, Sir Robert Crichton, of Elliock Castle, in the county of Dumfries, whose son, the Admirable Crichton, is supposed to have been born at this place.

The parish, which is intersected by an intervening portion of that of Caputh, is about nine miles in length, and four in extreme breadth, and is supposed to contain about 8000 acres, of which nearly 3000 are arable, and the remainder moss, heath, and mountain pasture. The surface is mountainous, interspersed with considerable tracts of low ground, watered by numerous small streams. The highest of the mountains is Benachally, which, in a clear state of the atmosphere, commands extensive and beautifully varied prospects; on the north side are the remains of the forest of Clunie, said to have been a royal forest, and at its base is the loch of Benachally, about a mile in length, and half a mile broad. Higher up among the hills is the small lake of Lochnachat, which, like the former, abounds with excellent trout; and about four miles to the south is the beautiful Loch Clunie, about two miles and a half in circumference, and eighty-four feet in extreme depth. In it are found trout from two to ten pounds in weight, pike from twelve to twenty-four pounds, and perch and eels of large size and excellent quality. Near the western shore of this lake is the island on which the ancient palace was built, the walls of which are nine feet in thickness; it is in good preservation, and occasionally the residence of the Earl of Airlie. The island, which is a fine verdant plain, embellished with plantations, among which are some trees of venerable growth, is mostly artificial; and in addition to the palace, now Clunie Castle, are the site and some slight remains of an ancient chapel.

The soil is various, and, though light and gravelly in many parts, produces abundant crops of oats, barley, and wheat, with peas and potatoes of excellent quality; the system of agriculture is improved. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5706. The plantations have been greatly increased in extent, and are generally thriving; they consist chiefly of larch, and spruce and Scotch firs, and many of the lands previously covered with heath and furze, are now embellished with well-grown trees. Limestone is found on the lands of Gourdie, and is wrought for manure, there are also some quarries of freestone and slate. Forneth, a seat in the parish, on the north-west bank of Loch Clunie, is beautifully situated on an eminence, at the base of which the Lunan flows into the lake. Gourdie is a spacious mansion, on high ground a little to the south of the lake, commanding a rich prospect over the surrounding country. Williamsburgh is the only village of any importance; the inhabitants are partly employed in hand-loom weaving during the winter. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £173, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £6 per annum; patrons, the Duke of Atholl and the Earl of Airlie, alternately. The church, erected in 1840, at the expense of the heritors, is a handsome structure in the later English style, with an embattled tower crowned by turrets at the angles, and contains 600 sittings. A place of worship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. The parochial school is attended by about forty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and an allowance in lieu of garden. There is a parochial library, supported by subscription. On the eastern acclivity of the mountain of Benachally, is a large cavern called the Drop, from the roof of which water is perpetually dropping; and at the base of the mountain, is a sepulchral cairn, to the south of which are numerous smaller cairns. To the north of a hill named Stanley Know, is some rising ground called Gallow Drum; and near the glebe land is another, styled Gibbet Know: both are supposed to have been places of execution during the feudal times.

Cluny

CLUNY, a parish, in the district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 15 miles (W. by N.) from Aberdeen; containing 959 inhabitants. The name of this place, signifying, in Gaelic, meadows interspersed with rising grounds, is descriptive of the appearance of the locality. The parish is about ten miles, from east to west, in length, and about two in breadth; the soil is mostly warm and dry, and the lands are intersected by several rivulets, some of them of considerable size, flowing in different directions, from the surrounding hills, and sometimes overflowing the adjacent low grounds. In the western part is a mountain called the forest of Corranie, forming the boundary of the parish, and which, though now destitute of wood, was formerly, it is said, remarkable for a profusion of it. The rent of land averages thirteen shillings per acre; agricultural improvements have been for a considerable time steadily advancing, and the generally level surface is favourable to the operations of husbandry. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4425. The gentlemen's seats comprise the handsome castle of Cluny, Castle-Fraser, and the recently built mansion-house of Linton; the second was erected in the beginning of the fifteenth century, and many improvements have been carried into effect by the respective proprietors. The produce of the parish is usually sent to Aberdeen, the Skene and Alford turnpike-road passing through, and affording facility for its transit. Many of the inhabitants were formerly employed in the knitting of stockings. The parish is in the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen; and the Crown, the proprietor of Cluny, and the proprietor of Castle-Fraser, are alternate patrons, the first exercising patronage on account of half of the old parish of Kinnerny having been annexed to Cluny in 1743. The minister's stipend is £173. 16. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church is a plain substantial edifice, erected in lieu of the former building, which had become ruinous, in 1789. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary branches; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 4., with an allowance for a garden, and £14 fees: he also shares in the Dick bequest, and receives the interest of £200, left by Mr. Robertson, for teaching eight poor children.

Clydesdale

CLYDESDALE.—See Lanarkshire.

Clyne

CLYNE, a parish, in the county of Sutherland, 6 miles (N. E.) from Golspie; containing, with the village of Brora, 1765 inhabitants. This parish is about twenty-four miles in length, from north-west to south-east, and from six to eight in breadth, and contains 65,000 acres; it is bounded on the south-east by the German Ocean. The surface, in the well-cultivated district along the coast, is tame, but, in other parts, greatly diversified, comprising the most prominent and characteristic features of Highland scenery. The glens and lakes, adorned with natural woods and plantations, as seen from the vicinity of Killean, which also commands a prospect of the abrupt precipices overhanging Loch Brora, and the lofty mountains of Ben-Clibrig, BenOrmin, and Ben-Horn, are among the finest portions of this secluded district. Beyond Strath-Brora, however, about nine miles from the coast, the general aspect of the scenery becomes bleak and heathy, with extensive tracts of moor and moss, intersected by numerous rivulets, and lofty ranges of hills. The coast, in general, is low and sandy, and marked by a ridge of sand hills, covered, in the more abrupt parts, with bent, and in the others, with tolerably good pasture. The river Brora, the principal stream, is celebrated for salmon of a superior size and flavour; it has its source in the forest of Ben-Clibrig, and, after a winding course of thirty miles, within the parish, discharges itself into the sea at Brora. The largest sheet of water is Loch Brora, which is about four miles long, and varies from a quarter to half a mile in breadth; its banks are clothed with several clumps of natural wood, and extensive plantations of fir; and the bold and precipitous Carrol rock, with the mansion-house of Kilcalmkill, contributes to its interesting and beautiful scenery.

The principal part of the parish consists of high and irreclaimable hill-pasture, and is laid out in extensive sheep-walks; the sheep are the pure Cheviots, to the breed of which great attention is paid, and the total number kept is nearly 11,000. The land in tillage is supposed to comprehend no more than about 1400 acres, the soil of which is mostly sharp gravel, and unfit for the production of wheat; between two and three hundred acres are under plantation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2910. The rocks consist chiefly of sandstone, two quarries of which are wrought to a considerable extent; the material found in one of these is remarkably hard, compact, and durable, and contains numerous petrifactions of trees, fishes, and shells, which attract the notice of scientific travellers. Coal was wrought near the mouth of the river Brora, so far back as 1573, and at several subsequent periods, but the works were discontinued many years ago; the late Duke of Sutherland sank a new pit, and erected the necessary buildings, at a cost of £16,000, and the coal was conveyed to the harbour, on a railroad 800 yards long. Four large salt-pans were also erected, from which salt of a very superior quality was obtained. On the Brora is a salmon-fishery, rented at £300 per annum, and there are several boats regularly employed, in the season, in the herring-fishing, which supply the neighbourhood with all the ordinary kinds of fish, at a very cheap rate. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dornoch and synod of Sutherland and Caithness; patron, the Duke of Sutherland, who is proprietor of the whole parish. The stipend is £144. 15. 7.; and there is a handsome and commodious manse, with a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The church, a plain structure, was built about the year 1770; it was repaired and enlarged about 1827, and will accommodate nearly 1000 persons with sittings, the whole of which are free. A place of worship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. There is a parochial school, where the ordinary branches of education are taught; the master has the maximum salary, a house, garden, and a small sum from fees. There is also a good Assembly's school in the village of Brora. The chief relic of antiquity is the celebrated Pictish tower called "Castle Cole," which is the most entire specimen of this kind of tower in the country, excepting that of Dornadilla, in the parish of Durness. It is protected on three sides by the river, and has on the other side a precipice of seventy feet; it is oblong in form, with walls eleven feet thick, without lime or mortar, and appears to have been a place of great strength.

Coalhill

COALHILL, a village, in the parish of Campbelltown, district of Cantyre, county of Argyll, 3 miles (W.) from Campbelltown. This village, which is situated in the western part of the parish, is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in coal-mines, from which a canal has been constructed, for conveying the produce to the town. A chapel of ease is about to be erected, for the accommodation of the inhabitants of this district remote from the parish church. A school is supported by the inhabitants.

Coalsnaughton

COALSNAUGHTON, a village, in the parish of Tillicoultry, county of Clackmannan, 3 miles (N. E.) from Alloa; containing 691 inhabitants. It lies on the road to Stirling, not far from the river Devon, and is inhabited chiefly by colliers.

Coalton

COALTON, a village, in the parish of Kettle, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 1 mile (S. E.) from Balmalcolm; containing 84 inhabitants. This village, which is situated in the hilly part of the parish, appears to have derived its name from the coal-works which are still carried on here, though not to so great an extent as formerly. The present seam in operation is a kind of blind coal, which is solely used for burning lime; the produce, amounting, in value, to no more than about £70 per annum, is chiefly sent to the lime-works at Pitlessie. A quarry of freestone has also been opened, and is worked to a limited extent, and used for building purposes, and for the inclosures of several farms in the parish.

Coaltown Of Balgonie

COALTOWN OF BALGONIE, in the parish of Markinch, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 1 mile (S.) from Markinch; containing 415 inhabitants. This village, which is situated to the west of Balgonie, consists chiefly of cottages, inhabited by persons employed in the collieries from which it takes its name, and in the spinning-mills, bleachfields, and other works in the vicinity.

Coaltown, East

COALTOWN, EAST, a village, in the parish of Wemyss, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 4 miles (N. E.) from Kirkcaldy; containing 165 inhabitants. This village, which is in the mining district of the parish, is neatly built, and principally inhabited by persons engaged in collieries, which are extensively worked, and afford an abundant supply of fuel for the neighbourhood.

Coaltown, West

COALTOWN, WEST, a village, in the parish of Wemyss, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife; adjacent to East Coaltown, and containing 372 inhabitants. This village is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the extensive coal-works on the estate of Captain Wemyss, and for whose accommodation it has been built.

Coalyland

COALYLAND, a village, in the parish of Alloa, county of Clackmannan, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Alloa; containing 234 inhabitants. It is situated a little south of the road between Aberdonie and Menstry, and derives its name from being the seat of an extensive colliery: the river Devon flows on the north of the village.

Coatbridge

COATBRIDGE, a village, in the late quoad sacra parish of Gartsherrie, parish of Old Monkland, Middle ward of county Lanark, 1½ mile (N. W.) from Airdrie; containing 1599 inhabitants. This is a very thriving place, which has more than doubled in extent and population within the last fifteen years, owing to the extension of the iron trade in the district, and to its being in the vicinity of valuable coal-mines; the Dundyvan and Summerlee iron-works in the neighbourhood are conducted on a large scale, and afford employment to a great part of the population. The village is on the road from Airdrie to Glasgow; and the Monkland canal also affords facilities of communication with the adjacent towns. A post-office has been established here, and there is a place of worship for members of the Free Church.

Coatdyke

COATDYKE, a village, in the late quoad sacra parish of Gartsherrie, parish of Old Monkland, Middle ward of county Lanark; containing 459 inhabitants. This place participates largely in raising the mineral products of the district, iron and coal; and in the neighbourhood are several quarries, including one of white freestone, of which the thickness is, in some parts, seventy feet.

Coats, East and West

COATS, EAST and WEST, villages, in the parish of Cambuslang, Middle ward of the county of Lanark; the one containing 140, and the other 146 inhabitants, chiefly weavers and colliers. They are seated in the north-western part of the parish, a short distance from the village of Cambuslang.

Cockburnspath

COCKBURNSPATH, with Old Cambus, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 8 miles (N. W.) from Press; containing 1149 inhabitants, of whom about 230 are in the village. This place was called anciently Colbrandspath, from Colbrand, a Danish chieftain who is said to have established himself in this part of the country, and subsequently Cockburnspath, from its having, at a very early period, been the baronial seat of the family of Cockburn. It comprises the united parishes whose names it bears, and of which the latter, Old Cambus, was annexed to the former, at a period not distinctly known. The castle, whether founded by Colbrand or by Cockburn, appears to have formed part of the possessions of Patrick Dunbar, afterwards Earl of Dunbar and March, who, when this district was infested by a daring band of robbers, mustered his retainers, and, attacking them in a body, killed 600 of their number. For this service, the king created him Earl of March, and conferred upon him the lands of Colbrandspath, together with the castle, which, and that of Dunbar, were the most important fortresses in this part of the kingdom. The lands appear to have subsequently been included in the royal demesnes of many successive kings, and to have been given as part of the dowry of several of their daughters; they afterwards became the property of the Earl of Home, from whom, about 200 years since, they passed to the Halls. Little more of historical importance is recorded in connexion with the place than the passage through the parish of the English army, under the Earl of Hertford, on his invasion of Scotland in 1544, and of that under the Earl of Somerset, in 1548.

The parish is bounded on the north-east by the German Ocean, and on the north-west by the county of Haddington, and comprises 9800 acres, of which 5200 are arable, 600 woods and plantations, and the remainder hilly pasture and waste. The surface is greatly diversified with hill and dale, and, in many parts, with narrow deep glens through which small rivulets flow, in rugged channels, into the sea; the hills are generally of spherical form, and the highest of them are not more than from 500 to 600 feet above the sea. The scenery is, in some parts, highly romantic; the glens are distinguished by a great variety of features, combining rocks and woods and streams which, frequently obstructed in their progress, form some beautiful cascades. On the precipitous ridge which incloses the Tower glen, are the remains of the ancient castle; and over another, called the Pease Den, which is remarkable for its depth, has been thrown a bridge of singular construction. The coast is bold and precipitous, and is indented with several small bays, of which the most important and the most picturesque is that named the Cove; it is completely inclosed, except at the entrance, by precipitous rocks rising to the height of one hundred feet, and, by the recent construction of a breakwater, has been formed into a very commodious harbour for fishing-boats. Numerous excavations formed by nature in the rocky shores of the bay, have been appropriated as warehouses; and one of them has been wrought into a tunnel, sixty yards in length, serving as a means of communication with the shore, and affording a facility for landing goods on the quay.

The soil is various; extremely rich in the immediate vicinity of the sea, and becoming lighter at a greater distance from the coast, till it degenerates into hilly pasture. The chief crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is in an advanced state, and the rotation plan of husbandry generally practised. Considerable attention is paid to the management of live stock; the sheep are, nearly in equal numbers, of the Leicestershire and Cheviot breeds, the former on the lower lands, and the latter on the higher, some of a cross between the two. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8648. The woods are mostly of oak, for which the soil appears to be peculiarly favourable, beech, chesnut, ash, and sycamore; and the plantations, fir, with larch, intermixed with various kinds of forest trees. The substrata are, greywacke, greywacke-slate, and sandstone, of which only the last is quarried; it is of a coarse quality, and of the old red formation, being chiefly valuable for its property of withstanding the action of heat. The village, which had fallen into a state of neglect, has, within the last forty years, been greatly improved, under the patronage of Lady Helen Hall; it is partly inhabited by persons employed in the fishery, and contains a subscription library of considerable extent. Great facility of communication is afforded by the road from Edinburgh to London, which passes through the centre of the parish, and by numerous handsome and picturesque bridges over the many deep ravines. The Pease bridge, of four arches, about a mile and a half from the village, is strikingly romantic in its appearance; it is 300 feet in length, and nearly 130 feet above the bottom of the ravine. Another bridge, over the Dunglass glen, of modern construction and of great beauty, has one spacious arch, spanning the ravine at an elevation of ninety feet above the stream that flows beneath it; and not far distant is a magnificent bridge for the line of the great North-British railway. A fair, chiefly for toys, is held on the second Tuesday in August. A considerable fishery is carried on at Cove; the fish chiefly taken are, cod, haddocks, whiting, ling, skate, halibut, and turbot. Lobsters and crabs are taken in abundance, in the season, and are sent, by shipping from the port of Dunbar, to London; and herrings were formerly caught in profusion, but, of late years, few have appeared on this part of the coast. A convenient harbour was constructed in 1831, for the accommodation of the fishing-boats, and capable also of affording shelter to vessels of larger burthen, of which several, laden with coal, and bone-dust for manure, frequently put in here, and deliver their cargoes. The expense of completing the harbour, which was very considerable, was defrayed partly by a grant from the government, and partly by the late Sir John Hall.

The parish is in the presbytery of Dunbar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £245. 13. 3., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £27 per annum. The church, a very ancient structure, with a round tower, and apparently built in the 12th century, was fully repaired in 1807, and reseated in 1826. There is a place of worship in the parish for members of the United Secession Synod. The parochial school affords instruction to about ninety scholars; the master has a salary of £30, with £45 fees, and a house and garden. There are several vestiges of ancient fortifications, of which the chief are on Ervieside hill, and on the ridge of Dunglass Den; many urns, also, of Roman pottery have been at various times discovered by the plough. In the centre of the parish are the ruins of the castle of Cockburnspath, apparently erected to defend the pass of the ravine at the entrance of which it is situated; and in the Old Cambus district, are the ruins of the ancient church, seated on a lofty precipice overlooking the sea. It was dedicated to St. Helen, and is said to have been erected, in gratitude for their preservation, by three Northumbrian princesses, who, fleeing into Scotland for refuge, were wrecked on this part of the coast.

Cockenzie

COCKENZIE, late a quoad sacra parish, including the villages of Meadowmill and Portseaton, in the parish of Tranent, and part of the parish of Prestonpans, in the county of Haddingtion; the whole containing 1061 inhabitants, of whom 570 are in the village of Cockenzie, 1 mile (N. E.) from Prestonpans. This village, which is situated on the shore of the Frith of Forth, is almost wholly inhabited by fishermen, who, during the winter, are chiefly employed in procuring supplies for the markets of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and, in the spring, engage in the whale-fisheries of Greenland. The fish taken here are, cod, whitings, flounders, and oysters, of which last there are beds of excellent quality; and in summer those who have not engaged themselves in the whale-fishery go to Caithness for herrings, which they take in large quantities, and sell to the curers. In autumn, they are employed in dredging oysters, and catching such herrings and other fish as appear in the Frith. The number of boats belonging to the fishery is thirty, of which ten are of sixteen, and twenty-one of seven tons' burthen; they are all without decks, but well and strongly built, and capable of enduring a very heavy sea. A considerable foreign and coasting trade is also carried on, in which two vessels, of 100 and 120 tons respectively, belonging to this place, are regularly employed; the number of other ships annually entering and leaving the harbour, averages from 250 to 300, of the aggregate burthen of 20,000 tons.

The harbour was constructed in 1835, by Messrs. Cadell, at an expense of £6000; it is easily accessible at all times of the tide, and affords great security to numerous vessels driven in by stress of weather. It has sixteen feet depth of water at spring, and ten feet at neap, tides; and though formed more especially for the shipping of the produce of the collieries, from which to the port an iron railway has been laid down by the proprietors, it has been of great benefit to the fishery of the place. A mill, driven by steam, has been erected for grinding bones and rape-cakes, chiefly brought from Germany, for manure, and employs a small number of the inhabitants not engaged in the fisheries; there are also some salt-works in the district. A fair, formerly of some importance, but now chiefly for toys, is held in November. The ecclesiastical affairs of the district are under the presbytery of Haddington and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The church was erected in 1838, by subscription, chiefly through the instrumentality of H. F. Cadell, Esq., aided by grants from the General Assembly's and East Lothian Church Extension Societies, and a contribution of £150 raised by the Rev. A. Forman, of Innerwick. It is a neat edifice, built at an expense of about £600, and is adapted for a congregation of 450 persons, and capable of being enlarged by the erection of galleries. The minister's stipend is derived from the seat-rents. A school is supported by subscription.

Cockpen

COCKPEN, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Dalkeith; containing, with the villages of Bonnyrigg, Dalhousie, Gowkshill, Hillhead, Hunterfield, Polton-Street, Prestonholme, Skiltiemuir, Stobhill-Engine, and Westmill, 2345 inhabitants, of whom 709 are in the rural districts. This place, which is on the river South Esk, is supposed to have derived its name from the situation of the church upon an eminence, and the prevailing colour of the soil. It comprises chiefly the barony of Dalhousie, the property of the ancient family of the Ramsays, of whom William, Lord Ramsay, was created Earl of Dalhousie, by Charles I. of England, in 1633. There are still some remains of the ancient baronial residence of Dalhousie, which was a quadrangular structure with angular towers, and one of the strongest fortresses in this part of the country; and though altered into a slightly castellated mansion, as a family residence, it still retains some vestiges of its ancient character. The parish is above three miles in length, and two miles and a half in extreme breadth; the surface is pleasingly undulated, and the prevailing scenery abounds with interesting features. The banks of the South Esk, which intersects the southern part of the parish, are crowned with ancient wood; and the various other streamlets which flow through the lands, add greatly to the beauty of the landscape. The soil is generally a strong clay, well adapted to the growth of grain, and, under good cultivation, yielding crops of wheat, barley, oats, and peas, with a few potatoes and turnips. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8801. The plantations, which are extensive, abound with every variety of trees and ornamental shrubs, and are in a highly flourishing condition. The substrata are chiefly coal, which is very abundant, and limestone and freestone of excellent quality, which are extensively quarried: copperas, also, has been obtained within the limits of the parish.

The ancient castle of Dalhousie is beautifully situated on an eminence overlooking the river Esk; it was modernised by the late earl, and the pleasure-grounds have been tastefully laid out in walks, and embellished with shrubs and plantations. On the opposite bank of the river, was the ancient mansion-house of Cockpen, purchased, within the last few years, by the earl, from Mr. Baron Cockburn, by whom the adjacent lands had been greatly improved; only some of the walls are now standing, which give a truly romantic character to the scenery. The village of Cockpen is situated on the western bank of the South Esk, over which is a handsome bridge of stone, affording facility of communication; and a branch of the Edinburgh and Dalkeith railway extends through the parish, to the Mains of Dalhousie. In the several villages of the parish are various works. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £157, of which £24 are paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £21 per annum; patron, the Earl of Dalhousie. The church, erected in 1820, is a neat plain structure, containing 625 sittings. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £28.

Coldingham

COLDINGHAM, a parish, in the county of Berwick; including the tract of Laverock, and the late quoad sacra district of Houndwood; and containing 2830 inhabitants, of whom a considerable portion reside in the village of Coldingham, 3 miles from Reston, which is on the London and Edinburgh road, and 11 (N. N. W.) from Berwick. This place, of which the name is of doubtful derivation, has a claim to very remote antiquity, and appears to have originally acquired distinction from the erection of a nunnery, in the seventh century, by Ebba, daughter of Ethelfrith, King of Northumbria. To escape from the solicitations of Penda, King of Mercia, who sought to obtain her in marriage, she resolved to leave her father's kingdom, and, embarking for that purpose, was driven by a storm on the promontory of this coast, which from her derived its name. The convent that she founded here, appears to have subsisted till the year 837, when it was plundered and burnt by the Danes, who inhumanly massacred the whole sisterhood. Some slender remains of its chapel, however, existed till about the middle of the last century; but, the cemetery surrounding it being again appropriated as a burial-place, they were soon afterwards destroyed. The monastery of Coldingham is said to have been founded by Edgar, King of Scotland, about the year 1100, though other writers refer its foundation to a period anterior to that of the nunnery of St. Ebba, in the destruction of which by the Danes they say it participated, and that it was only rebuilt by Edgar. That monarch, being driven from his throne, fled to England, where he obtained from William Rufus an army of 30,000 men, for the recovery of his dominions, and from the abbot of Durham the consecrated banner of St. Cuthbert, to aid him in reducing his rebellious subjects to obedience. Having succeeded in re-establishing his kingdom, Edgar founded or refounded the monastery, which he dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and made a cell to the abbey of Durham, from which establishment he placed in it a prior and brethren of the order of St. Benedict.

The priory continued to flourish, in uninterrupted prosperity, from this time, with the munificent patronage of Edgar's successors, till the reign of Robert III., under whose weak government, and during the regency of the Duke of Albany, the monks placed themselves under the protection of the family of Douglas, of whom the laird of Home became its sub-prior. Not long afterwards, James III. obtained the concurrence of the parliament for the suppression of the priory, the revenues of which he wished to appropriate to the endowment of the chapel royal of Stirling, which he had founded, but their proceedings excited an insurrection of the Homes, which terminated in the defeat and death of that monarch, who was killed in battle, near Stirling, in 1488. The priory, in 1509, was separated from Durham, by a decree of the pope, and annexed to the Abbey of Dunfermline, whose abbot, Alexander Stuart, a natural son of James IV., and also archbishop of St. Andrew's, who fell fighting by his father's side at the battle of Flodden-Field, became prior. After the death of Alexander Stuart, David, brother of Lord Home, was made prior of Coldingham. The priory was, in 1544, seized by the English, who fortified and retained possession of it, against all the efforts of the Earl of Arran, Regent of Scotland, for its recovery; and in the following year, it was plundered and burnt by the Earl of Hertford, after which calamity it never regained its ancient wealth and importance. During the usurpation of Cromwell, it was defended against the assaults of his troops, by a party of royalists who had intrenched themselves within the walls, and who vigorously repulsed the first detachment sent against them. Cromwell, however, bringing up in person a stronger force, with several pieces of cannon, shook it to its foundation, and compelled the royalists to capitulate; and, to prevent it from again becoming an obstacle to his success, he blew up the church with gunpowder, leaving only one of the walls standing.

The parish, which is about twelve miles in extreme length, and nine in extreme breadth, is bounded on the north and north-east by the sea and the Frith of Forth. The surface is diversified with hills and valleys: a portion of the range of the Lammermoor hills traverses it, in a direction from east to west, and the highest elevation, Wardlaw Bank, is 640 feet above the sea. The valleys are watered by various streams, of which the most important is the river Eye, which, after flowing with a gentle current through the whole extent of the parish, falls into the ocean at Eyemouth. The only lake is that of Coldingham, about a mile to the west of St. Abb's Head, a fine expanse of water covering thirty acres of ground, within 300 yards of the coast, and having an elevation of 100 yards above the sea; it is circumscribed by sloping banks of barren rocky aspect, incapable of plantation, and abounds with perch, the only kind of fish it contains. The coast, near St. Abb's Head, is rocky and precipitous, and indented with numerous caves excavated in the rock, of which some are of large extent, and with natural fissures, inaccessible from the land, and only to be entered from the sea at low water, and in calm weather.

The soil is various, and, in some parts of the parish, fertile; but there are large tracts of barren land, incapable of being brought into cultivation. The whole number of acres is estimated at about 57,000, of which 6000 are moor and waste, about 500 in woods and plantations, and the remainder, in nearly equal portions, arable and pasture. The chief crops are, grain of various kinds, potatoes, and turnips, and the system of agriculture is improved; very many cattle are fattened, and great numbers of sheep are annually reared. The rateable annual value of the parish is £19,770. The natural woods consist mostly of oak, elm, and birch; and the plantations of the various kinds of fir, and larch, intermixed with the usual forest trees. The rocks are generally of the transition formation, and the principal substrata are greywacke and greywacke-slate; the promontory of St. Abb's Head is one mass of trap rock, composed mainly of trap tuffa, amygdaloid, and porphyritic felspar. A lucrative fishery is carried on, for which purpose a small harbour was constructed in 1833, at Northfield, about a mile from the village, at an expense of £1200, of which sum, about one-fourth was raised by subscription, and the remainder was granted by government. The fish taken off the coast are, cod, haddock, turbot, and lobsters; and about seven boats are regularly employed, affording support to thirty-six families, of which number thirty live in the hamlet of Northfield. The cod is pickled, the haddocks smoked, and the turbot and lobsters are sent alive to the London market. The village of Coldingham is pleasantly situated, and contains many neatly built houses; a library is supported by subscription, in which is a collection of more than 400 volumes of standard works. The weaving of cotton affords employment to more than thirty persons.

The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the incumbent is £267; the manse was built in 1801, and enlarged in 1828, and the glebe is valued at £25 per annum. The church, which is a portion of the ancient monastery, was repaired in 1662, and is well adapted for a congregation of 827 persons. There is a place of worship for members of the United Associate Synod. Two parochial schools are well attended; the masters have each a salary of £25, with a house and garden, and fees. The remains of the priory, though dreadfully mutilated, still display some memorials of its former magnificence; they contain fragments of the richest details in the Norman style, from its earliest period to its transition into the early English. The north wall of the church was formerly covered with series of intersecting arches, springing from corbels enriched with canopies; but the shafts of the intercolumniations have been cut away, and the whole wretchedly disfigured. The triforium, however, of five elegantly-designed windows, separated by alternate ranges of plain and clustered columns, supporting richly-moulded arches of graceful form, is still tolerably entire, and various other portions, of elaborate design, may still be traced. Upon a peninsular rock projecting into the sea, about two miles to the west of St. Abb's Head, are the ruins of Fast Castle, connected with the mainland by a narrow isthmus, which, for greater security, was cut away, and in its place a drawbridge substituted. By whom it was originally founded is not clearly ascertained: it belonged to the family of Logan, of Restalrigg, one of whom, proprietor at the time of Gowry's conspiracy, was, several years after his death, tried and condemned for the part he took in that transaction, and his estates were forfeited to the crown, and subsequently conferred upon the Earl of Dunbar. It is visited chiefly for the grand prospect it embraces over the German Ocean. There were numerous other strongholds in the parish, of which the names of Langton Tower, Heughead, Renton, and Houndwood, which last was the hunting-seat of the prior of Coldingham, only are recorded. On the hill to the west of St. Abb's Head, are vestiges of a Roman camp, and on another the remains of a British camp, defended on three sides by lofty ramparts; and on the summit of Wardlaw Bank, are traces both of a Roman and a British camp, now nearly obliterated by the plough.

Coldstream

COLDSTREAM, a burgh of barony, market-town, and parish, in the county of Berwick, 14 miles (S. W.) from Berwick; containing 2857 inhabitants, of whom 1913 are in the town, and 150 in the village of New Coldstream. This parish, which is of considerable antiquity, was originally called Leinhal, or Lennel, a name of Saxon etymology, signifying "a great hall," and supposed to have been derived from the foundation of a Cistercian monastery by Cospatrick, Earl of March, in the early part of the twelfth century. The small village of Lennel, which soon afterwards arose round the priory, being exposed, from its situation, to hostile incursions during the wars of the Border, suffered continual depredations, and was ultimately destroyed by the English; not a vestige of it is left, nor can even the site be distinctly pointed out. The monastery, however, flourished till the Dissolution, when its revenues amounted to £201 in money, three chalders, eleven bolls, two firlots, three and a half pecks of wheat, the same quantity of bear, and also of meal; it was beautifully situated near the confluence of the river Leet with the Tweed, and was of considerable importance, but only one solitary vault is now remaining. During the usurpation of Cromwell, General Monk, who had fixed his head-quarters at this place, raised a regiment of infantry here, which accompanied him on his return to England, for the restoration of the exiled monarch, and which is still distinguished as the Coldstream regiment of guards. After the decay of the village of Lennel, a new church was erected, in 1716, at Coldstream, in the more populous district of the parish; and to this circumstance may be attributed the increase of the town.

The town is pleasantly situated on the river Tweed, over which is a handsome stone bridge of five arches, which connects it with the county of Northumberland; and affording an approach on the west, is a neat bridge of one arch, over the river Leet. It is neatly built; the streets are lighted and cleansed, and the inhabitants are supplied with water, under the regulations of the Police act. A public library is supported by subscription, which contains a good collection of works on general literature; and there are two other subscription libraries, for the use of mechanics and the working classes. No manufactures are carried on in the town: the principal trade of the place consists in furnishing coal and various other articles for the neighbourhood. The market, which is well supplied with grain, is on Thursday; and there is also a monthly market, for the sale of cattle and sheep, which is numerously attended. The salmonfishery on the Tweed was formerly extensive; but the fish have, within the last few years, been very much diminished, and the whole rental at present is scarcely £100 per annum. The town is governed by a baronbailie, appointed by the superiors of the two baronies of Coldstream and Hirsel, in which it is situated, and whose jurisdiction extends to civil and criminal cases, for the determination of which he holds courts at stated periods. The average annual number of civil causes determined is about thirty, and of criminal cases, about six; but the latter are chiefly offences against the police of the town, to which the bailie confines himself, referring all more important matters to the procurator-fiscal for the county. There is a small prison for the confinement of persons previously to their committal.

The parish, which is situated nearly at an equal distance between the Cheviot and Lammermoor hills, is from seven to eight miles in length, and rather more than four in average breadth. The surface is generally level, diversified only by some gentle elevations; the scenery is pleasingly varied, and richly embellished with thick woods and plantations. The only streams which have their source here, are the Gradenburn and Shiellsburn, which, after traversing the parish, fall into the river Tweed, its southern boundary; the only lake is one of artificial construction, in the pleasure-grounds of Hirsel. The soil is mostly rich, especially near the rivers, in proportion to the distance from which is its tendency to clay. The number of acres in tillage is 8000; the chief crops are, grain of all kinds, for which the soil is well adapted, potatoes, and turnips, which last are extensively cultivated. The system of agriculture is in a highly advanced state; bone-dust is applied as manure, and all the more recent improvements in husbandry are in use. Great attention is paid to live stock; the cattle, with the exception of a few of the Highland breed, are all the Teeswater or short-horned, and the sheep are of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds. The rateable annual value of the parish is £15,317. The woods are of oak, birch, beech, ash, and elm; and the plantations, Scotch and spruce firs, intermixed with the usual forest trees. The larch is not found to thrive in the soil, and consequently very few trees of that sort are planted; but all the other kinds seem well adapted to the land, and are in a prosperous state.

The substrata are, white sandstone, clay-marl, reddish sandstone, limestone, and gypsum; the white sandstone or freestone is of very excellent quality for building, and is extensively quarried in several parts of the parish. The red sandstone is also quarried, but not to any great extent; the limestone is of inferior quality, and, though quarried in some places for the roads, is not burnt into lime. The gypsum is found chiefly on the banks of the Leet, where it occurs in nodules of a reddish hue, and at Milne-Graden, where, in boring for coal some years since, it was discovered in thin veins of a whitish colour. Among the minerals are, crystals of quartz, calcareous spar, phrenite, and sulphate of lime, with numerous petrifactions of organic and fossil remains. Of the seats in the parish are, Lennel House, the property of the Earl of Haddington, lord of the barony of Coldstream, a handsome mansion of modern character; and Hirsel, the seat of the Earl of Home, lord of the barony of Hirsel, an elegant mansion of white stone, erected with materials from a quarry in the parish. In the grounds of the latter is a lake of considerable dimensions; and at the base of an acclivity rising from the bank of the Leet, and richly wooded, a monument was erected by a late lord, to the memory of his eldest son, who died in America, of his wounds in the battle of Camden; the design is a reduced imitation of the obelisk of Mattheus at Rome. The seats of the Lees, Milne-Graden, and Castlelaw are also mansions of white freestone, and within the limits of the parish.

The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; patron, the Earl of Haddington. The stipend of the incumbent is £233; the manse is a comfortable residence, erected in 1830, and the glebe comprises 11 acres of land, valued at £40 per annum. The church, erected in the year 1795, is a plain substantial edifice, and is adapted for a congregation of 1100 persons. There are places of worship for members of the United Associate and Relief Synods. The parochial school affords instruction to about 120 children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £75 per annum. The late John Bell, Esq., bequeathed £500 for the instruction of children of the town, and also £300 for supplying them with clothing on their leaving school. Stone coffins have been found, and quantities of human bones, in the grounds of Hirsel, and near the junction of the Leet and Tweed, where the ancient abbey was situated. These are supposed to be the remains of warriors slain in the battle of Flodden-Field, of whom the most illustrious were conveyed to Coldstream, by order of the abbess, and interred in the abbey cemetery. Several ancient coins also, of the reign of the Jameses, have been discovered in the grounds of Milne-Graden. Patrick Brydone, Esq., author of a Tour in Sicily and Malta, and for many years resident in the old mansion of Lennel House, was buried in the ancient church of Lennel, of which there are still some vestiges.

Colinsburgh

COLINSBURGH, a market-town, in the parish of Kilconquhar, district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 10 miles (S. by E.) from Cupar, and 28½ (N. E. by N.) from Edinburgh; containing 482 inhabitants. This place is pleasantly situated in the south of the parish, and on the great road from the eastern to the western part of the county along the southern coast. It is neatly built, and inhabited chiefly by persons employed in trade, for the supply of the parish with various articles of merchandise, and in weaving for the manufacturers of Dundee, Kirkcaldy, and other towns. The currying trade is also carried on, by a company who are proprietors of the tannery at Kilconquhar, and who manufacture leather to the amount of £15,000 per annum, and afford employment to about twenty-four persons. The market, which is a large mart for grain, is held on Wednesday, and is numerously attended by farmers and dealers from the neighbourhood; the corn is sold by sample, and considerable quantities are forwarded to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and other ports, for exportation. Fairs are held in June and October, for cattle; and in March, when the East Fife Agricultural Society hold their meeting in the town, there is a public market at which great numbers of cattle are exposed for sale. Colinsburgh is a burgh of barony under the family of Lindsay, earls of Balcarres, from whose ancestor, Colin, third earl, the place derived its name. In the immediate vicinity is the elegant residence of Balcarres House; and overhanging it, appears the Crag of Balcarres, which confers the title, and is a rock of considerable altitude. The present earl is the acknowledged chief of the very ancient house of Lindsay, many of the members of which have been interred in the old chapel near the mansion. A school has been established.

Colinton

COLINTON, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh, including the villages of Hailes-Quarry, Juniper-Green, Longstone, Slateford, and Swanston; and containing 2195 inhabitants, of whom 120 are in the village of Colinton, 4 miles (S. W.) from Edinburgh. The name of this place, sometimes written Colington, was formerly Hailes, a word signifying "mounds" or "hillocks," and accurately descriptive of the appearance of the surface of the parish. About the close of the 17th century, the designation Colinton chiefly prevailed, having, for some time previously, been used in honour of a family of that name, who had come into possession of the chief estates. The district appears to have been, in remote times, the scene of important military operations; there were remains of a large encampment lately existing at Comiston, and extensive cairns in the vicinity, whence fragments of old military implements were sometimes taken. The Kel Stane, "the stone of the battle," which is a large upright stone, from time immemorial also called Camus Stone, renders it probable that this spot was originally the encampment of some Danish forces. In the barony of Redhall formerly stood a strong castle, which, in 1572, was garrisoned by the regent Mar, and the king's partly. In 1650, it was defended vigorously against Cromwell and his army, by the laird and his veteran band, who, upon the castle being taken, was commended by Cromwell for his bravery, and set at liberty. The ecclesiastical memorials of the parish reach back to the commencement of the 13th century, when the lands were granted to the monks of Dunfermline by Ethelred, son of Malcolm Canmore, and confirmed to them by his brother, David I., and by pope Gregory, in 1234. The vicarage, however, was taken from the monks, and given first to the canons of Holyrood, and afterwards to the canons of St. Anthony at Leith, which grant was confirmed by Kennedy, Bishop of St. Andrew's, in 1445. The superiority of the lands of Wester Hailes remained with the canons till the Reformation, and that of Easter Hailes continned with the monks till the same period.

The parish is of an irregular form, about three and a half miles in length, from north to south, and about three miles in breadth, from east to west, and contains 5070 acres. The surface and scenery are richly diversified, presenting on the south-eastern boundary the northern range of the Pentland hills, rising 1600 feet above the sea, and from the skirts of which the ground slopes gradually to the level of the Water of Leith, which flows through the lower part of the parish. In the direction of the north-east, the elevations of the Fir hill and Craig-Lockhart hill form an interruption to the general declivity, and supply romantic features in the landscape, enriched by elegant mansions surrounded by gardens and plantations. The distant views from the higher lands embrace the capital, with its numerous spires and romantic castle, the Frith of Forth and the coast of Fife, the Ochils, and the celebrated Grampians, which, in the north-west, bound the prospect. The Water of Leith, which is the principal stream, though subject to repeated sinkings and swellings, is used to a great extent for the purposes of commerce and domestic convenience, turning no less than sixteen mills, and having a considerable bleachfield on its banks. There is also a variety of copious and excellent springs, from which, for a very long period, water was conducted in a regular and uniform manner for the supply of Edinburgh.

About 3436 acres are either in tillage or fit for tillage; 1356 are hilly grounds under pasture, and 278 are in plantations. The arable lands lie from 250 to 600 feet above the level of the sea, and produce good crops of all kinds of grain, potatoes, turnips, beans, peas, &c. Few sheep are kept, except on the Pentland hills, and on Craig-Lockhart, consisting chiefly of Cheviots, with a few Leicesters; the number of cattle reared is also very small. Very considerable improvements in husbandry have been made within these few years, chiefly in deep draining, and a proper system of cropping. As, however, a large proportion of the ground rests upon a subsoil of stiff clay, the furrow drain and deep plough are still requisite, to facilitate the productive powers of the land. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,314. The great abundance and variety of the subterraneous contents of the parish give it altogether a geological character. The Pentland hills consist of claystone, porphyry, and felspar-porphyry; the crags of Caerketan are clayey felspar, strongly mixed with black oxide of iron. Among the Pentlands, also, are found boulders of granite, gneiss, &c., with jaspers and malactite. Craig-Lockhart hill is basaltic rock, and the bed of the Leith water abounds with highly interesting mineral productions, among which are fossil remains of fishes and vegetables. There are two freestone quarries, large quantities of the contents of which, at different times, have been conveyed to Edinburgh for building materials; the value of one of them to the lessor, some years ago, was £9000 annually, but at present the revenue is not more than £1500.

Several beautiful mansions adorn the parish, of which Colinton House was built in the beginning of the present century, and is agreeably situated, commanding extensive prospects to the north and east. Dreghorn Castle, built about the same time, stands encompassed with thick plantations, some parts of which consist of ancient beech-trees, conferring a venerable and majestic appearance. Comiston House and Craig-Lockhart House were both built but a few years ago, and are pleasantly situated, especially the latter, having for its site a wooded bank, gently declining to the margin of the Leith water. In a hollow which commands the pass through the Pentland hills, near the House of Bonally, stands a Peel tower, in the midst of beautifully romantic scenery, built by Lord Cockburn. The villages of Colinton and Slateford have each a post-office. Facility of communication is afforded by the road from Edinburgh to Lanark, and the Union canal enters the parish at Slateford, and, being carried over the valley of the Leith water by an aqueduct of eight arches, passes along the lower side of it for about two miles and a half. Of the mills, ten are meal-mills, one is for sawing wood, another for beating hemp and lint, one for grinding magnesia, and the others are employed in the manufacture of paper, which has existed in Colinton for upwards of a century. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Edinburgh and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; patrons, the communicants. The minister's stipend is £221, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £27 per annum. The church, which is very ancient, is beautifully situated in the vicinity of Colinton House; it was rebuilt in 1771, and in 1817 new-roofed, and in the year 1837 it was enlarged and re-seated. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church; also a chapel at Slateford, built in 1784, the minister of which has a salary of £130, chiefly from pew-rents, and a dwelling-house, with garden. A parochial school is supported, in which the ordinary branches of education are taught, and classical and mathematical instruction, with French, may be obtained; the master's salary is £34, with about £40 fees, and a house with garden. There are two libraries; and a gardeners' society awards small premiums for the superior cultivation of vegetables, fruits, and flowers.

Coll Isle

COLL ISLE, Argyllshire.—See Tiree.

Collace

COLLACE, a parish, in the county of Perth; including the villages of Kinrossie and Saucher, and containing 702 inhabitants, of whom 191 are in the village of Collace, 7 miles (N. E.) from Perth. Collace is chiefly celebrated as having been the residence of the well-known Macbeth, Thane of Glammis, who erected his castle on the hill of Dunsinnan, a lofty and insulated eminence in the parish, rising 1024½ feet above the level of the sea, and the oval summit of which is 169 yards in length, and 89 in mean breadth. Here this usurper of the Scottish crown held his court; but on the approach of Malcolm, whose father Duncan he had murdered, with the English army commanded by Siwald, Duke of Northumberland, he fled northward, and was overtaken and slain at Lumphanan, in Aberdeenshire. His castle was immediately razed, and the remains of it destroyed by fire. The parish lies in the vale of Strathmore, on the north side of the Sidlaw ridge of hills; it is about two miles long, and of nearly the same breadth, and contains about 3000 acres. The surface in general is flat, except towards the hills, where it is too steep for the plough. From Dunsinnan hill fine prospects are commanded of the surrounding country in every direction, and the long stretched-out and lofty Grampians are seen to rear their heads in apparently endless succession. The soil mostly consists of a light dark-coloured loam, mixed in some places with clay, and resting upon a heavy red sand. The number of acres under tillage is 1747; 100 are in pasture, and 560 are under wood, consisting chiefly of Scotch fir and larch. Potatoes and oats are the chief produce, but all kinds of grain and green crops are cultivated, of good quality, improvements in husbandry having been commenced at a very early period, and carried on with great success. Much attention has been given to the breed of cattle and horses, many of which are kept, and the farm-houses and buildings especially vie with those of the best parishes. The prevailing rock is sandstone, from two quarries, of which an abundant supply is obtained for the whole parish. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2751.

The chief mansion is Dunsinnan House, which has recently been much enlarged and improved; it formerly belonged to Lord Dunsinnan, a senator of the college of justice, and member of the high court of justiciary, who died in 1812. The manufacture of yarn into cloth is carried on to a considerable extent, upwards of a hundred looms being in full operation. The raw material is obtained from Dundee by persons whose business it is to purchase it in large quantities, and, when worked up into webs, is returned to the same place, where it meets with a ready market. The Perth turnpike-road traverses the parish for about two miles. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling; patron, the Crown. The manse and offices are commodious, and there is a glebe worth about £12 per annum; the stipend is £155. 15., of which £87 are received from the exchequer. The church, built in 1813, is a handsome structure, with a square tower, surmounted by minarets, and contains 400 sittings; it is situated on an elevated ground, surrounded with venerable trees, and is much admired for its commanding locality. A place of worship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. There is a parochial school, in which every branch of instruction may be obtained; the master has excellent accommodations, with the maximum salary, and £27 fees. A parochial library, also, has been recently established.

College Of Roseisle

COLLEGE OF ROSEISLE, a hamlet, in the parish of Duffus, county of Elgin; containing 53 inhabitants. It is situated on the east side of Burgh-Head bay, about a mile and a half west of Duffus, and south of the road from Burgh-Head to Elgin.

Collessie

COLLESSIE, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county of Fife; including the villages of Edenton, Giffordton, Kinloch, Ladybank, and Monkston; and containing 1346 inhabitants, of whom 210 are in the village of Collessie, 5½ miles (W.) from Cupar. This place, which is situated on the road from Cupar to Auchtermuchty, is supposed to have derived its name from the position of its village at the bottom of a glen, of which, in the Gaelic language, the term Collessie is significant. The parish is about eight miles in extreme length, and four in average breadth, and is bounded on the south by the river Eden. It comprises about 16,540 acres, of which 5000 are arable, 10,000 in pasture, about 1200 woodland, and nearly 300 marsh and uncultivated waste, the whole of which might, without difficulty, be reclaimed and rendered fertile. The surface is varied; in some parts rising into hills of moderate height, of which the sloping sides are richly cultivated, and in others spreading into open vales intersected by the river Eden and various other streams, of which the principal is the Keilour, separating the eastern portion of the parish from that of Monimail. The scenery throughout is pleasingly diversified, and embellished with natural wood and flourishing plantations. A tract of common comprising nearly 1000 acres has been divided and inclosed within the last fifty years, and is now covered with plantations, chiefly of fir; and the hills in general are crowned with ornamental timber.

The soil is various; in the north and north-western portions, extremely fertile; in others, light and sandy, and in some parts a sterile marsh. Extensive improvements have been made in draining. The Rossie loch, which covered nearly 300 acres, was partly drained towards the close of the last century, but remained little better than a morass till 1806, when Captain Cheape completed the undertaking, and, at an expense of £3000, reclaimed 250 acres, which now produce excellent grain, and left only about 50 acres in the centre, which, though affording good crops of hay, are still marshy. The lands have been also benefitted by an embankment of the river Eden, and by deepening the bed of the Keilour; and the system of agriculture has been greatly improved under the auspices of an agricultural society, supported by most of the landed proprietors in the district, and who hold annual meetings for the distribution of prizes. The principal crops are, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, and turnips; and the species of barley called Chevalier, and Italian rye grass, have been recently introduced by the members of the society. The pastures are very extensive, and many of them luxuriantly rich; the cattle are of the black Fifeshire breed, crossed occasionally with the Teeswater and Angus breeds. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8032. The substratum is chiefly whinstone, which is quarried for building purposes, and is much esteemed; sandstone is also found in some parts, but is not worked to any great extent. The mansion-houses, with their well-planted and tastefully laid out demesnes, add greatly to the beauty of the scenery. In the house of Kinloch are preserved some of the earlier pictures painted by Wilkie, of which one is "Pitlessie Fair," containing an admirable group of more than 150 figures, chiefly portraits, and which he presented to the late Mr. Kinnear, in testimony of his gratitude for the hospitality he experienced at Kinloch.

The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife; patron, William Johnstone, Esq. The stipend of the incumbent is £223. 4. 9.; the manse is a comfortable residence, enlarged and nearly rebuilt within the last fifteen years, and the glebe is valued at £15 per annum. The former church, an ancient edifice, being ill adapted for public worship, and too small for the parish, another has lately been erected, a handsome building somewhat in the English style, with a short square tower, and capable of seating 550 persons. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school is attended by nearly seventy scholars; the master, who, in addition to the ordinary branches, teaches Latin and the mathematics, has a salary of £35. 12., with £25 fees, and a house and garden. There is also a parochial library. A little to the south of the village, is a cairn called the Gask Hill, consisting of loose stones overgrown with turf, about twelve feet in height. Near this spot, an ancient sword about eighteen inches in length, and several fragments of human bones, covered with a few flat stones, were dug up some years since. On the lands of Melville, and near the site of Hall Hill, the ancient mansion of that family, is an upright block of whinstone, about six feet in circumference, and nine in height. In the hamlet of Trafalgar are two spots, supposed to have been the sites of military stations erected to secure the pass from Newburgh to the interior of the county of Fife, from which circumstance a small lake between this place and Newburgh is called Lindores, from the Gaelic Linne-Doris, the loch of the pass. The eastern fort, called Agabatha, was seated on an eminence surrounded with a moat; and relics of antiquity have been discovered near the spot, among which was a quern or hand-mill of mica-slate, and a number of coins of the date of Edward I. The western fort, called Maiden Castle, is said to have derived that name from the daughter of the governor, who, concealing the death of her father during a siege, continued to give, herself, the necessary orders for its defence, till the assailants were compelled to abandon the attempt. The site of this fort is pointed out by some trees planted there by the late proprietor of the land. In the interval between the forts numerous coffins, urns, and human bones have been frequently discovered; the urns, one of which is still preserved at Kinloch, were of Celtic origin, about eighteen inches in height, and fifteen in diameter at the base, and extremely conical in form. Among the eminent persons connected with the parish, was Sir James Melville, proprietor of the lands of Hall Hill in the time of Mary, Queen of Scots; there are no remains of the mansion, and the site of it has disappeared since the inclosure of the lands. Dr. Hugh Blair was incumbent of this parish, to which he was ordained in 1742.

Collieston

COLLIESTON, a village, in the parish of Slains, district of Ellon, county of Aberdeen, 6 miles (E. by S.) from Ellon; containing 357 inhabitants. This is a maritime village, situated on the eastern coast, and inhabited chiefly by fishermen, who obtain a comfortable livelihood by taking various kinds of white-fish, but especially haddock and cod, which are cured, and sent in large quantities to Leith, Glasgow, and London.—See Slains.

Collin

COLLIN, a village, in the parish of Torthorwald, county of Dumfries, 2½ miles (E. by S.) from Dumfries; containing 283 inhabitants. It is on the western borders of the parish, and on the high road from Aunan to Dumfries. There is a school, of which the master has a salary of £20, for teaching the ordinary branches of education, and derives as much more from fees.

Collistonmill

COLLISTONMILL, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Vigean's, county of Forfar; containing 61 inhabitants. It lies in the north-western part of the parish, on the confines of that of Kinnell, and on the road from Arbroath to Dunnichen.

Collochburn

COLLOCHBURN, a village, in the parish of Cambuslang, Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 166 inhabitants. The greater part of the population is employed in the manufactures of the district.

Colmonell

COLMONELL, a parish, in the district of Carrick, county of Ayr, 5 miles (N. E.) from Ballantrae; containing 2801 inhabitants. This parish, of which the name is of very uncertain derivation, is about nineteen miles and a half in length, and seven miles in extreme breadth. It is bounded on the north by the Frith of Clyde, and comprises 56,800 acres, of which 4000 are arable, 2000 fine meadow land, 800 woods and plantations, and the remainder moor and rough pasture. The surface is beautifully varied with hills of gentle elevation, inclosing fertile valleys, and with gradually rising grounds and level meadows. The chief river is the Stinchar, which has its source in the parish of Barr, and, in its winding course of nearly nine miles through this parish, receives the waters of the Dhuisk, or Blackwater, a river of nearly equal breadth, over which are three bridges of stone, and several of wood. The banks of the Stinchar and the Dhuisk are clothed with wood, chiefly oak, ash, elm, birch, alder, and larch. There are also several lakes, of which the principal are Loch Dornal and Loch Mabiery, which abound with romantic scenery. The higher grounds command prospects of the surrounding districts, but none of the hills have an elevation of more than 700 feet above the sea, and the views, though interesting, are not very extensive. The finest is that from the hill of Knockdolian, which embraces the whole extent of the vale of the Stinchar, from Penmore to Knockdolian.

The soil on the banks of the Stinchar is extremely fertile; the higher lands are chiefly a stiff clay, resting upon gravel, and a considerable portion is poor moorland, affording scanty pasturage. The chief crops are, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is in a very advanced state, and all the more recent improvements are in general practice. Great attention is paid to the management of the dairy, and about 4000 stone of cheese are annually produced for the neighbouring markets. The Cunninghame breed of cows is daily increasing, and about 500 of that kind are pastured on the several dairy-farms; the cattle reared are chiefly of the Galloway breed, and about 1500 are annually sold to the cattle-dealers from the south. About 9000 sheep of the black-faced breed, and 200 of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds, are annually pastured, on the average. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,425. Limestone is extensively quarried, and there are five kilns, at which about 20,000 bolls of lime are burnt for manure every year. The fishery on the coast is carried on with success; the chief fish found here are, cod, whitings, haddocks, turbot, skate, and herrings, and lobsters are taken in abundance, and sent by steam to Dublin, where they are in great demand. Salmon is also found, in the river Stinchar; and there are several salmon pools, the rents of which, in the aggregate, amount to £30 per annum. The chief seats of the parish are Penmore and Dalgerrock, which are of some antiquity; and Knockdolian, Dhuisk Lodge, Corwar, Ballochmorie, and Drumlamford, of recent erection, are handsome mansions, embellished with flourishing plantations. The village, formerly consisting only of a few thatched cottages, has been almost entirely rebuilt in a regular style; and, since the passing of the Reform act, has been a polling-place for the election of a member for the county. A post-office has been established; and fairs are held on the first Monday in February, May, August, and November (O. S.), and three cattle-markets at Barhill, a small hamlet of recent origin, on the river Dhuisk, on the fourth Friday in April, September, and October (O. S.).

The parish is in the presbytery of Stranraer and synod of Galloway, and in the patronage of the Duchess de Coigny. The minister's stipend is £256. 18. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum. The church, erected in 1772, and repaired in 1832, is a neat substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 500 persons, but very inadequate to the population of the parish. A chapel of ease has been erected, in which the incumbent officiates every fourth Sunday, during ten months of the year; and there are places of worship for Reformed Presbyterians and Original Seceders, besides a Free church. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £34, with £26 fees, a house and garden, and the half of £21. 15., the rent of the farm of Little Dungart, bequeathed by Dr. Kennedy, for the gratuitous instruction of six poor scholars. There are some remains of the ancient castles of Knockdaw, Carleton, Craigneil, Kirkhill, Penwherry, and Knockdolian. The most interesting of these are the ruins of Craigneil, supposed to have been erected in the thirteenth century, and to have been frequently visited by Robert Bruce; they are situated on a rock, and the castle was anciently a prison, and a place of execution for criminals.

Colonsay and Oronsay

COLONSAY and ORONSAY, two islands, in the parish of Jura, district of Islay, county of Argyll, 15 miles (N. N. W.) from Portaskaig; containing about 840 inhabitants. These islands, which are contiguously situated in the Atlantic Ocean, about twenty miles to the west of the isle of Jura, are supposed to have derived their names from St. Colon and St. Oran, respectively. The former saint founded a monastery for Culdees, prior to his settlement at Iona, and the latter presided over a priory of canons regular, founded by one of the lords of the Isles, as a cell to the abbey of Holyrood. The islands are separated from each other only by a frith, in some parts scarcely a hundred yards wide, and which, being dry at the reflux of the tide, gives them the appearance of one continuous island. Together they are about 12 miles in length, varying from one mile to nearly four miles in breadth, and comprise about 11,300 acres, of which one-third is arable and meadow, and the remainder hill pasture, moorland, and moss. The soil is various, and has been much improved by the proprietor, who has also reclaimed considerable tracts of unprofitable heath and moor, and introduced the best system of husbandry. The chief crops are, potatoes and barley, of which large quantities are sent to Islay for the distilleries, and to Ireland. Great numbers of black-cattle and sheep are reared on the pastures, and, from the attention paid to the improvement of the breed, obtain a high price in the markets of Doune and Dumbarton, to which they are mostly sent. The plantations consist principally of elm, ash, sycamore, and alder. The house of Killoran, situated here, was built in 1722, on the site of the ancient Culdee establishment; it is a spacious mansion, to which two wings have recently been added. At Oronsay, a handsome residence was built in 1772.

There is no village. Kelp is still manufactured here, affording employment to about 100 persons during the summer, and is sent to Liverpool. There are several fishing-stations on the coast, but they are so exposed to the swell of the Atlantic, that comparatively little benefit is derived from them; the fish taken are, cod, haddock, ling, skate, turbot, flounders, eels, and lobsters of large size and excellent quality. The harbour of Portnafeamin affords secure shelter, and a substantial quay has been erected by the proprietor, near which is a good inn. There is a church, built by the heritors in 1802, a neat structure, containing 400 sittings, all of which are free. The minister, who is appointed by the incumbent of Jura, has a stipend of £50, and a house and garden, with some land given by the proprietor of Colonsay. A parochial school for teaching English and Gaelic exists here; the master has a salary of £11. 2., with £1. 10. fees. Some portions remain of the ancient priory of St. Oran, founded on the site of a Culdee establishment supposed to have been the first instituted by St. Columba. The ruins are by far the most interesting in the West Highlands, with the exception only of those of Iona; they consist chiefly of the church, in which are still preserved the tombs of the ancient lords, with a portion of the cloisters and conventual buildings, and an ancient cross with an inscription, of which the words Hæc est Crux Colini Prior Orisoi are still legible. There are also the ruins of a castle on an island in a lake near Colonsay House, which is supposed to have been a stronghold, or place of retreat in times of danger. Sir John Mc Neill, G. C. B., late envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the court of Persia; and Duncan Mc Neill, Esq., lord-advocate for Scotland, were natives of the place.

Colonsay, Little

COLONSAY, LITTLE, an isle, in the parish of Kilninian, county of Argyll. It lies between the islands of Staffa and Gometra, and has a very few inhabitants, who feed some sheep on the verdure it affords. In many places are specimens of basaltic pillars, similar to those of Staffa.

Colsay Isle

COLSAY ISLE, in the parish of Dunrossness, county of Shetland. This is a small islet, lying west of the mainland of the parish, about a mile south of the island of St. Ronan's, and nearly double that distance north of Fitfull Head; and is wholly uninhabited.

Coltfield

COLTFIELD, a hamlet, in the parish of Alves, county of Elgin, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Elgin; containing 42 inhabitants. It lies near the south-eastern corner of Burgh-Head bay, and on the road between Kinloss and Duffus.

Colvend and Southwick

COLVEND and SOUTHWICK, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright; containing 1495 inhabitants, of whom 875 are in Colvend, 18 miles (E.) from Dumfries. The former of these places is supposed to have derived its name from John de Culwen, its proprietor in the fifteenth century, and the latter from the position of its ancient church, now in ruins, with reference to a small river which flows through the parish into Solway Frith. After the dilapidation of the church of Southwick, that parish was annexed to Colvend, with which it has been united from the time of the Reformation. The parish extends for about eight miles from north-east to south-west, and is partly bounded on the south-east by the Solway Frith; the breadth of the parish is nearly four miles, and the river Urr forms its south-western limit. The surface is extremely irregular, and is so broken into detached portions by intervening masses of rock and impenetrable copses of furze and briars, as to render it unpracticable to ascertain, with any degree of correctness, the probable number of acres under cultivation. The ground in some parts rises into numerous hills of moderate height, and in other parts, especially towards the north, into mountainous elevation forming a chain of heights skirting the lofty and conspicuous mountain of Criffel. For nearly two miles along the eastern coast the surface is tolerably level, and divided into several fields of good arable land. The coast is bold and rocky, and in many places rises into lofty and precipitous cliffs, overhanging the Frith, from which, at low water, the sea retires, leaving a broad tract of level sands. In the crevices of these rocks is found abundance of samphire, of which considerable quantities are collected with great hazard. The Frith is about nine leagues in breadth at this place; the river Urr is navigable for eight miles from it, for vessels of not more than eighty tons, and the Southwick burn joins the Frith on the boundary of the parish. The salmon-fishery is carried on upon a small scale, and during the season smelts are also found; cod is taken with lines during the winter, and flounders, in 1834, were taken in such numbers that cart-loads were distributed throughout the neighbouring parishes.

The soil is generally a thin light loam, and, though warm and fertile, better adapted for pasture than for tillage; the chief crops are, oats and barley, with potatoes, turnips, and clover. The system of agriculture is improved, and much of the previously unprofitable waste land has been reclaimed. The cattle are principally of the Galloway breed; the sheep are the black-faced, and about fifty scores of that kind are pastured on the hills. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6006. On the estates of Fairgirth and Barnhourie, are considerable tracts of ancient wood; and the plantations of more modern date are also extensive, and consist chiefly of oak and Scotch fir, both of which are in a thriving state. The prevailing rocks are granite, of which there are quarries; stone of good quality for millstones is also raised, and there are evident indications of copper and iron, but no attempt has yet been made to work either of the veins. At the mouth of the river Urr small vessels are built, and there is a landing-place for unloading cargoes of lime and other articles, and for shipping the agricultural produce to Liverpool, Glasgow, and other ports. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery and synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £234. 14. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; joint patrons, the Crown and the Duke of Buccleuch. The church is a plain structure, erected in 1771, and totally inadequate to the population. There is a place of worship for members of the Secession Synod. Parochial schools are supported at Colvend and Southwick, of which the masters have each a salary of £26. 13.; the former has only fees averaging £15, and the latter has a house and garden, with fees amounting to £36. There are numerous caverns on the shore, in one of which, about 120 yards in length, is a well twenty-two feet deep, into which a piper is supposed to have fallen while attempting to explore the interior of the cavern; and near it is a detached portion of rock, formed naturally into an arch forty feet in height, called the Needle's Eye. In one of the clefts of the rocks, is a strong chalybeate spring; and at Auchenskeoch, in Southwick, are the remains of a large castellated building of which the history is unknown.

Combs, St.

COMBS, ST., a village, in the parish of Lonmay, district of Deer, county of Aberdeen, 5 miles (S. E.) from Fraserburgh; containing 305 inhabitants. It lies on the eastern coast, about two miles to the south-south-east of Cairnbulg point, and is also called St. Colm, a name at different times borne by the parish, from the saint to whom the old church was dedicated. The inhabitants are chiefly fishermen, who have about thirteen boats for the herring, and the same number for ordinary white, fishing. On the sea-side near the village, originally stood the church. There is a parochial school here, of which the master has a salary of £28, with £25 from Dick's bequest, and the school fees.

Comely-Bank

COMELY-BANK, a village, in the parish of Melrose; forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of Ladhope, county of Roxburgh, and containing 157 inhabitants.

Comrie

COMRIE, a parish, in the county of Perth; including the villages of Dalginross, St. Fillan's, and Ross, and containing 2471 inhabitants, of whom 803 are in the village of Comrie, 6½ miles (W.) from Crieff. The name is derived from a Gaelic term signifying "Confluence," used in this instance in reference to the junction of the rivers Earn, Ruchill, and Lednock near the site of the church of Comrie. The present parish contains the ancient parishes of Dundurn and Tullichetal, with parts of Monivaird, Strowan, and Muthill. Several traces of camps and fortifications, some of which have been recently obliterated by the operations of husbandry, connect it with the military enterprises of the ancient Romans. One of these was visible in the last century at Dalginross; and from another which still remains, and the well-known Roman roads which formerly existed in this locality, it is supposed that the battle described by Tacitus as fought between Agricola and Galgacus, took place on the plain of Dalginross. The parish is about thirteen miles long, and ten broad, and contains 67,122 acres. It is bounded on three sides by lofty mountains, the principal range of which is the Grampians: the east opens on the valley of Strathearn. The land is throughout diversified with mountains and valleys, with here and there a fine spreading plain; the mountain Benhonzie is 2900 feet above the level of the sea, and Ben-Vorlich, which is seen from Perth, Edinburgh, and Ayrshire, rises to the height of 3300 feet. The chief valleys, Glenartney and Glen-Lednock, rise from 200 to 300 feet, and open on the village of Comrie. The dryness of the soil, and the protection afforded from the winds by the high range of surrounding mountains, render the climate mild and salubrious; and the scenery is little, if at all, inferior to those parts most distinguished for the union of the picturesque and romantic with the majestic and sublime. The loch and river of Earn, the banks of which are dressed in luxuriant verdure, and crowned with wood, afford some of the beautiful views in the district. In the rivers, salmon, trout, and perch are found.

The soil is for the most part somewhat gravelly, but well cultivated and fertile; clay is sometimes found mixed with sand, and in several of the glens the soil is loamy. There are 7097 acres cultivated or occasionally in tillage; 55,571 pasture or waste; in wood, 3139; and common or disputed, 1315. No wheat is grown; but oats, barley, and potatoes are produced in very heavy crops, especially if the land has been well manured. The improvements in husbandry are considerable, and a whole farm has lately been reclaimed by the proprietor of Dalginross, and yields a profitable return. The chief breed of sheep is the black-faced, which has been greatly improved by crossing it with that of Crawford-Muir, in Dumfries-shire; the Cheviots and Leicesters are also common. The cattle are partly of the Highland breed, and Ayrshire cows have been generally introduced. There are extensive natural woods of oak, ash, birch, alder, and hazel, for the two first of which the soil is especially adapted; fir and larch have been planted to a considerable extent, and thrive well. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,700. The predominating rock is mica-slate; in Glen-Lednock granite is found, and in Glenartney a considerable quantity of clay-slate. In the lower grounds, as well as in Glenartney, there is old red sandstone; at Ardvorlich marble has been discovered, and in some places lead has been seen in small veins. Iron-ore is plentiful, and from the numerous remains of furnaces for smelting, it appears to have been wrought to some extent. There are three slate quarries, and several of whinstone; also a limestone quarry, from which large supplies are obtained for agricultural purposes. The chief mansions are those of Dunira, Ardvorlich, Dalhonzie, Aberuchill, and Comrie House.

The village of Comrie is a burgh of barony, under a bailie, and there are several constables, one of whom has the charge of a small lock-up house. The inhabitants are employed to a very considerable extent in manufactures; there is a woollen-mill, and many persons are engaged in the weaving of cotton for firms in Glasgow and Perth. A distillery for whisky has also been established. Five fairs are held annually, in March, May, July, November, and December; there is a post-office in the village, and the turnpike-road from Perth to Lochearnhead passes through the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling; the patronage is exercised by the Crown, and the minister's stipend is £250, with a manse, and two glebes, valued together at £22 per annum. The church, erected in 1804, principally at the instance of Viscount Melville, is conveniently situated in the village; it is a handsome and commodious edifice, with a spire, and contains 1250 sittings. At Dundurn is an ancient chapel, in which the parish minister occasionally, and his assistant regularly, officiates; it was nearly rebuilt in 1834, by subscription, and will contain 400 persons. The members of the Free Church and United Associate Synod have places of worship; and there is also a parocial school, the master of which receives the maximum salary, with about £45 fees, a house and garden, and teaches Greek, French, mathematics, and the usual branches of education. The village contains a parochial library of about 500 volumes; there is also a small circulating library, and two friendly societies have been founded by the inhabitants. Among the remains of antiquity in the parish are the ruins of several Druidical temples; and a highly venerated relic, also supposed to be Druidical, is still preserved, which is said by antiquaries to be one of those stones which were used as the official badge of the Arch-Druids. On the hill by the village, is a handsome monument to the memory of the first Lord Melville, who erected the beautiful mansion-house at Dunira, and made it his favourite residence in the parliamentary recess. The late Mr. Drummond, under-secretary, was born in the parish, and was heir to the estate of Comrie, which was sold to Lord Melville during his minority.

Conanbridge

CONANBRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Urquhart and Logie Wester, county of Ross and Cromarty, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Dingwall; containing 342 inhabitants. This is a prosperous village, situated in the vicinity of a bridge over the river Conan, and on the road between Inverness and Dingwall. The bridge is of five arches, with 265 feet of water-way, and was erected under the auspices of the parliamentary commissioners, by whom it was approved in October, 1809

Condorat

CONDORAT, a village, in the parish of Cumbernauld, county of Dumbarton, 2½ miles (S. W.) from Cumbernauld; containing 709 inhabitants. It is situated on the north side of the river Logie, and on the high road from Glasgow to Stirling. A part of the population is employed in weaving and other manufactures of the district. A school is aided by an annual allowance from the heritors.

Connage

CONNAGE, a village, in the parish of Petty, county of Inverness, a few miles (N. E.) from Inverness; containing 97 inhabitants. This is a small fishing place on the east side of the Moray Frith, and on the road from Inverness to Ardersier.

Contin

CONTIN, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 8 miles (S. W. by W.) from Dingwall; including part of the late quoad sacra districts of Carnoch and Kinlochlychart, and containing 1770 inhabitants. The origin of the name of this place, which is involved in considerable obscurity, is said to be Gaelic, the word expressing the confluence of two streams of water. The Druids appear to have had a residence here in ancient times; and from its strong places, the remains of which are still visible, we may conclude Contin to have been, in after ages, the theatre of several bloody encounters. Indeed, the spot of Blar' na'n Ceann, or "the field of heads," derived its name from a sanguinary engagement between the Mackenzies of Seaforth and the Macdonells of Glengarry. The parish is thirty-three miles long, and nearly of the same breadth; the surface is mountainous, and the scenery about the valleys and lakes, especially Loch Achilty, is highly picturesque. The chief streams are, the Conan, the Meig, and the Rasay, which all unite at Moy, and form one large river that takes the name of Conan, and empties itself into Cromarty Frith not far from the town of Dingwall. The lakes are numerous; the two most interesting are Achilty and Kinellan, the former of which is famed for its trout and char, and the latter for its artificial island, based on piles of oak, and for a distinct echo. The scenery of both is delightful.

The mountainous districts are used only for pasture, but in the valleys, which are chiefly arable, the soil is rich and productive. There are several farms of 150 acres each, all cultivated upon the most improved system of husbandry; a large part of the low land is covered with wood, and a few tracts are planted with larch and fir. The land has considerably increased in value during the last half century; in 1792 the rental scarcely reached £1400, whereas the rateable annual value of the parish now is £6406. The sheep are the black-faced and the Cheviots, some of which have obtained competition prizes, and the cattle are of the black Highland breed. The strata of the parish are formed of gneiss, and sometimes red sandstone is found. The principal mansion is Coul: Craigdarroch, within a short distance of Loch Achilty, is surrounded by grounds elegantly laidout, and commands a view of interesting lake scenery. There is a fishery in the Conan and Rasay, in which the finest salmon is taken; the profits are estimated at £40 a year. The road to Lochcarron passes through the parish, and there are several other roads for particular districts. Fairs were held here, until lately, three times in the year, but they have been discontinued. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dingwall and synod of Ross. The patronage is exercised by the Crown; the stipend of the minister is £265, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum. The church, the date of which is uncertain, has strong marks of having been built long prior to the Reformation; it underwent considerable repairs some years ago, but is still an inconvenient and uncomfortable building. There is a parochial school, in which the ordinary branches of education are taught, with the classics and mathematics if required; the master's salary is £30, with from £8 to £10 fees. Another school is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and a third by the Inverness Education Society. The chief relics of antiquity are the remains of a Druidical temple at the border of Loch Achilty. On the estate of Hilton, are several chalybeate springs of strong power.

Copay Isle

COPAY ISLE, in the parish of Harris, county of Inverness, 2 miles (S. W.) from the isle of Lewis. It lies in the Sound of Harris, and is of small extent, and uninhabited.

Copinshay

COPINSHAY, an island, in the parish of Deerness, county of Orkney; containing 13 inhabitants. It is about three-quarters of a mile in length, and half a mile in breadth, lying about three miles directly eastward of the mainland, and contains some good ground, both arable and pasture. The height of the perpendicular rock on the east side of it is 300 feet, and there is a large rock called the Horse of Copinshay on the north-east, about 200 feet high, and distant half a mile. Both of these rocks are covered with immense numbers of sea-fowl in the spring and summer months; and at the period when they deposit their eggs and hatch their young, if a gun be fired from a boat below, the birds, alarmed by the report, fly from their nests in such myriads as to darken the air for some extent around. They are principally maws, nories, scarfs, auks, and kittyauks.

Corncairn

CORNCAIRN, a village and burgh of barony, in the parish of Ordiquhill, county of Banff, 6 miles (S.) from Portsoy; containing 94 inhabitants. This place is situated in the neighbourhood of Cornhill, a village on the road from Huntly to Banff, where several annual fairs and cattle-markets are held, the latter well known as the "Cornhill markets."

Corrie

CORRIE, a village, in the Isle of Arran, parish of Kilbride, county of Bute; containing 222 inhabitants. It is situated on the eastern shore of the island, about three miles and a half north of Brodick bay and castle. There is a small harbour, with a quay, but it is only accessible to vessels at high water. A school has been established in the village.

Corrie

CORRIE, county of Dumfries.—See Hutton and Corrie.

Corsock

CORSOCK, a hamlet, in the parish of Parton, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 9 miles (E. by S.) from New Galloway; containing 38 inhabitants. It lies in the eastern confines of the parish, near the Urr water, and south of the high road from New Galloway to Dumfries.

Corstorphine

CORSTORPHINE, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh; including the village of Gogar, and containing 1551 inhabitants, of whom 372 are in the village of Corstorphine, 4 miles (W.) from Edinburgh, on the road to Glasgow. This place, of which the name is of uncertain origin, appears to have been, from a very early period, the property and residence of families of distinction, of whom David le Mareschall held possession of it in the reign of Alexander II. The estate subsequently became the property, in 1376, of Adam Forrester, ancestor of the lords Forrester, and who, in 1373, was provost of Edinburgh, and, in 1390, was made keeper of the great seal by Robert III., who employed him in frequent embassies to England. In 1446, the castle of Corstorphine was destroyed, and the lands laid waste, by Chancellor Crichton and his military vassals, in retaliation of a similar outrage on his castle of Brankstoun, by Sir John Forrester and Sir William Douglas. In 1572, the castle was garrisoned by the Earl of Mar, regent of the kingdom, with a view to prevent the sending of supplies to the castle of Edinburgh, at that time held for Mary, Queen of Scots, by William Kirkaldy of Grange. In 1650, General Leslie drew up his forces on the meadows to the east of the village, to check the proceedings of Cromwell, whose army was posted on the Pentland hills. Cromwell, in order to force him to an engagement, advanced for the purpose of interposing a body of men between him and Linlithgow; but Leslie, marching westward from his former position, intrenched his forces on the field of Gogar, and his opponent, finding it impracticable to dislodge him in consequence of the marshy nature of the ground, retreated, after a sharp skirmish, to Musselburgh. Cromwell, however, afterwards took possession of this place; and his forces, in retaliation of the opposition they had experienced from Lord Forrester, mutilated the tombs and monuments of that family in the church, the interior of which they nearly destroyed, and utterly laid waste the surrounding lands.

The parish, which includes part of the ancient parish of Gogar, with the lands of Ravelston and Saughton, detached from the parish of St. Cuthbert in 1633, contains about 2650 acres, exclusively of plantations, roads, and waste. The surface, which is generally level, is diversified with a gentle elevation near the village, and, towards the north-east, by the beautiful hill of Corstorphine, which rises to a height of 474 feet above the sea, and is clothed to its very summit with rich plantations. The streams in the parish, are the Leith water and Gogar burn, of which the former flows through the eastern portion of the lands, and the latter into the river Almond. The soil is in general fertile, producing abundant crops, and the meadows and pastures are luxuriant; the system of agriculture is in a highly improved state, and around the village are large tracts of garden ground, from which great quantities of fruit are sent to Edinburgh. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9964. On Corstorphine Hill are several quarries of fine freestone, from which were taken the materials for the erection of the Parliament House, Heriot's hospital, and various other public buildings; but they have for many years been abandoned, with the exception of one which has recently been drained. There are also some quarries of blue whinstone in the parish.

On the acclivity of Corstorphine Hill is Ravelston House, and around its base are many noble mansions, among which are Beechwood and Belmont. Within the parish are also, Saughton House, Clermiston, and Gogar. The village is beautifully situated at the base of the hill, on a slight elevation above the meadows on either side, and was for many years a favourite resort of the citizens of Edinburgh, of whom many made it their summer residence. Near it was, till lately, a slightly sulphureous spring, which, in 1749, was in such high repute that a stage coach was established for the conveyance of visiters, making nine journeys daily between this place and Edinburgh. A small pump-room was erected over the well, by one of the Dick family; but it was suffered to fall into decay, and by the sinking of a ditch near the spot within the last few years, the spring has entirely disappeared. The village of Stanhope-Mills, on the lands of Saughton, contains an ancient house, over the doorway of which are the armorial bearings of Patrick Elphingston, with his initials and the date 1623; and one of the rooms, of which the roof is richly ornamented, has on the wall the royal arms, with the initials C. R. II.

The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Edinburgh and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister has a stipend of £242, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum; patron, Sir Robert Keith Dick, Bart. The church, which was formerly collegiate, was founded in 1429, and dedicated to St. John the Baptist, by Sir John Forrester, who endowed it for a provost, five prebendaries, and two choristers. It is a venerable cruciform structure in the later English style, with a handsome tower and spire, and, notwithstanding the mutilation it suffered from Cromwell's soldiers, retains much of its original character and beauty. The roof is plainly groined, and is supported by ranges of clustered columns with richly-moulded arches and ornamented capitals; there are numerous monuments of the Forrester family, whose recumbent effigies are finely sculptured, and various other ancient tombs. A small portion of the church of Gogar is still remaining, and has been converted into a sepulchral chapel by the proprietor of the lands. At the east end of Corstorphine church, a lamp was formerly kept burning to guide the traveller, for the maintenance of which an acre of land near Coltsbridge, thence called the Lamp Acre, was allotted, and now forms an endowment for the parish schoolmaster. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school is attended by about seventy scholars; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the acre of land before noticed; the fees average about £20. The poor's fund is about £450, arising from bequests. On the taking down of the remains of Corstorphine Castle, towards the close of the last century, a large number of gold and silver coins were found; and on the erection of Gogar House in 1811, several remains of Roman antiquity were discovered, consisting of a dagger with part of the scabbard, a fibula, and a gold ring of very slender substance. Numerous stone coffins have been found at various times on the lands of Gogar, and the spot is supposed to have been the original place of sepulture of the ancient parish, or not improbably the site of General Leslie's encampment, where bodies of the slain were interred.