Jamestown - Jura

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Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

Supporting documents

Pages

584-592

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'Jamestown - Jura', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 584-592. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43449 Date accessed: 28 November 2014.


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Jamestown

JAMESTOWN, or Damhead, a village, in the parish of Bonhill, county of Dumbarton; containing 314 inhabitants. This place, heretofore a small hamlet, has latterly increased in population and extent, owing to the numerous and flourishing calico-printing and bleaching establishments which have sprung up in the parish, and in which the population here are chiefly employed.

Jamestown

JAMESTOWN, a village, in the parish of Contin, county of Ross and Cromarty; containing 115 inhabitants.

Janetown

JANETOWN, a village, in the parish of Lochcarron, county of Ross and Cromarty, 1 mile (S.) from Lochcarron; containing 513 inhabitants. It is situated on the eastern shore of the Carron loch, an arm of the sea into which falls the Carron water about two miles northward of the village. From a very small hamlet consisting of only three families, it has risen latterly into comparative importance, in consequence, principally, of the division of land into lots. The high road from Dingwall to the western coast passes through; and there is a post-office, where the mails arrive three times a week. On the Carron is a good salmon-fishery.

Jedburgh

JEDBURGH, a burgh, market-town, and parish, in the district of Jedburgh, county of Roxburgh, of which it is the capital, 11 miles (S. W. by S.) from Kelso, and 49 (S. E. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the villages of Bongate, Bonjedward, Lanton, and Ulston, 5116 inhabitants, of whom 2697 are in the town. This place derives its name, originally Jedworth, or Jedwood, from its situation on the river Jed, which rises on the north side of the Carlin Tooth, in the Cheviot range, and, after flowing with considerable rapidity through nearly the whole length of the parish, and receiving in its course numerous tributary streams which descend from the higher lands into the vale of the Jed, falls into the river Teviot about two miles and a half to the north of Jedburgh. From the name of the river, in ancient records frequently called Ged or Gad, this place is thought to have been the principal seat of the Gadeni, who occupied the district lying between the county of Northumberland and the river Teviot. The ancient town, now called Old Jedworth, in contradistinction to the present burgh, from which it is about four miles distant, appears to have originated in the foundation of a chapel by Ecgred, Bishop of Lindisfarn, who died in 845; and there are still some slight remains of the walls of the building, and of the tombstones in the cemetery, though scarcely above the level of the ground, and perfectly hidden by the grass by which they are overspread. The present town owes its origin to the foundation of the magnificent abbey of Jedburgh. This establishment is, by some historians, said to have been founded in 1118, and by others in 1147; but, from the great antiquity of some parts of the structure, and also from old documents in which St. Kennock is mentioned as abbot in the year 1000, it is supposed to have existed prior to the time of David I., by whom it was probably rebuilt or enlarged. From the situation of Jedburgh as a border town, it was exposed to continual depredations, and was frequently plundered and reduced to ashes. It suffered materially during the invasion of Scotland by Edward I., and subsequently by the incursions of hostile clans; the abbey was burnt and pillaged by the Earl of Surrey in 1523, and by the Earl of Hertford in 1545. In 1566, Mary, Queen of Scots, attended by an armed retinue, held a court of justice at this place, for the suppression of the turbulence of the borderers; and, being seized with a dangerous illness during her continuance here, resided in "the house of the Lord Compositor" till her recovery, when she returned along the eastern borders to Dunbar. In 1575, a severe affray, called the "Raid of the Reed Swire," happened here; it was the last of those hostile feuds which so frequently took place between the borderers of Scotland and England; and since its occurrence the only event deserving of historical notice, has been the temporary alarm created by the arrival of the Pretender and his Highland troops in 1745.


Burgh Seal.

From its exposed situation, the town was strongly defended by castles, and by numerous other fortifications; and the forest in its immediate vicinity was the rendezvous of numerous armies. The Castle of Jedburgh was of great antiquity, though the precise time of its erection, and the name of its original founder, are unknown; it was a place of much strength, and the favourite seat of Malcolm IV., who died here in 1165. It was the frequent residence, also, of many others of the kings, among whom were, William the Lion, Alexander II., and Alexander III., whose son, Alexander, was born here in 1263, and who, after the death of his children, celebrated in this castle, with unusual pomp, his subsequent marriage with Jolande, daughter of the Count de Dreux. During the wars between the two kingdoms, the castle was often an object of contest: after the battle of Durham, it was taken by the English, who kept possession of it till 1409, when it was retaken by the Scots, by whom it was afterwards demolished. The Castle of Fernihirst, situated on the eastern bank of the river Jed, about two miles from Jedburgh, is supposed to have been founded by the ancestors of the Marquess of Lothian; it was taken in 1523, by the Earl of Surrey, and remained in the hands of the English till 1547, when, after an obstinate siege, it was retaken by the Scots, assisted by a party of French at that time stationed at Jedburgh. In 1569, the Earl of Westmorland, who had entered into a rebellion against Elizabeth, in favour of Mary, after the dispersion of his troops took refuge in this castle, where he remained in concealment till he finally effected his escape into the Netherlands. In the year following, the castle, in consequence of its owner having joined with others of the border chiefs, in an irruption into the English pale, was taken and demolished by the Earl of Sussex and Sir John Foster; but it was rebuilt in 1598, and part still remains entire. After the destruction of Jedburgh Castle, the town was defended by six towers, of which, however, there are none remaining; and other fortifications were scattered through the parish, of which the tower at Lanton, and the ruins of another at Timpandean, are still left.

The town is pleasingly situated in the picturesque and fertile valley of the river Jed, over which, within the parish, are nine bridges. Of these, one at the foot of the Canongate, handsomely built of stone, and having three ribbed circular arches, is of great antiquity, and had formerly a gateway over the centre, long since removed. The bridge near Bongate is of modern erection: and near it is a large stone, sculptured with representations of various animals, and inscribed with nearly obliterated characters, and which is supposed to have been the pedestal of the ancient cross of Bongate. The house in which Queen Mary resided during her illness is still entire; it is a spacious building with walls of great thickness, and some of the ancient tapestry is yet preserved. It is at present the property of the Lindsay family, by whom it was purchased from the Scotts, of Ancrum. The streets are spacious and regularly formed; the houses in general well built; and in the immediate neighbourhood of the town, are many handsome villas. There are three public libraries, of which one, called the Company's Library, contains a very extensive collection; also a circulating library and a reading-room, and two public reading-rooms. The principal trade is the manufacture of blankets, flannels, tartans, shawls, plaidings, hosiery, woollen-yarn, and carpets, affording constant employment to nearly 400 persons. There are also foundries for brass and iron, and a manufactory for printing-presses, in which latter about twenty persons are engaged. The town has two branch banks, one a branch of the Linen Company, and the other of the National Bank; likewise a savings' bank for the district of Jedburgh, including the parishes of Jedburgh, Ancrum, Bedrule, Southdean, Hobkirk, Minto, Oxnam, and Crailing, established by Mr. Rutherford, of Edgerston, in 1815, and the expenses of which are defrayed from a fund raised by subscription. The market is on Tuesday, and is chiefly for grain, which is sold by sample to a very considerable amount. Fairs for horses and cattle are held by charter on the 26th of May, or on the first Tuesday after; the second Tuesday in August, O. S.; the 25th September, or on the following Tuesday, if the 25th happen either on Saturday, Sunday, or Monday; and the first Tuesday in November, O. S. Statute-fairs for hiring servants occur at Whitsuntide and Martinmas; and there are markets, toll free, for sheep and cattle, established in 1828, on the second Thursday in every month from December till the end of May. There are also large fairs for sheep, at Rink, in the parish, seven miles from the town, on July 12th, and October 15th, which are numerously attended by farmers, and dealers in wool, both of Scotland and England.

The various charters by which the burgh was originally incorporated were all destroyed during the wars with England, in the course of which the town was frequently burned; but they were renewed and confirmed by Queen Mary, in 1556, when the magistrates were invested with the power of apprehending, and passing sentence upon, criminals guilty of capital offences. By another charter, James VI., in 1569, granted to the corporation all the revenues of the abbey of Jedburgh arising within the parish, for the purpose of erecting hospitals for the support of the poor and infirm, and for other pious uses. This gift was ratified by parliament in 1597; and a further charter was bestowed by Charles II., in 1641. By these charters, the government of the burgh is vested in a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, and a council of eighteen: the incorporated trades consist of the smiths, weavers, shoemakers, masons, tailors, wrights, butchers, and glovers. Under the act for amending the representation, the burgh unites with those of Haddington, North Berwick, Lauder, and Dunbar, in returning one member to parliament. The original boundary has been enlarged by the inclusion of a considerable suburb on the south side of the river, and the exclusion of a few acres of uninhabited land: the number of houses of the value of £10 and upwards is 208, and of those above £5 and below £10, sixty-eight. The magistrates, in addition to their controul within the burgh, exercise jurisdiction over the great fair of St. James, near Kelso, where they preside at a court to take cognizance of offences during the fair. They hold, within the burgh, a bailie-court, and a court of the dean of guild; but since the sheriff's court, and that of the justices of peace have been established, the burgh courts have greatly declined. The chief officer under the corporation is the town-clerk, who holds his office for life. The county-hall is a neat building of stone, containing the necessary apartments for transacting the public business of the county and the burgh. " The Castle," comprising the gaol and bridewell, is a handsome edifice, well arranged for classification, and contains day-rooms, airing-yards, and every requisite for the health, cleanliness, and comfort of the prisoners.

The parish, which is divided into two detached portions by the intervening parishes of Oxnam and Southdean, is bounded on the north by the parishes of Ancrum and Crailing, on the west by those of Bedrule and Southdean, on the east by Oxnam and Eckford, and on the south by the county of Northumberland. The lower portion, in which the burgh is situated, is about seven miles in length and five in breadth, and the upper portion five miles in length and four in breadth, including together an area of thirty-eight square miles. The eastern part of the lower portion is intersected by the river Oxnam, and the northern part by the Teviot. The surface is pleasingly diversified with hills and valleys: the high grounds on the sides of the vale of Jed are penetrated by deep ravines, and in some places gradually attain an elevation of 300 feet above the level of the river. In the upper part of the parish are several green hills, of conical form, of which two, rising to the height of 1100 feet, are apparently lessened from their proximity to Carter Fell, one of the Cheviot hills, which has an elevation of more than 2000 feet. The Dunian, the highest hill in the parish, but of which the summit is in the parish of Bedrule, has an elevation of 1120 feet above the level of the sea. Some remains of the ancient forest of Jed, consisting of a few clusters of birch-trees, still exist near Fernihirst; and considerable plantations, which have now attained a luxuriant growth, add much to the beauty of the scenery. Two oaks, also, of the ancient forest are yet left, near the town: the one, rising to the height of ninety-nine feet, measures fourteen feet in girth; and the other, which has less height, but branches out more widely, is twenty-one feet in girth at three feet from the ground. Foresttrees of every kind grow well in the lower lands; in the higher, Scotch fir and larch are the most prevalent. From the old stocks in the forest, which was cut down in the last century, many new trees have arisen; and the whole district abounds in timber.

The soil is peculiarly favourable for the growth of fruit-trees; and pears in great variety, and of the finest quality, are produced in abundance. The land, especially in the lower districts, is fertile, and of good quality, and the system of agriculture is much improved; considerable tracts of waste have been reclaimed within the last thirty years, and at present the number of acres under tillage is 14,281, in pasture 6930, and under wood 2488. The prevailing plan of husbandry is the five-shift, consisting of two white and three green crops; the fences and inclosures are kept in excellent order, and the farm-buildings are commodious and in good repair. Many improvements have been made in draining and planting, and in the breed of stock, under an association called the Farmers' Club; and the Roxburgh Horticultural Society hold monthly meetings in the town from the beginning of April to the end of September, for the distribution of prizes to the most successful growers of flowers, fruits, and vegetables. Limestone of excellent quality abounds in the southern parts of the parish; and near the town are several strata ranged above each other, of which one is nine inches in thickness. Coal exists, and there are appearances of its having been formerly worked; but some recent attempts to procure it have been discontinued. There are several sandstone quarries, of a white, and also of a reddish colour. Iron-ore is found in a bed three feet in thickness, occurring between the primary and secondary formations, which near the town are seen in combination; the strata of the former are vertical and in many places irregular, and of the latter horizontal, alternating with red freestone and soft sandstone of the same colour. Several of the hills are of whinstone, resting on sandstone. The chief seats in the parish are, Edgerston, Mossburnford, Langlee, Lintalee, Hundalee, Glenburn Hall, Hunthill, Stewartfield, and Bonjedward. The rateable annual value of Jedburgh is £22,370.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Jedburgh, of which this is the seat, and of the synod of Merse and Teviotdale; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the incumbent is £297, with a manse, built in 1806; and the glebe comprises seven acres of arable land worth £5 per acre, and pasture land which lets for £13. 13. The church is part of the ancient abbey, of which the western portion of the nave has been fitted up for public worship, and affords accommodation to 910 persons. Of that stately and magnificent structure, situated on the sloping bank of the river Jed, near the southern extremity of the town, the only remains are, the nave, the north transept, and the choir of the church, a cruciform building, 230 feet in length, with a massive central tower, rising to the height of 100 feet, and surmounted by a projecting battlement crowned with turrets and pinnacles. The western entrance is strikingly beautiful, consisting of a lofty Norman doorway of deeply-recessed arches, springing from slender clustered columns, richly moulded and elaborately ornamented. Above the doorway is a spacious window of three compartments, of which the central arch is circular, and the others finely pointed; and in the gable is a round window of very elegant design. The nave, which is 130 feet in length, is separated on each side, from the aisles, by a series of lofty arches supported on clustered columns with sculptured capitals: the triforium consists of semicircular arches richly moulded, circumscribing two pointed windows of elegant tracery; and the clerestory, of a range of pointed windows of graceful proportions. The choir, which is greatly dilapidated, is of more ancient character. Its roof is supported on massive pillars, from which spring broad circular arches of the earlier Norman style, ornamented with zigzag mouldings; the triforium is of similar character, surmounted by a range of sharply-pointed clerestory windows of later date. The north transept, which is still entire, is embellished with windows of elegant design, highly enriched with tracery; and the principal window is of lofty dimensions and of great beauty. The south transept, the cloisters, the chapter-house, and other conventual buildings, have all disappeared; but a doorway, forming the south entrance to the church from the cloisters, is still remaining, an almost unrivalled specimen of architectural beauty and elaborate decoration. On the south side of the choir is a chapel, formerly used as a grammar school. Places of worship have been erected for one congregation of the denomination called the Relief, and for two congregations of the United Secession; the meeting-houses are all neat buildings of stone. There are also a Free Church and Episcopal chapel.

The United Schools of Jedburgh, consisting of the grammar school and the burgh English school, united in 1804, contain about 150 children, and are under the superintendence of the heritors and the magistrates of the burgh, by whom the rector is appointed. The rector receives from the burgh £21. 6. 8., and £12 for the English school, for which he is bound to keep an assistant; also £8. 6. 8. from the heritors, making a salary of £41. 13. 4. The school fees amount on the average to £120, and the offerings at Candlemas to nearly £30; the rector has also a commodious house and garden. The parochial schools at Lanton and Rink are well attended; the masters are allowed by the heritors £11. 2. each. There is also a school endowed by the Marquess of Lothian. The town has two religious societies, one for the diffusion of education, and the other for imparting religious knowledge; they are supported by subscriptions, amounting on an average to £15 per annum. A dispensary was founded in 1807, chiefly by donations from the Kerr family, and is maintained by annual subscriptions: a commodious house, with baths and other requisites, was erected in 1822, by the then Marquess of Lothian. The number of patients, who are received from the parishes of Jedburgh, Ancrum, Bedrule, Southdean, Hobkirk, Minto, Oxnam, and Crailing, amounts annually to about 220. A sum of money arising from accumulated legacies, chiefly by Lady Yester, of Fernihirst, is vested in the burgh magistrates, producing an interest of £23, appropriated to the education of poor children, and to the relief of the poor, for whose benefit also about £40 are annually collected at the church.

A Roman road, crossing the Jed and the Teviot about half a mile above their junction, intersects the northern part of the parish within two miles of the town; it is paved with whinstone, and in a state of good preservation. There are also vestiges of an ancient road leading over the high ground from Ancrum bridge to the town. Near Monklaw are the remains of a Roman camp about 160 yards square; and there are traces of camps at Howdean, Swinnie, Camptown, and Fernihirst, but nearly obliterated by the progress of cultivation. At Lintalee are the remains of an encampment formed by Douglas, for the defence of the frontier, during the absence of Bruce in Ireland, and celebrated for a memorable engagement in which the Earl of Richmond, who had invaded Scotland at the head of 10,000 men, fell in a personal combat with Douglas: the double rampart by which it was defended is still remaining. In the face of the precipice below the camp, and now inaccessible, is a cavern dug in the rocky bank of the river Jed; and at Hundalee and Mossburnford are similar caverns, excavated in the rock as places of refuge, and for the concealment of property during the frequent irruptions of the English borderers. In the year 1827, many Saxon coins of silver, chiefly of the reign of Ethelred, and one of the reign of Canute, were found in a field near Bongate, with a ring formed of silver wire; some of the coins are at present in the possession of Mr. Bainbridge, of Gattonside, but most of them are widely dispersed. Several coins of the reigns of Edred, Edwy, Ethelred, Edward I. and III., and of Henry I. and II., have been also found, near the abbey bridge; and some Roman coins are said to have been discovered near Stewartsfield. A horn was discovered near Swinnie within the last few years, containing silver coins of James V. of Scotland; and in the year 1834, about 400 silver coins of the reigns of Henry VIII., James V., and Mary, were ploughed up near the farmhouse of that place. A silver coin, or medal, commemorating the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, with the Dauphin of France, was not long since found at Larkhall. On one side are combined the letters F. and M., surmounted by a crown, with the inscription, Fecit utraque unum 1558; on the other are the arms of Scotland impaled with those of the Dauphin, and the inscription, Fran. et Ma. D. G. R. R. Scotor. D. D. Vien. Arrow-heads of flint are occasionally dug up on Howdean moor, which is reported to have been the scene of a battle; and a camp-kettle, which was presented to the late Sir Walter Scott by Mr. Rutherford, was found some years since at Edgerston.

In 1815, a sarcophagus of stone, formed of unhewn slabs, four feet six inches in length, and two feet six inches in breadth, containing a large urn and three of smaller size, one of which was full of pure water, was found in a garden on the west side of the High-street. The large urn, near which were parts of skulls, was of very elegant form; two of the smaller urns crumbled into dust on being touched. In the same garden, which is in some records called the Temple Garden, were discovered the foundations of ancient buildings, at a depth of six feet below the surface. A trophy taken from the English at the battle of Bannockburn, and another from the Highlanders at Killiecrankie, are in the possession of the corporate body of weavers; and another, taken from the English at the battle of Newburn, in that of the shoemakers. The inhabitants of Jedburgh, and of the forest, constantly accustomed to warfare, were a brave and hardy race; and their valour is recorded by the Earl of Surrey, in his despatches to Henry VIII. respecting the storming of Jedburgh. Their favourite weapon was the Jedworth axe, and their war-cry, "Jedworth's here." At Tudhope, about half a mile from the town, is a spring strongly impregnated with sulphur and iron, and found very efficacious in scorbutic disorders; there are chalybeate springs in several parts of the parish, and at Gilliestongues is a petrifying spring. Among the eminent persons of this place were numerous abbots of Jedburgh, successors to St. Kennock, and who held various high offices of trust and importance under the kings of Scotland, and were greatly distinguished by their learning and talents. Adam Bell, a brother of the Carmelite convent, who died here, was the author of a history of Scotland from the earliest period to the year 1535, entitled Rota Temporum. John Rutherford, principal of St. Salvator's college, St. Andrew's, and author of a work on the Art of Reasoning, was a native of the town. Samuel Rutherford, principal of St. Mary's college, St. Andrew's, who was born in an adjoining parish, received his early education in the grammar school of Jedburgh, as did also the poet Thomson; and among other distinguished natives may be named Andrew Young, regent of philosophy in the university of Edinburgh, and Sir David Brewster.

Jemimaville

JEMIMAVILLE, a village, in the parish of Kirkmichael, or Resolis, county of Ross and Cromarty; containing 139 inhabitants. It is one of three very small villages in the parish, and, though the largest of them, consists of only a group of houses, of an inferior class.

Jock's Lodge

JOCK'S LODGE, a village, in the parish of South leith, county of Edinburgh, 1½ mile (E. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing 449 inhabitants. This is a considerable, though scattered, village, situated on the southern border of the parish, and on the road from Edinburgh to Portobello and Musselburgh. It is said by some to have had its eccentric name from that of a beggar who, in the eighteenth century, inhabited a small tenement on the spot; but it appears, on better authority, that the village was called Jock's Lodge in Cromwell's time. It is opposite to Piershill cavalry barracks, which were built in 1793, and are named from Colonel Piers, who commanded a regiment stationed at Edinburgh in the reign of George II., and who either erected or rented a villa on the height of a rising ground overlooking Restalrig, now occupied by the officers' apartments, and called Piershill. On the right hand of the village are many neat residences.

Johnspiaven

JOHNSPIAVEN, a village, in the parish of Benholme, county of Kincardine, 4 miles (S. W. by S.) from Bervie; containing 1172 inhabitants. This place, which comprises the principal part of the population of the parish, is chiefly inhabited by fishermen and weavers, whose houses are small and irregularly built. It is situated on the shore of the German Ocean, close to a small harbour which is frequented in summer by coal sloops, and occasionally by vessels freighted with lime. Off the coast, fish are caught, consisting for the most part of cod, haddocks, and turbot.

Johnstone

JOHNSTONE, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 9 miles (S. by E.) from Moffat; containing 1072 inhabitants. It is generally supposed that the name of this place was derived from some ancient and important personage of the name of John, distinguished either by his possessions or achievements, and to whose name the ordinary Saxon termination ton or toun was added. The parish from time immemorial has been the property of the family of the Johnstones, lairds of Annandale, whose castle of Lochwood was situated in the north of the parish, and almost surrounded by impassable bogs and marshes. This fort, which was a place of great strength, and inaccessible to a foe, induced James VI. to declare, that "he who built Lochwood, though outwardly an honest man, must have been a knave at heart." About the end of the sixteenth century, it was burnt by Robert, natural brother to Lord John Maxwell; in revenge for which the Johnstones, who were a warlike tribe, assisted by the famous Buccleuch, the Elliots, Armstrongs, and Grahams, the bravest of the warriors of the Scottish border, attacked and cut to pieces a party of the Maxwells, near Lochmaben, where the incendiary himself, Robert, was among the number of the slain. Those who escaped taking refuge in the church of Lochmaben, the sacred edifice was burnt to ashes by the Johnstones. This rash and sacrilegious act occasioned the memorable battle of Dryfesands, in which the Johnstones finally prevailed, Lord Maxwell being attacked behind and slain by "Will of Kirkhill," while engaged in single combat with Lord Johnstone.

The parish is situated in that part of Dumfriesshire known by the name of Annandale, and comprehends a considerable portion of the old parishes of Garvald and Dumgree; it is six miles in length, and averages three in breadth. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Kirkpatrick Juxta; and on the east by Applegarth and Wamphray, from both which it is separated by the river Annan. On the south, at a narrow point of about a mile, forming the vertex of its triangular figure, is the parish of Lochmaben; and on the south-west, the river Kinnel divides it from Kirkmichael parish. The country is generally flat with a gradual ascent towards the west. A large proportion of the surface is stony, supplying great facilities for filling those thorough drains that have been cut to so very considerable an extent of late. The whole lies between the rivers Annan and Kinnel, with the exception of 2000 or 3000 acres to the west of the latter stream, which rise, in their ascent towards Nithsdale, about 1200 or 1500 feet. The two rivers form a junction two miles below the southern extremity of the parish. The Annan abounds with yellow and sea trout, as well as eels and salmon. Its banks are subject, in rainy and snowy seasons, to violent inundations, from which great mischief has arisen to the crops: two of the most remarkable floods were in August 1782, and in August, September, and October, 1790.

The soil of the flat alluvial land along the Annan is a dry loam or gravel: in the other parts it is chiefly a light loam, resting on gravel or rock, or a moorish soil lying upon a retentive clay or till. There are several peat-mosses, extending to some hundreds of acres. Between 5000 and 6000 acres are under tillage; about 5000 are uncultivated, or in natural pasture; from 500 to 1000, which have never been ploughed, are considered capable of cultivation; and 1500 are under plantations or natural wood. Wheat was not very long since unknown in this district, as a part of the produce; but it is now cultivated in a slight degree, with all other kinds of grain; and the green crops, of which turnips and potatoes are the principal, are abundant and of good quality. The most improved system of husbandry has been for some time adopted, and within the last half century the aspect of the parish has been entirely changed by the construction of roads, the formation of inclosures, and especially by the number of comfortable dwellings erected for the accommodation of the labouring classes. There are two sheep-farms, on which the stock consists partly of the native black-faced, and partly of the Cheviots. The cows are the Galloway, except upon two or three dairy-farms, where they are entirely of the pure Ayrshire breed. Great attention has been paid to the improvement of cattle; and the farmers have, in several instances, obtained premiums from the Annandale Agricultural Society.

The plantations receive much care. They were greatly increased nearly half a century ago by the Earl of Hopetoun, at which time a large quantity of Scotch firs, interspersed with larch and spruce, were added to the former stock. About a dozen of fallow-deer, in the year 1780, were put into an inclosure opposite the house of Raehills, and after a while broke loose, and established themselves among these extensive plantations. Since that time no one has been able to capture or controul them; and they are now increased to the number, as is supposed, of about 250. The rocks in the district consist of red sandstone and whinstone, the latter of which varies much in its fineness and consistence. Attempts have been made to discover a vein of lead-ore, the existence of which seemed to be indicated by the several portions occasionally found above the surface; but the expected success has not attended the undertaking. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4408. The mansion-house of Raehills, the seat of J. J. Hope Johnstone, Esq., descendant of the earls of Hopetoun, was principally built by James, third earl, grandfather of the present possessor, in the year 1786; and is a castellated edifice, of the old baronial style which prevailed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. A large addition, fronting the south, and containing an elegant suite of apartments, has lately been erected, constituting it one of the most splendid and imposing mansions in the south of Scotland.

This is entirely an agricultural parish, and the population are scattered. Considerable attention is paid by them to the rearing of pigs, which are considered the staple commodity. Large quantities are converted into hams and flitches, and sent to Newcastle, Shields, and Sunderland, whence a great proportion is shipped for the London market. The road from London to Glasgow, by Carlisle, passes for five miles through the parish; and that from Dumfries to Edinburgh, by Moffat, for the same distance. A turnpike-road from Moffat to Lochmaben and Annan runs for six miles, from north to south, nearly through its centre. The London and Glasgow, and Edinburgh and Dumfries, mails travel on these roads. There is a bridge over the Kinnel at St. Ann's, and one across the Annan at Johnstone Mills, besides several over the smaller streams: all these, with the roads, are kept in good repair. The eccleastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries; patron, Mr. Johnstone. There is a good manse, with a glebe of ten acres, worth about 20s. per acre: the stipend is £165. 13. The church, which is inconveniently situated, on the eastern extremity of the parish, was built in 1733, and rebuilt and enlarged in 1818, and is now a comfortable and commodious edifice. There is a parochial school, where Latin, Greek, and French are taught, with all the usual branches of education. The master has the maximum salary, with the fees, which average about £21 per annum, and £3 received from a bequest left for his benefit by Mr. Aitkin, farmer, of Kirkbank: he has also the legal allowance of land. There are two other schools, of which the teacher at Goodhope receives £16 a year from the patron of the parish, with about £10 fees: the master of the school of Cogrieburn-bridge has an income of £10, independently of the fees. The parochial library, now consisting of 300 volumes, was established in 1828. There was once also a farming society, founded in 1818, which proved beneficial in supplying a stimulus to improvements in husbandry, especially in the breeding and rearing of cattle. Among the relics of antiquity is a small barrow, or tumulus, near the farm of Crawknowes, said to mark the spot where the Laird of Lochwood, in a private quarrel, shot the Laird of Dumgree, whose body he afterwards hid in the earth. The only other memorial of antiquity is the old castle of Lochwood, supposed to have been built during the fourteenth century. Dr. Matthew Halliday, physician to the Empress Catherine of Russia, and Dr. John Rogerson, who succeeded him in that station, were born in the parish of Johnstone; the latter died about fifteen years since.

Johnstone

JOHNSTONE, a village, or rather a manufacturing town, and lately a quoad sacra parish, in the Abbey parish of Paisley, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Paisley; containing 5824 inhabitants. This place, which, about sixty years since, consisted merely of a few scattered cottages, is pleasantly situated on the river Black Cart, over which is a bridge, from which it derived its former name. It is indebted for its rise, and subsequent rapid increase, to the introduction of the manufacture of cotton-yarn, and to the encouragement given by its spirited proprietor, Mr. Houston, who granted leases of land for the erection of dwelling-houses, and for the numerous spacious works which have been since opened. The increase of the place both in population and manufacturing importance has been unrivalled in the history of any other place in Scotland. In 1781, when the lands were first leased, it contained only ten inhabitants: in 1792, the number had augmented to 1434; in 1811, to 3647; and in 1831, to 5617. The town is regularly built, consisting of Houston-square, nearly in the centre; a spacious market-place; and numerous handsome streets intersecting each other at right angles. The houses are of stone, and to each is attached an adequate portion of garden ground; the inhabitants are amply supplied with water, and the streets are well lighted with gas. Assembly-rooms have been erected; a lodge of freemasons has been instituted; numerous excellent shops furnish every thing requisite for the supply of the inhabitants; circulating libraries are kept by the various booksellers; a post-office with two daily deliveries has been established; and in almost every respect the town may be said to be improving.

The population are chiefly employed in the cotton trade, for which there are numerous mills in the town and immediate vicinity. Two of these are propelled by water, and the others by steam-power; they contain in the aggregate 90,000 spindles. The capital employed in their erection, and in keeping them in operation, is estimated at £135,000; and they afford constant occupation to more than 2500 persons. An extensive factory, also, has been erected for weaving cloth by machinery. There are two iron and two brass foundries, and some factories for the manufacture of machinery of all kinds, in which steam-engines are used of the aggregate power of 26 horses, and which afford employment to 120 persons. As many as three branch banks have been established here. The village is well stocked with every kind of provisions; and fairs are annually held on the Thursday after the second Monday in July, and the last Thursday in December, for cattle. The Glasgow, Paisley, and Ardrossan canal, which commences at Port-Eglinton, near Glasgow, and passes Paisley, is completed only to this place, a distance of eleven miles free of lockage; it is 28 feet broad at the top, 14 at the bottom, and 4½ feet in depth, and cost nearly £100,000. The navigation was opened in 1811, and light iron passage-boats were established in 1831; but, by a recent arrangement with the Ayrshire and Greenock Railway Companies, the conveyance of passengers is to be discontinued for twenty-one years, and the traffic confined to heavy goods, of which 68,063 tons were carried in the year ending 30th Sept., 1844. The canal terminates in a basin at one extremity of the town; and adjoining the wharf, is a yard for landing the stone from the Nitshill quarry. The magistrates hold a petty-session in the assembly-rooms on the first Friday in every month. A church was erected here in 1793, at a cost of £1400; it contains 995 sittings, and is a handsome octagonal edifice, with a very light and elegant spire, built in imitation of the spire of Lincoln designed by Sir Christopher Wren, but on a smaller scale. It forms a strikingly interesting object as seen from the road to Paisley, and gives to the town a very pleasing appearance. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and the patronage is vested in the Congregation; the stipend of the minister is £150, arising from seatrents and collections, and part of the amount is secured by bond. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Secession, Relief, and United Methodists; the first a fine building.

Joppa

JOPPA, a village, in the parish of Coylton, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 3½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Ayr; containing 168 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Ayr to Coylton, a short distance westward of the Coyl water, and is regarded as the principal village in the parish, the others being chiefly groups of cottages. There is a Sabbath school here; also a private school, attended by about fifty children, and of which the teacher has a rent-free schoolroom.

Joppa

JOPPA, a village, in that part of the parish of Duddingston, county of Edinburgh, which formed the late quoad sacra parish of Portobello, ½ a mile (E. S. E.) from Portobello; containing 275 inhabitants. This is a modern and neat village, situated on the sea-side, and on the great road between Edinburgh and Musselburgh. It may be said to form a suburb of the large and fashionable village of Portobello, which is visited, on account of its excellent beach, and its proximity to Edinburgh, as a bathing-place in the summer season. In the vicinity are some handsome villas.

Juniper-Green

JUNIPER-GREEN, a village, in the parish of Colinton, county of Edinburgh, 1¾ mile (W. by S.) from Colinton; containing 325 inhabitants. It lies on the high road from Currie to Edinburgh, and in the western extremity of the parish. It is one of the five principal villages of Colinton; and has a small school.

Jura and Colonsay

JURA and COLONSAY, a parish, in the district of Islay, county of Argyll; containing 2299 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated to the west of the main land, comprises the islands of Jura, Colonsay, Oronsay, Scarba, Lunga, Balnahuaigh, and Garvelloch, and several small uninhabited islets. The island of Jura, takes its name from the numerous herds of red-deer with which it abounded, and of which many are still preserved. It is separated from the main land by the sound of Jura, which forms its eastern boundary; and from the isle of Islay, by the sound of that name, which bounds it on the south: on the west is the Atlantic Ocean. It is about thirty-six miles in extreme length, and varies from two to nearly eight miles in breadth; the number of acres has not been ascertained. The surface is rugged, and broken by mountains of conical form, of which the three principal, called the Paps of Jura, are, Beinn-aChaolais, Beinn-an-Oir, and Beinn-Shianta. These mountains, of which the highest, Beinn-an-Oir, has an elevation of 2700 feet above the level of the sea, form a conspicuous landmark for mariners; they are seen from a great distance, and are the first points discovered by vessels navigating the Atlantic.

The coast is rocky and precipitous, and in many places perforated with deep caverns, some of which afford secure shelter. Of these, the most remarkable is Uaghlamaich, on the western coast, of which the entrance is thirty-eight feet above the level of the sea at high tides, and thirty-three feet in height. The interior has an area of 1312 square yards; the floor is smooth, and the roof beautifully arched. So perfectly is this cavern protected, that, during the severest storms, scarcely a breath of wind is felt within it. There are numerous moorland lakes, of which several abound with trout; and from them issue various streams, which, in their course towards the sea, form considerable rivers, wherein trout and salmon are found. Of these rivers, the largest are, the Knockbreck, on which the proprietor, Mr. Campbell, has a salmon-fishery, and the Avin Lussa, in the north of the island: the river Corran has its source in some springs issuing from the mountains, and, flowing eastward, receives different tributaries in its course, and falls into the sound of Jura near Corran House. The shore on the west is deeply indented by Loch Tarbet, an inlet from the sea, which almost divides the island into two parts; and on the eastern shore are several bays, of which Lowland Bay and the bay of Small Isles constitute commodious harbours. The former, two miles and a half in circumference, has an entrance 570 yards in width, and is from five to six fathoms in depth; the latter, which is more capacious, is formed by three small islands, ranging in a line nearly parallel with the coast, and between which are the entrances.

The soil in the east of the island, in which direction nearly the whole population resides, is stony and shallow along the shore, but on the acclivities, where most of the arable land is situated, of better quality. The crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and a little flax; the system of agriculture has been improved; much of the land has been drained, and some tracts of moss have been brought into cultivation. The farm-buildings are commodious; and the lands have been inclosed, partly with stone dykes, and partly with hedges of thorn. The cattle, of which about 1200 are annually sold, are of the native black breed: the sheep, of which, also, great numbers are reared in the pastures, are generally the black-faced, with some of the Cheviots, which are increasing in number. The prevailing rocks are of the primitive formation, and the substrata chiefly mica-slate, trap, and whinstone: slate was formerly quarried. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5761. The mansions are, Jura House, the seat of the principal proprietor, a spacious residence, to which splendid additions have been recently made; and Ardlussa, also a handsome mansion, beautifully situated, and surrounded with plantations. The only village is Miltoun, which includes Craighouse; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in weaving, and in the various handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood. There is a neat inn at Craighouse, which has been rebuilt and enlarged. A distillery has been erected, which produces about 700 gallons of whisky per week; and there is likewise a good corn-mill, from which the village takes its name. Facility of intercourse is afforded by several roads and bridges, and by three ferries, on which are staiths for the shipping of cattle: the ferry at Kenuachdrach communicates with Craignish; that of Lagg with North Knapdale, and the ferry of Feoline with Portaskaig. From Feoline to Lagg, a distance of seventeen miles, a government road has been formed, which adds greatly to the means of intercourse; and at the latter place is a sub-office, at which the London, Edinburgh, and Glasgow mails are received from Islay.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Islay and Jura, and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £200, charged with the payment of £50 to an assistant at Colonsay; he has a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum: patron, the Duke of Argyll. The church, erected about the year 1776, is a neat plain structure; the interior has been enlarged and greatly improved by Mr. Campbell, and contains 250 sittings, all of which are free. In the old churchyard is an elegant mausoleum for the Campbell family. There are two schools in Jura, and one in Colonsay, among the three masters of which the parochial salary of £34 is equally divided, the deficiency being made good by Mr. Campbell, who has erected two commodious schoolrooms, with good houses for the two masters, to each of whom he gives a garden and a small portion of land. Two other schools are supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, of which one is at Colonsay. The sick poor are admissible to the infirmary and asylum of Glasgow, through the liberality of Mr. Campbell. Stones of vast dimensions are found along the shores, and in other places; they are supposed to have fallen from the erect position in which they were originally raised in commemoration, it is said, of ancient battles. There are also the ruins of many chapels of early date. In digging the foundation for an inn at Lagg, several stone coffins were found; and in forming the road from Feoline to Lagg, numerous urns, containing ashes, were discovered. Silver coins of the reign of Charles I., also, were found many years since.—See Colonsay, &c.

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