Cortachy - Crichton

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

Supporting documents

Pages

218-233

Citation Show another format:

'Cortachy - Crichton', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 218-233. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43428 Date accessed: 19 September 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Cortachy and Clova

CORTACHY and CLOVA, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 4 miles (N.) from Kirriemuir; containing 867 inhabitants. The former of these ancient parishes, which were united in 1608, is supposed to have derived its name, anciently Quartachie, from a Gaelic term descriptive of the situation of its church and castle in a small valley surrounded with elevated lands. The name of the latter parish is of very uncertain derivation. The barony of Cortachy belonged, at a very early period, to the family of Ogilvy, ancestors of the earls of Airlie, and whose baronial castle here has, for many generations, been their chief seat, and is still the residence of the present earl. The district of Cortachy is about ten miles in length, and nearly four in average breadth, of somewhat triangular form, narrow at the southern extremity, where it is bounded by the confluence of the rivers South-Esk and Prosen, and comprising about 23,700 acres. Clova, which is nearly of equal length, and varying from two to almost four miles in breadth, is situated to the north-west of Cortachy, and comprises an area of 19,000 acres, making a total in the whole parish of nearly 43,000 acres, of which about 3540 are arable, 1000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder mountain pasture and waste.

The surface is boldly diversified, and embellished with features of picturesque beauty and majestic grandeur in striking contrast. The southern portion of Cortachy is chiefly mountainous, and forms part of one of the Grampian ranges, extending nearly through the entire length of the district, and declining on the south and south-west towards the river Prosen, and on the north and north-east towards the South Esk. Opposite to this mountainous range is another of greater elevation, stretching through the whole of the parish; and between them are the beautiful and richly-cultivated vales of Wateresk and Clova. The latter vale on the north, is divided by a lofty mountain into two narrow glens, of which one takes a north-west, and the other a south-western direction. From these glens, the adjacent mountains appear in all their towering grandeur, varying in height from 1500 to more than 3000 feet, and presenting a combination of bold and precipitous masses of barren rock, immense heights, covered to their very summits with various kinds of grasses, and hills of stupendous elevation, affording excellent pasturage for cattle and sheep. The river South Esk has one of its sources in the lake of that name, and another, of still greater power, in the mountain rivulet of Falfearnie; it flows through the parish for nearly twenty miles, receiving in its course numerous tributary streams, among which is the Whitewater. Loch Esk, situated among the mountains, six miles to the north-west of the vale of Clova, is about half a mile in circumference, of comparatively inconsiderable depth, and surrounded with scenery rather of bleak and rugged character. Loch Wharral, in the heart of the mountainous district at the north-eastern boundary of the parish, and about 1000 feet above the level of the Esk, is a mile in circumference, and of very considerable depth. About two miles to the north-east of Loch Wharral, is Loch Brany, on the same side of the mountain range, and nearly at a similar elevation; it is about a mile and a half in circumference, and in some parts of great depth. These lakes abound with trout, and many are also found in the river, of large size and good flavour, as are sea trout during the summer. Salmon, too, are found in the Esk, towards the middle of September.

The soil is very various. The greater portion of that in the arable lands is sharp and gravelly, inclining in some parts to a fertile loam, and in others to a thin stony sand. In the southern districts of the parish it is much mixed with clay, and along the bases of the hills, partly a fine deep mould, and partly hard and stony, alternated with moss. In the valleys there is a rich deposit of alluvial soil, inclining to sand, with alternations of moss, and in other parts a deep sandy loam. The principal crops are, oats, barley, wheat, turnips, and potatoes; the system of agriculture is improved, and the rotation plan of husbandry is generally practised. Great attention is paid to the management of live stock; the cattle chiefly reared are the Angus breed, of middling size, and generally disposed of when two or three years old. The mountains afford pasture for great numbers of sheep, which are mostly of the black-faced and Cheviot breeds; and in addition to those reared in the parish, great numbers are bought when young, and fed till three or four years old, when they are sold at high prices. The woods consist of oak, ash, mountain-ash, elm, plane, beech, chesnut, alder, and birch; and the plantations, of larch, and Scotch, spruce, white and black American, and silver firs. Much attention is paid to pruning and thinning at proper times, especially on the lands of the Earl of Airlie, to whom the gold medal of the Highland Society was adjudged in 1830, for his extensive improvements. The rocks are of red sandstone, pudding-stone, whinstone, serpentine, mica-schist, gneiss, clay-slate, quartz, and granite; limestone is also found, but unless taken from a considerable depth, is not of very good quality. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3887.

Cortachy Castle, the seat of the earl, is a spacious and ancient structure with modern additions, beautifully situated in a small valley on the south side of the river Esk: the date of the more ancient part, and the name of the original founder, are both unknown. Of the castle of Clova but little remains; it is said to have been destroyed by Cromwell, during the parliamentary war. Facility of communication with the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads, of which that to Strathmore passes through the whole length of the parish. Fairs for cattle and sheep are held on the farm of Collow, on the last Friday in April, and fourth Monday in October; the latter is one of the largest sheep markets in the country, and the number of sheep sold is generally from 8000 to 12,000. The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Forfar and synod of Angus and Mearns. The minister's stipend is £172. 19., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Earl of Airlie. The present church of Cortachy, situated near the southern extremity of the parish, was erected on the site of the former edifice, in 1829, by the earl, at an expense of £2000; it is a handsome structure, containing 550 sittings, all of which are free. The church of Clova, about ten miles distant from that of Cortachy, is an ancient structure, repaired and enlarged by the erection of a gallery in 1731, and recently repewed. It contains 250 sittings, all of which are free, except the gallery, which is let for the benefit of the poor. Near it is a good house for a missionary, who officiates alternately in this church and the chapel of Glenprosen, and who has a regular stipend of £30 from Royal Bounty, £30 from the inhabitants, and £21 from the Earl of Airlie. The parochial school is situated near the church of Cortachy; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £15. The parochial library has a collection of 200 volumes, chiefly the gift of the earl and countess.

Cot-Town

COT-TOWN, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Madoes, county of Perth; containing 62 inhabitants. It is one of the only two small hamlets in the parish: in its vicinity is a sandstone quarry.

Cottack

COTTACK, a village, in the parish of Dunscore, county of Dumfries, 9 miles (N. W.) from Dumfries; containing 252 inhabitants. This village is built on elevated ground, and is very centrally situated, being nearly equidistant from the two extremes of the parish; the population consists of agricultural labourers and a few artisans and mechanics. The Cairn, a considerable stream, tributary to the Nith, and in which fine trout are obtained, passes to the west of the village. Here is the parish church, and one of the three parochial schools.

Cotton Of Lownie

COTTON OF LOWNIE, a village, in the parish of Dunnichen, county of Forfar, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Forfar; containing 100 inhabitants. It is seated a little south of the road from Forfar to Dunnichen, and about a mile south-west of the latter village.

Coull

COULL, a parish, in the district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 2¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Tarland; containing 744 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have taken its name, which signifies a "corner," from its situation in the south-eastern extremity of the district of Cromar. The parish measures six miles in average length, and three in breadth, comprising about 7620 acres, of which 2300 are arable; 5000 are uncultivated pasture; nearly 100 of these, however, being capable of profitable cultivation; and 320 acres are under wood, chiefly planted within the last twenty years. The surface is level to a considerable extent, especially in the centre, where is a marshy tract called Bogmore; there are, however, several portions of high land, and between this parish and those of Aboyne and Lumphanan, stretches a mountain range containing the peaks called the hill of Gellan, Mortlich, Leadhlich, and the hill of Corse. The soil in the low grounds is generally of good quality, and comprehends a large portion of rich loam, resting on a gravelly subsoil; but on the hills it only affords indifferent pasture. Great improvements in agriculture have been effected during the last twenty years, especially on the estate of Corse, where almost every thing has been done which could contribute to change its neglected appearance, and increase the value of the property, which is now one of the most beautiful and desirable in the county. In other parts of the district, much land has been brought into cultivation; draining and inclosing have been successfully practised, and the larger part of Bogmore, formerly so prejudicial to the climate of the locality, has been partly converted into pasture, and partly into arable land. In the process of draining the ground, which was an alluvial deposit incumbent on moss, fragments of immense oaks were found imbedded. The rocks in the hills are chiefly red and white granite. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2197. The knitting of stockings is carried on, and there is a wool-carding mill, at which blankets and coarse woollen-cloths are manufactured. The parish was formerly attached to the abbey of Arbroath, but is now in the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Sir John Forbes, Bart., of Craigievar. The minister's stipend is £161. 5. 7., of which about half is received from the exchequer, with a manse, built in 1832, and a glebe of four acres, valued at £7 per annum. The church is a plain building, erected in 1792; it has a good-toned bell, of considerable size, cast in Holland in the year 1644, and presented by Mr. Ross, of Mill of Coull. A large portion of the parish has long been annexed, for ecclesiastical purposes, to the parish of Leochel and Cushnie. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £26, with about £15 fees, and £40 from the Dick bequest. The ruins of the castle of Corse, erected in 1581, by William Forbes, father of Bishop Patrick Forbes, are still to be seen; and the remains of that of Coull are also visible, on a rocky eminence near the church. This ancient structure, the seat of the Durwards, a family of great power, was of quadrangular form, with large hexagonal towers at the angles, the whole surrounded by a fosse, and appears to have been a fortification of considerable extent and strength. On the summit of a small hill is a Druidical circle, and traces of a chapel called Turry Chapel, yet remain on the lands of Corse.

Coupar-Angus

COUPAR-ANGUS, Forfarshire.—See Cupar-Angus.

Cove

COVE, a village, in the parish of Nigg, county of Kincardine, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Aberdeen; containing 421 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the shore of the North Sea, derives its name from one of those numerous small bays or coves with which the coast is here indented, and is inhabited by persons employed in the fisheries. The fish taken are chiefly salmon, white-fish of various kinds, and lobsters, crabs, and other shell-fish. The salmon are caught in bagnets, and are packed in ice, and sent to the London market; and during the season, nine boats, varying from ten to fourteen tons' burthen, with crews of six men each, are engaged in the herring-fishery off the north coast. The cove, which forms a small natural harbour, affords sufficient shelter for the boats belonging to the place. A school has been established for the accommodation of this distant portion of the parish; the master has a house and garden, with £7 from a bequest, in addition to the fees, which average £15.

Covington and Thankeston

COVINGTON and THANKESTON, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Biggar; containing 523 inhabitants. Of these ancient parishes, which were united about the beginning of the 18th century, the former derives its name, anciently Colbanstoun, from its proprietor Colban, in the 12th century; and the latter, from a Flemish settler named Tankard or Thankard, who obtained a grant of lands here during the reign of Malcolm IV. The parish is about four miles in length, from south to north, and nearly three in average breadth, and is bounded on the east by the river Clyde, which separates it from the parish of Libberton. The number of acres is about 5500, of which nearly 2000 are arable, 80 acres woodland and plantations, and the remainder sheep pasture. The surface is varied, and the scenery in many parts of pleasing character. The soil along the banks of the Clyde is rich and fertile, and the lands occasionally subject to inundation; in the higher grounds are some portions of barren heath, but they generally afford good pasturage to numerous flocks of sheep. The system of agriculture is in an improved state; the chief crops are, oats, barley, peas, potatoes, and turnips. The lands have been much benefited by furrow-draining; considerable progress has been made in inclosing the several farms, and the farm-buildings and offices are in a very superior condition. The cattle are chiefly of the Angus breed, and the sheep of the black-faced kind. There is but little wood in the parish, and much improvement might be made, both in the appearance of the lands and in affording shelter, by a judicious increase of plantation. The Clyde abounds with trout and pike of considerable size. The villages of Covington and Thankeston are pleasantly situated, and at the latter is a bridge over the Clyde, which was erected by subscription, in 1778. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £208. 13. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17. 10.; patrons alternately, Sir Norman Lockhart, Bart., and Sir Windham Anstruther. The church of Thankeston has been suffered to fall into ruins, and that of Covington has been enlarged for the population of the whole parish. The parochial school is in the village of Covington; the master has a salary of £28, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £16 per annum.

Cowcaddens

COWCADDENS, a village, in the late ecclesiastical district of St. Stephen's, within the jurisdiction of the city of glasgow, county of Lanark, ½ a mile (N.) from Glasgow. This is a populous village, till lately forming, with Port-Dundas and Woodside, one of the divisions recently separated from Barony parish. It is chiefly occupied by persons employed in handloom weaving, and in the various factories in the vicinity of Glasgow. There are five schools, of which one is in connexion with the Roman Catholics, and two are female schools.

Cowden-Beath

COWDEN-BEATH, a village, in the parish of Beath, district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, ½ a mile (S. E.) from Beath; containing 127 inhabitants. It is in the south-eastern part of the parish, a short distance west of the road from Aberdour to Kinross.

Cowie

COWIE, a village, in the parish of Fetteresso, county of Kincardine, 1 mile (N.) from Stonehaven; containing 174 inhabitants. This village is situated at the mouth of the river Cowie, which falls into a bay of that name, forming a small and commodious harbour; and is chiefly inhabited by fishermen, who, during the season, are also engaged in the herring-fisheries on the coast. The principal fish taken here are haddocks, of which great numbers are cured, and sent by the Aberdeen steamers to the London market; cod, ling, and various other fish are also found in abundance. Eight boats are employed, each having a crew of five men. On the summit of a rock overlooking the bay, are the remains of an ancient castle which, upon very doubtful authority, is supposed by some writers to have been originally built by Malcolm Canmore.

Cowpits

COWPITS, a village, in the parish of Inveresk, county of Edinburgh; containing 116 inhabitants. It is one of a few small villages in the parish, chiefly occupied by colliers.

Cowsland

COWSLAND, a village, in the parish of Cranston, county of Edinburgh, 3 miles (E. N. E.) from Dalkeith; containing 226 inhabitants. It is a neat village, situated in the northern part of the parish, on the road from Dalkeith to Ormiston. In the neighbourhood are some limestone quarries; and to the east of the village is Cowsland Park. A school-house is furnished to a teacher by the families in the vicinity.

Coylton

COYLTON, a parish, in the county of Ayr, 5 miles (S. E.) from Ayr; containing, with the villages of Craighall, Gadgirth-holm and Bankfoot, Joppa, and Knockshaggle-holm, 1484 inhabitants. This place, the name of which is of uncertain derivation, was augmented, about the beginning of the 18th century, by the quoad sacra annexation of a portion of land, lying on the north and east sides of the river Coyl, and then included in the parish of Ochiltree. It measures twelve miles in extreme length, and nearly two in average breadth, and comprises 11,515 acres, of which more than 8000 are cultivated, nearly 800 under wood, consisting chiefly of forest trees, and the remainder in pasture. The river Ayr flows for nearly four miles along its north-west boundary, separating it from Tarbolton and St. Quivox; and from this stream the surface rises south-easterly, in a series of undulations, to the heights called the Craigs of Coyl, attaining an elevation of 750 feet above the level of the sea. After this, the land advances to a loftier ridge, forming the boundary line in this direction, and commanding, from an elevation of 1100 feet, an extensive and richly diversified prospect on all sides. The scenery is much improved by the lochs named Martnaham, Snipe, and Fergus, the first of which, partly in the parish of Dalrymple, is a mile and a half long, and about a furlong broad, abounding in pike, perch, and eels, and much frequented by wild-ducks, geese, widgeon, teal, and other water-fowl. Loch Fergus, a fine piece of water extending over about twenty-five acres, contains a well-wooded island, said to have been in ancient times the seat of a monastery, and is supposed by some to have taken its name from King Fergus, who defeated Coilus, king of the Britons, in the adjacent fields. There is also a lake called Loch End, which covers about three acres; and in most of the lakes fish of the usual kinds is found, as well as in the rivers, which are also well stocked with yellow trout. The river Coyl, which rises in the parish, displays a beautiful cascade in the vicinity of Sundrum Castle, where the river is about twenty-five feet wide; the fall is about thirteen feet in depth, and on the swelling of the stream, is greatly increased in its picturesque effect.

The soil in general is a retentive clay, producing chiefly oats, but wheat also is grown, as well as all other kinds of grain, and beans, potatoes, turnips, and the various grasses. The husbandry of the parish is not so much in advance as that of many other parts, but improvements are in progress, especially furrow-draining, and subsoil ploughing is practised to a limited extent. The dairy is much regarded, and what is called Dunlop cheese is made in large quantities, frequently of excellent quality, and, with the butter, milk, and other dairy produce, is relied on for the payment of nearly half the rent. The cattle are mostly of the pure Ayrshire breed, but a few of the West Highland or Galloway are kept on the higher grounds; the sheep were formerly the black-faced, but these, for several years, have been crossed with the Cheviots, and the latter stock now generally prevails. The rateable annual value of Coylton is £8144. The working of the subterraneous contents of the parish occupies a considerable portion of the manual labour of the district; coal, limestone, ironstone, plumbago, clay-slate, basalt, several varieties of freestone, and fire-clay, are all found here, and several of them are wrought to some extent. Three coal-mines, a limestone quarry, and three quarries of sandstone, are in operation; and black-lead obtained from this part, for many years, supplied an article of traffic, but its quality not allowing a competition with the Cumberland and foreign lead, the mine has been abandoned. Clay-slate, celebrated for sharpening iron instruments, was also once extensively quarried; but the material being found in abundance, and of superior quality, in the adjoining parish of Stair, the works have been discontinued. The value of the mineral produce is averaged at £6000 annually. The plantations are chiefly in the lower part of the parish, and, being in a thriving condition, especially in the vicinity of the rivers, add greatly to the agreeable character of the scenery; they are mostly of larch and Scotch fir, but oak, beech, ash, elm, birch, and several other kinds are plentiful.

The mansion of Sundrum, pleasantly situated on the bank of the Coyl, and commanding extensive views, is partly ancient and partly modern; the old walls are in some portions twelve feet thick, and have castellated summits. Gadgirth House, another seat, is a plain oblong modern structure, on the bank of the Ayr river, and occupies the site of Gadgirth Castle, once a place of note, and the residence of the family of Chalmers, who, being very friendly to the Reformation, warmly patronized the celebrated John Knox, and allowed him to preach in the castle. The great road from Ayr to Dumfries, through Nithsdale, traverses the centre of the parish. Coylton is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £254. 8. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The old church, the ruin of which is still partly standing, belonged in ancient times to the bishopric of Glasgow; the present edifice, which is small but handsome, was built in 1836, and is a cruciform structure, with a square tower sixty feet high, containing a good bell. The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary branches, the classics, and mathematics; the master has a salary of £30, with a house, and £20 fees. A few years since, several silver coins of the reigns of Elizabeth, James VI., and Charles I., were dug up. The Rev. John Black, LL.D., author of the Life of Tasso, and who died in the year 1825, was minister of Coylton for fifteen years; he was a native of the parish of Douglas, in the county of Lanark.

Cragganester and Craggantoul

CRAGGANESTER and CRAGGANTOUL, hamlets, in the parish of Weem, county of Perth, 7 miles (S. W.) from Fortingal; containing respectively 23 and 20 inhabitants. These are neighbouring places, situated in one of the detached portions of the parish, and on the western border of Loch Tay. The road from Fortingal to Killin passes in the vicinity of both hamlets.

Craichie

CRAICHIE, a village, in the parish of Dunnichen, county of Forfar, 1½ mile (W. S. W.) from Letham; containing 70 inhabitants. It is on one of the roads between Forfar and Letham, and about a mile south of Dunnichen church. The parochial church is in the village.

Craig

CRAIG, a parish, in the county of Forfar, ½ a mile (S. by W.) from Montrose; containing, with the villages of Ferryden, Usan, and Rossie, 1945 inhabitants. This place was formerly called Inchbrayock, the "island of trout," by which name an island of thirty-four Scotch acres within the parish is still known. Craig was at that time only the designation of one of the chief estates, and it is supposed that, when the place of worship was transferred from the island to the property of Craig on the continental part of the district, the name of Craig, which is naturally derived from the rocky nature of the shore, was extended to the whole of the parish. The parish comprehends two distinct titularities, viz., Craig and St. Skeoch, which were united in the year 1618, and the latter of which, pronounced St. Skay, is said to have received its name from one of the northern saints. The site of an ancient religious edifice on the coast is still called the chapel of St. Skay; a small burying-place round the spot is occasionally used for interments, and the site of the manse is pointed out in a neighbouring field. Craig appears to have been a feudal barony, a field behind the house being still called Law-field; an adjoining farm-steading, also, is styled Balgovie, that is, Withie, or prison-house, and a rising ground on the property bears the name of Govan-hill, the Withie-hill, or place of execution.

The parish is about six miles long, and two and a half in extreme breadth, and comprises 5138 acres, 2 roods, 37 perches of land. It is partly bounded by a basin about nine miles in circumference, through which the river South Esk flows into the sea, and which is filled with the tide at high water. This basin separates the parish on the north from the town and harbour of Montrose, and on the south-east is the German Ocean. The surface gradually rises from the north and east towards the south-west, where it attains a height of 400 feet above the level of the sea. The coast is rocky, and towards the south quite precipitous; it forms about five miles of the boundary line of the parish, and has Montrose bay and ness on the north, and Lunan bay and Boddin point on the south. The shores abound in all kinds of fish, which are taken in great numbers in the respective seasons. The soil in the middle of the parish is a strong rich loam; towards the eastern quarter it is sandy, and in some places, especially in the western portion, it is damp and moorish. About 3509 acres are cultivated, 331 waste or pasture, 757 undivided common, belonging to the parishes of Craig, Marytown, Farnell, and Kinnell, and 291 acres are under wood, comprising almost all the trees usually grown. Grain of every kind, with the principal green crops, is cultivated in the parish; and as the husbandry adopted comprehends all the most approved usages, the average crops, both as to quantity and quality, are of a superior character. The cattle are the Angusshire black, without horns, and the sheep are chiefly the black-faced Highland breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9645.

The rocks consist of the old red sandstone and limestone, intermixed with several varieties of trap, in which very fine specimens of the Scotch pebble are often found imbedded. There are some quarries of the trap formation, which is in considerable demand for building, but requires, for facings, the more ornamental material of sandstone. The mansions are, the house of Rossie, built in 1800; the villa of Inchbrayock, built in 1813; the house of Usan, in 1820; and that of Dunninald, in 1825. A few of the inhabitants are employed in manufactures; but the principal attention of the population is divided between agriculture and fishing, the produce of the latter of which amounts in value to about £7000 annually. The salmon taken is mostly packed in ice, and sent to the Edinburgh and London markets. The turnpike-road from Montrose to Arbroath passes through the parish; and the Inverness mail, and the Aberdeen and Montrose coaches travel daily on it. During the summer, also, the steam-boat from Aberdeen to Leith touches at the village of Usan. There are harbours at Ferryden and Boddin, large enough for small sloops with coal and lime, and piers and warehouses are expected shortly to be built at Ferryden: the dues belong to the town of Montrose. Facility of intercourse is likewise afforded by several bridges, the chief of which is a magnificent suspension-bridge over the South Esk, opening an immediate communication with Montrose.

The Ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Brechin and synod of Angus and Mearns; patrons, the College of St. Mary, in St. Andrew's. There is a good manse, built in 1805, with a glebe valued at £24 per annum; the stipend is £257. The church, which is an elegant structure, with a square tower, eighty feet high, was built in 1799, at the expense of the late Mrs. Ross, of Rossie, and was for many years after its erection the only church in the county possessed of any architectural beauty. It contains 800 sittings, all of which are free. A place of worship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. There is a parochial school, in which the classics, mathematics, navigation, and all the usual branches of education are taught; the master has a good house and garden, with a salary of £ 34, and about £17 fees. The parish also contains three libraries, to which the inhabitants have access gratis; two of these are small, but the third, instituted in 1809, consists of nearly 600 volumes, and has proved of great utility. Among the chief remains of antiquity is the Castle of Craig, situated on the northern side of the parish, and formerly a place of considerable strength; it has a square tower and gateway, apparently of great age, but in good preservation, and a part of it, bearing the date of 1634, is still occupied as a dwelling-house. Near Boddin, on the south coast, are the remains of an old castle called Black Jack, supposed to be thus named in comparison with Red Castle on the opposite side of the bay. A strong earthen fort, also, with out-works, and accommodation within for men and ammunition, was to be seen, a few years ago, at the point where the South Esk falls into the sea; it is said to have been used in Cromwell's time, but it is not known by whom it was built. Cannon were placed at it in 1745. The celebrated Archbishop Leighton was descended from a family of some celebrity in former times, who were proprietors of the lands of Usan; and the well known Andrew Melville was born at Baldovie, in the northern part of the parish.

Craig Of Madderty

CRAIG OF MADDERTY, a burgh of barony, in the parish of Madderty, county of Perth; containing, with the village of St. David's, 181 inhabitants. The estate of Craig, on which the village is built, was erected in 1626 into a free burgh of barony, through the instrumentality of Lord John Madderty, by charter conferring power to hold a market every Friday, with four fairs yearly. Courts have been held occasionally within the barony, for settling disputes; but the village has latterly very much declined, and in its place has risen that of St. David's, in which is a school.

Craigdallie

CRAIGDALLIE, a hamlet, in the parish of Kinnaird, county of Perth; containing 52 inhabitants.

Craigend

CRAIGEND, a village, in the late quoad sacra parish of crosshill, parish of old Monkland, Middle ward of the county Lanark, 4½ miles (E. S. E.) from Glasgow; containing 80 inhabitants. It is situated on the bank of the river Clyde, which here makes a considerable bend, and on the road from Glasgow to Bellshill, in the parish of Bothwell.

Craigend

CRAIGEND, a hamlet, in the East parish of the city and county of Perth; containing 47 inhabitants.

Craighall

CRAIGHALL, a village, in the parish of Coylton, district of Kyle, county of Ayr; containing 100 inhabitants. A coal-mine of some extent has been in operation at this place for a number of years, and is one of three large coal-mines of the parish.

Craighall and New Craighall

CRAIGHALL and NEW CRAIGHALL, villages, the former in the parish of Inveresk, and the latter chiefly in Inveresk parish, but partly in that of Libberton, county of Edinburgh; containing respectively 501 and 336 inhabitants. Craighall is situated about two miles south-south-west of Musselburgh, and on the east of the inclined plane of the branch of the railway to that town from Edinburgh. Coal is abundant, and in the vicinity are extensive coal-mines. Close to the village is Pinkie House, the seat of Sir John Hope, Bart.; it was originally a country seat of the abbots of Dunfermline, and after the Reformation became private property. Although still a large structure, it is evidently only part of a magnificent design.

Craigie and Barnweill

CRAIGIE and BARNWEILL, a parish, in the district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 4 miles (S.) from Kilmarnock; containing 779 inhabitants. Craigie was disjoined from the parish of Riccarton in 1647, and in 1673, it received an augmentation by the annexation of the suppressed parish of Barnweill, the larger part of the stipend of which, however, was transferred to the minister of the newly-erected parish of Stair. The parish is about seven miles long, and one and a half broad. The scenery is pleasingly varied; the hills near the church rise about 500 feet above the level of the sea, and are covered with verdure to the summit, excepting where a craggy rock occasionally protrudes. The views presented from the heights are extensive and beautiful, and the lands are ornamented with several lochs, some of which, however, are partly in adjoining parishes; Loch Brown covers nearly 100 acres, and is about half in this parish, the remaining part being in those of Mauchline and Tarbolton. The parish comprises 6300 acres, almost entirely under cultivation. The principal kind of grain raised, and nearly the only kind, is oats; the pastures are extensive; several tracts are under rye-grass and meadow-grass, and the remainder of the green crops consist of beans, potatoes, and a few turnips. The farms average about ninety acres, and besides a tolerable proportion of sheep, of a mixed breed, between 700 and 800 milch cows are kept, and upwards of 400 young cows and calves; the milk is chiefly used for cheese, and the stock sold at Kilmarnock. The parish contains a corn-mill, turned by the waters of one of the lochs. Various improvements have taken place in agriculture, but that which has been most beneficial is furrow-draining, which has been carried to a great extent; the farm-houses are substantial and well fitted-up, and about half of them are slate. The plantations cover 170 acres. Three limestone quarries, and a tile-work, lately erected, are in operation; and coal of several kinds was formerly wrought. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8058.

There are three mansions, named Cairnhill, Barnweill, and Underwood, the first of which consists of an ancient tower still strong, and in very good repair, with a modern portion attached. Barnweill is a neat residence, built towards the latter part of the last century; and Underwood, a commodious house, was erected about the same time. The parish is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of James Campbell, Esq., of Craigie; the minister's stipend is £247, with a manse, and a glebe of five acres, valued at £10 per annum. The church, formerly called the kirk in the forest, is a neat plain edifice, built in 1776, and will accommodate 600 persons. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches, and in the classics, practical mathematics, and book-keeping; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and £18 fees. The ruins of the church of Barnweill are still standing, and also those of Craigie Castle, a very ancient building, at one time inhabited by the Wallaces of Craigie, a collateral branch of the family of Sir William Wallace, the Scottish patriot. There are several artificial mounds called "law hills," on which culprits are supposed to have been formerly tried.

Craigie

CRAIGIE, a village, in the parish of Dalmeny, county of Linlithgow, 2¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Kirkliston; containing 75 inhabitants. It is in the eastern part of the parish, and in its vicinity is Craigie Hall, formerly the residence and estate of the Craigies, an ancient and considerable family. One of them was a witness to the original charter granted to the first laird of Dundas in the year 1120. In 1387, the heiress of the family married Sir John Stewart, who took the name, and his posterity continued here until 1640, when the estate of Craigie Hall was sold; it subsequently became the seat of the Hope family.—See Dalmeny.

Craigie

CRAIGIE, a hamlet, in the parish of Caputh, county of Perth, 2½ miles (N. N. E.) from Caputh; containing 67 inhabitants. It lies in the eastern part of the parish, and adjoins the village of Cluny on the east side.

Craigie

CRAIGIE, a village, in the East parish of the city and county of Perth; containing 219 inhabitants. It is situated on the west side of the river Tay, and a little south of the city, of which it forms a suburb. It is a pleasant village, and in its vicinity is the site of the old castle of Craigie, which belonged to the Ross family.

Craigielands

CRAIGIELANDS, a hamlet, in the parish of Kirkpatrick-Juxta, county of Dumfries, 2¼ miles (S. by W.) from Moffat; containing 84 inhabitants. It is about a mile north-west by west from Kirkpatrick, and a short distance south of the Evan water. The hamlet is small and scattered.

Craigmill

CRAIGMILL, a hamlet, in the parish of Logie, county of Clackmannan, 2 miles (N. E.) from Stirling; containing 78 inhabitants. It is situated at the southern base of the Abbey Craig, in a detached portion of the county, about a mile south of Logie, and on the north side of the Forth river, which here is very devious in its course. The place was chiefly known, before the duty on spirits was lowered, as a residence of smugglers.

Craigneuk

CRAIGNEUK, a village, in the parish of Dalziel, county of Lanark. Near this village is an excellent quarry of flagstone, which affords employment to several of the inhabitants. The stone, which is of a very fine grain, and of a reddish colour, varies from one quarter of an inch to five inches in thickness, and is much used for pavements, and occasionally substituted for slate in the roofing of buildings.

Craignish

CRAIGNISH, a parish, in the district and county of Argyll, 16 miles (N. N. W.) from Lochgilphead; containing 873 inhabitants. This place, though known in modern times only by its present appellation, was anciently called both Craignish and Kilmhorie. The former name, which is a compound Gaelic term signifying a rocky peninsula, is descriptive of the southern portion of the parish; and the latter, meaning a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, was applied in reference to an ancient structure, the ruins of which yet remain in the principal burial-ground. The parish is washed by the Atlantic on the west and south, and is separated on the east, by Loch Craignish, from the parishes of Dalavich and Kilmartin. It measures a little more than eleven miles in length, and about two in average breadth, comprehending, for a highland district, a considerable portion of land under cultivation. The coast, on account of its numerous indentations, is supposed to form a line of sixteen or seventeen miles in extent, and is exceedingly rocky on the south and west, and also marked in the latter direction by several small bays with fine white sandy shores. Loch Craignish is about three miles wide at a small distance from the entrance; in other parts it varies considerably in breadth, and towards its head, narrows itself to less than a mile, the depth averaging about twelve fathoms. On each side of the loch, at the distance of about half a mile from the land, is a chain of verdant islets, some of them ornamented with oak, ash, birch, and fir trees; and at the northern extremity, the water expands into a spacious harbour, with good anchorage, and secured by the surrounding hills from the violence of winds. There is also a very convenient harbour in a creek called Little Loch Craignish, on the west of the parish, about a mile from the southern extremity of the peninsula; it is much frequented by vessels in stormy weather, or when waiting for a favourable tide. The most considerable of the islands just alluded to are those of Mc Niven and Mc Larty; and near the southern point of the peninsula, in a south-westerly direction, are five others, of which that called Garrarissa, the largest of the whole, forms the Sound named Dorus-mor.

The surface of the parish in the Interior is much diversified. Lofty hills covered with heath are alternated with tracts of flat land, ornamented in some parts by verdant declivities and valleys, interspersed with lochs, and shrouded with beautiful foliage. The northern extremity of the parish is marked by a chain of rugged hills, rising about 700 feet above the sea; they are mostly covered with a kind of heathy pasture, and skirted at the base with a belt of level land about a quarter of a mile broad. The surface along the eastern boundary of the peninsular portion of the parish is distinguished by a series of verdant eminences, attaining in some parts an elevation of 300 feet; at the base is a narrow strip of land stretching to the margin of the loch, and forming a variety of interesting points and bays on a flat clayey shore. A range of hills, covered principally with heath, also characterises the peninsula, stretching from north to south, and commanding from the chief heights beautiful views of Loch Craignish and its islets, the mountains of Mull and Morven, the hills of Knapdale, and the sound and island of Jura. There are likewise twelve lochs in the parish, besides numerous rivulets; trout is abundant, and char is found in one of the lochs. The Soil in some places is sterile; that under tillage chiefly consists of two distinct kinds, the one a hazel mould resting on rock, and the other a darker earth incumbent on clay, and the whole is interspersed with sandy tracts. The cultivated lands, though small in extent, are of average fertility, producing chiefly crops of oats and potatoes; live stock is much attended to, but the dairy produce is inconsiderable. Husbandry has made comparatively but few advances; the lands are mostly under the old system of cultivation, and many tracts of good quality, for want of draining, are suffered to lie waste. A superior state of things is, however, observable in a few farms held on lease, which are inclosed and well drained. The sheep are the black-faced, with a few Leicesters and Cheviots, and the West Highland breed of cattle prevails, mixed with a small proportion of lowland milch cows. The prevailing rock in the peninsular district is clay-slate, assuming frequently a sandy character, and sometimes running into a hard inferior sandstone. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3207.

Castle Craignish, situated in the south, is an ancient structure with modern additions, and contains, in the lower portion, a vaulted apartment said to have been formerly used as a dungeon. The house of Barbreck, in the north-eastern quarter, a commodious mansion, and that of Dail, on the western coast, are both modern residences, and, like the castle, have demesnes ornamented with clumps of plantations, covering together about 300 acres, which comprehend nearly the whole wood in the parish. The population are employed in agriculture, except those occasionally engaged in fishing. The parish is in the presbytery of Inverary and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Duke of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £169. 10., of which about a quarter is received from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of about fifteen acres, valued at £18 per annum. The church is a neat structure, erected in 1826, and conveniently situated on the eastern side of the parish. The parochial school affords instruction in English and Gaelic, the latter being the ordinary language, and in the usual branches of a plain education, with Latin if required. The master has a salary of £25. 13., with a house, and £20 fees. The remains of numerous Danish forts are still visible in the parish. The ruins of a religious house, supposed to have been an oratory, and of another, formerly, it is said, the parish chapel, may also yet be traced; and there is a small bay called the Port of the Athollmen, which received its name from the circumstance of several of the Marquess of Atholl's men having been drowned there, after a defeat by the natives in the seventeenth century.

Craigo

CRAIGO, a village, in the parish of Logie-Pert, county of Forfar, 5½ miles (N. N. W.) from Montrose; containing 359 inhabitants. It is pleasantly seated on the south bank of the North Esk river, and in its vicinity are extensive bleachfields, and several mills for flax spinning, cloth-finishing machinery, and an alkali manufacture. These works together employ about 150 hands. Craigo House, built by the Carnegie family, about fifty years since, is a mile south of the village, and the grounds around are well planted: on the estate is a good freestone quarry. The North Esk is crossed in the neighbourhood of the place by substantial bridges, of which one, of three arches, was erected by the celebrated John Erskine, of Dun, at the time of the Reformation.

Craigrothie

CRAIGROTHIE, a village, in the parish of Ceres, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 1 mile (W.) from Ceres; containing 308 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Kennoway to Cupar, and near Struthers, the old seat of the earls of Crawfurd. It has a bailie and council, and its rural corporation was greatly patronised by the last earl. A school has been built by subscription.

Craigton

CRAIGTON, a village, in the parish of Monikie, county of Forfar, ½ a mile (S. W.) from Monikie; containing 162 inhabitants. It lies on the road from Dundee to Brechin; and its population is chiefly employed in weaving linen-cloth for the manufacturers in the surrounding districts. In the village is a small school.

Craigton-Field

CRAIGTON-FIELD, a village, in the parish of New Kilpatrick, county of Dumbarton; containing 69 inhabitants. It is situated in the northern part of the parish, on the road from Kilpatrick to Drymen, and about three miles north-north-west of the parochial church.

Crail

CRAIL, a royal burgh, sea-port, and parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 10 miles (S. E. by E.) from St. Andrew's, and 40 (N. N. E.) from Edinburgh; containing 1737 inhabitants, of whom 1221 are in the burgh. This place, of which the ancient Gaelic name, Caryle, is descriptive of its situation in a corner of the county, is of remote antiquity, and had a royal castle, whereof the date is not clearly ascertained, but which was occasionally the residence of David I. A priory and a collegiate church were founded here at an early period, and richly endowed. Of the former, which was suppressed previously to the Reformation, there remain only some vestiges of the chapel, dedicated to St. Rufus; and the latter, in which were eight altars, was at that time stripped of its rich ornaments, and is now the parish church. Mary of Guise, afterwards consort of James V., landed on this coast after a severe storm, and was hospitably entertained in the ancient mansion of Balcomie Castle, whence, accompanied by the king, she proceeded to St. Andrew's.


Burgh Seal.

The town, which is situated at the mouth of the Frith of Forth, consists principally of two parallel streets, extending along the shore from east to west, and intersected nearly at right angles by others of inferior note. The houses in the main street are spacious, and of ancient appearance; and though, from the loss of the herring-fishery, of which the town was a principal station, it has been long declining in prosperity, it still retains many vestiges of its former importance. The harbour is both inconvenient and unsafe; but about a quarter of a mile to the east is Roome Bay, which might be converted into an excellent haven, capable of affording secure shelter to 200 sail of vessels, and might be rendered available to the increase of the trade of the Forth and of the eastern coasts of England and Scotland. There are no manufactures carried on, nor any trade of importance, except what is requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood.

The Government of the town, which was erected into a royal burgh by charter of Robert Bruce, confirmed by Mary, Queen of Scots, James VI., and Charles I. and II., is vested in a chief magistrate, two bailies, a treasurer, and a council of seventeen, chosen under the regulations of the Municipal act of William IV. There are seven incorporated trading companies, the blacksmiths, wrights, weavers, tailors, shoemakers, coopers, and bakers, the fees of admission into which vary, for sons of freemen, from £1. 5. to £3. 19., and for strangers, from £3 to £6. 2. The magistrates, whose jurisdiction extends over the whole of the royalty, hold bailie courts for civil actions and the trial of petty offences, but very few cases come under their decision. The burgh is associated with those of St. Andrew's, Anstruther Easter and Wester, Cupar, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters is about fifty-one. The town-hall, a neat building, is situated in the principal street.

The parish, which is bounded on the east and south by the German Ocean, is above six miles in length, extending to Fifeness, the eastern extremity of the county, and about three miles in extreme breadth; but from its irregularity of form, the precise number of acres has not been ascertained. The surface, near the shore, has an elevation of about eighty feet above the sea, and rises gradually towards the west, without forming any considerable hills. The soil comprehends every variety of character, from the deepest black loam to a thin wet clay, and the chief crops are, wheat, oats, beans, barley, and potatoes, of all of which great quantities are sent annually to the south. The system of agriculture has been much improved; all the modern implements of husbandry are in use; the farms are of moderate size, and on most of them threshing-mills have been erected. The lands near the town obtain a very high rent, generally from £6 to £8 per acre, and the pastures are luxuriantly rich. Coal is found in the parish, and there are still remaining the mines formerly in operation; limestone of good quality is also abundant, and is obtained for manure. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,240. The only plantations are around the mansions of the principal landed proprietors. The ancient houses of Newhall and Balcomie have been demolished; of the latter, which was one of the noblest mansions in the county, a small portion only remains, forming, however, a good landmark for mariners. The principal houses at present are those of Airdrie, a handsome mansion embosomed in thriving plantations, Kirkmay, and Wormiston, in the grounds of which, also, are some trees of stately growth. The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife. The minister's stipend is £280, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £64 per annum; patron, the Earl of Glasgow. The church, formerly collegiate for a provost, sacrist, and prebendaries, still retains some vestiges of its ancient grandeur. The parochial school, with which the burgh grammar school has been incorporated, is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £40. When the number of scholars exceeds ninety, an assistant is appointed, who receives from the corporation £12 per annum, the salary formerly paid to the burgh schoolmaster. The remains of the priory, near the sea-shore, are almost obliterated, the eastern gable, which was the chief portion left, having been destroyed by the sea about forty years ago.

Crailing

CRAILING, a parish, in the district of Jedburgh, county of Roxburgh; including the village of East and West Nisbet, and containing 667 inhabitants, of whom 74 are in the village of Crailing, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Jedburgh. This place, of which the name is of uncertain derivation, comprehends the ancient parish of Nisbet, annexed to it by act of the presbytery prior to the year 1713. The present parish comprises 6000 acres, of which about 300 are woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable land in good cultivation. The surface is varied, in some parts rising to a considerable elevation; the highest point, called Piniel Heugh, is a hill covered with verdure, presenting a pleasing object in the landscape, and has been rendered more conspicuous and interesting by the erection on its summit of a monument to commemorate the victory at Waterloo. This monument is a circular column of whinstone, 150 feet in height, rising from a massive pedestal, on the face of which is the inscription, "To the Duke of Wellington and the British Army, William Ker, VIth Marquess of Lothian, and his tenantry, dedicate this monument, 30th of June, 1815." It has within the shaft a spiral staircase, leading to the summit, which commands an extensive and richly-varied prospect, embracing the windings of the Teviot to the west, the range of the Cheviot hills to the south, Tweed-dale to the north, and the whole of the Merse to the sea on the east. The Teviot flows through the parish, and, a little below the village, receives the Oxnam water.

The soil is dry and fertile, and extremely favourable to the growth of all kinds of grain; and about the year 1800, very profitable crops of tobacco were raised on some of the lands, by way of experiment. The present crops are, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, turnips, and peas; the system of agriculture is highly improved. The plantations are well managed, and in a flourishing state; and on the road passing through the village, are some stately rows of beech, ash, and elm. The principal substrata are whinstone and sandstone. The latter is found near the river, of a light colour, and of excellent quality for building; two quarries have been opened, and blocks of twelve feet in length have been raised. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7379. Monteviot House, the seat of the Marquess of Lothian, is situated at the western extremity of the Nisbet district. The ancient mansion is small and uninteresting in its architectural details, a spacious and elegant modern mansion in the castellated style was commenced by the late marquess, but has not yet been completed. Crailing House is a handsome mansion, on rising ground overlooking the winding stream of the Oxnam; the demesne is laid out with great taste, and embellished with rich plantations. The village of Crailing was formerly more extensive than at present; it has facility of intercourse with Jedburgh and Kelso by the great road from Carlisle to Berwick.

The parish is in the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviotdale. The minister's stipend is £251. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £32.10. per annum; patrons, the Crown and the Marquess of Lothian. The church, situated in the Crailing district of the parish, is a neat plain edifice, adapted for a congregation of 300 persons. Of the ancient church of Nisbet scarcely any remains exist, but the churchyard is still used. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school at Crailing is well conducted; the master has a salary of £30, with £22 fees, a house and garden, and £3. 15., the interest of a bequest by one of the lords Cranstoun. A school at Nisbet, also, is supported by the marquess, who gives the master a salary of £20, with a house and garden rent free, in addition to the fees. The old mansion-house at Monteviot is said to be part of an ancient hospital dependent on the abbey of Ancrum. Near the site of the mansion are traces of the cemetery belonging to the establishment; a considerable number of tombstones have from time to time been dug up, and the inscriptions on some of them were tolerably legible, but none appear to have been of any importance.

Cramond

CRAMOND, a parish, chiefly in the county of Edinburgh, but partly in that of Linlithgow; including the village of Davidson's-Mains, and containing 1981 inhabitants, of whom 167 are in the village of Cramond, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from Edinburgh. This place derived its name, originally Caer Amon, from the erection of a fortress on the river Amon or Almond at its influx into the Frith of Forth; and from the discovery of coins and other relics of antiquity, it is supposed to have been a Roman station, and the port through which that people obtained supplies of grain for their army. Among the antiquities found here are, the remains of a bath and several altars, and the military road leading from the village to the south. About half way between Queensferry and Edinburgh is Cramond Brig, where, according to ancient tradition, one of the Scottish kings was rescued from a band of robbers by the ancestor of the Howisons of Braehead and Crawfurdland. That family is said to hold these lands on condition of attending at Cramond Bridge with a basin of water and a towel, for the king to wash his hands, when passing here; and this ceremony was performed by Mr. Howison Crawfurd in 1822, at the banquet given to George IV. by the corporation of Edinburgh.

The parish is situated on the south shore of the Frith, and that part of it which is in the county of Linlithgow is separated from the other portion by the river Almond. The whole is from six to seven miles in length, and from one mile to two miles in breadth, and, including the small islands of Cramond and Inch-Mickery, comprises about 4900 acres. The surface is beautifully diversified, containing part of the Corstorphine hill; and the surrounding district abounds with interesting features, and with every variety of picturesque and romantic scenery. The island of Cramond, which at low water is accessible on foot, contains about nineteen acres, affording excellent pasturage for sheep, and has two or three cottages for the accommodation of seabathers. It rises towards the centre to a considerable height, and on the east are some precipitous cliffs of granite; it anciently belonged to the bishops of Dunkeld, and subsequently to the Balmerino family. Between this island and Inch-Colm, nearly in the centre of the Frith, is the small rocky islet of Inch-Mickery, covered with mosses and sea-weed.

The soil is fertile, and the lands throughout are in a high state of cultivation, producing crops of every kind. There are several seams of coal in the parish, which have been occasionally wrought; but the quality is not such as to encourage the continuance of the mines. Excellent freestone is found on the lands of the Duke of Buccleuch, and from quarries here were raised the materials for the construction of the harbour and pier of Granton. The rateable annual value of the Edinburgh portion of the parish is £16,100. Among the numerous seats and noble mansions are, Carolina Park, Granton, Lauriston, Barnton, Craigcrook, Cramond House, Muir House, New Saughton, and Royton. The village of Cramond is in a romantic valley on the east side of the Almond, and opposite to the pleasure-grounds of Dalmeny Park on the west bank of that river; it is neatly built, and is a favourite resort of the inhabitants of Edinburgh during the summer months. Near it are some iron and paper works, established in 1771, which are still carried on with spirit, and afford regular employment to many of the population.

The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Edinburgh and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £271, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patrons, the family of Ramsay. The church was erected in 1656, since which time it has been frequently enlarged and repaired. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school is attended by a considerable number of children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £30. Cramond has given birth to several eminent and remarkable men. Of these, may be mentioned, John, Lord Balmerino, the opposer of Charles I. and friend of the Covenanters; Sir Thomas Hope, the celebrated lawyer of the Scottish bar; Sir George Mackenzie, first earl of Cromarty, an able writer; Dr. Cleghorn, professor of anatomy in the university of Dublin, who may be considered as the founder of the school of medicine there; and John Law, of Lauriston. This last-named extraordinary character raised himself to the dignity of comptroller-general of the finances of France, upon the strength of a scheme for establishing a bank, an East India, and a Mississippi, company, by the profits of which the national debt of France was to be paid off. In 1718, his bank was declared a royal one, and the shares rose to upwards of twenty-fold the original value, so that, in 1719, they were worth more than eighty times the amount of all the current specie in France. But the following year this great fabric of false credit fell to the ground, almost overthrew the government, and ruined tens of thousands of families.—See Granton.

Cranshaws

CRANSHAWS, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 9 miles (N. W.) from Dunse; containing 120 inhabitants. The derivation of the name of this place is doubtful, some supposing it to have been applied in consequence of the number of cranes or herons by which the district was originally visited, while others trace it to the Cranberry bush, which is a native of the hills and mosses. The barony was possessed in the fourteenth century by the family of Douglas, and in 1401, Archibald, the fourth earl of Douglas, assigned the estates to Sir John Swinton, of Swinton, whom he calls in the deed dilectus consanguineus noster. The family of Swinton held the property for a considerable period; and in June, 1640, an act was passed by the parliament, confirming to them the baronies of Swinton and Cranshaws, with the teinds, and the patronage of the church. In the times of the border warefare, the district was involved in the general commotions, and Cranshaws Castle appears to have been a place of refuge from the sudden incursions of the English, as well as the old castle of Scarlaw, which was used by the inhabitants of another division of the parish. The parish, which is pastoral, is divided into two distinct portions by the intervention of the parish of Longformacus. The part in which the church stands is a pentagon in form, containing about six square miles, and is bounded by the Whiteadder river on the north and east. The other part of the parish is about five miles long, and two in mean breadth, and is bounded on the north, the east, and partly on the south, by Longformacus. The surface consists chiefly of lofty hills, covered to a great extent with heath, and suited to pasture, although most of the farms have each a portion of arable land. The highest ground is Manslaughter-Law, so called, as tradition reports, from a bloody engagement which took place near it, in 1402, between the Earl of Dunbar and Hepburn of Hailes. There are numerous springs in the parish, of which one is chalybeate, and the river Dye forms the northern boundary of the southern division, and shortly after falls into the Whiteadder.

About 350 acres only are under tillage, the produce consisting of oats, barley, peas, turnips, potatoes, and sown grasses; the grain is sent to Haddington and Dunbar. There are about 4400 sheep kept, which are all Cheviots, and are sent to Gifford, Dunse, and Edinburgh; the cattle are a mixture of several kinds, but all of the black breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1132. The principal substrata are greywacke and greywacke-slate. Boulders of granite, sienite, and porphyry are washed down from rocks of conglomerate in the parishes of Stenton and Whittingham; and in Cranshaws Hill is a fine conglomerated rock, with an intermixture of iron-ore. Near this there occurs sandstone of the secondary formation, coloured by grains of iron, and of good quality for building; and from the same hill in which this is found, large quantities of yellow-ochre issue, which are used by the people in colouring the walls of their houses. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dunse and synod of Merse and Teviotdale. The minister's stipend is £158, of which more than three-fourths are received from the exchequer, and there is a manse, with a glebe valued at £17 per annum; patroness, Lady Aberdour. The parish church, a very plain edifice, was built in 1739, and will contain 120 persons. A parochial school is supported, in which all the usual branches of education are taught; the master's salary is £34, with about £10 fees, and the allowance of house and garden. There is also a parochial library, consisting of 200 volumes. The chief relic of antiquity is the Castle of Cranshaws, which is an oblong of forty feet by twenty-four, with walls forty-five feet high, and a modern battlement. Upon a hill on the west side of the parish are two immense heaps of stones, said to have been collected to commemorate the death of twin-brothers, of the name of Edgely, who fell while commanding different portions of an army which had mutinied: these stones are called the Twin-law Cairns.

Cranston

CRANSTON, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh, 1 mile (N. by W.) from Ford; containing, with the villages of Chesterhill with Sauchenside, Cowsland, and Preston, 1128 inhabitants. The name of this place is said to be derived from an Anglo-Saxon word, signifying "the crane's district," and applied on account of the number of cranes that formerly resorted to the place. In the 12th century, the parish was divided into two manors called Upper and Nether Cranston, in the latter of which the church was situated. Early in the reign of William, Upper Cranston was possessed by Elfric de Cranestun, who derived his surname from the manor, and whose descendants retained the property till the time of Charles II., when William, the third lord Cranstoun, sold it to Sir John Fletcher, the king's advocate. Nether Cranston, which was the larger of the two manors, was granted by Earl Henry to Hugh Ridel, from whom it obtained the name of Cranston-Ridel, which it retained till recent times. The church, with its tithes and other pertinents, was bestowed by Hugh Ridel upon the monks of Kelso, for the sake of the soul of David I. and that of Earl Henry, and with them it continued till 1317. During this period they enjoyed the revenues of the rectory, a minister serving the cure, and receiving the vicarial tithes. The manor and chapelry of Cousland were annexed to the parish of Cranston at the Reformation: the chapel was burnt by Somerset, when he invaded Scotland with a large army to coerce Queen Mary into a marriage with the young king of England.

The parish, which is entirely agricultural, is five miles in length, and three in breadth, and contains 4778 Scotch acres, including the lands of Cakemuir, separated from the main portion of Cranston by the parish of Crichton. The surface is varied by continued inequalities; and the undulations, adorned with fine seats and flourishing woodlands, and the well cultivated and verdant fields, render the general aspect interesting and beautiful. The prospects from the more elevated grounds are commanding; and the picturesque valley through which the Tyne river here pursues its course from south to north, adds greatly to the scenery. The soil, consisting partly of clay and partly of light earth, is generally fertile, and the whole of the land is arable, with the exception of 200 or 300 acres in Cakemuir, and about 250 acres under wood. All kinds of crops, of good quality, are raised; but the staple commodity is corn, sent to the Dalkeith market, about four miles distant. The whole of the modern improvements in husbandry have been introduced, and the farm-buildings and inclosures are in good order. There are several quarries of freestone and limestone, from which an abundant supply is obtained, and splint-coal is also wrought to a very considerable extent. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6813.

The chief mansions are, Oxenford Castle, the seat of the Earl of Stair, a magnificent building, situated on the west bank of the Tyne, and surrounded by beautiful grounds; and Preston Hall, the splendid residence of W. B. Callender, Esq.: Chesterhall House, a rather old structure, was lately taken down by the earl. The mansion-house of Cakemuir is likewise a remarkable building; the ancient part is of great age, consisting of a square tower, with boldly projecting battlements and walls of extraordinary thickness. An apartment here is called Queen Mary's room, and it is supposed that the name has arisen from the circumstance of that princess having occupied it shortly after her flight from Borthwick, in the vicinity. The parish is crossed by two good turnpike-roads, upon which several public conveyances travel daily, and facility of communication is afforded by some excellent bridges. That at Cranston Dean is forty-six feet high, and consists of three arches, each of seventeen feet span: Lothian Bridge, over the Tyne, is eighty-two feet high, and consists of five arches, each of fifty feet span, surmounted by ten segment arches, each of fifty-four feet span and eight feet rise. On the line of the London road by Cranston, an embankment has been formed over the Cotty burn, at the height of fifty-four feet, by which the distance is diminished 1200 yards. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; patron, the Earl of Stair. The stipend of the minister is £260, with an elegant manse, built in 1830, at the expense of Mr. Callender, and a glebe valued at £29 per annum. The church is a neat edifice of freestone, built in 1825, at the cost of Sir John Dalrymple, and will accommodate about 350 persons. There is a parochial school, where the usual branches of a good education are taught; the master's salary is £34, with £21. 10. fees, and the allowance of house and garden. A good parish library was instituted in 1830, and the poor have the interest of £357, left by some charitable persons. Many petrifactions are found.

Crathie and Braemar

CRATHIE and BRAEMAR, a parish, including the villages of Auchandryne and Castletown, in the district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 22 miles (W. by S.) from Kincardine O'Neil; and containing 1712 inhabitants. The word Crathie is supposed to be of Gaelic origin, and derived from the words crag and tir or thir, which signify "stony or rocky land," and are descriptive of the general appearance of the surface. The ancient parish of Braemar, a name expressing the highest land of the three districts into which the county was once distributed, was in early times called St. Andrew's, and subsequently Bridgend, in consequence of a bridge having been built over the Cluney at Castletown by Malcum-Ceann-Mor, who had a hunting-seat here. It received its present designation towards the end of the reign of Mary, when the lands about Castletown became the property of the Earl of Mar; but at what time it was united to Crathie is uncertain. The united parish extends about forty miles in length, and twenty in breadth, and is situated in the heart of the Grampian range. The principal part was in ancient times covered with wood, and was included in the great Caledonian forest: that portion called the forest of Mar, has always been highly celebrated for its abundance of very superior timber, and the number of fine deer which traverse it. It was the rendezvous of the inhabitants of the country in the time of the Romans, and afterwards the stronghold of the Highland clans. On the lands of Monaltry, on the north bank of the river Dee, in a narrow pass, is Carn-na-Cuimhne, "the cairn of remembrance," so named on account of the chieftains, in times of danger, marching with their followers through the pass, and causing each man to lay down a stone, by which they might ascertain, on their return, how many had followed them to battle, and what number had been lost in the conflict. The castle of Braemar was built as a seat of the ancient earls of Mar, but was subsequently used as a garrison to keep in awe the lawless chieftains, and was let to government for barracks in 1748, the great military road from Blairgowrie to Fort-George and Aberdeen passing through the district, close by Carn-na-Cuimhne. In the vale near the castle, the Earl of Mar, in 1715, first erected the standard of the Pretender, as is more particularly noticed in the article on Charlestown.

The parish comprises 199,658 acres, of which, in comparision with the extent of the district, but few are under cultivation; between 10,000 and 11,000 are under wood, natural and planted, and the remainder is arable land, hill pasture, mountains, and moor. The scenery of the whole is highly diversified, and can scarcely, for grandeur and sublimity, be equalled by any in the county. The Braemar district, which is especially mountainous, and the forests of which are well stocked with deer and game, is said to be the highest land above the sea in Scotland, and the furthest removed in every direction from the coast. The principal lochs are those of Callader and Bhrodichan, in the midst of hills on the estate of Invercauld, the former of which contains salmon, and the latter red trout. The Dee, which rises in the mountain of Breriach, from a fountain 4060 feet above the level of the sea, flows through the parish in a serpentine course, augmented by numerous tributaries, and displays several beautiful cascades, especially one called the Linn of Dee. It falls into the German Ocean more than ninety miles from its source, at Aberdeen, where it forms the harbour of that city. The most lofty mountain is Bennamuickduidh, rising to an elevation of 4390 feet, and which, by a recent survey, has been found to be twenty feet higher than Ben-Nevis, previously reputed the highest mountain in Britain. Cairntoul and Bennabuird are respectively 4220 and 3940 feet above the sea, and, with Bennamuickduidh, are the principal elevations, all situated on the north-west boundaries of Braemar: Lochnagar, on the south-eastern side of the parish, rises 3815 feet. These imposing mountains, covered to a great extent with wood of almost every kind and hue, and exhibiting in many places their broken and boldly-shelving cliffs, with the verdant acclivities, grassy plains, and winding streams ornamenting the lower grounds, form together a rich assemblage of natural beauties which can scarcely fail to charm.

The soil in some places is shallow and sandy, and in others loamy and dry, incumbent on clay or gravel. Oats and bear are raised, and the green crops comprise turnips, potatoes, peas, and hay; live stock is much attended to, and the black-faced sheep and small black-cattle are the prevailing breeds, for which the large quantity of hill pasture attached to each farm affords a fine range. Agriculture has much advanced within these few years; and among other improvements many stone dykes have been constructed as fences, and several secure embankments have been raised against the overflowings of the river Dee. The rocks, which are covered with a thin mossy soil of dark hue, are chiefly pure granite, of different colours, and of so close and firm a texture that, when highly polished, it resembles marble. Limestone is also abundant, masses of which protrude in many places; and in addition to this, there is a species of very hard flinty stone or rock, which is supposed to contain a portion of ironore. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6600. The natural wood consists of Scotch fir, birch, mountain-ash, poplar, and alder; and the plantations contain the various firs, but chiefly larch, which latter is of quick growth, and is much esteemed as a substitute, in many cases, for hard-wood, to the growth of which the climate is not suited. Some of the first in the forest of Mar are supposed to be between 300 and 400 years of age, and exhibit specimens rarely, if ever, seen in any other part of Britain. The mansion of Invercauld is situated in the beautiful vale washed by the Dee, and in the midst of plantations; there are also the mansions of Mar Lodge and Corymulzie Cottage in Braemar, and Abergeldie and Balmoral in Crathie. Three annual fairs are held at Castletown, two principally for cattle, and the other for sheep and cattle; and one is also held at Clachnaturn, in Crathie. The parish is in the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £233. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum. The church of Crathie, which was built on a new site, in 1806, is an elegant structure, containing 1400 sittings, all free. An ordained missionary regularly officiates at Castletown, and there is a Roman Catholic chapel at the same village; also a place of worship for members of the Free Church in the parish. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £26, with a house and garden, and £8 fees. There are two schools for boys, and three for girls, supported by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; a school is supported also by the General Assembly, and two schools are kept in Braemar, during the winter, by the Roman Catholics. A friendly society was established in 1815, and re-modelled in 1830, under the title of the Braemar Highland Society; its annual meeting is held in August, when many gentlemen attend, and its funds are appropriated partly to the relief of sick and aged members, and to the purchase of annuities for widows and orphans, and partly to the encouragement of ancient games. A savings' bank was instituted in 1816, and has now a capital of upwards of £2000. The ruins of the castle built by Malcum-Ceann-Mor are still standing.

Crawford

CRAWFORD, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the village of Leadhills, and containing 1684 inhabitants, of whom 236 are in the village of Crawford, 3 miles (S. E.) from Abington. This place has claims to a considerable degree of antiquity. In 943, or about that time, a church was founded here, and dedicated to Constantine, King of Scotland; and the lands appears to have been subsequently divided into two portions, of which the larger was bestowed on the abbey of Newbattle, and the smaller on the monastery of Holyrood. It seems to have been exposed to incessant attacks during the border warfare and the feuds of rival clans; and many of the ancient farm-houses were constructed as well for the purpose of defence against an assailing foe as for domestic use. The population was formerly much greater than at present, and the lands were divided among a larger number of tenants, the practice of joining together several small farms having, for the last century, been very prevalent in this part of the county. The parish is situated in the south-east portion of the county; it is about eighteen miles in length, and from fourteen to fifteen in breadth, and comprises 75,500 acres, of which 74,150 are pasture, chiefly sheep-walks, 1200 arable, and 150 woods and plantations. The surface is mountainous, and broken into glens and spreading valleys in almost every direction; among the highest of the mountains are those of Lowther, which are chiefly in this parish, and have an average elevation of about 2500 feet above the sea. The hills in general rise gradually from their bases, and afford good pasturage for sheep; and the valleys between them, especially such as have been improved by draining, are fertile. The river Clyde has its source in the parish, on a hill 1400 feet above the level of the sea, and flows in a gentle stream till it receives the river Daer and numerous other tributaries in its course through the parish. There are springs of excellent water, affording an abundant supply.

The soil of the arable land is rich on the banks of the Clyde, and also near the streams which fall into that river, especially at their influx; but in the other parts of the parish it is very various, though great improvements have been made by the use of lime and the introduction of green crops. The chief crops are oats, which thrive well, and the dairy-farms, though few, are profitably managed, affording, besides the produce of the dairy, excellent opportunities of rearing young cattle, of which, however, not many are raised here. The sheep are mostly of the Cheviot breed, to which the former stock of short and black faced sheep has given place, and which has been very much improved. Wood does not thrive well, though there are several trees of great age, which are supposed to be the remains of an ancient forest; and a charter in the possession of the Marquess of Lothian is still extant, in which the inhabitants of the parish of Crawford are invested with liberty to cut wood in the forest of Glengonar. The substratum of the soil is partially transition rock, and greywacke in all its various formations is prevalent. Slate, though not of very good quality, is found, and a quarry has been opened on the lands of the Earl of Hopetoun, which gives employment to a few men throughout the year. The mining district of the parish is extensive, comprising an area of three miles in length, and of nearly equal breadth, and is rich in a great variety of produce: a populous village has been erected within this district, which is described under the appellation of Leadhills. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,341. The principal mansion-houses are, the Hall, belonging to the earl, and Newton House, the seat of the late Lord Newton, by whom it was erected, in a substantial and handsome style.

The village of Crawford is of considerable antiquity, and formerly enjoyed numerous privileges, being governed by a bailie, and having, till lately, a court called a Birley court; it is situated on the road to Glasgow, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture. A handsome chain-bridge was constructed over the Clyde at this place, in 1831, at the expense of the heritors; and an elegant stone bridge was erected over the same river, at Newton, in 1824, affording a facility of communication with the neighbouring towns. The parish is in the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £233. 13., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13. 10. per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, an ancient structure in good repair, is conveniently situated, and affords accommodation to about 300 persons. There is a chapel in connexion with the Established Church at Leadhills, the minister of which has a stipend of £70, with a house, provided by the Earl of Hopetoun and the Mining Company. The parochial school affords a good education; the master has a salary of £34, with £16 fees, and a house and garden. There are several mineral springs, two of which, in their properties, resemble those of Moffat; and near the boundary of the parish, at Campshead, is a petrifying spring, in which many beautiful specimens are found. Among the principal remains of antiquity is the castle of Crawford, which was surrounded by a moat, and strongly fortified; and there are still preserved memorials of ecclesiastical edifices formerly existing in the parish, of which one is an ancient cemetery on the banks of a stream called Chapel Burn. There are also several Roman camps, of which the most perfect are, one on Boadsberry hill, and another on a farm called Whitecamp; the two Roman roads by Moffat and Dumfries united in this parish, and formed one great road towards Lamington. An urn of baked earth, containing fragments of bones, was discovered some years since on the castle farm. The celebrated poet, Allan Ramsay, was born at Leadhills, where he resided till his removal to Edinburgh; and James Taylor, to whom is attributed the first discovery of the application of steam to the propelling of vessels on the sea, and who assisted Mr. Miller of Dalswinton in making some successful experiments in 1788, was the son of one of the overseers in the mines at Leadhills.

Crawfordjohn

CRAWFORDJOHN, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the post-village of Abington, and containing 993 inhabitants, of whom 137 are in the village of Crawfordjohn. This place, of which the name is supposed to have been derived from some proprietor of lands within the district, appears to have been originally a chapelry in the parish of Wiston. It was granted, together with the church of that place, to the monastery of Glasgow, and subsequently to that of Kelso, which retained it till about the year 1450, when it became a separate and independent parish. The lands coming into the possession of two co-heiresses, were for a considerable time held in moieties, till, in the reign of James V., Sir James Hamilton of Finart obtained them. After his decease, they descended to the Hamiltons of this place and Avondale, from whom, together with the patronage of the church, they were purchased by James, Marquess of Hamilton, about the year 1620. In the reign of Charles II., the village of Crawfordjohn was, by charter granted to Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, made a burgh of barony, and the inhabitants were endowed with the privilege of a weekly market and several annual fairs, which have long been in disuse. Few events of historical importance are connected with the place: part of the rebel forces passed through it on their march to Glasgow, in the year 1745.

The parish is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Duneaton, which partly separates it on the north from the parish of Douglas; it is bounded on the south by the river Glengonner. On the east flows the river Clyde, and on the west are the counties of Dumfries and Ayr, which unite with that of Lanark on the border of the parish, at a point where a stone has been erected called the Three-shire stone. The length of the parish is nearly twelve miles, and its breadth, which may be averaged at nine, varies from two to ten miles, comprising an irregular area of 26,600 acres, of which 4200 are arable, about 60 plantations, and the remainder pasture for sheep. The surface is sometimes flat, and inclosed by gently sloping hills of various elevation, forming a spacious glen, through which the river Duneaton winds its course for nearly nine miles, receiving in its progress the waters of the Snar, Blackburn, and other streams. The rivers abound with trout, and the Blackburn is celebrated for a dark-coloured species, which excel in quality, and are in great request, and also for eels, of which some are of large growth.

The soil is extremely various; on the banks of the river it is a rich black loam, except in those parts which are subject to inundation, where it becomes mixed with sand and gravel. The sides of the hills are in some places a deep red clay, capable, under proper management, of producing excellent crops; and in several parts is a deep moss, which, after judicious draining, has in many instances been converted into fertile arable land. The principal crops are, oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips. The pastures are very rich; the meadows afford abundant crops of clover and rye-grass, and the hills yield good pasturage for sheep, of which the average number permanently kept in the parish exceeds 10,000. There are several large dairy-farms producing butter and cheese, which are of excellent quality, and find a ready market at Edinburgh and Glasgow; and a peculiar kind of cheese compounded of cows' and ewes' milk obtains a high price, and is in great demand. The average number of cows exceeds 1000, chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, to the improvement of which much attention has been paid; the sheep are of the black-faced kind, except a few of a mixed breed between the Cheviot and the Leicester. The plantations, which are chiefly at Glespin, Gilkerscleugh, and Abington, are Scotch fir, spruce, beech, lime, chesnut, and oak. Some advance has been made in draining and inclosing the lands; and a society for encouraging the improvement of live stock has been established by the farmers of this and the parish of Crawford, which has been sanctioned by many of the heritors in both. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6329.

The substratum of the soil and the bases of the hills are mostly whinstone and freestone, of which several quarries are worked; limestone is also prevalent, and works have been established at Whitecleugh and Wildshaw. There are indications of coal in several parts of the parish, though no works have been opened; leadore has been found at Craighead, and near the source of the Snar, at which latter place it is wrought. Some vestiges remain of a work opened at Abington for the discovery of gold; and in repairing a road some years since, several pieces of spar, in which copper was imbedded, were found among the rubbish. There is also a tradition that silver-mines were formerly wrought in the parish, though probably it might have originated in finding small portions of that metal in combination with the lead-ore. A subscription library has been established in the village of Crawfordjohn, and there is likewise one supported at Abington. The parish is in the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £233. 13., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum; patron. Sir T. E. Colebrooke. The church, which is conveniently situated, was enlarged in 1817, and will accommodate 300 persons. The parochial school is attended by about seventy scholars; the master has a salary of £32, with £26 fees, and a house and garden. There were formerly the remains of the castles of Crawfordjohn, Mosscastle, Glendorch, and Snar, the last of which was celebrated for the exploits of its proprietor during the border warfare. On a hill near Gilkerscleugh are traces of a circular encampment consisting of two concentric circles, the innermost of which is about thirty yards in diameter, and has between it and the outer an interval of ten yards. There are vestiges of a similar intrenchment near Abington; and on the bank of the river Clyde is a moat, in the centre of which is a mound about fifty yards in circumference at the base, and thirty feet in height. In the peat-bogs are frequently discovered alder-trees and hazel in a prostrate position, and, at various times, coins of Antoninus, and others of the reign of Edward I.

Crawfurd's-Dyke

CRAWFURD'S-DYKE, Renfrewshire.—See Cartsdyke.

Crawickbridge and Crawickmill

CRAWICKBRIDGE and CRAWICKMILL, villages, in the parish of Sanquhar, county of Dumfries, 1 mile (N.N.W.) from Sanquhar; the one containing 71, and the other 144 inhabitants. These places are situated on the beautiful stream of the Crawick, which separates the parish from Kirkconnel, and, after a south-west course of about nine miles, falls into the Nith near the manse of Sanquhar. At Crawickmill is an extensive carpet manufactory, in which upwards of a hundred persons are employed in the various processes of dyeing, spinning, and weaving the materials.

Crawton

CRAWTON, a village, in the parish of Dunnottar, county of Kincardine, 3½ miles (S.) from Stonehaven; containing 77 inhabitants. It is situated in the south-eastern part of the parish, and chiefly inhabited by persons employed in fishing, and has a small harbour well adapted for the purpose. The fish taken off this part of the coast are, haddock, whiting, cod, ling, skate, halibut, flounders, and a few turbot; and lobsters of good quality are also found in abundance.

Crean-Mull Isles

CREAN-MULL ISLES, two of the Hebrides, in the parish of Barra, county of Inverness. They are of very small extent, and are uninhabited: both lie in the Sound of Pabbay, between the islands of Pabbay and Saundray, and a litle east of Lingay.

Creebridge

CREEBRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Minnigaff, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, ½ a mile (E.) from Newton-Stewart; containing 262 inhabitants. This place consists of a street of good houses, recently built near a bridge over the Cree, and about a quarter of a mile below the village of Minnigaff. The bridge, from which it takes its name, is a handsome structure of granite, of five arches. The Cree rises on the border of Ayrshire, and for several miles of its course is inconsiderable, but increased by tributary streams, it changes its appearance, and, pursuing its way through a beautiful valley, empties itself into the bay of Wigton. It is navigable for some miles.

Creetown

CREETOWN, a burgh of barony, and port, in the parish of Kirkmabreck, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 6 miles (S. E.) from Newton-Stewart; containing 984 inhabitants. This place, which takes its name from its situation on the river Cree, is of some antiquity, and under the name of "Creth," was the rendezvous of the English army in 1300. It appears to have been of considerable extent, and from a ferry over the river, obtained subsequently the name of the Ferry-Town of Cree. It is probable that the ancient village had fallen into decay before the erection of the present town, which was commenced in 1785, and in 1792 contained only fifty houses. The town is situated at the mouth of the river, on the eastern shore of Wigton bay, and consists of several streets, irregularly formed, but containing well-built houses. The surrounding scenery in every direction is beautifully picturesque, and enlivened with handsome mansions and pleasing villas.

A cotton factory, a tannery, and a mill for making patent-shot, were for some years in active operation, but have been long discontinued. The manufacture of carpets, affording employment to about thirty persons, is carried on in the buildings of the old cotton-factory, and the shot-mill has been recently adapted to the purposes of a cast-iron foundry. The trade of the port is mainly in the shipping of granite for Liverpool, in which several schooners are employed; there is a small coasting trade, chiefly with Whitehaven, and foreign vessels occasionally land cargoes of timber and tar. There is no harbour, and the vessels are moored upon the beach. The town was erected into a burgh of barony by charter granted to its proprietor, John Mc Culloch, Esq., of Barholm, in 1791, and is governed by a bailie and four councillors, elected triennially by the tenants. A townhall with a small prison has been lately built. There is a post-office, and every facility of communication is afforded by good roads, and by the ferry across the Cree to Wigton.

Creich

CREICH, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county of Fife, 5 miles (N. W. by N.) from Cupar; containing, with the villages of Brunton and Luthrie, 430 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its name, signifying in the Gaelic language, rocky or rugged ground, from the general appearance of its surface. It was at an early period the property of the Bethune family, who had a baronial castle here, of which there are still some inconsiderable remains. The parish is about three miles in length, from north to south, varying from one mile to nearly two miles in breadth; and comprises about 2324 acres, of which 1803 are arable, 204 woodland and plantations, and the remainder pasture and waste. The surface is greatly broken by numerous hills, forming part of the Ochill range, but of which few within the parish have an elevation of more than 550 feet above the sea. The acclivities of some of these hills are cultivated from the base to the summit; others are covered with heath, and partly with thriving plantations. Several small streams rise in various parts, and unite near the village of Luthrie, and form the river Motray, which, after flowing through the parish, falls into the Eden. The surrounding scenery is beautifully varied, and from the hills are fine views of the river Tay, the carse of Gowrie, with the Sidlaw and Grampian mountains, the town of Dundee, and the distant heights of Ben-Ledi and Ben-Lawers.

The soil, which has been much improved by draining, is mostly fertile; the best system of husbandry has been long in use, and the lands are generally under excellent cultivation. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, potatoes, and turnips. The cattle are chiefly of the old Fifeshire breed, with a few of the Teeswater upon one of the farms, and are usually fattened when three years old, and sent to the market. The sheep, which are of various breeds, are bought in when young, in August, and sold when fat, in the June following. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3323. The rocks are mainly of the trap formation, and the substrata principally amygdaloid, resting on claystone, felspar, and greenstone; basaltic clinkstone is found in the northern extremity of the parish, and extensively quarried for building purposes, and for the roads. There is also a quarry of sandstone in operation. The plantations are chiefly larch, Scotch and spruce firs, interspersed with various hard-woods; and on the demesne of Luthrie are some fine elms, planes, and horse-chesnuts of stately growth. Luthrie House is a handsome mansion, finely situated in a well-planted demesne.

A considerable number of the inhabitants are employed in the hand-loom weaving of Osnaburghs, sheetings, and dowlas, for the manufacturers of Cupar, who have two agents here. Facility of communication is afforded by the road from Cupar to Perth. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife. The minister's stipend is £227. 14., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum; patrons, the family of Grant. The church, erected in 1832, is a handsome structure, containing 252 sittings; it has a marble monument to Mrs. Baillie, widow of the late Col. Baillie, of Luthrie. The communion-plate was purchased with the proceeds of a bequest of Mr. George Davidson, parochial schoolmaster, who died in 1745. The parochial school is attended by about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £18. Some Druidical remains, consisting of portions of concentric circles, have been discovered on one of the hills in the parish; and on the hill called the Greencraig, were found the remains of what is supposed to have been a Danish camp. Two sepulchral urns and two stone coffins were found to the west of Parbroath, containing human bones; and near the remains of the ancient house was formerly a chapel, not far from the site of which several graves were discovered, while digging for the foundation of a wall, a few years since.

Crichton

CRICHTON, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh; including the village of Pathhead, and part of Faladam, and containing 1384 inhabitants, of whom 122 are in the village of Crichton, 2 miles (S.) from Ford. This place is of considerable antiquity, and was known to the Romans. Upon the property of Longfaugh are the remains of a Roman camp, the lines and intrenchments of which are well defined; and there is no doubt as to the ancient occupation of the place by armies, of the particulars of whose operations in these parts we have no information. Crichton was anciently remarkable for its church, which was made collegiate in 1449, by Sir William Crichton, chancellor of Scotland, with the consent of James, his son; and a provost, eight prebendaries, and two singing boys were supported out of the rents of Crichton and Locherworth. It was a mensal church, belonging to the archbishop of St. Andrew's; but the bishop had the patronage of the prebends of Vogrie, Arniston, Middleton, and Locherworth. After the Reformation, Sir Gideon Murray, the last provost, obtained a license to convert the church lands of Crichton, with the tithes formerly belonging to the rectory, into a temporal estate. He was treasurer-depute to James VI., and died in 1621, leaving the estate to his son Patrick, who, in 1643, was created Lord Elibank: the lands are now possessed by William Burn Callender, Esq. The celebrated Castle of Crichton, supposed to have been partly erected in the fourteenth century, was formerly the residence of the Chancellor Crichton already mentioned, joint guardian with the Earl of Callender of James II. during his minority, and the promoter of the vigorous measures against the powerful Douglas. While Crichton held the castle, it was besieged and partly demolished by William, Earl of Douglas, after a resistance of nine months; but it was restored with great splendour, and received additions at various times, until it, at length, assumed the appearance of one of the most magnificent structures of this kind in the country. Though now in ruins, it is a solid massive building, of extremely venerable and imposing appearance. The oldest part of the castle is a narrow keep or tower; but so many additions were made subsequently to the erection of this part that there is now a large courtyard, surrounded by buildings of different ages. The eastern front of the court is raised above a portico, and decorated with entablatures bearing anchors. The stones of this front are cut into diamond facets, of extremely rich appearance; and within this portion of the edifice, there appears to have been a gallery of unusual size and elegance.

The parish, which is situated in the eastern extremity of the county, is about five miles and a half long, and four and a half broad, and contains about 3900 Scotch acres. The surface consists of a continued succession of undulations and hollows throughout; a considerable part, in the higher grounds, is covered with wood, and about 450 acres are moorland and outfield. The river Tyne rises in the upper district of the parish, and, after running towards the north for two or three miles, makes a bend to the east, passes through the county of Haddington, and falls into the sea near Dunbar. The soil in the lower grounds is mostly a deep rich mould, producing heavy crops; in some other places it is dry and sharp, well adapted to the growth of turnips, which are cultivated to a considerable extent. On the high lands, it consists of thin moss resting upon a wet sand or clay, unsuited to husbandry, but congenial to the growth of trees, some of which thrive very well. About 3300 acres of land are in tillage, and all kinds of grain of good quality are produced, as well as potatoes, turnips, and hay. Several hundreds of acres, before considered intractable, have been brought into profitable cultivation within the present century, and improvements in this branch of husbandry are still in progress. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5610.

The rocks consist chiefly of limestone of a superior description, large quantities of which have been, for many years, sent to Edinburgh for the purposes of building; much of it is also sent southward, to be employed as manure. Coal is found in different parts of the parish, in thin seams, but no pits have been opened. The great road to the south, leading by Lauder, passes through Pathhead, where a splendid bridge has recently been erected over the Tyne, consisting of five arches, each eighty feet high, by fifty feet span. There is a post-office, and several coaches run on the turnpike-road. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; patron, Mr. Callender. The minister's stipend is £264, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum. The church, which is a fine ancient structure in the form of a cross, was the collegiate church; it was thoroughly repaired about twenty-five years ago, and will accommodate 600 persons. At Pathhead is a place of worship for seceders. There is also a parochial school, in which the usual branches of education are taught; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and £26 fees. A good circulating library is supported at Pathhead, and the parish contains two friendly societies.