Dunbar - Dundee

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Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

Supporting documents

Pages

310-320

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'Dunbar - Dundee', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 310-320. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43434 Date accessed: 27 November 2014.


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Dunbar

DUNBAR, a burgh, market-town, and parish, in the county of Haddington; containing, with the villages of East and West Barns, 4471 inhabitants, of whom 3013 are in the burgh, 11 miles (E. by N.) from Haddington, and 28 (E. by N.) from Edinburgh. This place is of remote antiquity, and appears to have derived its name from the situation of its castle on a high and rugged rock, forming a conspicuous landmark. The castle was given by Kenneth I., King of Scotland, to an eminent warrior named Bar, to which circumstance some writers erroneously refer the origin of its name; and in 1072, the castle and lands were conferred by Malcolm upon Cospatrick, Earl of Northumberland, and afterwards Earl of Dunbar, who had taken refuge at his court from the tyranny of William the Conqueror, and whose descendants for many generations made this their chief baronial residence. In 1296, the eighth earl of Dunbar and March having formed an alliance with England, Edward I. sent Earl Warren to besiege the castle, which had been surrendered by the Countess of Dunbar to the Scots, whose army, assembled at this place, was totally routed by the English at the battle of Dunbar, with great slaughter. After the defeat of his forces at Bannockburn in 1314, Edward II., previously to his embarkation for Berwick, took shelter in the castle of Dunbar, which, from its great strength and the importance of its situation, was regarded as the key of Scotland, and consequently exposed to continual assaults during the wars with England. The ninth earl of Dunbar, to prevent its falling into the hands of the English, levelled the castle to the ground, and was compelled by Edward III. to rebuild it at his own expense; in 1337 it was besieged by the Earl of Salisbury, and most resolutely defended by Agnes, Countess of Dunbar, who compelled the English forces to raise the siege. In 1435, the castle and the seigniories of Dunbar and March became forfeited to the crown, on the attainder of the tenth earl, and were bestowed by James I. on the Duke of Albany; and in 1446, the queen dowager of that monarch died in the castle, and was interred at Perth. In 1475 the Duke of Albany, on his escape from Edinburgh, landed at this place, and afterwards embarked for France; he soon returned, however, and regained possession of his castle; but in 1483 was again compelled to abandon it to the English, by whom it was a few years subsequently given up to James III. In 1488, an act of the Scottish parliament was passed for the demolition of this ancient fortress, but it was not carried into execution for nearly a century.


Burgh Seal.

Mary, Queen of Scots, took refuge in the castle after the murder of David Rizzio, in 1565, and subsequently appointed the Earl of Bothwell its governor. She also passed six days here, together with her court, in a tour along the coast in the following year; and upon the murder of Darnley in 1567, Bothwell, attended by 1000 horsemen, arrested the queen on her progress to Stirling, and carried her and her retinue by force to Dunbar, where he detained her prisoner for twelve days. Soon after her marriage with Bothwell, she remained here for some time, while levying forces from Lothian and the Merse against the people who had taken arms to oppose the earl; and marching with these to Carberry Hill, she there joined the hostile party, and, abandoning Bothwell, the castle was given up by his dependents to the Earl of Murray, who had been appointed regent of Scotland, and was soon demolished. In 1650, Dunbar was the scene of a battle in which Leslie was defeated with great slaughter, at Downhill; and in 1745, Sir John Cope landed his forces at this place, whence, being joined by two regiments of dragoons, he marched towards Edinburgh, and was totally routed at the battle of Prestonpans. In 1779, the inhabitants were kept in a state of alarm by the appearance of the notorious Paul Jones with a fleet of five ships, which lay off the port for several days; and in 1781, Captain Fall, an American pirate, attempted to carry off a vessel which was in the mouth of the harbour, but he was beaten off after the exchange of a few shots by the inhabitants, and abandoned his enterprise. To defend the town from similar attacks, a battery of sixteen guns was erected in the same year; and during the apprehension of an invasion by the French, who were expected to make a descent at Belhaven bay, an encampment was formed on the common of West Barns, under the command of General Don. Soon after, barracks were erected to the west of the castle for 1200 infantry, and at Belhaven for 300 cavalry; and a volunteer corps and a troop of yeomanry were raised in the neighbourhood.

The town, which owes its origin to the castle, round which it arose at a very early period, is advantageously situated on the southern shore of the Frith of Forth; the houses are neatly built, but the place is not distinguished by any architectural features of importance. A library is supported by subscription, in which is an extensive collection, and a reading-room is well provided with periodicals; there is also a mechanics' institution, to which there is attached a good library. Assemblyrooms have been built by subscription, but they are not eligibly situated. The chief trade of the port is in herrings, which are taken off the coast, and generally not less than 300 boats are employed; this trade having of late considerably increased. White-fish of all kinds, and lobsters in abundance are caught; great quantities of cod are cured and forwarded to the London market, and haddocks are smoked principally for Glasgow and Edinburgh; the lobsters are preserved in pits and sent chiefly to London. A very considerable trade is carried on in grain, which is raised in the parish and adjacent district to a great extent, and of very superior quality; and there is a good foreign trade. Flaxmills were established at West Barns in 1792, and a cotton-factory at Belhaven in 1815, but neither have been attended with success; a distillery, also, was formerly worked extensively, but has been for some years discontinued. There are two foundries for the manufacture of machinery of all kinds, one of which is celebrated for its steam-engines. The number of vessels engaged in the foreign trade that entered inwards in a recent year was twenty-three, of the aggregate burthen of 2310 tons, and having 134 men; and the amount of duties paid at the custom-house was £2942. 15. The coasting trade is also considerable; the number of vessels that entered inwards in the same year was 244, of the aggregate burthen of 11,919 tons, with 762 men; and of vessels which cleared outwards, 140, of 7081 tons, and 478 men. The quantity of foreign grain imported into Dunbar in the year was 203½ quarters of wheat, and 3346 quarters of barley; of wheat imported coastwise 342 quarters, and of barley 2007 quarters. The wheat exported coastwise was 3608 quarters, of barley 3936 quarters, of oats 6067 quarters, of peas and beans 1981 quarters, and of malt 359 bushels, and wheaten flour 231 sacks. The quantity of coal imported at Dunbar and its several creeks during the same year was 9490 tons of Scotch coal, of English 763 tons, and of English cinders 31 tons; the whisky amounted to 91,000 gallons. In the year 1844 the number of registered vessels was twenty-seven, having a tonnage of 1656. The new harbour, just completed, is accessible to vessels of above 300 tons; it has nine feet depth of water at neap, and eighteen feet at spring tides. The entrance to the old harbour is in some degree obstructed by rugged rocks: the eastern pier, which had been damaged by a storm, was repaired in the time of Cromwell by a parliamentary grant of £300; and in 1785, the convention of royal burghs voted £600 for its further improvement. The post has a good delivery; facility of intercourse with the neighbouring towns is afforded by excellent roads, of which the mail-coach road to London passes for more than seven miles through the parish, and packets sail regularly for Leith and London. The market, on Tuesday, is amply supplied with grain from the surrounding country, and from the highlands of the county of Berwick; and fairs for cattle and all sorts of ware are held at Whitsuntide and Martinmas (O. S.).

The town was created a free BURGH by David II., with limits co-extensive with the earldom of March; and its various privileges and immunities were confirmed by succeeding sovereigns, especially by two charters of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1555 and 1557, and charters of James VI., dated at Holyrood House, 1603 and 1618. By these charters the government was vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and council of fifteen burgesses, of whom four went out annually, but were capable of re-election, and by the new council thus formed the magistrates were appointed. The corporation, however, is now chosen under the authority of the act of the 3rd and 4th of William IV., and consists of a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and fifteen councillors. The magistrates are justices of the peace, with jurisdiction extending over the whole of the royalty, and have the appointment of a town-clerk, chamberlain, procurator-fiscal, superintendent of police, and two burgh schoolmasters. They hold civil and criminal courts, which were once of some importance; in the former the causes are of very trifling amount, and in the latter the charges extend only to petty misdemeanours. A sheriff's court for the recovery of small debts seems to have almost superseded the bailies' civil court. The elective franchise clearly appears to have been exercised in 1469, and most probably it was possessed at a much earlier period; the town returned a member to the Scottish parliament till the union, since which period it has united with Haddington, North Berwick, Jedburgh, and Lauder, in returning one representative to the imperial parliament. The right of election is, under the Reform act, vested in the resident £10 householders; the number of registered electors is about 130, of whom forty-five are burgesses. The gaol is an inconvenient edifice containing two rooms, and only fit for temporary confinement for petty misdemeanours; all persons charged with more serious offences are committed to the county gaol at Haddington.

The parish is situated in a richly-cultivated district, regarded as the finest for corn in the country; it is nearly eight miles in length, from east to west, extending along the shores of the Frith of Forth, and something more than a mile and a half in breadth. The surface is varied with hills and dales, the ground rising gently from the sea to the Lammermoor heights; the chief eminences are, Brunt hill, which has an elevation of 700, and Downhill, which rises to the height of 500 feet above the level of the sea, and is memorable as the site of Leslie's encampment previous to the defeat of his forces by Cromwell. The scenery is pleasingly varied, though destitute of wood, with the exception of some plantations on the demesnes of the principal seats; and from the summit of the hills are obtained extensive and interesting views of numerous prominent objects, among which St. Abb's Head, Traprain law, the Bass rock, and the isle of May are very conspicuous, and to which the beautiful woods of Tynninghame form a fine contrast. The Belton water, taking its name from the ancient parish in which it rises, joins the sea a little below Belhaven; the Broxburn falls into the sea at Broxmouth Park, and the Dryburn skirts the parish for some distance on the east. The soil is generally a rich brown loam; the system of agriculture is highly improved, and the whole of the parish, estimated at 7197 acres, is in the best state of cultivation, producing wheat and grain of all kinds, beans, peas, and turnips, in the cultivation of which last foreign manure is applied with success. The rateable annual value of the parish is £27,701. The prevailing substrata are, trap rock, red sandstone, limestone, and whinstone. The rocks are of the secondary formation, with porphyritic and basaltic greenstone in some parts, and partaking also of the columnar character; the columns are of pentagonal and hexagonal structure, and of unequal surfaces. Red freestone is also found in some parts, of different degrees of compactness; the limestone is of excellent quality, and is extensively quarried for the supply of the parish and of distant parts, and large quantities of lime are sent to Berwickshire. Coal is found, but not at present in seams of sufficient thickness to pay for the expense of working it. Dunbar House, the seat of the Earl of Lauderdale, is within the park of the old castle; it is a spacious mansion with a front towards the sea, from which it is a commanding object. Broxmouth Park, the seat of the Dowager Duchess of Roxburghe, is a handsome residence of modern style, beautifully situated in a demesne enriched with stately timber and thriving plantations, and comprehending much varied scenery. Lochend House is an elegant mansion in the later English style, containing several fine apartments, and pleasantly seated in a tastefully-disposed and well-cultivated demesne. Belton House is romantically situated in a deep and winding glen, watered by a gently flowing stream, and is embosomed in woods: near it are some noble silverfirs more than two centuries old, and a beech-tree of remarkably luxuriant growth, measuring nearly nineteen feet in girth at a height of three feet from the ground. Ninewar House is also beautifully situated, on a gentle eminence richly wooded, and commanding an extensive view of the circumjacent country, Belhaven bay, and the Tynninghame woods.

The parish was anciently included within the diocese of Lindisfarne, and, together with the other portions of Lothian, was given up to the king of Scotland in 1020, and annexed to the bishopric of St. Andrew's. At that time it was more extensive than at present, and, in addition to the mother church, comprehended the chapelries of Pinkterton, Heatherwic, Whittingham, Penshiel, Stenton, and Spott. Patrick, the tenth earl of Dunbar, in 1342 made the parochial church collegiate for a dean, an arch-priest, and eighteen canons, for whose support he assigned the income of the chapelries, which were subsequently converted into churches dependent on that of Dunbar as corps of prebends in the college. The ecclesiastical affairs are now under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunbar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The stipend of the incumbent is £331; the manse is a comfortable residence, built in 1767, and the glebe is valued at £40 per annum. The collegiate church, a handsome cruciform structure partly in the Norman and early English styles, was taken down in 1819, and the present church was built, and opened for divine service on the 20th of April, 1821; it is conveniently situated, and contains 1800 sittings. There is a costly monument erected to the memory of George Home of Manderston, lord high treasurer of Scotland, whom James VI., in 1605, created Earl of Dunbar, and who died at Whitehall in 1611, and was interred in the old church, from which the monument was removed to the present. He is represented in a kneeling posture, with a book open before him, and on each side are two armed knights finely sculptured, with various emblematical devices. There are places of worship for the Free Church, the United Associate Synod, and Wesleyans. Two schools have been founded by the corporation; the master of the grammar school has a salary of £42, with a house and garden, and the master of the mathematical has £20, with a house, both sums paid by the corporation. There are also two parochial schools, one at West Barns, of which the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and one at East Barns, of which the master receives only a single chalder, and the interest of £100 bequeathed by William Hume, Esq., and of £50 by the Rev. George Bruce.

The ruins of the ancient castle, which was built upon a lofty rock, and connected with a battery on the adjoining land, are scarcely sufficient to give any idea of its former grandeur. A monastery for Red Friars was founded in 1218, by Patrick, sixth earl of Dunbar and March, of which some slight vestiges are still remaining in a spot called the Friars' Croft; a monastery of Carmelites, or White Friars, was founded in 1263, by the seventh earl; and there was a Maison Dieu in the burgh, of which the founder and its history are alike unknown. In digging the site of the reservoir from which the town is supplied with water, some Roman medals were found, on which was inscribed the legend Judea Captiva. On a sequestered spot in the grounds of Broxmouth House, is a tombstone with the name of Sir William Douglas in rude characters; and in the park is an elevated mound on which Oliver Cromwell reconnoitered the forces of Leslie previously to the battle of Downhill. Columba Dunbar, who was dean of the collegiate church, and subsequently translated to the see of Moray in 1411; Thomas Hay, also dean of Dunbar, and in 1532 appointed a senator of the College of Justice; and Dr. Andrew Wood, rector of Dunbar, in 1676 promoted to the bishopric of the Isles, and afterwards to the see of Caithness, which he held till the Revolution, are among the distinguished characters connected with the place.

Dunbarny

DUNBARNY, a parish, in the county of Perth, 3½ miles (S.) from Perth; containing, with the villages of Bridge of Earn and Kintillo, 1104 inhabitants. The name of this place, variously written in old records, but generally Dunberny, is supposed to be a compound of two Celtic terms, dun, a hill, and bearn, a breach or fissure, and to have been applied to the parish in consequence of the church and principal village being on the estate of Dunbarny, which is marked by a fissure in a ridge of hills. The church formerly stood a mile westward of the bridge of Earn; but this site, which was near the extremity of the parish, being found inconvenient, it became necessary to build a new church in 1684, though the ancient burial-ground is still used as a cemetery. The church of Kirk-Pottie, about three miles south from the bridge, and the chapel of Moncrieffe, standing 200 or 300 yards south-east from the present mansion of the name, were both appendages to the church of Dunbarny; but the lands of the former place, with some others, were annexed ecclesiastically in the year 1652, and afterwards civilly, to the parish of Dron, on account of their contiguity, and the ruins of the church have been swept away within the last few years. The area comprehended within the walls of the chapel of Moncrieffe, which are still standing embosomed in thick wood, has long been used as the burying-place of the ancient family of that name. The forest of Black Earnside, formerly extending along the banks of the river Earn, was celebrated for the adventures of Sir William Wallace, especially in a sanguinary encounter there maintained with the English; and at Kilgraston, in the parish, the Covenanters are said to have pitched their camp in 1645, before the battle of Kilsyth.

The parish, situated in the most beautiful part of Strathearn, and bounded on the north partly by Perth, is about four miles in extreme length from east to west, and one mile and a quarter in average breadth, and comprises 3236 acres, of which 2640 are under culture, 419 wood, and the remainder water, roads, and waste. The river Earn passes through in a winding course from west to east, and the surface is generally level, the chief exception being the lofty and striking elevation called Moncrieffe or Moredun hill, which rises 756 feet above the sea, and commands from its summit one of the most magnificent views in Scotland. The prospect comprehends the Carse of Gowrie; the Frith of Tay, with the town of Dundee; the beautifully rich and well-wooded vale of Strathearn, ornamented with the meanderings of the river, and with many superior mansions; the picturesque forms of the Ochils; and the fine eminences of Monteith. On the north and west, the mountains of Ben-Voirlich, Benmore, and others are finely contrasted with the nearer scenery of Perth, the river Tay, Kinnoull hill, and Kinfauns Castle; and beyond Crieff appears the obelisk raised to the memory of Sir David Baird on the hill of Tom-a-chastel, in the parish of Monivaird, with that of Lord Melville, near Comrie. The scenery is much indebted for its general beauty to the Earn, though its stream is here far less clear than in many other parts, chiefly on account of the mossy soil through which it passes; it affords trout, whitling, pike, and salmon, the last, however, in smaller quantities than formerly. The soil is exceedingly various, and comprises almost every description, from the richest loam to the poorest clay. On the south side of the river the lands are very flat, and consist of strong wet clay; on the north they are loamy; and towards the western district, a red, tilly, impervious earth is most prevalent. Near the bridge of Earn, at some depth beneath the surface, is a stratum of moss of considerable thickness, extending for several hundred yards, and which so impregnates all the water near the village as to render it unpleasant; and in this mossy bed large pieces of timber are found, many of which present curious specimens of petrifaction. Wheat, oats, barley, and the usual green crops are raised; the cultivation of potatoes, especially the Perthshire red kind, occupies a large proportion of the ground appropriated to the green crops, and about 6000 bolls are yearly sent to London and to Newcastle, in the county of Northumberland. The rocks are mostly whinstone and sandstone of various kinds, of which several quarries are in operation, and the substrata exhibit specimens of barytes, jasper, agate, chlorite, and a variety of other minerals. The district has made many important advances in agriculture, and is also especially worthy of notice for the rapid increase of its plantations, comprehending all kinds of trees, which now cover the hill of Moncrieffe, formerly overgrown with heath and furze, and enrich the vale of Strathearn in every direction. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7605.

The house of Moncrieffe, the residence of the ancient family of that name, descended from Ramerus de Moncrieffe, who was keeper of the wardrobe to Alexander I., was built in the seventeenth century; the grounds are thickly planted with the usual trees, interspersed with horse-chesnut, silver and spruce firs, lime, plane, and walnut, and the garden contains, with many other rare plants, several from the Cape of Good Hope and New South Wales. The other mansions are those of Pitkeathly, in the grounds of which is a tulip-tree above 100 years old, which still regularly flowers; and Kilgraston, a spacious and commodious structure in the Grecian style, standing in a large well-wooded park, and containing a valuable collection of pictures, among which is one of the finest pieces of Guercino, representing Louis IX. renouncing the crown for a monastic life. There is also the house of Ballendrick, a convenient residence with excellent out-buildings. A village named Dunbarny formerly existed on the road leading from the property of that name to Bridge of Earn; but the only villages now comprehended in the parish are those of Kintillo and Bridge of Earn, with a cluster of houses on the Pitkeathly property, and a number of elegant cottages recently erected at Craigend, on the Edinburgh road, by the Moncrieffe family. With regard to its ecclesiastical affairs, the parish is in the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of Sir Thomas Moncrieffe, Bart.; the minister's stipend is £179, with a manse, a vicarage tithe of forty-four and a-third loads of coal, and a glebe valued at £19 per annum. The church erected in 1684 stood a few yards west of the present structure, which was built in 1787; the churchyard was partly formed in 1821, and finished some years afterwards, and is altogether artificial, being composed of 2000 cartloads of sand brought from the banks of the river. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary branches; the master has a salary of £34, with about £25 fees, and also receives, for teaching poor children, the interest of 500 merks left in 1677 by the Rev. Robert Young, £5 left in 1743 by John Craigie, Esq., and £108 left in 1820 by the Rev. James Beatson. The late Sir David Moncrieffe bequeathed a sum, as a prize, to the best classical scholar; and there are two bursaries in the patronage of the family, one for St. Mary's, and the other for St. Salvator's College, St. Andrew's. The parish contains a public library comprising about 300 volumes. At a small distance from Moncrieffe House are the remains of a Druidical temple, and on the summit of the hill of that name is a circular fosse, sixteen yards in diameter, in the centre of which stood Carnac fort, formerly belonging to the Picts. Near Old Kilgraston is a bulky Spanish chesnut-tree, of thick foliage, said to have been planted on the day when Perth capitulated to Oliver Cromwell.

Dunbeath

DUNBEATH, a hamlet, in the parish of Latheron, county of Caithness, 20 miles (S. W.) from Wick; containing 40 inhabitants. It is situated on the banks of the river Dunbeath, which here discharges itself into the North Sea, and is an excellent fishing-station. An ancient castle stands on a narrow neck of land, impending on one side over the sea, and on the other over a deep chasm into which the tide flows. Near the hamlet is an entire Picts' house, called the Bourg of Dunbeath.


Burgh Seal.

Dunblane

DUNBLANE, an ancient episcopal town and parish, and now the seat of a presbytery, in the county of Perth; containing, with the village of Kinbuck, 3361 inhabitants, of whom 1911 are in the town, 6 miles (N.) from Stirling, and 41½ (W. N. W.) from Edinburgh. This place derives its name from an eminence on which was an ancient convent of Culdees founded by St. Blaan in the reign of Kenneth III., and subsequently erected into a bishopric by David I., who built the cathedral church about the year 1142. The diocese comprised part of the counties of Perth and Stirling, and continued to flourish under a succession of twenty-five Roman Catholic prelates till the Reformation, when its revenues were valued at £315 in money, exclusively of certain payments in wheat and other grain. Among the Protestant bishops who presided over the see after that period, was the venerable Leighton, who was consecrated in 1662, and in 1669 was translated to the archiepiscopal see of Glasgow, in which he continued till 1675. At his death he bequeathed his valuable library for the use of the clergy of the diocese of Dunblane; and he has left behind him a series of works which display the sound learning he possessed, and the fervour of his piety. In 1715, a sanguinary battle took place on the plains of Sheriff Muir, to the north-east of the town, between the forces under the command of the Duke of Argyll and those of the Pretender led by the Earl of Mar, in which both parties claimed the victory, and quietly left the field. The town is pleasantly situated on the road from Stirling to Perth, and on the east bank of the river Allan, over which is an old narrow bridge. There are still slight remains of the episcopal palace to the south of the cathedral, on the margin of the river, and that part of the town yet retains some faint resemblance to its ancient character. The building erected for the library of Archbishop Leighton was endowed under his will with £300 for keeping it in repair and as a salary for the librarian, and has been recently fitted up by subscription as a public reading and news room; the library has received various additions by bequests and donations. There are also two libraries, chiefly of religious books, supported by subscription. Close to the town is a neat lodge, to which, during the summer months, a supply of mineral water is brought from a spring called the Well of Dunblane, about two miles distant. It was proposed to bring the water into the town by pipes; but this purpose not being carried into effect, a village has been built near the spot, called Bridge of Allan, which is described under its own head.

The inhabitants are principally engaged in the woollen manufacture, of which there are three establishments in the parish; one in the town, in which 215 persons are employed; one in the small village of Kinbuck, and the third at the mill of Keir, each of the two latter affording occupation to about forty persons. A considerable number in the town, likewise, are employed in handloom weaving. There is a general post-office, and two mails pass daily through the place: fairs are held on the first Wednesday in March, the first Tuesday after the 26th of May, the 21st of August, and the first Tuesday in November. The town, being within the barony of Cromlix, was formerly governed by a bailie, appointed by the Earl of Kinnoull as superior, and who held courts in a house a little to the east of the cathedral. The old gaol has been taken down; and a new prison, containing eight cells and a house for the gaoler, has been recently erected for the western district, upon the site once occupied by the mansion of Viscount Strathallan.

The parish, which is situated at the western extremity of the Ochill range, is about nine miles in length, and nearly six in breadth; a considerable part consists of arable land, but the greater portion is moor, heath, and pasture. The surface is much diversified with hills of various elevation, of which the declivities slope gradually towards Strathallan, a fertile vale through which the river Allan flows with a rapid current, between banks in some parts steep and richly wooded, and pursues a winding course till it falls into the Forth near Stirling bridge. The rivulet Ardoch intersects the western part of the parish, and in both streams are found trout of good quality. The soil is various, in some parts fertile, in others affording only indifferent pasture for sheep and black-cattle; the farms are generally of small extent, the buildings substantial and commodious, and a considerable portion of waste land has been brought into cultivation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £14,300. The substratum is mostly red sandstone; there are pits of shell marl, and lime is obtained with facility at the distance of a few miles, by the river Forth, and has been plentifully applied to the improvement of the land. Kilbryde Castle, the seat of Sir James Campbell, of Aberuchill, Bart., is an ancient structure finely situated; Keir House is a spacious mansion, and Kippenross a handsome building of modern erection.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £289, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church is the choir of the ancient cathedral, originally a venerable structure combining elegant details of the Norman, and early and decorated English styles, 216 feet in length and 58 feet in breadth within the walls, which rise to the height of fifty feet, and are crowned with battlements. The tower, 128 feet in height, appears to be of later date than the rest of the cathedral in the upper part; but the three lower of the five stories of which the tower consists seem to be older, and to have been erected by the ancient Culdees. The choir is almost entire; the lofty vaulted roof is in good preservation, and the windows, which were of beautiful design, were restored in 1819, and the whole of the interior repaired. The prebendal stalls, several of which are elaborately carved, are preserved in the avenues leading into the choir, which contains about 500 sittings, the whole free. The Episcopalians have just erected a chapel; the members of the Free Church have a place of worship, and there are three meeting-houses for the United Secession. The parochial school is conducted by a master who has a salary of £34, with £10. 10. per annum granted by the crown from the church lands; also a house and garden, and fees averaging about £50, out of which he pays an assistant. There are several other schools in the parish, including two partly supported by subscription. Archbishop Leighton bequeathed £1024 Scotch to the poor of the parish; and a sequestered walk in the neighbourhood of the town, to which that prelate frequently resorted, is still called the Bishop's Walk. Dunblane gives the title of Viscount to the Duke of Leeds.

Dunbog

DUNBOG, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county of Fife, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Newburgh; containing 219 inhabitants. This place derives its name, of Celtic origin, and signifying the bog of the hill, from the former marshy nature of the grounds at the base of the hill of Dunmore, which extends into the parish. A portion of the lands anciently formed part of the barony of Balinbriech, the property of the Rothes family, from whom it passed into the possession of Lord Home, whose descendant, in the reign of James IV., sold the lands of Dunbog to David Bethune, of Creich, in whose family they remained till the middle of the seventeenth century. In 1694 the estate was sold to Major Balfour, of Starr, by whom it was forfeited in the rebellion of 1715; it was, however, restored to his son, from whom it was purchased in 1766 by the ancestor of the Earl of Zetland, its present proprietor. The parish is four miles in length, and varies from half a mile to one mile and a half in breadth; it comprises 2130 acres, of which 1800 are arable, 300 hill pasture, and thirty woodland and plantations. The surface is broken by two continuous chains of hills, extending in a nearly parallel direction, and inclosing between them a beautiful vale of luxuriant fertility; the greatest elevation of the hills, however, does not exceed 500 feet above the sea. The northern chain, which is a continuation of the hill of Dunmore, now called Norman's Law, is cultivated from the base to the summit, and commands an extensive and diversified view of the surrounding country, embracing the windings of the river Tay till it disappears behind the projection of the hill of Kinnoull, the rich valley of the Earn, the Carse of Gowrie, and, to the east, the town of Dundee, and the estuary of the Tay at its influx into the German Ocean. Towards the north appears the range of the Sidlaw hills, with the Grampians in the distance towering above them in majestic grandeur. The southern chain of hills is barren and uncultivated; some few spots have by great perseverance been rendered productive, and are in tillage, but, from the want of wood and plantations, the general appearance is dreary and unpromising. The scenery of the lower lands of the parish has been much improved by the joint exertions of the proprietors in reclaiming the large tracts of bog and marsh which formerly abounded, and which are now in a state of high cultivation, and produce abundant crops. The river Tay washes a small portion of the parish.

The soil in the valley is a rich black loam; in other parts it is more of a clay, and towards the east light and dry. The system of agriculture is in a greatly improved state, and the six-shift rotation plan of husbandry is generally practised; the crops are, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, and turnips. Little attention is paid to the rearing of cattle or sheep; of the latter the few that are fed in the parish are of the Cheviot breed, and the cattle are mostly of a mixed sort. Great advances have been made in draining, but the lands are not inclosed, and the want of fences is seriously felt. The substratum is principally whinstone, and on the summits of the hills are found boulders of granite; in some parts of the valley the whinstone occasionally rises to the surface, and in the best cultivated and richest land are spots comparatively barren. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2944. The mansion of Dunbog, the property of Lord Zetland, and at one time the residence of Cardinal Beaton, was erected on the site of a religious house called the Preceptory of Gadvan, occupied as a cell belonging to the abbey of Balmerino, by a few monks of that establishment, who employed themselves in the cultivation of the adjoining lands, which, with the exception of a small portion now included in the glebe, are laid out in garden and pleasure grounds. Collairney, for many centuries the property of the Barclay family, was purchased by the late Dr. Balfour of Fernie: the castle, formerly the baronial residence of the Barclays, is now a ruin consisting only of one of the towers, containing some small apartments with roofs divided into compartments, and emblazoned with the arms of various members of that family. The parish is in the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife, and in the gift of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £204, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8. 15. per annum. The church, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, was erected in 1803, and is a neat and well-arranged edifice adapted for a congregation of 200 persons. The parochial school affords a liberal course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34, with £15 fees, and a house and garden.

Duncansbay

DUNCANSBAY, a township, in the parish of Canisbay, county of Caithness, 9 miles (N. by E.) from Keiss; containing 302 inhabitants. This place, said to be the Berubium of Ptolemy, is a beautiful promontory, forming the north-east corner of the island of Great Britain, of a circular shape, and about two miles in circumference. Towards the sea, which encompasses two-thirds of the Head, it is one continued precipice; and on the land side is a deep glen or ravine, over which a small bridge is thrown. The Stacks of Duncansbay are pyramidical pillars of naked freestone rock, rearing their fantastic summits to a considerable altitude, like huge spires of an old cathedral, and are frequented by innumerable sea-fowl. On the highest part of the Head are the remains of an ancient watch-tower, whence is a prospect the most noble and extensive that can be imagined, embracing the whole Pentland Frith, the Orkney islands, the German Sea, the Moray Frith, and the mountains of Banff, Aberdeen, and Elgin. The whole promontory is covered with excellent pasturage for sheep, intermixed with short heath. Here was formerly a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary; the site is still known by the name of Lady-Kirk, though no remains of the edifice exist.

Duncow

DUNCOW, a village, in the parish of Kirkmahoe, county of Dumfries, 1¼ mile (N.) from Kirkmahoe; containing 121 inhabitants. It is seated intermediately between the Nith and Lochar rivers, and on a small stream, bearing its own name, that falls into the former a short distance from the village of Kirkmahoe. The barony of Duncow once belonged to the family of Cumin, but was forfeited by them on the accession of Bruce, and bestowed upon the Boyds; it subsequently passed to the Maxwell and Nithsdale families, and remained with the latter until about fifty years ago, when it was divided among various purchasers. The village is one of five, and the largest, in the parish. At Duncow mills has lately been erected a manufactory for coarse woollen-cloth, wrought both by water and steam. One of the parochial schools is situated here, of which the master has a free-rent dwelling, and besides his salary and fees, an annual payment of £5, arising from a bequest of the late Mr. Allan, of Newlands, for teaching fatherless children.

Duncrivie

DUNCRIVIE, a village, in the parish of Arngask, county of Kinross, 1 mile (S. W.) from Arngask; containing 106 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly situated on the road from Kinross to Perth, upon rising ground, near the southern extremity of the parish: it contains a school.


Seal and Arms.

Dundee

DUNDEE, a royal burgh, sea-port town, and parish, in the county of Forfar; containing, with part of the village of Lochee, 62,794 inhabitants, of whom 60,553 are within the burgh, 14 miles (S. by W.) from Forfar, and 40½ (N. by E.) from Edinburgh. This place appears to have derived its name, in ancient records Dondie, and in a charter of Queen Mary Donum Dei, from the erection of the church in the twelfth century, by David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of King William the Lion, on his landing here in safety after a severe storm, on his return from the Holy Land, whither, with 500 of his countrymen, he had accompanied Richard Cæur de Lion, King of England, in his third crusade. In fulfilment of his vow to grant to him the first ground on which he should land on his return, the Scottish monarch gave his brother the site now occupied by Dundee; and the earl, in gratitude for his preservation from shipwreck, erected a spacious church, around which subsequently arose the present town. There seems to have been a castle or fortress on the summit of a rock rising precipitously from the river, of which the origin is altogether unknown, and which, after the erection of the church, became a royal residence; but from the shelter it afforded to the enemy in the wars with England during the reign of Edward I., it was ultimately demolished by the Scots. In the war consequent on the disputed succession to the Scottish throne, the town was twice taken by the army of Edward I., by whom it was plundered and burnt; and in 1385, it was again nearly reduced to ashes by the English forces under the Duke of Lancaster. It suffered a similar devastation from the English army commanded by the protector, Somerset, in an attempt to compel the regency of Scotland to negotiate a contract of marriage between the infant princess, Mary, afterwards Queen of Scots, and the son of Henry VIII., Edward VI. of England. At the time of the Reformation, the inhabitants, who were zealous for the cause, proceeded to Edinburgh to assist in besieging the French troops stationed in Leith; but they were repulsed with considerable loss, and many of them were killed in endeavouring to effect their retreat into the city.

In 1645, the Marquess of Montrose, at the head of 150 cavalry and 600 infantry, sent a summons to the town to surrender, and on the imprisonment of his messenger by the inhabitants, attacked it simultaneously in three different quarters, and, after plundering and setting fire to it on the east and north sides, abandoned the people to military execution. In 1651, after the battle of Worcester, the town was besieged by General Monk, to whom it was compelled to yield, though not without a valiant resistance. The governor, Lumsden, retired with part of the garrison to the tower of the church, which for some time he maintained to the annoyance of the enemy; but being at length obliged to submit, he was, together with all his companions, inhumanly murdered in the churchyard, and his head placed on a spike on the battlements of the tower. On this occasion, the town was plundered of every thing of value, and sixty ships in the harbour were laden with the spoils, valued at £200,000 sterling, and sent off to England; but in passing the bar near the mouth of the river, every vessel was lost. The inhabitants were slaughtered without regard either to age or sex; and in the general carnage, which continued for three days, it is estimated that more than one-sixth of the inhabitants were put to death. In 1669, the town was so greatly reduced that an act of parliament was passed, recommending it to the benevolent consideration of the whole kingdom; and contributions were made for its assistance by all the principal burghs in the country. The various calamities which the town had experienced were, moreover, subsequently aggravated by a dearth that lasted for seven years, and it was not till after the rebellion in 1745 that it began to recover its former importance, since which time few events of historical interest have taken place. In 1841, three of the churches were destroyed by an accidental fire which originated from a stove in the passage between the south and the steeple churches, on the morning of the 3rd of January. The flames extended to the cathedral and the cross church, but the firemen prevented their communication to the steeple church, which was saved: the other three, however, about half-past six o'clock, were one mass of fire; the cathedral was completely destroyed, and the south and cross churches were almost reduced to ruins. In 1844, Her Majesty Queen Victoria, attended by Prince Albert, arrived in the bay of Dundee, on Wednesday, the 11th of September, on a visit to Lord Glenlyon, and landed under a triumphal arch erected on the occasion. After remaining a short time in the town, the royal visiters proceeded to Blair-Atholl, where they remained till Tuesday, the 1st of October, when they returned to Dundee, and embarked for London.

The town is advantageously situated on the north bank of the Tay, and consists of numerous streets, of which several retain the name of the ancient gates in the old walls, which have been long since removed. The principal street, called the High-street, in which is the market-place, is about 120 yards in length, and 100 feet wide; the houses are neatly built of stone, and four stories in height. To the east of this is the Seagate, one of the oldest streets of the town, a long narrow thoroughfare leading to the road to Broughty-Ferry. The Murraygate, containing many well-built houses, and the Cowgate, adjoining, are connected with the Seagate by numerous cross streets or lanes. King-street, of modern erection, contains handsome houses, and the Nethergate, in the most improved part of the town, is a spacious street of considerable length, containing many elegant detached houses. Castle-street, leading from the south-east angle of the High-street to the harbour, and Union-street, opening a direct communication between Craig Pier and the Nethergate, and in the formation of which many unsightly houses have been rebuilt in an excellent style, are each spacious and handsome. Among the many improvements that have been effected of recent years, is the construction of the splendid Reform-street. The streets are well paved, and the roads macadamized; the town is lighted with gas, from works established by a company, about a mile to the eastward of High-street, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. The public subscription library contains a collection of more than 6000 volumes; there are also district libraries connected with the several churches, each of which has nearly 1000 volumes. A spacious and elegant reading and news room has lately been opened near the harbour, called the Exchange Coffee Room, and is supported by above 400 subscribers; and an artizans' reading-room, well supplied with daily journals, has been founded by members of the Watt Institution, and has 200 subscribers. The Watt Institution was established in 1826 for the delivery of lectures on scientific subjects, and has now an extensive library, consisting chiefly of works of art; a reading-room has also been provided by Messrs. Brown, proprietors of the spinning-mills, for the use of their workmen. There is a theatre in Castle-street, a handsome and well-arranged edifice; and card and dancing assemblies are held in the town-hall, and other public buildings. A horticultural society was established in 1824, under the patronage of the neighbouring nobility and gentry; and a florists' society has also been formed. The old gardens of Chapelshade, in the vicinity of the town, have recently been converted into a cemetery, and tastefully laid out in walks, parterres, and shrubberies, with appropriate embellishments; and to the north, a public bleach-green, four acres in extent, and containing the requisite apparatus for family washing, has been inclosed, and planted with ornamental shrubs.

The principal trade pursued is the linen manufacture, which was introduced at an early period, and, till within the last forty years, was carried on entirely by hand, both in spinning the yarn and weaving the cloth, to a very considerable extent for the supply of the neighbourhood, and also for exportation. Since the introduction of machinery and the application of steam, however, it has increased to an amazing amount. In 1811 four spinning-mills had been erected, driven by steam-engines of the aggregate power of sixty-one horses, consuming 468 tons of flax annually, and producing 224,600 spindles of yarn; and the whole of the capital invested amounted to £22,000. At present there are more than thirty-six spinning-mills, driven by steamengines of the aggregate power of 600 horses, consuming a vast quantity of flax, and producing annually 7,500,000 spindles of yarn; and the capital invested is about £240,000. In these mills above 3000 persons are regularly employed, of whom a large proportion are women and children, and the amount of wages annually paid is £160,000. The flax is chiefly imported from Russia, Brabant, Holland, and Prussia, and the quantity landed at Dundee annually during the ten years ending 1844 averaged 28,992 tons; the goods manufactured are, Osnaburghs, sheetings, sailcloth, sacking, and bagging, and various other articles, of which large quantities are exported to the West Indies, North and South America, and to various ports on the continent. The tanning of leather, which was formerly carried on to a very considerable extent, has for some years been rapidly diminishing, and is now almost extinct; but the manufacture of ropes and cordage is in a flourishing state. The trade of the port consists chiefly in the exportation of grain and agricultural produce, and the different articles of the linen manufacture; and in the importation of flax, hemp, lime, coal, ashes, timber, iron, tar, whale-blubber, tallow, and other merchandise. The number of vessels registered as belonging to the port in 1844 was 326, of the aggregate burthen of 50,901 tons; the number of vessels that entered inwards from foreign ports in a late year was 307, of which 253 were British and 54 foreign; and the amount of duties paid at the customhouse in 1843 was £40,471. The coasting-trade is very extensive, and it appears that in one year 1858 vessels entered inwards, and 1017 cleared outwards.

The harbour, previously to the year 1815, was small; but in that year, an act for its improvement and for placing it under the management of commissioners was obtained, and before 1833 the sum of £242,000 was expended in the construction of two capacious wet-docks, of nearly eleven acres in extent, and commencing a third of much more ample dimensions. A large tide harbour was also formed, with extensive quays, as well as a graving-dock, capable of receiving three of the largest class of merchant ships, with commodious yards for building and repairing vessels. A substantial low-water pier has since been erected on the Craig, the usual landing-place from Newport, in Fifeshire, between which place and Dundee hourly intercourse by steamers is maintained. A stationary light, too, has been placed on the Craig pier, on the western side of the harbour, and also on the pier at Newport; there is likewise a light exhibited on the east pier, and another on the middle pier, at the entrance to the docks. A grant of £8000 was lately made by government for the erection of a new custom-house at the north-east angle of King William's dock; it is a handsome building in the Grecian style, and contains also accommodation for transacting the business of the harbour commissioners and of the excise-office. Prior to 1834, the Dundee, Perth, and London Shipping Company employed eight smacks in the London trade, having an aggregate burthen of 991 tons; also three vessels in the Glasgow trade, four in the Liverpool, and four in the Perth, the tonnage of these eleven amounting to 673. In that year, however, the company built two powerful steamers, the Dundee and Perth, of 300-horse power each, and subsequently added a third, the London, of 350-horse power. Besides these, they employ four schooners in the London trade, seven sloops in the Glasgow, four in the Leith, and three lighters and a steam-tug in the Perth trade; and the entire tonnage of the steamers and sailing-vessels belonging to the company now amounts to 2686. Two steamers, also, are employed by other parties, in the Dundee and Leith trade. There are likewise several joint-stock whalefishing companies, employing five ships, averaging 325 tons' burthen each.

The town was originally erected into a royal burgh by charter of William the Lion, and its privileges as such were confirmed by charter of Robert Bruce, and by one of Charles I. of England in 1641. In consequence of a dispute in the election of a dean of guild, the burgh was disfranchised in 1830, and seven members were appointed by the court of session to manage the interests of the town; but in 1831 the king, in answer to a petition, confirmed an election of the magistrates and council made by the burgesses and heritors; and in the 2nd of William IV. an act was passed, extending the royalty of the burgh and the jurisdiction of the magistrates. Under these regulations, the government is vested in a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and fourteen other councillors, elected under the regulations of the general Municipal act, with the exception of the dean of guild, who is chosen by the guild brethren. Of the councillors, seven retire from office annually. There are nine incorporated guilds, the bakers, shoemakers, glovers, tailors, bonnet-makers, butchers, hammermen, weavers, and dyers; and three united trades, the masons, wrights, and slaters. The magistrates have jurisdiction over the whole of the extended royalty, which is co-extensive with the parliamentary boundary, and hold courts weekly on Wednesday, for the recovery of debts to any amount, in which the bailies preside for one month each in rotation; the more important criminal cases, however, are tried by the sheriff-substitute, who is resident in the town, and those of less importance are disposed of in the police court. The sheriff-substitute also holds a court weekly, during the session, for the recovery of debts not exceeding £8. 6. 8.; and a court for the recovery of small debts is held by the magistrates every alternate week. There is a dean-of-guild court as occasion requires, in which the clerk of the guildry acts as assessor. Under the Police act the town is divided into eleven wards, to each of which are appointed two general and two resident commissioners; and there is also a harbour police. Previously to the Reform act the burgh was associated with those of Perth, Cupar of Fife, St. Andrew's, and Forfar, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; since that time it has elected a member of its own, and the number of qualified voters is about 2740.

The old Town-hall, erected in 1734, on the site of the ancient church of St. Clement, after a design by Mr. Adam, is a spacious and handsome structure with a tower and spire rising to the height of 100 feet; in front is a piazza, behind which are shops and public offices. On the first floor are two spacious halls, in one of which, embellished with a portrait of Lord Panmure, the corporation hold meetings for the transaction of public business, and in the other the several courts of the magistrates and sheriff are held, and the meetings of the guildry. There are also four arched rooms for the accommodation of the town-clerks and others connected with the courts, and for the preservation of the public records; and above these is the old town gaol, consisting of five apartments, each twenty-four feet in length and twelve feet wide, of which those in front were used for debtors, and the others for criminals. New public buildings, however, of very handsome construction, have been recently erected by the burgh, at a considerable expense, and containing ample accommodation for the confinement of prisoners. The Trades' Hall, situated at the east end of the marketplace, an elegant building of the Ionic order, with a lantern and cupola rising from the centre of the roof, was erected by the nine incorporated trades in 1770, and contains on the first floor a handsome hall, fifty feet in length and twenty-five feet wide, for holding the general meetings, and nine other apartments for the private meetings of each particular trade. The building appropriated as an Exchange is a handsome structure in the Grecian style, erected by a company of subscribers, at an expense of £10,000, and having on the ground-floor a range of offices and shops, and on the first floor an elegant hall, now used as a reading and news room, to which reference has been already made. There are several banking establishments, of which the principal are, the Dundee, the Union, and the Eastern banks, and four branches of the Edinburgh bank: the Forfarshire and Perthshire Insurance Company, the Marine Insurance Company, the Forfarshire Chamber of Commerce, and two associations of underwriters have been also established in the town. The markets are on Tuesday and Friday, and Dundee being the great mart for a large surrounding district, are numerously attended. On the Tuesday, manufactured goods and various kinds of merchandise and provisions are exposed to sale in great profusion; and on the Friday, in addition to these, there is an abundant supply of grain. Facilities of communication, besides those by sea, are afforded by excellent roads, of which the coast road to Aberdeen passes through the town: there are turnpike-roads to Cupar-Angus, Forfar, Brechin, and Glasgow, and by branch roads through Fifeshire to Edinburgh. The Dundee and Newtyle railway was commenced in 1826, and completed in 1832, at a cost of £50,000; it is about eleven miles in length. The line from the north of the town ascends an inclined plane of about 800 yards in length, from the summit of which it passes through a tunnel in the Law of Dundee, and beyond this are two more inclined planes before it reaches Newtyle; the summit level is 500 feet, and the carriages are drawn up the ascents by fixed, and on the other parts of the line by locomotive, engines. Branches have been opened to Cupar-Angus and Glammis, under acts of parliament passed in 1835, and the whole cost is estimated at £90,000. The Dundee and Arbroath railway was commenced in 1836, by a company empowered to raise a capital of £100,000, and completed in 1840: the line, which is almost seventeen miles in length, nearly level throughout, and passes close to the shore, is wrought by locomotive-engines.

The parish is nearly six miles in length, from east to west, and varies greatly in breadth, comprising an area of about 4200 acres, of which 254 are woodland and plantations, 135 waste, and the remainder arable and pasture. The surface is diversified, rising into hills of considerable elevation, of which the Law, and the hill of Balgay, are the most conspicuous; the soil to the west of the town is light and shallow, to the north and east of richer quality, and along the bank of the Tay luxuriantly fertile. The crops are, oats, barley, wheat, turnips, and potatoes, with the various grasses; the system of husbandry is advanced, and the lands are in a high state of cultivation. The farm-houses are generally of stone, and roofed with slate; the lands are inclosed partly with stone dykes, and partly with hedges of thorn. The only cattle pastured are milchcows on the several farms. The soil is well adapted for fruit of every kind, and considerable portions of the land near the town are laid down in gardens, and also in nursery-grounds. The plantations are, ash, plane, beech, a few elms, and larch and Scotch fir, which are in a thriving state, but are rather ornamental than profitable. The principal substrata are, sandstone, amygdaloid alternated with trap, and red porphyry. The rateable annual value of the parish is £118,326.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns. The parish was in 1834 separated, by act of the presbytery, into the districts of St. Mary, St. Paul, the Grey Friars, St. John, St. Clement, St. David, St. Andrew, and Chapelshade, each of which was erected into a quoad sacra parish; and in 1836, by the same authority, part of the districts of St. John and St. David was formed into the additional quoad sacra parish of St. Peter. These arrangements, however, in common with similar arrangements in other parts of the country, were afterwards abrogated. The parish of St. Mary comprised, according to the plans just referred to, the rural district of the parish of Dundee, and part of the suburbs of the town; the minister's stipend is £313. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patrons, the Town Council. The Old and South churches, partly used by the inhabitants of St. Mary's, have since the fire been restored, and contain together about 2450 sittings, of which 1350 are in the latter. The parish of St. Paul, wholly within the town, comprised an extent of about half a mile square; the stipend is £274. 17.; patrons, the Town Council. The congregation assemble alternately in the Old and South churches. The parish of the Grey Friars comprised about one-eighth part of the town and suburbs; the minister's stipend is £275. 2.; patrons, the Town Council. Divine service is performed in the Old and South churches. Connected with the Established Church is a Gaelic chapel, erected within the last few years, at a cost of £2400, and containing 100 sittings: the minister has a stipend of £110, of which £10 are granted by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and the remainder derived from seat-rents; patrons, the male communicants. The parish of St. John was about half a mile in length, and of nearly equal breadth; the stipend is £275; patrons, the Town Council. The church, called the Cross church, containing about 1037 sittings, was destroyed in 1841 by the fire, but has been restored. The parish of St. Clement was three-quarters of a mile in length, and one-quarter of a mile in breadth; the minister's stipend is £300; patrons, the Council. The church, called the Steeple church, was rebuilt in 1782, and contains 1463 sittings. The parish of St. David was about two miles in length, and three-quarters of a mile in breadth; the stipend is £275; patrons, the Council. The church was built in 1800, at a cost of £2220, and has 1608 sittings. The parish of St. Andrew was one mile and three-quarters in length, and three-quarters of a mile in breadth; the stipend is £180; patrons, the male communicants. The church was built in 1774, at a cost of £3000, raised by subscription, and contains 1486 sittings: an additional church has been recently erected, by subscription, at an expense of nearly £2000, for 1100 persons. The parish of Chapelshade comprised nearly two square miles; the stipend is £150, derived from seat-rents; patrons, the male communicants. The church, built originally as a Relief chapel in 1789, was united to the Established Church in 1791; it was enlarged in 1830, at an expense of £880, and contains 1280 sittings. The parish of St. Peter, comprising a portion of the parishes of St. John and St. David, separated by the presbytery in 1836, was about a mile and a half in length, and one-quarter of a mile in breadth; the minister's stipend is £220, with an allowance of £12 for communion elements; patrons, the male communicants. The church, which contains 1120 sittings, was erected in 1836, at a cost of £2400, of which £250 were granted by the General Assembly, and the remainder raised by subscription. There are also places of worship in Dundee for members of the Free Church, the United Associate Secession, Original Seceders, Baptists, Baptist-Bereans, and Pædobaptist-Bereans, Original Burghers, Episcopalians, the Society of Friends, Glassites, United Christians, "the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church," Old Scotch Independents, the New Jerusalem Church, Primitive and United Methodists, Reformed Presbyterians, the Relief Church, Wesleyans, Roman Catholics, and Unitarians.

The grammar school is under the care of two classical masters, who have each a salary of £50, and the fees annually produce to each about £60; it is well conducted and numerously attended. The English school has also two masters, one for reading and English grammar, who has a salary of £30, and one for writing and arithmetic, with a salary of £20, in addition to which each master derives about £70 from fees. The Sessional school, recently established, is attended by about 500 children, and conducted by a master who has a salary of £80 per annum; the building was erected on a site given by the town council. The Dundee Academy, for which a spacious and handsome building has been erected in the centre of the town, at a cost of £8000, raised chiefly by subscription, is under the patronage of fifteen directors, of whom five are appointed by the town council and ten by the subscribers. This institution is endowed with £6000, bequeathed by Messrs. Webster, of London, who were natives of the town. The course of studies is very complete, and is superintended by two classical masters; a master for the modern languages; one for moral philosophy, nautical astronomy, and logic; a master for natural philosophy, mathematics, and chemistry; one for drawing and painting; one for English reading, grammar, and geography, and a master for writing and arithmetic. There are numerous other schools in the town and neighbourhood, in which it is calculated that about 4000 children receive instruction. Among the many charitable institutions of the town are, the ancient Hospital, from the revenues of which £500 are annually distributed among poor citizens; the Royal Infirmary, established in 1798, and supported by subscription, which receives more than thirty in-patients, and affords medical attendance and medicines to the poor at their own dwellings; the Royal Lunatic Asylum, erected in 1812, and supported by subscription for the reception of 120 patients; the Royal Orphan Institution, established in 1815; the Indigent-Sick Society, distributing annually £160; the Medical and Surgical Dispensary; the Institutions for the Lame and Blind; the Seamen's Friend Society, dispensing yearly £1500; the Female Society, £190, and the Clothing Society, distributing £40. These and various other benevolent institutions collectively dispense, in aid of the distressed and indigent, nearly £4000 annually, exclusively of numerous bequests by charitable individuals for similar purposes.

There are still some remains of the ancient palace called Whitehall, the occasional residence of the Scottish monarchs previously to the reign of James VI., and subsequently of Charles II., who lodged in it for some time before the battle of Worcester. The site of the Franciscan convent founded by Devorgilla, mother of John Baliol, and which was destroyed at the Reformation, was, together with the adjacent lands, granted by Mary, Queen of Scots, to the town for a burial-place. In clearing some ground for the formation of a new street in 1831, the vestiges of an ancient mint, supposed to have been erected by Robert Bruce, were discovered; and the smelting furnace was found nearly entire. At the western extremity of High-street, is an ancient house in which Anne, Duchess of Buccleuch and Monmouth, was born, during the residence of her parents here, who had been driven from the castle of Dalkeith by the commissioners of Cromwell; it was also inhabited by General Monk after he had reduced the town. The castle of Dudhope, once the seat of the Scrimgeours, hereditary constables of Dundee, has been converted into barracks for infantry. There are no remains of the castle of Dundee, which occupied the summit of a steep rock still called Castle Hill. Among the distinguished characters connected with the town, have been, Alexander Scrimgeour, one of the valiant companions of Wallace, by whom he was made constable of Dundee Castle; Sir John Scrimgeour, afterwards Viscount Dudhope, a zealous adherent of Charles I., who fell in the battle of Marston-Moor, and whose son was created Earl of Dundee; the celebrated historian, Hector Boece; the late Admiral Duncan, who obtained the victory over the Dutch fleet off Camperdown in 1797, upon which he was created Viscount Camperdown; Sir James Ivory, one of the professors in the military college of Sandhurst; and the late Rev. Dr. Small, for many years minister of the parish, and author of a work on astronomy called Kepler's Discoveries.



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