Kilbride East - Kilmany

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

Supporting documents

Pages

22-41

Citation Show another format:

'Kilbride East - Kilmany', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 22-41. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43451 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Kilbride, East

KILBRIDE, EAST, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 3810 inhabitants, of whom 926 are in the village, 8 miles (S. S. E.) from Glasgow. This place, distinguished by its affix from West Kilbride, in the county of Ayr, and including the ancient parish of Torrance, is of great antiquity, and once formed part of the see of Glasgow, to which the original grant was confirmed by a bull of Pope Alexander III., in 1178, and by some of his successors. A castle was erected here by Robert de Valnois, about the year 1182; and previously to the reign of Robert Bruce, nearly two-thirds of the lands belonged to the family of Cummin, in whose hands they remained till 1382, when, on their forfeiture by John Cummin, they were granted by that monarch to John Lindsay, of Dunrode, as a reward for his fidelity. The lands of Calderwood were the property of the Maxwell family in the reign of Alexander III., and are still in the possession of their descendant, Sir William A. Maxwell, Bart. Those of Torrance belonged to Sir William Stuart, who, in 1398, was one of the sureties on the part of Scotland for the peace of the western marches, and whose representative, Miss Stuart, of Torrance, is the present proprietor. During the prevalence of the plague in Glasgow, the inhabitants of this neighbourhood used to deposit the produce with which they supplied the city, at a spot on the old Glasgow road, about a mile and a half to the north of the parish, to which the citizens resorted as a temporary market, and which has since retained the name of the Market Hill.

The parish, which takes its name from the dedication of the church to St. Bride or Bridget, is about ten miles in length, and varies from two to five miles in breadth, comprising an area of 22,786 acres, of which almost 18,000 are arable, and the remainder chiefly peat-moss and moorland, affording tolerable pasturage for sheep. The surface is greatly diversified with hills, from 200 to 1600 feet above the level of the sea. The lower lands are watered by various streams, of which the principal is the Calder, flowing for nearly seven miles along the eastern boundary of the parish; the scenery on its banks, at Torrance and Calderwood, is richly diversified, and near Calderwood House the river forms a beautifully picturesque cascade. The Powmillon has its rise in the south-eastern confines of the parish, and, after a course of about two miles, runs into the parish of Avondale, and thence into the river Avon. The Kittock has its source in the northern portion of the parish, in a marsh about two miles from the village of Kilbride, and, after a winding course, falls into the river Cart near Busby. The Cart, after bounding the parish for four miles on the north-west, flows into the parish of Carmunnock near the village of Jackton.

The soil is chiefly a stiff wet clay, which has been rendered more fertile by tile-draining within the last few years; considerable improvement has also been made in the system of agriculture. The crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips; but the principal reliance is on the dairy-farms, which have been greatly increased, and are under excellent management. Great quantities of cheese, of the Dunlop kind, were formerly sent to the markets of Glasgow and Rutherglen; the quantity annually produced on the several farms being estimated at above 50,000 tons. The dairy produce now consists principally of butter and milk, which are largely sent to Glasgow. Much attention is paid to the treatment of the milch-cows, which are of the Ayrshire breed; and considerable improvement has been made in the breed of cattle generally, under the encouragement of an agricultural society established in 1816, which holds an annual meeting here on the second Friday in June, when a cattle-show takes place. Numbers of sheep, also, are pastured on the hills and moors. The lands have been partly inclosed; and the farm-buildings have been rendered much more commodious than formerly, and are still improving. The plantations are chiefly confined to the grounds of Torrance and Calderwood, and the lands belonging to Glasgow College. Around most of the farm-houses, however, even in the more exposed situations, are large trees of various kinds, the favourable growth of which is attributed to especial care in the preparation of the soil by draining, previously to planting, and to their protection from early injury by the cattle; and it is thought that the subdivision of property has alone operated as an obstacle to the increase of plantations throughout the parish. Coal, ironstone, and limestone are abundant: the coal was formerly wrought, but, being of inferior quality, the works were discontinued, and a better supply is now obtained from the collieries in the neighbouring parishes. The ironstone, which is of a good kind, is wrought by the Clyde Iron Company, who employ about eighty men in their works in the parish. The limestone, which occurs in beds varying from three to ten feet in thickness, and much intermingled with seams of greenstone, is also extensively quarried, and burnt into lime for manure. Freestone is found in several parts; clay of good quality for tiles is also abundant, and Roman cement is made in considerable quantities. The rateable annual value of the parish is £24,190.

Torrance House is a spacious ancient mansion, with modern additions of various dates; in front are the arms of Scotland on a stone removed from the old castle of Mains by Colonel Stuart. It is beautifully situated, and the grounds are embellished with thriving plantations. Calderwood House is an elegant mansion, to which some very tasteful additions have been recently made; the demesne is richly planted, and the grounds command a fine view of the fall of the river Calder, and comprise much beautiful scenery. Lawmoor is a neat modern house, pleasingly situated; and Crossbasket is a handsome residence, principally of modern character, as was also Kirktoun Holm, now dilapidated. Cleughorn Lodge is likewise a good residence. There are several villages in the parish, namely, Kirktoun, or East Kilbride, Maxwellton, part of Busby, and the smaller hamlets of Aldhouse, Jackton, Braehead, Kittockside, and Nerston. The village of East Kilbride was constituted a burgh of barony in the reign of Queen Anne, and had a charter for a weekly market on Tuesday, and four annual fairs. The market has, however, been discontinued for many years; and of the fairs, the only one that is still observed is held on the second Friday in June, for the sale of cattle and sheep. The village is pleasantly situated near the river Kittock, and is neatly built; a subscription library has been established, and there is a post-office subordinate to that of Glasgow, which has a daily delivery. The cotton manufacture is carried on to a considerable extent, affording employment to about 300 of the inhabitants. A savings' bank has been instituted in connexion with the Glasgow National-Security Savings' Bank. Facility of communication is afforded by the road from Glasgow to Strathavon, which passes through the village, and for nearly five miles through the parish; and by other roads kept in good repair, of which one runs from the village to Eaglesham, and another from Busby to Carmunnock. At the southern boundary of Torrance is a bridge over the river Calder, leading to the parish of Glassford.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £280. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, which is situated in the village of Kilbride, is a plain neat structure, with a tower surmounted by a spire; it was erected about 1774, and contains 913 sittings, which number, if the whole of the interior were rendered available, might be increased to 1200. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, and the Relief. The parochial school is in the village of Kilbride, and has branches at Aldhouse and Jackton; the master receives a salary of £34, and the fees may be stated to average about £40 per annum. The master of the branch school at Aldhouse has a salary of £8, with a house rent-free, and the master at Jackton, a salary of £8, without a house, the residue of their income being made up with the fees. There is also a school at Maxwellton, supported by Sir William Maxwell. A parochial library has been established, which has a good collection of volumes; and several friendly societies have tended materially to diminish applications for parochial aid. Near Kittockside were some remains of two fortifications, situated respectively on Castle Hill and Rough Hill, about 200 yards distant from each other; but the stones of both have been long removed, and the site of the former planted with trees. Near the latter, an ancient stone celt was found, six and a half inches in length, and three inches in breadth, formed of a coarse kind of ironstone. About a mile to the north of the church are the ruins of Mains Castle, the once stately baronial residence of the Cummins, and the Lindsays, of Dunrode; and the same distance to the south of the village, was the castle of Lickprivick, of which nothing remains except the mound near its site. There were also several cairns formerly in the parish, among which was Herlaw, where urns with fragments of human bones were discovered. One near Mains Castle was remarkable for having at the base a circle of flagstones, set on their edges, and sloping outwards; but the stones were long since removed. Dr. William Hunter, the eminent physician, and his brother, Dr. John Hunter, the distinguished surgeon and anatomist, both of whom were at the head of their profession in London, were born at Long Calderwood, in the parish.

Kilbride, West

KILBRIDE, WEST, a parish, in the district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr, 5½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Saltcoats; containing 1885 inhabitants. This place derives its name from the dedication of its church, which was anciently an appendage of the monastery of Kilwinning, to St. Bride, a virgin occupying a distinguished rank in the Scottish calendar. In 1263, it was the scene of a severe conflict with a party of Norwegians that had made a descent on the coast of Largs under Haco, who was here attacked and defeated by a body of Scottish forces commanded by Sir Robert Boyd, ancestor of the Kilmarnock family. As a reward for his conduct in this instance, Boyd obtained a grant of land in Cunninghame; and his services as the firm adherent of Bruce procured him the lands of Kilbride and Ardneil, in this parish. The parish is advantageously situated on a peninsular projection in the Frith of Clyde, below the Cumbray islands, of which the smaller, for all ecclesiastical purposes, is included within its limits; it is six miles in length and two and a half in average breadth, and comprises about 11,000 acres, of which 7500 are arable, and 3000 pasture and waste. The surface is diversified with hills forming part of the continued chain of the Renfrewshire range, and of which the highest within the parish, called Kame Hill, has an elevation of nearly 1000 feet above the level of the sea. There are also many hills of smaller elevation, partly cultivated, and some nearly to their summit; and others in detached situations, of which the chief are Law, Ardneil, and Tarbert. The coast is low, consisting of shelving rocks of sandstone, with the exception of the promontory of Portincross, which is precipitous, terminating in a point called Ardneil Bank, or Goldberrie Head. The sands of Southanan extend for two miles in the north of the parish; immediately to the south of them, the coast for nearly a mile is formed of the promontory, a wall of rock rising to the height of 300 feet, and separated from the sea only by a narrow slip of verdant land. This majestic rampart, of which the base is thickly studded with coppice wood, interwoven with oak, ash, hazel, and hawthorn, has a romantic grandeur of appearance as seen from the water: three detached cliffs that rise above the general height have obtained the appellation of the Three Sisters. To the south of the promontory is the bay of Ardneil, of semicircular form, the shores of which, a fine compact sand, afford a delightful promenade, with every facility for bathing, for which this part of the coast is peculiarly adapted. The Gourock, Kilbride, Southanan, and Fairly burns, which have their rise in the eastern confines, flow in various directions through the parish into the Frith. The Southanan, in part of its course between banks richly wooded, forms a pleasingly picturesque cascade; the others are not distinguished by any particular features. Numerous springs are also found in different parts, affording an abundant supply of excellent water.

The soil in the lower lands near the coast is in some places a rich loam, in others sandy and gravelly; the higher parts are of very inferior quality, generally thin, cold, and spongy moor, with the exception of some portions around the bases of the hills, which are of loam mixed with calcareous earth. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, a small quantity of rye, beans, peas, potatoes, turnips, and carrots; but, as well from the nature of the soil, as from the situation of the parish in a wide manufacturing district, most of the farms are appropriated to the dairy. The number of milch-cows, which are of the Ayrshire or Cunninghame breed, is about 600, and of cattle of other kinds, 800: the number of horses reared is exceedingly small; about 2500 sheep, chiefly of the black-faced breed, are pastured on the moorlands and hills, and 250 swine kept. The chief produce of the dairy is cheese, of which great quantities are sent to the neighbouring markets, where it is sold under the appellation of Dunlop cheese. The system of agriculture is advanced, and the implements of husbandry generally of the most approved kind. The farmbuildings, which were formerly of a very inferior description, have in many instances been rebuilt in a substantial and commodious style, and on most of the farms threshing-mills have been erected; the lands are all inclosed with hedges and ditches in the lower parts of the parish, and in some of the higher parts with stone dykes. The woods are of small extent, not more than 150 acres, and of these about one-third is coppice wood; the remainder consists of oak, ash, plane, elm, and beech, with a little fir. On some of the lands are fine specimens of old timber; but they are comparatively few, and in general the proper management of plantations is little regarded, though a great quantity of land, which, from its quality, is incapable of cultivation, might, on account of its favourable situation, be advantageously appropriated to this use. The substrata are, sandstone of brown and red colour, whinstone porphyrytic and basaltic, some slight veins of limestone, and a white sandstone intermixed with quartz. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9805.

Underbank, a pleasing villa, recently erected near the site of the old mansion-house of the barony of Southanan, is finely situated in a richly-wooded demesne. Crosby has been lately restored in harmony with its original character, and is now a tolerable residence. Hunterston is beautifully situated at some distance, towards the sea, from the ancient mansion-house, which is now occupied by a tenant, and of which the square tower is still in good preservation. The village is about a mile from the sea, in a small secluded vale watered by the Kilbride burn, which in its course gives motion to five different mills, two for grinding oats, one for bark, one for grinding charcoal, and one for dressing flax. There is a public library, supported by subscription; and a post-office has been established under good regulation. The tanning of leather was once carried on here, affording employment to a dozen persons; but the inhabitants are now chiefly occupied in weaving for the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley, in which more than one hundred handlooms are constantly at work; and a large portion of the female population are engaged in sewing and embroidering muslins. A few lobsters are taken in the season, and sent to the Glasgow market, and herrings are occasionally taken in large quantities; the other fish are, cod, whiting, mackerel, and a few others, but they are not in any great abundance. The streams that flow through the parish abound in trout of good quality. A small quay was constructed at Portincross some years since, at the expense of the proprietor; it is accessible at high water to vessels of forty or fifty tons. The Clyde steamers from Glasgow to Ardrossan and Ayr pass by the coast, and facility of intercourse with the neighbouring towns is maintained by good roads, of which the turnpike-roads to Greenock and Portpatrick run through the whole length of the parish, and a line from the village communicates with the road to Glasgow at the village of Dalry.

The parish is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is £202. 12., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13. 12. per annum. The church, situated on a gentle eminence in the centre of the village, was rebuilt in 1732; subsequent additions have been made to it, and within the last few years an aisle has been erected by voluntary subscriptions. It is now adapted for a congregation of 800 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church and the United Secession. The parochial school affords instruction to about 130 children; the master has a salary of £27. 17. 8., with £40 fees, and a house and garden. There are three friendly societies, which tend to diminish the number of applications for parochial relief. Along the steep banks opposite the sea are several circular mounds, at unequal distances, called the Castle Hills; the area on the summit, about forty feet in diameter, is inclosed with walls of undressed stone. Their origin is uncertain; by some they are ascribed to the Danes, by others referred to a more remote period. Tumuli have been explored in various places, containing urns with calcined bones and ashes; and in forming the new line of road along the coast, some few years since, four entire urns, rudely formed of coarse red clay, were dug out of a stratum of gravel. A silver brooch, of exquisitely delicate workmanship, and bearing an inscription in Runic characters, was found at Hunterston a few years since. The walls of the ancient castle of Portincross are still tolerably entire, and form a singularly romantic object, standing on a ledge of rock projecting into the sea; it is supposed to have been a residence of the Scottish kings. One of the large ships of the Spanish armada sank near the promontory, in ten fathoms of water; and an iron cannon which, with others, was recovered from the wreck, is still remaining on the beach: the arms of Spain, and a crown engraved on it, may be faintly traced. On an eminence overlooking the village of Kilbride, are the remains of a very stately tower called Law Castle, the walls of which are in perfect preservation. Dr. Robert Simson, professor of mathematics in the university of Glasgow, and the wellknown translator of Euclid, is thought to have been a native of the parish. General Robert Boyd, lieutenantgovernor of Gibraltar during the siege of that fortress in 1782, was born here; and it is supposed that John Hunter, the celebrated physician, was descended from the Hunterston family of this place.

Kilbucho

KILBUCHO, county of Peebles.—See Broughton.

Kilcadzow

KILCADZOW, a village, in the parish of Carluke, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 2 miles (E. S. E.) from Carluke; containing 160 inhabitants. It lies in the south-eastern part of the parish, on the high road from Carstairs to Carluke. Limestone of excellent quality abounds in its neighbourhood. Kilcadzow Law, the most elevated hill in the parish, is about 900 feet above the level of high water; and from its summit is a wide and magnificent view of the surrounding country. The Roman road which passed through Clydesdale to the western extremity of the wall of Antoninus may be traced here.

Kilcalmonell and Kilberry

KILCALMONELL and KILBERRY, a parish, in the county of Argyll; containing, with the village of Tarbert, 3325 inhabitants. The former of these two ancient parishes, now united, derives its name from the Gaelic term signifying "the burial-place of Malcolm O'Neill." The word Kilberry is by some traced to the compound term Cill-a-Mhairi, "the burial-place of Mary." The district of Kilcalmonell is situated at the northern extremity of the peninsula of Cantyre; it stretches to Loch Fine on the north-east, and is bounded on the north-west, nearly throughout its whole length, by West Loch Tarbert and the Atlantic Ocean: it is about sixteen miles long, and two and a half or three broad. Kilberry approaches, in figure, to an equilateral triangle, each side measuring eight miles, and is situated in the district of Knapdale; it is separated from Kilcalmonell by West Loch Tarbert, and bounded by the sea or the loch on all sides, except the north-east. The surface of Kilcalmonell is irregular and varied, rising in some parts with a gentle acclivity, and in others much more abruptly, and terminating in a hilly range on the south-east, about 1500 feet high; it is diversified occasionally by low valleys, 100 or 150 feet above the level of the sea. The coast of this part of the parish is sandy, and altogether uniform and uninteresting, except in the vicinity of Loch Tarbert, where birch, alder, and other trees, displaying a wild profusion of foliage, relieve the tameness of the scenery. In the Kilberry district is a ridge of lofty hills running from west to east, and increasing in elevation, in a gradual manner, till it reaches Sliobhghoil. One of the two bases of this height spreads itself out into a large tract of sterile moorland, while the other affords a striking contrast in the superiority of its soil, and its eligibility for agricultural operations. The shore presented to the Atlantic is bold. The only bay of consequence in the parish is Stornoway, near which is the headland of Ardpatrick, the landing-place, according to tradition, of St. Patrick, on his way from Ireland to Icolmkill. West Loch Tarbert, which divides the two parochial districts, is a branch of the Atlantic, nine miles long and one broad: at the northern extremity stands the populous fishing-town of Tarbert, where a narrow isthmus, separating East Loch Tarbert from West Loch Tarbert, makes Cantyre a peninsula. There are several fresh-water lochs; but they are small and unimportant, and contribute little to the improvement of the generally unattractive scenery.

A few of the farms are well cultivated: potatoes constitute the principal crop, and a large quantity of them is sent annually to the English and Irish markets. The tenants mostly hold their lands at will, and but little improvement in husbandry has taken place; but there are some exceptions, especially on the farm of Crear, in Kilberry, where the land has been brought into good cultivation, and received much embellishment. Limestone occurs in several places; but it lies in thin beds, and is not much used. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7563. The principal mansions are, Stonefield, situated in Kilcalmonell; Dunmore and Ardpatrick Castles, in Kilberry; and an elegant castellated edifice lately erected near Tarbert. The village of Tarbert, which is separately described, is supposed to have been anciently the county-town of Argyll; it is now chiefly famed for its harbour, and for the herringfishery in which its inhabitants are actively and successfully engaged. It has a general post-office, communicating by steam daily with Glasgow; and a road runs through Kilcalmonell to Campbelltown, by which letters are forwarded to the latter place. The produce of the parish is sent for sale, partly to Campbelltown, but chiefly, especially the potatoes, to Ireland and England. A fair, principally for horses, is held at Tarbert in the beginning of August. The parish is in the presbytery of Cantyre and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Duke of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £218, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17. 10. per annum. The church of Kilcalmonell was built about the year 1760; that of Kilberry in 1821: the former contains 600 sittings, and the latter 700, all free. A chapel is supported at Tarbert by Royal Bounty; and the Independents have a place of worship. There are two parochial schools, affording instruction in the ordinary branches; the masters each receive a salary of £25 per annum, with the fees. The parish contains the forts of Dunskeig, forming part of a chain of strongholds built along the coast of Cantyre; they are very ancient, lofty, and strong, and command extensive views. The castle of Tarbert, now in ruins, was, formerly, also a place of great strength; and there was once a large vitrified fort in the parish, the remains of which are still to be seen.

Kilchattan

KILCHATTAN, Argyllshire.—See Kilbrandon.

Kilchattan-Bay

KILCHATTAN-BAY, a village, in the parish of Kingarth, Isle and county of Bute, 6 miles (S. by E.) from Rothesay; containing 167 inhabitants. This village derives its name from the fine bay on the southeast of the island, opening into the Frith of Clyde, and eastward of which, and immediately opposite to it, are the isles of Great and Little Cumbray. In the village, from which is a good coast-road to Rothesay, are about fifty inhabited houses; and there is a wharf for lading and unlading small vessels. A rapid increase has taken place here, within the last few years, in the exportation of agricultural produce and of lime, which is very abundant in the neighbourhood. Near the north-east shore of the bay are two barrows, a short distance from each other.

Kilchenzie

KILCHENZIE, Argyllshire.—See Killean.

Kilchoman

KILCHOMAN, a parish, in the Islay district of the county of Argyll, 12 miles (W. by S.) from Bowmore; containing 4505 inhabitants. This place, which is situated at the south-western extremity of the island of Islay, is supposed to have derived its name from a church founded here by St. Chomanus, who was sent by St. Columba from the monastery of Iona, to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. Little more of its ancient history is known than that, for many years, it was in the possession of the Danes and Norwegians, and subsequently became the property of the Macdonalds, lords of the Isles, of whose baronial seat the site is now occupied by the manse and gardens of the minister. In 1588, a sanguinary battle took place between the Macdonalds and the Macleans, of whom the latter, of the isle of Mull, landed a considerable force to dispossess the former of their territory. The conflict occurred near the shore of Loch Gruinard, and terminated in the defeat of the Macleans, whose leader fell in the action; and his followers giving way, many of them took refuge in the church of Kilnave, near the field of battle, pursued by the Macdonalds, who set fire to the building. The body of Maclean, being found among the slain, was buried in the church of Kilchoman.

The parish, which is of peninsular form, is bounded on the west by the Atlantic, and on the east by Loch Indal; and is deeply indented on the north by Loch Gruinard, between which and Loch Indal there is little more than a mile of land at high water. It is about twenty miles in extreme length, and five at its greatest breadth, comprising upwards of 50,000 acres, of which not more than 5000 are arable, and the remainder, with the exception of twenty acres of plantations, is hill pasture and waste. The surface is diversified with ridges of hills of moderate elevation, the highest not exceeding 500 feet above the level of the sea; and between these undulating ridges are large tracts of level ground, covered with moss, and interspersed with lakes, of which the largest, Lochgorum, is about 600 acres in extent, and from five to seven feet in depth. There is no river of any importance. The coast, which is more than thirty miles in circuit, is mostly bold and precipitous, abounding on the east with creeks, and on the west with bays. The largest bay is that of Kilchoman; but it is so exposed to the swell of the Atlantic that fishing-boats, to be in safety, must be drawn above high-water mark. Loch Gruinard is about four miles in length, and affords shelter for small vessels, but is partly dry at low water; Loch Indal is twelve miles in length, and eight in breadth at the entrance, forming a good roadstead, and is much frequented by vessels in adverse weather.

The soil includes almost every variety: on the shore of Loch Indal is some rich alluvial land of great fertility; on the western shore the soil is less productive, and in other parts nearly sterile. The crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, turnips, peas, and beans, with the usual grasses. The system of husbandry is improving on some of the farms; considerable progress has been made in draining the lands, and several tracts of moss have been reclaimed; but from the tenure of the smaller farms, the spirit of enterprise is much restrained. The chief attention is paid to the improvement of live stock; the cattle are generally of the West Highland breed, but the sheep, with the exception of a few of the blackfaced, are of a very ordinary kind. The principal substrata are, clay-slate, greywacke, alternating with thin beds of quartz, basalt, greenstone, and porphyry. There is no limestone; but the want of it is supplied by the abundance of shell-marl found in the numerous creeks and bays. Slate of good colour and quality is extensively quarried at Kilchiaran. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7430. Sunderland House is a spacious mansion, erected by the proprietor in 1820, pleasantly situated on an acclivity, about a mile from the shore of Loch Indal, and surrounded with thriving plantations. Balinaby is also a handsome residence. There are three villages in the parish, viz., Portnahaven, Port-Charlotte, and Port-Wymss, which last has but recently grown into existence. At Bridgend, about nine miles distant, is a post-office, from which letters are brought daily by a private messenger; and facility of communication is afforded by good roads, which intersect the parish in various directions, and are kept in proper order.

The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Islay and Jura and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £158. 6., of which two-thirds are paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Crown. The parish church, erected in 1825, is a handsome structure containing 700 sittings, all of which are free. A church has been built at Portnahaven. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church; and at PortCharlotte is one for Independents. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 4., with a house, an allowance in money in lieu of garden, and about £4 fees. Two schools are supported by the General Assembly, one by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and one by the Edinburgh Gaelic Society; there are also six Sunday schools. The poor have the interest of some charitable bequests and private contributions; and the Kirk Session possess the privilege of recommending patients to the royal infirmary of Glasgow. There are numerous ruins of religious houses, to which are attached cemeteries still in use; and in the present churchyard is an ancient cross, beautifully sculptured. On several of the hills are obelisks, of which the history is unknown; and on islands in the lakes, and in various ravines on the shores of the coast, are remains of fortifications. Under a large stone near Sunderland House, which had fallen from the erect position in which it originally stood, were found two golden ornaments, weighing nearly six ounces; and in the hills around have been found rude coffins of stone, some containing human bones, and others urns of unbaked clay, rudely formed.

Kilchrenan and Dalavich

KILCHRENAN and DALAVICH, a parish, in the district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 11 miles (W. by S.) from Dalmally; containing 943 inhabitants, of whom 553 are in Kilchrenan. The names of these places, which are of Gaelic origin, signify respectively, "the church or burial-place of Chrenan," the tutelary saint of this locality, and "the field of Avich," a term descriptive of a level tract situated near the river Avich. This is an inland parish, lying on each side of the beautiful piece of water named Loch Awe, and measures about sixteen miles in length, and eight in average breadth, comprising, it is supposed, between 70,000 and 80,000 acres, of which considerable portions are arable and pasture land. The surface is finely diversified, rising in each direction from the lake, in a gradual manner, for nearly four miles. On the east it reaches the summit of a range of hills called the Muir of Leckan, twenty-four miles long; and on the west is another range, also twenty-four miles long, called the Mid-Muir. The scenery is of the highest order, consisting of a rich combination of almost every picturesque and romantic object usually seen in the most admired Highland districts. There are several wooded islands in Loch Awe, with interesting and ancient ruins; numerous creeks intersect its shores, and the whole lake is relieved, with great effect, by the bold mountain heights overhanging the district. The average breadth of the loch is about a mile; and on its banks are two ferries, one three-quarters of a mile from Dalavich, and the other a mile from Kilchrenan. The island of Inish-Chonnel, a beautiful spot, lying opposite the church of Dalavich, exhibits an ivy-mantled ruin of great antiquity, for many centuries the chief residence of the Argyll family. Near this is the isle named Inish-Errich, containing the ruins of a chapel, and an old burial-ground still in use; and at a small distance from Inish-Errich is Eilean'n Tagart, otherwise Priests' isle, formerly the priests' residence.

The parish also contains Loch Avich, anciently called Loch Luina, a prominent feature in the scenery, situated a little west of Loch Awe, and communicating with it by the Avich stream. It is of triangular form, measuring about eight miles along the entire line of its shores, and is well supplied with trout. The vicinity of this lake, which has a castle and several islands frequented by a great variety of water-fowl, was the scene of Cathluina, or the conflict of Luina, described in an ancient Celtic poem; and one of its isles was the scene of another event, the subject of a poem called Laoi Fraoich, or "the Death of Fraoch." Many places, also, in the parish are named after some of the heroes of Ossian. Besides these lakes, contributing so largely to the embellishment of the scenery, there are several streams, tributaries of Loch Awe, flowing among numerous elevations and hollows, ornamented in some parts with good natural pasture, and in others with tracts of valuable wood.

The fertile banks of Loch Awe are well cultivated, producing good crops; the mosses, covering a large space, are to some extent capable of improvement, and draining has lately been carried on in several places. The chief avocation of the inhabitants, however, is the rearing of black-cattle and sheep; and the district is more distinguished for its imposing scenery than for agricultural operations. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4280. The rocks consist of mica, quartz, limestone, and whinstone. The mansion called Eridine House, and that named Sonachan House, are both situated within the parish. A manufactory for pyroligneous acid has been erected, in connexion with an establishment at Camlachie, near Glasgow. The parish is in the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Duke of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £150, of which about a sixth is received from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of ten acres valued at £11 per annum. There are two churches, more than nine miles distant from each other: that of Kilchrenan was built in 1770, and is in good repair; the church of Dalavich was erected a year later; the one containing 280, and the other 242 sittings. The incumbent generally takes the services alternately, but occasionally preaches in both churches on the same Sunday, though this is seldom practicable, the climate being rainy, and the roads very bad. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school at Kilchrenan affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £17, with about £6 fees. He receives, in addition, £11. 10., of which £10 are the interest of a charge on the Marquess of Breadalbane's property, left for the education of poor children. There are also two parochial schools at Dalavich: the masters have salaries respectively of £17. 4. and £17. 10., with £7 and £5 fees; they likewise receive £1. 15. and £1 from other sources.

Kilconquhar

KILCONQUHAR, a parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife; containing, with the port of Earlsferry, the market-town of Colinsburgh, and the village of Barnyards, 2605 inhabitants, of whom 334 are in the village of Kilconquhar, 1½ mile (N. by W.) from Elie. The lands of Kilconquhar belonged originally to the Lindesays, of whom Walter and William de Lindesay, brothers, occupied stations of importance in the reign of David I.; the latter became the head of the family, and one of his descendants was created Earl of Crawfurd in 1398. The property is now in the possession of Sir Henry Lindesay Bethune, a descendant of the family, who, for his services in Persia, was created a baronet. John, second son of David, eighth earl of Crawfurd, obtained the estate of Balcarres, in the parish, which, together with other lands, was erected into a barony in 1592; and his son, David, who was created Lord Lindsay, of Balcarres, founded a chapel at this place, in which he was interred. David's son, Alexander, who was the first earl of Balcarres, was a firm adherent of Charles II., whom he attended while in exile at Breda, where he died a short time before the Restoration, and whence his remains were brought home, and deposited in the family chapel. The estate is now in the possession of his descendant, Colonel James Lindsay.

The parish, which derives its name from its situation at the head of a fresh-water lake, of which the Gaelic term is descriptive, is about nine miles in length, and two miles in average breadth; it is bounded on the south by the Frith of Forth, and on the west by the bay of Largo, and comprises 5400 acres, of which 2300 are arable, 2000 meadow and pasture, and 1000 woodland and plantations. The surface varies greatly in elevation. From the south, where it is mostly flat, the land rises gradually towards the north until it reaches the middle of the parish, in the hills of Reres and Kilbrachmont, which are points of a ridge extending from Kellie Law on the east, to Largo Law on the west, and having an elevation of more than 600 feet above the level of the sea. In the southern portion of the parish is the hill of Kincraig; and in the northern part is situated the hill of Dunikier Law, which has a height of 750 feet. From the summit of this hill is an extensive and varied prospect, embracing the estuaries of the Forth and the Tay, and, towards the north and west, the mountains of the counties of Perth, Angus, and Argyll. The craig of Balcarres commands a diversified view of the adjacent lands, in high cultivation, and beautifully wooded; the towns on the coast, extending from Dysart to Crail, with numerous handsome mansions surrounded by plantations; the Frith of Forth and the shipping in the harbour; the rich lands of East Lothian, the city of Edinburgh, the hills of Linlithgow, Pentland, and Lammermoor, and the German Ocean. The scenery of the parish is greatly enriched by the beautiful loch of Kilconquhar, which is about half a mile in breadth and two miles in circumference, abounding with pike and eels, and frequented by numerous swans, teal, wild-duck, and other aquatic fowl. The banks are ornamented with plantations; and from its proximity to the village, the whole forms an interesting and beautifully picturesque feature in the landscape. A small stream issuing from the lake falls into the sea at Elie. A burn, which in its course drives several mills, flows into Largo bay; and some streamlets that rise in the northern portion of the parish join the river Eden.

The soil, though generally fertile, varies considerably; in the portions near the sea, it is a light loam intermixed with sand; and in those more remote, a rich and deep loam producing abundant crops. The rotation plan of husbandry in its most improved state is practised, and the system of agriculture has been brought to great perfection; the crops are, oats, wheat, barley, beans, potatoes, and turnips, with a small quantity of flax. Much attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, which are of the Fifeshire breed, with an occasional mixture of the Teeswater; and in order to encourage improvement in this respect, the East Fife Agricultural Society hold annual meetings at Colinsburgh, for the distribution of premiums to the most successful competitors. The average number of cattle annually reared is 1500; and about 300 are fattened for the butcher. The number of horses employed in agriculture is 200, and an equal number are bred for sale; the feeding of sheep, also, has been introduced to a considerable extent, chiefly of the Cheviot breed. The plantations are oak, ash, beech, plane, and larch. Some most valuable timber is found on the lands of Balcarres, in which are many trees of majestic growth, more than two centuries old; and in that part of the estate called the Den are about 100 acres, chiefly of hard-wood of great height, and which have been planted for above half a century. The farmbuildings are generally substantial and commodious, and roofed with slate; threshing-mills are in use on the various farms, and several of them are driven by steamengines, which have been recently introduced, and appear to be on the increase. The lands have been much improved by draining; and the fences, which are usually stone dykes, are kept in good repair. The rateable annual value of Kilconquhar is £10,998.

The general coal formation extends throughout the whole of the parish; and in its various sections are found basalt, greenstone, clinkstone, trap tuffa, amygdaloid, wacke, and porphyritic claystone, sandstone, shale, ironstone, and coal. The basalt is of a greyish black colour, and extremely hard, and is found in columnar groups of great beauty, on the south-west extremity of the parish. Kincraig Hill, ascending abruptly from the beach to the height of 200 feet, abounds with all these varieties, comprehending every species of trap formation; and Balcarres Craig, which rises from a deep ravine to a similar height, and is completely detached from all the surrounding hills, displays, near its summit, a beautiful specimen of columnar formation, of a dark blue colour, exceedingly close grained and hard, and which, though possessing the properties of felspar or clinkstone rock, is frequently supposed to be basaltic. The Balcarres coalfield comprises four distinct seams, two of which are splint, and two common coal. The seams of splint coal are respectively six and two feet thick; and the seams of common coal, of which one is subdivided by an intermediate layer of marl, are about three feet in thickness. Coal is likewise found at Lathallan, Largoward, and Falfield, in the upper division of the parish, in which is also cannel coal of very superior quality. Limestone is not plentiful, but is found at Kilconquhar, Balcarres, and some other places; and large boulders of greenstone, mica-slate, and granite occur along the sea-shore. The principal seats in the parish are, Balcarres, Kilconquhar House, Charleton, Lathallan, Falfield, and Cairnie, all handsome mansions, situated in tastefully-disposed and richly-embellished demesnes. The produce of the agricultural districts is more than requisite for the supply of the population, and large quantities are consequently conveyed to the neighbouring towns, with which an easy intercourse is maintained by turnpike-roads kept in excellent repair. The village of Kilconquhar is neatly built and pleasantly situated; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture, and in weaving for the manufacturers of Dundee and Kirkcaldy. The principal articles are checks, sheetings, and dowlas, in which about 230 persons are employed, of whom 120 are females, all working at handlooms in their own dwellings; there is also a tannery, in which a few men are engaged. The parish, which formerly comprehended the whole of the parish of Elie, and the barony of St. Monan's, both separated from it in 1639, is in the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife, and patronage of the Earl of Balcarres. The minister's stipend is about £300, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £27. 10. per annum. The church, erected in 1821, is a handsome edifice in the later English style of architecture, with a lofty tower, and is adapted for a congregation of 1030 persons. There is a chapel of ease at Largoward, built in 1835, for the accommodation of the northern part of the parish; the service is performed by a minister appointed by the presbytery. The parish also contains places of worship for members of the Relief, the Associate Synod, Independents, and Baptists. The parochial school, situated in the village of Kilconquhar, affords a liberal course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34, with £60 fees, a house and garden, and the privilege of taking boarders. There is also a school at Largoward, to the master of which the heritors pay 100 merks per annum. Under Kincraig Hill is the picturesque and romantic cavern called Macduff's Cave, in which that thane, in his flight from the usurper Macbeth, is generally supposed to have concealed himself for some time.

Kilda, St.

KILDA, ST., an isle, in the county of Inverness. This island, also called Hirta, is the most remote of the Western Isles: the nearest land to it is Harris, from which it is distant sixty miles in a west-south-west direction; and it is 140 miles from the nearest point of the main land of Scotland. In length it is about three miles, from east to west, and in breadth two miles, from north to south. The whole island is fenced by one continued perpendicular face of rock, of prodigious height, with the exception of a part of the bay, or landing-place, lying towards the south-east, and even there the rocks are of considerable height. The bay is inconvenient; and the tides and waves are so impetuous that, unless in calm weather, it is extremely hazardous to approach. The surface of the island rises into four high mountains, covered with a blackish loam, except at their summits, where is moss of about three feet in depth; but the soil is rendered fertile by the industry of the inhabitants, who manure their fields so as to convert them into a sort of gardens. There are several springs that form a burn running close by the village, which is situated about a quarter of a mile from the bay. The ordinary means of intercourse with the island is, by the packet from Dunvegan, in Skye, to Rodel, in Harris, and thence to the isle of Pabbay, at the extremity of the sound of Harris, whence a number of fishermen make the voyage in large open boats. It is now accessible, also, by steamers during summer, and is visited occasionally by revenue cruisers.

Kildalton

KILDALTON, a parish, in Islay district, county of Argyll, 14 miles (E. by S.) from Bowmore; containing, with Port-Ellen and the late quoad sacra district of Oa, 3315 inhabitants, of whom 904 are in the village of Port-Ellen. This parish, which is supposed to have taken its name from one of the step-sons of the Macdonalds, who was buried in the church, is situated in the south-eastern portion of the isle of Islay, and is bounded on the north-east by the sound of Islay, and on the south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It is twenty-four miles in length and seven in breadth; the number of acres has not been ascertained, and only a very small portion of the parish is arable. The surface is broken by a range of hills extending from south-west to northeast, and increasing in elevation towards the sound of Islay; of these, Benvigory and Mc Arthur's Head are the highest. To the north-west of the hills is a large extent of level ground, gradually coming into cultivation; and the valleys, which intersect the parish from east to west, are in general fertile, yielding good crops of oats, barley, and potatoes. There are numerous excellent springs in various places, but no rivers of any importance; also several small lakes, in most of which are found trout of large size, and in some pike. The coast extends for more than fifty miles; it is in general low and rocky, and is indented with bays, of which the principal are, Port-Ellen, Lagamhulin, Lochknock, Lochintallin, Ardmore, Kenture, Aross, Claigean, Ardtealla, and Proaig. The most prominent headlands are, Mc Arthur's Head on the north, Ardmore Point on the east, and the Mull of Oa on the south. In different parts, the rocks are perforated with caverns of romantic appearance, of which one is about 300 feet in circumference, and nearly 200 feet in depth: the sea flows into this cavern through two apertures, of which one is a lofty arch of considerable span, and the other a narrow fissure in the rock. There are also numerous small islands near the coast, the chief of which are, Texa, Ellan-nan-Caorach, Ellain-Imersay, the Ardelisters, and a cluster of islands in the bay of Ardmore.

The soil is extremely various. The system of agriculture is improving; and within the last few years considerable tracts of land have been brought into cultivation under the auspices of the proprietor, W. F. Campbell, Esq., of Islay, who has also formed plantations of large extent. These consist of oak, ash, fir, plane, horse-chesnut, and beech, which are all in a thriving state; and in the north-east of the parish are many acres of brushwood. Numbers of black-cattle of the native breed, and sheep, are reared in the pastures; and great attention is paid to their improvement. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4562. The principal substrata are, slate and granite, of which the rocks are composed, whinstone, and limestone; and in some parts indications of ironstone are observed, with appearances of lead and copper ore; but the slate and limestone only are wrought. A neat shooting-lodge has been recently erected by Mr. Campbell, in which he occasionally resides during the season. There are five distilleries, employing about forty persons. Fairs for black-cattle are held at Port-Ellen, in the beginning of June, July, August, September, and November; and a runner from the post-office at Bowmore conveys letters regularly to a receiving-house at Lagamhulin.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Islay and Jura and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., of which two-thirds are paid from the exchequer, with a gratuity of £5 from the heritor, a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, is a neat structure, erected in 1816, and enlarged in 1830, and contains 600 sittings, all of which are free. A church has been built at Oa, in the south-west. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £25, with a house and garden, and the fees average £10 per annum. A school is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, who allow the master a salary of £16, with a house and some land; and there is also a school, to the master of which the Gaelic Society pay £20. The poor have the interest of a bequest of £100 by Major Mc Neill. Near the ruins of the old church are two crosses of grey granite, one of which is richly ornamented with sculpture; there are also remains of several churches, consisting chiefly of the roofless walls. Vestiges of ancient forts may be seen at the Mull of Oa, near Port-Ellen, and at the bay of Lagamhulin. The first is supposed to have been erected by the Danes, and was one of the last of the strongholds of the Macdonalds; the fort near Lagamhulin is called Dun-naom-haig, and is thought to have been built by the Macdonalds.

Kildonan

KILDONAN, a parish, in the county of Sutherland, 9 miles (N. W. by W.) from Helmsdale; containing 256 inhabitants. This parish takes its name from Kil, a "cell or chapel," and Donan, the name of the saint who promulgated Christianity in this part, and whose memory has been handed down by tradition with great veneration. It is chiefly remarkable as having been, for several ages, the residence of the celebrated clan Gun. They are supposed to have descended from the Norwegian kings of Man; and Lochlin, the Gaelic name for ancient Scandinavia, or at least for Denmark, is still spoken of by the Highlanders as the native country of the Guns, the Macleods, and the Gillanders. The immediate ancestor of the Guns is said to have been the son of Olave, fifth Norwegian king of Man, who had three sons by his third wife, Christina, daughter of Farquhar, Earl of Ross. These were, Gun, or Guin, the founder of the clan Gun; Leoid, Loyd, or Leod, from whom sprang the Macleods; and Leaundris, the first of the clan Landers, or Gillanders, of Ross-shire, many of whom afterwards assumed the name of Ross. These several heads of clans appear to have been dependent on their grandfather the Earl of Ross, who at that time possessed great power and influence in different parts of the country, and especially in Caithness. In that county, Gun was originally settled; and his first stronghold was the castle of Halbury, at Easter Clythe, usually called Crowner Gun's Castle, and which was situated on a precipitous rock nearly surrounded by, and overhanging, the sea. The clan of Gun continued to extend their possessions in Caithness till about the middle of the fifteenth century, when, in consequence of their rancorous feuds with the Keiths and others, they thought it expedient to establish their chief, and a strong detachment of the clan, in the adjoining county of Sutherland, where, by the protection of the earls of Sutherland, they obtained, among other places, lands in the parish of Kildonan, which they held for a considerable period.

The parish is twenty-eight miles in extreme length, and varies in breadth from five to seventeen miles. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Reay and Farr; on the south by Clyne and Loth; on the east by the county of Caithness; and on the west by Farr and Clyne. This is altogether an inland parish. Its northern division is lofty, and marked by several high and massive mountains. The southern part consists of two parallel ranges of mountains, separated by the beautiful valley of Helmsdale, through which runs the winding river of the same name, which, after passing many verdant holms and haughs, and some ornamental clumps of birch, falls into the German Ocean at the village of Helmsdale, in the parish of Loth. The mountain of Ben-Griam-more is nearly 2000 feet high, and, with the other lofty elevations, characterized by wide chasms, rent or worn by powerful torrents, gives to the scenery a wild and magnificent appearance. The upper district is remarkable for the number and size of its lakes, of which Loch-na-Cuen, one of the largest, is adorned with two or three small islands and several winding bays. The waters abound with char and trout, and some of them are famed for angling.

The soil of the haughs near the river is formed of deposits of mossy earth, with sand and decomposed rock: much of the uplands consists of tracts of moss, lying contiguous to the pastures. The entire parish is the property of the Duke of Sutherland, and has been from time immemorial part of the ancient earldom of Sutherland. Almost the whole of it is occupied with sheep-farms, which are in the hands of six tenants; and the number of sheep grazed, all of the Cheviot breed, is estimated at 18,000. Previously to the year 1811, the land was let in small portions, and much attention was paid to the rearing of Highland cattle; but between that period and 1821 the cattle gradually yielded to the introduction of Cheviot sheep. In consequence of this change, and the consolidation of the small farms, the population was diminished in numbers from 1574 to 565; and it is now not half the latter number. There are two or three good roads in the parish, chiefly for local convenience. The principal communication of the people is with Helmsdale. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dornoch and synod of Sutherland and Caithness; patron, the Duke of Sutherland. The stipend is £158, of which £70 are received from the exchequer; and there is a good manse, with a glebe of fourteen acres, in addition to which the minister has the privilege of grazing sixty sheep. The church is a plain building, erected about 1740, and rebuilt in 1786. There is a parochial school, the master of which has the maximum salary, and about £3 fees, with a school-house. The remains of several circular or Pictish towers may still be seen in the parish, as well as numerous barrows or tumuli; it also contains some mineral springs, supposed to have been anciently used for medicinal purposes.

Kildrummy

KILDRUMMY, a parish, in the district of Alford, county of Aberdeen, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Alford; containing 627 inhabitants. This place, of which the name is of Gaelic origin, and signifies "the little burial mount," was distinguished for its castle, anciently the property of David, Earl of Huntington, and a seat of King Robert Bruce. It now presents a venerable ruin, situated on an eminence overlooking a rivulet that falls into the Don; but was originally an extensive and strongly-fortified pile, consisting, according to tradition, of one stately circular tower of five stories, known as the Snow tower, in the western corner of the fabric, and of six other towers of different dimensions. The castle was besieged by Edward I. in 1306, when the wife of Bruce, his daughter, his two sisters, and the Countess of Buchan, had fled to it for refuge; and it is supposed that they made their escape from it by means of a subterraneous passage, of which there are still traces. It was afterwards partly destroyed by fire, but, having been repaired, became the principal residence of the earls of Mar, to the year 1715. Soon after the forfeiture of that family, the whole building was suffered to fall to decay.

The parish is bounded on the north by that of Auchindoir and Kearn, on the east by the parishes of Forbes and Alford, and on the west and south by the parish of Towie; it chiefly comprises a valley from two to three miles square, and is divided into two unequal parts by the Don, upwards of twenty miles from its source. The soil is a rich loam, and very fertile: the Kildrummy oats are well known as a light thin grain, having plenty of straw, and ripening earlier than most ordinary kinds. The general surface of the parish is undulated; and a sandstone bed runs from north to south through it. A considerable extent of natural birchwood covers a bank overhanging the rivulet near the castle; and there are plantations at Clova, Brux, and other places in the vale. Cattle-markets are held on the first Tuesdays in February and May, O. S. On the edge of a romantic ravine, stands a mansion in the Elizabethan style; and at Clova is another, in a more modern style of architecture. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2282. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen, and the patronage is vested in the Crown. The stipend of the minister is £159, of which about a third is received from the exchequer; and there is a manse, with a glebe of six acres, valued at £10 per annum. The church is a plain edifice, erected in 1805. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 4., with a school and dwelling-house built in 1822, and about £11 fees; also a portion of the Dick bequest. Among the ruins of the castle are the remains of a chapel, which was used as a magazine for forage during the siege of 1306. Lord Elphinstone, who was slain at the battle of Flodden, and the Earl of Mar, attainted in 1715, were buried in the churchyard of the parish.

Kilfinan

KILFINAN, a parish, in the district of Cowal, county of Argyll, 30 miles (S. S. W.) from Inverary; containing 1816 inhabitants. The name of this place, signifying the "church or burial-place of Finan," is derived from a saint of the seventh century, a disciple of St. Columba, to whom the church was dedicated. The parish is situated in the south-eastern part of the county, and is girt by water in every direction except on the north. The west and north-west sides are bounded by Loch Fine; the east by Loch Riddon and part of the Kyles of Bute; and the southern point by the sea, which, by a channel three or four leagues across, separates it from the Isle of Arran. It extends longitudinally about seventeen miles, from north to south, and varies in breadth from three to nearly six miles, comprising 50,000 acres, of which 4000 are arable, 2500 under natural wood, and plantations, and the remainder mostly hilly ground, fit only for the pasturage of sheep and cattle. The coast, which is of course of great extent, is in some parts a little rocky, but frequently varied and relieved by pleasant slopes, or level tracts of arable land; and it contains numerous headlands and bays. Among the former, that of Airdlamont is the most prominent, situated at the southern extremity of the parish; and the chief bays are, Kilfinan bay, below the church; Achalick bay, two or three miles more southerly; and Kilbride bay, still nearer Airdlamont. In the north is a sand-bank, of beautiful appearance at ebb tide, and measuring, it is said, above a mile from its margin to its termination at low-water mark.

The surface of the parish, though in general hilly, rises in no part to any remarkable height. The greatest eminences are those of a ridge, of moderate elevation, forming the boundary between Kilfinan and the parish of Kilmodan, commanding beautiful views of the Kyles of Bute and part of Loch Fine, as well as of some of the Hebrides, and displaying on their bosom an agreeable variety of pleasant valleys, ornamented with arable lands. There are four burns, of inconsiderable size, but increased by numerous tributaries, which, when swollen in rainy weather, rush down from the mountains with great rapidity and violence. The fresh-water lochs are two in number: they extend about half a mile in length, and between 300 and 400 yards in breadth, and, though not of large dimensions, contribute to improve the scenery, and supply abundance of the common yellow trout. The soil differs to a great extent, according to the situation: that near the sea, on the more level ground, is a light fertile earth, somewhat sharp, resting on a fine gravelly subsoil, and, when well cultivated, produces excellent grass, as well as good crops of grain and potatoes. At some distance inland, upon the higher grounds, there is a mixture of moss covering extensive tracts, much of which is in tillage; and the whole of this description of soil is thought capable of being brought under profitable cultivation by good management.

Agriculture is, however, in general, in a rather low condition. Many obstacles are presented by a variable, rainy, and stormy climate, and, in most places, a comparatively sterile soil; and all the crops, with the exception of the potatoes, show the necessity for the introduction of still further improvements in the system of tillage. The arable land on some farms is barely sufficient to supply the tenant with food for his family, and provender for his cattle during the winter; and deficiencies in draining and inclosures are observable in several directions. The larger tenants depend chiefly on their cattle and sheep. The sheep are generally of the black-faced breed, and of small size in consequence of the inferior character of the pasture, though latterly, by the construction of drains, and in other ways, attempts have been made to improve both the sheep and the cattle. The maintenance of the poorer tenants is in summer derived principally from the herring-fishing, in which most of them are engaged. The leases usually run only nine years, a circumstance unfavourable to the investment of capital for the improvement of the land. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5546. The rocks consist chiefly of mica-slate, mixed with white quartz; and whinstone is found, though in small quantities. Limestone is plentiful in the north, and is of good quality both for building and for agricultural purposes. Plantations are scattered in various directions, comprising oak, ash, larch, fir, and the other kinds common to the country; and there are several oak coppices, which are cut for sale every twenty years. Birch, ash, and hazel are also found growing in coppices; but they are entirely neglected.

The parish contains several interesting mansions, the chief of which are, Airdlamont House, a plain structure, situated not far from the point of the same name, and ornamented with good plantations; Ardmarnock House, near Loch Fine; Ballimore House, a neat and elegant residence, also near the loch; and Otter House, on the bay of Kilfinan. All of these, except Otter House, have been built within the last few years. The only hamlets are the small clusters of tenements lying here and there, occupied by the farmers and cottars, and containing twelve or fifteen families each. The gunpowder manufacture has been pursued here since the year 1839, and has recently been much extended, now employing upwards of thirty persons, and producing from 8000 to 9000 barrels annually: the buildings are about six miles south of the church, near the Kyles of Bute. The herring-fishing on Loch Fine is prosecuted with activity; and upwards of 100 boats belong to the parish, each requiring three men, and producing from £50 to £60 per annum, a sum, however, far inferior to that formerly obtained, and found barely sufficient to meet the heavy expenses. Salmon-fishing is also carried on, in the Kyles of Bute. A post-office was established at Kilfinan about the year 1840, and is subordinate to that at Cairndow, thirty miles distant, with which it communicates three times a week. The roads are all kept in repair by statute labour, and are generally in bad order. There is a small pier at Otter Ferry, which was formerly an important point of transit for the people of this district of Argyllshire, in travelling to the low country; but since the use of steam-boats, it has been almost entirely neglected. Markets for cattle are held in May and October, near the ferry.

Kilfinan is in the presbytery of Dunoon and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of Archibald James Lamont, Esq. The minister's stipend is £200, with a manse, a glebe of four arable acres, valued at £8 per annum, and the privilege of grazing on an adjoining farm. The church is situated at a short distance from the head of Kilfinan bay, and, among other objects, commands a good view of Loch Fine, which, in this part, is five or six miles broad. It is a rather inconvenient edifice, low and narrow, supposed to have been built about the beginning of the 17th century; it was roughly repaired in 1759, and is at present underg further, and very considerable, alterations. An additional church, situated at the south end of the parish, was opened in May, 1839, and till lately was supplied by a missionary supported by contributions from the heritors and other parishioners. This church, which is eight miles distant from the parish church, was built by subscriptions from the district and various other quarters, aided by a grant of £174. 10. from the General Assembly's extension committee, making a total of £600, the cost of the edifice. The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary branches, and in Gaelic; the master has a salary of £34, with the legal accommodations, but £6 of the salary are deducted, and divided between two branch schools. He also receives about £26 fees, and the interest of £95. 10., of which part was bequeathed for this purpose, about a century since, by a member of the Lamont family, and another part by John Lamont, Esq., in 1814. In addition to this school and its branches, in the upper district, there are three in the lower division, but all unendowed, with the exception of a grant of land to one of them by Mr. Lamont. On the border of one of the lochs stand the ruins of an ancient castle, a former residence of the Lamont family, which was destroyed by order of the Marquess of Argyll, in the reign of Charles II. The parish also contains several duns, consisting of rows of circular stones, generally on eminences; and there are remains of numerous cairns.

Kilfinichen and Kilviceuen

KILFINICHEN and KILVICEUEN, a parish, in the district of Mull, county of Argyll; containing, with Iona, 4113 inhabitants, of whom 250 are in the village of Bonessan. This place takes its name from the churches of the two ancient parishes whereof it consists, the one in the district of Airdmeanach, and the other in that of Ross, by which latter appellation the whole parish is frequently designated. The parish, which is situated in the south-west portion of Mull, including the isles of Iona, Inniskenneth or Inch-Kenneth, and Eorsa, with several small islets, is bounded on the north and north-east by a ridge of mountains separating it from the parish of Torosay, on the south by an arm of the Atlantic, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean itself. Exclusive of the isles, it is about twenty-four miles in length and thirteen in extreme breadth, comprising an area of nearly 180 square miles; and is divided into the four districts of Iona, Ross, Brolas, and Airdmeanach. Iona, which is separated from Ross by the sound of Iona, is three miles in length and almost one mile in breadth. Ross and Brolas are divided from Airdmeanach by Loch Scridain, and are each about twelve miles in length and from three and a half to seven miles in breadth; and Airdmeanach, which joins Brolas at the upper extremity of Loch Scridain, is thirteen miles in length, varying from three to six in breadth. The surface is hilly, and the lands generally are better adapted for pasturage than for the plough: in some portions the grounds are low and flat, consisting of heath, pasture, and arable land.

Of the range of mountains that separate the parish from Torosay, the most conspicuous is Benmore, which has an elevation of 3097 feet above the level of the sea, commanding from its summit a most unbounded view of the numerous islands in this part of the Atlantic, the whole of the circumjacent country, and Ireland in the distance. The promontory of Burg, also, at the western extremity of Airdmeanach, has a very considerable elevation, rising precipitously from the sea in an irregular series of basaltic columns. The island of Iona is described in a separate article. The island of Inniskenneth, which takes its name from Kenneth, a disciple and companion of St. Columba, who lived here in seclusion, is separated from the northern shore of Airdmeanach by a sound nearly half a mile wide; it is a mile in length and about half a mile in breadth. It formerly belonged to the monastery of Iona, to which it was a cell; the remains of the ancient chapel are in tolerable preservation, and in the cemetery, which is still used as a place of sepulture, are numerous monuments. The remains of the cottage of Sir Allan Maclean, in which he hospitably entertained Dr. Johnson, when on a visit to the Hebrides, are also preserved here, The island is now the property of Col. Robert Macdonald, who has built a handsome mansion, in which he resides. Eorsa, to the north-east of Inniskenneth, is about a mile in length, and is the property of the Duke of Argyll; it is very fertile, producing formerly good crops of grain, and still affording excellent pasturage for sheep, but it is uninhabited.

The sea-coast, including its numerous indentations, is not less than 100 miles in circuit; the shores are bold and rocky throughout the whole of its extent. On the south side of Ross is the creek of Portuisgen, affording, in favourable weather, safe anchorage for vessels not exceeding thirty tons; and in the sound of Iona are the creeks of Barachan and Poltairve, in which vessels of large burthen may ride. There is, however, a sandbank nearly in the middle of the sound, to pass which, with safety, vessels must keep within one-third channel of the island of Iona. To the east of the sound is Loch Lahaich, which extends for about two miles into the district of Ross, and affords good anchorage for ships of considerable burthen. The whole of Loch Scridain forms a roadstead; and at Kilfinichen, vessels of the largest size may find excellent anchorage, and secure shelter from all storms. The headland of Burg, and the entire north coast of Airdmeanach, are exceedingly dangerous, abruptly rocky, and without any harbour. There are numerous rivers, of which some, in their descent from the rocks, precipitously steep and cragged, form strikingly romantic cascades; but none of them are of sufficient importance to require particular description.

The soil of the arable land is chiefly clay, alternated with sand, and, though in some parts fertile, is in others thin and light, and better adapted for spade husbandry than for the plough. The principal crops are, oats, bear, which is sold to the distillers of Oban and Tobermory, potatoes, turnips, and other green crops. The cattle, of which great numbers are pastured on the hills, are of the Highland black breed; and on the dairyfarms are a few cows of the Ayrshire. The sheep, formerly of the small Highland breed, are now the Cheviots, of which large numbers are pastured. There are plantations at Kilfinichen, though not of any considerable extent; and in the district of Airdmeanach is some natural wood, consisting of oak, ash, and beech; but none of the trees have attained any great growth. The rocks are mostly of the trap and oolite formation, and many of the cliffs are of basalt and greywacke. The substr of the isle of Inniskenneth are red sandstone and limestone; and on the south side of Ross, granite and micaceous schistus. Limestone is found at Carsaig, where, also, are some good quarries of freestone. Several indications of coal occur on the lands near the coast, and in the bed of a rivulet on the side of the mountain; there are also favourable appearances at Brolas and Gribund, and the proprietor of Carsaig is now boring for coal with every prospect of success. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4569.

The principal mansions in the parish are Kilfinichen House, Pennycross House, and the house of Inniskenneth, the seat of Col. Macdonald, previously noticed. The only village is Bonessan, containing several shops well stocked with various kinds of merchandise for the supply of the adjacent district: a post-office, subordinate to that of Aros, has been established here; and fairs for blackcattle are held on the Friday before the Mull markets in May and October. Facility of communication is afforded by numerous steam-boats, which, during the summer especially, convey visiters to the islands of Iona and Staffa. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Mull and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £180. 10., with an allowance of £42 in lieu of manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Duke of Argyll. There are two churches, one at Bonessan, in the district of Ross, and the other at Kilfinichen, in Airdmeanach, both built in 1804, and repaired in 1828, the former containing 350 sittings, and the latter 300. Divine service is performed for two Sundays at Bonessan, and on the third at Kilfinichen; and a church has been erected in the island of Iona. There are also two parochial schools, of which the masters have respectively salaries of £30 and £21. 6. 3., with fees averaging £8 each, and a house and garden. A school is supported by the General Assembly, who pay the master a salary of £22; and two Gaelic schools are maintained in the parish, the teachers receiving £20 and £15 respectively, with a house and garden each. These schools together are attended by about 800 children.

Killarrow

KILLARROW, county of Argyll.—See Kilarrow.

Killean and Kilchenzie

KILLEAN and KILCHENZIE, a parish, in the district of Cantyre, county of Argyll, 18 miles (N.N. W.) from Campbelltown; containing 2402 inhabitants. The name of the first of these two ancient parishes, now united, is of doubtful origin, but is supposed to be derived either from Killian, a saint of the seventh century, or from a Gaelic term signifying a "river churchyard," in allusion to a rivulet forming the northern boundary, and, in union with a tributary stream, surrounding the site, of the church and burial-ground. Another saint, called St. Kenneth, is considered to have given name to Kilchenzie, and to have been the tutelar saint of that district. The present parish is situated on the western coast of the peninsula of Cantyre, and is eighteen miles in length, and about four and a half in breadth, comprising 51,840 acres, of which between 5000 and 6000 are arable, several portions pasture, and the remainder, to a great extent, barren moors and wild mountains altogether incapable of cultivation. The coast is much varied. In many parts it is low and sandy, especially in the direction of the islands of Gigha, Cara, Jura, and Islay, which afford great protection against the fury of the waves. Farther south, it is more rocky and elevated; and though neither harbour nor secure anchorage is to be found, for want of those arms of the sea which penetrate many Highland districts, yet the shores are marked by numerous headlands, small bays, caves, and piles of rocks, serving to vary the uniformity of outline, and to create interesting scenery. The principal headland towards the north is Runahaorine point, consisting of a narrow neck of mossy land, stretching for about a mile into the sea, opposite to the north end of the island of Gigha, and, with a promontory in the parish of Kilberry, forming the entrance into West Loch Tarbert from the Atlantic Ocean. Bealochintie bay, more southerly, comprehends a circuit of nearly two miles, and has in its vicinity a projecting mass of rocks and stones of vast dimensions, overhanging the water. The sea is thought to have receded to a considerable extent. Traces of its ancient limits are evident in many places; and among these especially is a strip of alluvial land, extending near the shore, throughout the whole line of coast, and bearing marks of its former subjection to the element. The inhabitants are, indeed, of opinion that this recession is still gradually going on. The sound between the main land and the islands of Gigha and Cara is rendered perilous by numerous sunken rocks; and vessels approaching the coast, having no harbour here, are often obliged, upon a change of wind, to retreat suddenly to Gigha, and wait for a favourable opportunity of returning.

The surface of the interior is also considerably varied. The land gradually rises from the shore to the height of 700 or 800 feet, and exhibits several glens, and elevations of some magnitude, enlivened by small streams. The general scenery, however, is uninteresting, and is almost entirely destitute of natural wood. The hills range in a direction from north to south: the most conspicuous, on account of its height, is Beinn-antuirc, or "wild boar mountain," at the head of Glen-Barr, which rises 2170 feet above the level of the sea. The slopes of the hills towards the shore, for about half a mile, are well cultivated, and afford crops of grain, peas, and beans; but beyond, the ground is dreary, bleak, and barren, consisting of lofty moors abounding with small lochs, and tracts covered with heath, coarse grass, and rushes. The soil varies very much in different parts, comprising clay, moss, loam, sand, and gravel; but that which most prevails is a light gravelly loam. Near the sea the soil is very sharp and sandy. In most parts it has from time immemorial been plentifully manured with sea-weed. The crops comprise peas, beans, potatoes, oats, and bear, especially the last, which is cultivated in large quantities. Potatoes likewise form an important article; they have been in great demand for seed since the opening of a communication with the English and Irish markets, and are the staple on which the tenants rely chiefly for the payment of their rents. The rotation system is in operation; but the successful prosecution of this method of husbandry is much retarded by the want of subdivisions in the land, and the scarcity of good inclosures; and no little difficulty arises from the distance of the market, the farmers being compelled to cart their produce to Campbelltown. The cattle are of the black Highland breed, but small, and altogether inferior; the sheep are of the ordinary black-faced kind. Great efforts have been made for many years past to improve the breed of horses, and those used for agricultural and other purposes are now of superior condition. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9532.

The rocks consist principally of mica, quartz, limestone, and whinstone, which, in some parts near the shore, are varied with different admixtures. The district is bare of natural wood, the very small portion seen here being only brushwood, and in detached spots; but within the last forty years, plantations of larch and other forest-trees have been formed to some extent, and are kept in good order. Great discouragements, however, operate against such improvements, for, though the soil is considered particularly suited to the growth of trees, the severity of the climate, the fury of the winds, and the sea air unite together to neutralize, to a considerable extent, the efforts of the planter. The chief seats are those of Largie and Glenbarr, the former an ancient family mansion, and the latter a modern residence built in the style of a priory. The parish contains only two small hamlets, and the great bulk of the population are cottars or day labourers, dwelling in very humble tenements, and but scantily provided with the necessaries of life. A few persons are employed in taking lobsters, which they send by the steamers to the Irish and Liverpool markets; but the fine fish of the usual kinds abounding on the western coast, and the shoals of herrings passing by, are almost entirely neglected. Turf and peat are the ordinary fuel, obtained from a considerable distance, and with great labour. The public road from Inverary to Campbelltown passes through the district. An annual fair is held here regularly for the hiring of harvest servants.

The parish is in the presbytery of Cantyre and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Duke of Argyll: the minister has a stipend of £178, with a manse, and a glebe of nearly eight acres, valued at £10 per annum. There are two churches, the one erected in 1787, and the other in 1826, containing respectively 650 and 750 sittings. The parish contains two parochial schools, affording instruction in the ordinary branches: the master of the first school has £31. 6. salary, and a house and garden, and the master of the second, a salary of £20; the fees of both are about £15. A school is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, the master receiving a salary of £22, with a house, and two and a half acres of land, purchased by a bequest; and another is maintained by the General Assembly's Committee, the master of which has £25 per annum, with a house and a portion of land. The poor enjoy the interest of a bequest of £1000, made by Captain Norman Macalister, late governor of Prince of Wales' Island. Near the middle of the parish is the ruin of an old castle, said to have belonged to the Macdonalds, lords of the Isles; and in several places are tumuli, and circles of stones, usually called Druidical circles.

Killearn

KILLEARN, a parish, in the county of Stirling; containing 1224 inhabitants, of whom 390 are in the village, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Drymen. The name of this place is supposed to have been derived from the compound Celtic term Kill-ear-rhin, signifying "the church of west point," which is descriptive of the situation of the church near the western extremity of a mountainous ridge twenty miles in length, extending from Killearn to Kilsyth, and called Campsie Fells. The parish lies in the western district of the county; it is twelve miles in length, varies in breadth from two and a quarter to four miles, and comprises about 17,000 acres, of which 7000 are under tillage, 1140 in plantations, and the remainder pasture and waste. The river Endrick runs along the northern boundary, separating the parish from Drymen and Balfron; and from this stream the surface gradually rises towards the south, where the mountainous ridge already referred to has an elevation of 1200 feet above the level of the sea. The intermediate lands comprehend, in succession from the river, first, a rich though narrow tract of alluvial soil on its banks; secondly, an arable portion from one to two miles broad, on which are situated the village and church, and which from its commanding height, in some parts, of 500 or 600 feet above the sea, affords extensive and beautiful prospects; and, thirdly, a belt of pasture land a mile broad, which is followed by the lofty ridge, of trap rock, at the southern boundary. In the last-mentioned quarter are several semicircular excavations, formed in the western extremity of the range, and known by the name of Corries. Some of these measure a mile in diameter, and have a highly interesting aspect, from the variety of stone of which the rocks consist; and in the same part of Killearn, where it joins Kilpatrick, is an artificial lake of 150 acres, formed as a reservoir for a supply, in dry seasons, to the Partick mills, situated on the Kelvin, near Glasgow. The Endrick is a turbid impetuous stream, which is joined by the river Blane in the lower part of the parish, and flows in a western direction, for several miles, till it falls into Loch Lomond. There are also numerous rivulets and mountain streams, forming strikingly picturesque cascades in their precipitous courses through rocky fissures: the most romantic of these cascades is in the glen of Dualt, where there is a fall of sixty feet.

The soil is various, but in general mossy; in some places it is rich and fertile, and produces barley, abundance of oats, a little wheat, and good crops of potatoes, hay, turnips, and beans. The milch-cows, fat-cattle, English and Highland sheep, horses, and other live stock, kept or reared in the parish, are valued at £6000 per annum. A large portion of the waste land is capable of being brought under the plough; but little attention is paid to this circumstance, the extensive and effectual draining of the parts already under cultivation being found to answer better for the employment of capital. The estate of Killearn, especially, has received the advantage of this kind of improvement; and the proprietor, in 1837, built a kiln, in which about 500,000 tiles for draining are annually made. The parish is not so forward as many others in scientific husbandry; but much has been effected within the last thirty years, and the amount of produce has been doubled. The rateable annual value of Killearn now amounts to £6850. The prevailing substratum is red sandstone; but in several places are limestone and freestone, of which latter some quarries are in operation, the material being generally used for houses, but occasionally formed into millstones, though in little repute for durability. The higher parts of the mountains are trap rock, which is supposed, from the numerous fissures, to have been thrown up through the sandstone, in a state of fusion. Coal, also, is said to exist; but the numerous attempts to find it have all failed. The wood consists chiefly of young oak, which is cultivated for the sake of the bark, though, on account of the deteriorated value of this article, the firs and larch are beginning to receive more attention. The original plantations, comprising larch and the usual forest trees, were formed, about the beginning of the last century, by one of the Graham family, whose ancestors had possessed almost the whole parish; and the late Mr. Dunmore, who, many years afterwards, projected turnpike-roads, and introduced the cotton manufacture and various rural improvements, encouraged also the planting of waste lands. In the vicinity of his residence at Ballikinrain, are some fine old yew-trees, of large bulk, and in a very thriving condition; and near the old mansion-house of Killearn are beautiful specimens of oak and silver fir, of great height. On the lastnamed estate, an elegant seat has lately been erected, on the margin of the river Blane; and there is a mansion in the castellated style, at Carbeth, which, as well as several other neat residences of proprietors, is richly ornamented with wood.

The village, traversed by the turnpike-road to Glasgow, is built in an irregular straggling form. It is principally inhabited by families occupying small plots of ground, let on long leases by Sir James Montgomery about 1770, with the privilege of building, which circumstance has operated to produce a gradual increase of the population, previously to that year reduced by the consolidation of several small farms. There is a woollen-factory, in which the raw material, amounting to about 400 cwt. annually, passes through each process till made into cloth. A post-office has been established under Glasgow. The parish is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Duke of Montrose. The minister's stipend is £152, with a manse, built in 1825, and a glebe of eight acres, valued at £12 per annum. The church was rebuilt in 1826, and contains 500 sittings. The parochial school is situated in the village; the master receives a salary of £31, with £8 in lieu of house and garden, and about £10 fees. There is a mineral spring in the parish, one of the ingredients of which is lime, and which petrifies the moss growing near it. At a place called Blaressen Spout-head, marked by several erect stones, tradition asserts that a battle was fought between the Romans and Scots. George Buchanan, the celebrated historian, was born in 1506, at Moss, to the south of the church, in a farm-house occupied by his father, part of which remained till 1812, when a modern edifice was erected on its site. An obelisk 103 feet high, after the model of that erected on the Boyne, in Ireland, in honour of the victory of William III., was raised in the village in 1788, by several gentlemen, in memory of this distinguished man. Napier of Merchiston, also, the inventor of logarithms, held property in Killearn, and resided for a considerable period in the adjoining parish of Drymen.

Killellan

KILLELLAN, Renfrew.—See Houston and Killallan.

Killiernan

KILLIERNAN, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Beauly; containing 1643 inhabitants. This place is said to have derived its name from the circumstance of its having been the burial-ground of Irenan, a Danish prince, the prefix Kill, signifying a chapel, church, or cemetery. On the northern boundary of the parish, a sepulchral monument called Cairn-Irenan still exists; and it is probable that the Danes had a settlement here, or were often engaged in conflicts with the original inhabitants. Tradition states that two religious houses formerly existed in Killearnan; but nothing certain is known about them, though the names of two hamlets, Chapeltown and Spital, give some authority to the assertion. More recently, the family of the Mackenzies, so well known in Scottish history, resided at Redcastle and Kilcoy. The three parishes of Killiernan, Kilmuir Wester, and Suddy were formed into two, in 1756, and the ecclesiastical stipends equally apportioned. The parish of Killiernan is between five and six miles long, and between two and three broad. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Urquhart; on the south by the Frith of Beauly; on the east by Kilmuir Wester and Suddy; and on the west by the parish of Urray. The ground rises gently from the southern boundary to the top of Mulbuy on the north, where it has its greatest elevation. Along the shore it is smooth and level, and unbroken by bays or headlands. The water of the Frith is of a dark hue, from the large quantities of moss and mud brought into it by the river of Beauly.

The soil varies considerably; and very frequently, on the same farm, light loam, red and blue clay, and gravel succeed each other. Deep clay is common on the shore, and is here used as compost, and often for mortar in buildings. Many of the lands are covered with small stones, which require clearing every year; and throughout the larger part of the parish, broom grows spontaneously, and, if left to itself, would shortly overspread the fields. The whole of the parish is the property of two families, whose estates are called Redcastle, and Kilcoy and Drumnamarg. The former comprises 3796 acres, of which 1566 are arable, 577 pasture, and 1653 wood; the latter contains 3041 acres, of which 977 are arable, 882 wood, and 1182 pasture. The crops consist of wheat, barley, oats, rye, clover, turnips, and potatoes; and the rateable annual value of the parish amounts to £4275. Many agricultural improvements have been made; and the lands, within the last twenty years, have assumed an entirely different appearance. The native heath and broom are gradually yielding to valuable crops of grain; and the gratuity of £5 allowed for the improvement of every Scottish acre, and the permission to enjoy it rent-free during the remainder of the current lease, have given an impulse to the energies of the cultivator, the effects of which are conspicuous in every direction. The union of several small farms, and the building of good houses and offices, with inclosures, especially on the Redcastle property, have introduced superior tenants, and, with them, better means of cultivation; and the encouragement afforded by the spirited proprietors in the parish bids fair to raise it, in a few years, to a level with the best cultivated districts in the country. The farmers generally breed only the cattle necessary for ploughing, &c., on their own ground; but at the close of harvest, they purchase young cattle, in considerable quantities, to consume their straw, and others for the purpose of fattening them upon turnips, with the sheep, in the winter, by which they make a considerable profit at the markets in the summer time. The substratum of the parish is one continued bed of red freestone, which is easily prepared, and well suited to buildings of every description. A quarry of this stone has been wrought for some centuries, from which Inverness has been freely supplied, and from which the stones used in the locks of the Caledonian canal were taken.

Formerly, each of the estates had a castle in which the proprietor resided. That on the Kilcoy estate is now in ruins; but the mansion on the property of Redcastle, so named from the colour of the stone of which it is built, and formerly used as a place of defence, is in good and habitable condition. It is a large pile, surrounded with beautiful plantations, which occupy many hundreds of acres, and consist of oak, ash, birch, Scotch fir, and larch. In many other parts, also, the same trees are to be seen. There are two villages: Miltown, a name common to many other villages in this district, is chiefly remarkable for its delightful situation, and its miniature likeness to a town; and Quarry, deriving its name from the rock immediately behind it, consists of a line of neat cottages, extending along the base of a sandstone rock, which rises to the height of a hundred feet above the village, giving it a very singular appearance. There is a corn-mill on each of the two estates, for the use of the parish. Two fairs, the staple horse-markets of the country, are held, the one in February, and the other in July. Facility of communication is afforded by a good road from the ferry at Kessock to Dingwall, Invergordon, and Fortrose, the repairs of which are supported by a regular toll; and there are two small vessels belonging to the parish, employed in carrying timber and coal between Killiernan and Newcastle, in England. Ships, also, touch here, and land their cargoes on the shore at the eastern extremity of the parish, as there is no harbour.

The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Chanonry and synod of Ross; and the patronage is vested in the Hon. Mrs. Hay Mackenzie. The stipend of the minister is £200, with a manse, built about a century ago, and repaired and enlarged a few years since. The glebe consists of about six acres of arable land; and one-half, also, of the glebe of Kilmuir Wester has belonged to Killiernan since 1756. The church, which is built in the form of a cross, is very ancient, and of considerable dimensions. It was thatched with heather until about fifty years ago, when it was roofed with slate, and supplied with fresh seats; it has been just again repaired, and is now a very comfortable building. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There is a parochial school, in which Greek, Latin, English grammar, geography, and practical mathematics are taught: the salary of the master is £30, with a house, an allowance in lieu of garden, and about £8 fees. Another school is endowed by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge; English, Gaelic, writing, and arithmetic are taught, and the master has £15 per annum, and a small house. There is also a female school supported by the same society. The chief relics of antiquity are, the ruins of Redcastle, and the cairn already referred to, supposed to have been raised to commemorate the murder of a Danish prince; and in the vicinity of the cairn are remains of a Druidical temple.

Killigray

KILLIGRAY, an island, in the parish of Harris, district of Lewis, county of Inverness; containing 7 inhabitants. This is one of numerous isles in the sound of Harris, and lies a short distance south of Ensay, and four and a half miles east of Bernera; its length is about two miles, and its breadth one. The south end is a deep moss; but the isle is verdant all over, and has in general a good soil, latterly well cultivated. In the northern part, particularly, the ground is managed with care, and the crops are early. Here, however, as in the neighbouring isles, the inhabitants live chiefly by fishing and the manufacture of kelp. A temple to the goddess Annat, of Saxon mythology, who presided over young maidens, anciently existed on the island.

Killin

KILLIN, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with part of the late quoad sacra district of Strathfillan, 1702 inhabitants, of whom 426 are in the village, 8 miles (N. by W.) from Lochearnhead. This parish, which is situated within the Highland district of Breadalbane, extends from Loch Tay, on the east, to Loch Lomond, on the west; and is about twenty-four miles in length, varying from five to nine miles in breadth, and comprising an area of 90,000 acres, of which 2500 are arable, 1000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder mountain pasture. The surface is strikingly diversified with ranges of lofty mountains interspersed with deep and richly-wooded glens and fertile valleys, and enlivened with numerous streams descending from the heights, and, after a devious course through the lower lands, forming tributaries to the rivers that intersect the parish. The highest of the mountains is Benmore, which has an elevation of 3900 feet above the level of the sea; it rises from the plains of Glendochart in a conical form, and the whole of the range which reaches to the head of Loch Lomond displays a character of romantic grandeur not surpassed in any part of the Highlands. The range of Craig Chailleach, ascending abruptly from the lands of Finlarig, near the western extremity of Loch Tay, and richly wooded from its base nearly half way to its summit, extends westward to the vale of Glenlochay, forming, from the intervals between its several points of elevation, an apparent succession of forts. The hills, also, though of very inferior elevation, still rise to a considerable height, and, clothed with verdure to their summits, afford excellent pasturage for sheep and cattle.

Among the principal valleys is Glendochart, spreading to the westward for nearly ten miles, and watered by the river Dochart, which, issuing from a lake of that name within the glen, passes through a tract of romantic beauty into Loch Tay. The valley of Strathfillan extends for almost eight miles, in a similar direction, to the borders of the parish of Glenorchay, and is enlivened by the river here called the Fillan, which flows into the lake in Glendochart, and, issuing thence, is for the remainder of its course designated the Dochart. The valley of Glenfalloch, branching off to the south from that of Strathfillan, reaches to the confines of Dumbartonshire, and is watered by the river Falloch, which runs into Loch Lomond. The braes of Glenlochay, in which the river Lochay has its source, extend for about fourteen miles from the village of Killin, towards the west, in a direction nearly parallel with Glendochart, from which they are separated by a chain of hills called the Mid hills; they are partly in the parishes of Kenmore and Weem, and form a rich and fertile district, abounding with romantic beauty. The scenery of the parish, indeed, almost in every point, is marked with features of interesting character. The streams which issue from the heights make pleasing and picturesque cascades in their descent; and the rivers that flow through the lower lands, in various places obstructed in their course, fall from considerable heights with great effect. The cataracts on the Dochart near the village, and those of the Lochay about three miles distant from it, are strikingly romantic; and those of the latter, where the stream is obstructed by the rocks which intersect the glen, are considered equal in beauty to the falls of the Clyde.

The soil, though generally light and dry, resting on a substratum of limestone, is in some places wet and marshy, particularly in the valleys of Glendochart and Strathfillan, rendered so by the occasional inundation of the rivers. The crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips; but the principal resource of the farmers is the pastures, which in many parts are luxuriantly rich. The sheep, of which more than 30,000 are annually fed, are chiefly of the black-faced breed, with a few of the Leicestershire and South-Down, which are kept on the lands of the proprietors. The cattle, of which 1200 are pastured, are of the West Highland breed, with some of the Ayrshire on the dairy-farms. Considerable improvements are gradually taking place in the system of husbandry; draining has been extensively practised, under the assistance and encouragement of the proprietors; the farm houses and offices, though usually of inferior description, are giving way to others of more commodious construction; and it is in contemplation to deepen and embank the rivers. The plantations are for the greater part of recent formation, and are in a thriving state. They consist chiefly of Scotch, silver, and spruce fir, and larch; and the natural woods, which were formerly much more extensive, especially in the higher parts of Strathfillan, are oak, ash, mountain-ash, birch, elder, hazel, and hawthorn. At Finlarig are some yew-trees, and a plane supposed to be 300 years old; specimens of holly and laburnum are also frequent, and the district abounds in interesting botanic specimens. Limestone of a greyish colour, and of crystalline formation, is plentiful, and there are veins of trap and greenstone; lead-ore is also abundant, and some mines of it are at present in operation at Tyndrum, where a large crushing-mill has been recently erected. Cobalt, containing sixty ounces of silver in one ton of ore, is found; and in Craig-Chailleach is a rich vein of sulphuret of iron. The rateable annual value of the parish is £18,137.

The principal seats are, Kinnell, for centuries the baronial residence of the Mc Nabs, and now the property of the Marquess of Breadalbane, finely situated on the river Dochart; Finlarig Castle, formerly the seat of the Breadalbane family, an ancient structure at the north-west extremity of Loch Tay, near which is the family mausoleum, embosomed in woods of venerable growth; Auchlyne House, occupied, during the shooting season, by the Duke of Buckingham; Glenure, the seat of T. H. Place, Esq., the only resident proprietor, beautifully seated on the banks of the Lochure, near Benmore; Auchmore, a handsome mansion belonging to the Breadalbane family; and Borland, romantically situated in the woods of Glenlochay. The village of Killin stands at the head of Loch Tay, near the confluence of the rivers Dochart and Lochay; and the environs abound with romantic scenery. It is irregularly built, and a few of the inhabitants are employed in the carding and spinning of wool, for which there is a mill; there are several shops for the sale of various kinds of merchandise and wares, and an excellent inn. A branch of the Central Bank of Scotland, and a savings' bank, have been established; there is a daily post to and from the south of Scotland, and a post three days in the week to Kenmore and Aberfeldy. Fairs are held on the third Tuesday in January, for general business; the first Tuesday in May, also for general business, and on the 12th for cattle; on the 27th of October, for cattle; and the first Tuesday in November, O. S., for general business. Facility of communication is maintained by good roads, and bridges over the several rivers, all kept in excellent order; one road communicates with Loch Lomond, where, during the summer, a steamer plies daily.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Weem and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £240. 19. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13 per annum; patron, the Marquess of Breadalbane. The church, erected in 1774, and repaired in 1832, is a neat structure conveniently situated, and containing 905 sittings, of which fifty are free. A church was erected towards the close of the last century, on the lands of Strathfillan; and at Ardeonaig is a mission under the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, for which a church was built by the late Marquess of Breadalbane, at an expense of £600. The latter church contains 650 sittings, and the minister has a stipend of £60, of which one-half is paid by the marquess, and the other by the society; he has also a manse, and a glebe of seventeen and a half acres, valued at £12 per annum. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there are small congregations of Baptists and Independents, who assemble in a room, but have no regular minister. The parochial school is attended by about eighty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £10 per annum. Three schools are supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, the masters of which have salaries varying from £15 to £18, with a house, and land for a cow, in addition to the fees. Two schools, also, are endowed by the Marchioness of Breadalbane, in one of which, at Killin, ten boys and fifty girls are instructed gratuitously by the master, who has a salary of £20, with a house and garden; the girls are also taught sewing and knitting. In the village is likewise a school for young children, to the mistress of which the marchioness gives a house and garden rent-free.

The parochial library contains a collection of about 300 volumes, principally on religious subjects; and the Breadalbane Philanthropic Association furnishes a supply of Bibles and school-books to the poor at a very reduced cost. The poor are supported partly by the liberality of the Breadalbane family, who allow, almost to each, a house and garden rent-free, with the liberty of cutting peat, and distribute annually among them meal to the amount of £40, and a supply of clothing at Christmas. In Loch Dochart are some remains of one of the seven towers built by Sir Duncan Campbell, and which was, during a frost, taken by the Mc Gregors, who, approaching on the ice, put the whole of its inhabitants to death; and in the possession of Mr. Sinclair, tenant of Inverchaggarnie, are the powder-horn, and a gold brooch, worn by the celebrated Rob Roy Mc Gregor. The same gentleman has also an old rifle which belonged to the Mc Nabs; it is four feet in length with an octagonal bore, and in the stock is a recess for holding a supply of bullets. A spot near the village of Killin, within what was once the site of the ancient churchyard, is pointed out as the grave of Fingal. The present translation of the Bible into the Gaelic language was commenced by the Rev. James Stewart, minister of this parish, who died in 1789, having at that time translated the New Testament; the remainder was performed by his son, Dr. Stewart, of Luss, who was born here. Dr. Dewar, principal of Aberdeen, and eminent in literature and theology, is also a native of the parish.

Killochyett

KILLOCHYETT, a hamlet, in the parish of Stow, county of Edinburgh, ½ a mile (N. N. W.) from Stow; containing 42 inhabitants. It lies in the south-eastern part of the parish, near the confluence of the Cockham rivulet with the Gala water, and on the high road from Stow to Middleton.

Kilmadock

KILMADOCK, a parish, in the county of Perth, 9 miles (N. W.) from Stirling; containing, with the late quoad sacra parish of Deanston and part of that of Norrieston, the town of Doune, and the villages of Buchany and Drumvaich, 4055 inhabitants. This place derives its name from the dedication of its ancient church to St. Madocus or Madock, one of the Culdees, who lived here in sequestered solitude. It is sometimes called Doune, from the removal of the parochial church to the town of that name. The parish, which is situated in the western part of the county between the Ochil and the Grampian hills, includes a considerable portion of the old stewartry of Monteith, and is about twelve miles in length and nearly of equal breadth, comprising an area of 51,200 acres, of which a large part is waste. The surface is varied with hills, of which the most conspicuous is Uamvar, or Uaighmor, commanding an extensive and richly-diversified prospect over the adjacent country; and the lands are intersected with numerous small vales. The ground rises from the river Forth, which bounds the parish on the south, by a regular and gradual ascent, to a great elevation; and on the acclivity of Uaighmor is a large cavern, said to have been, till the year 1750, infested with bands of robbers. The river Teith rises in two streams, of which one flows through the Lochs Katrine, Achray, and Vennachar, and the other passes by the braes of Balquhidder, and runs through Lochs Voil and Lubnaig: above Callander they form one stream, which intersects the parish, and falls into the Forth about two miles above Stirling. The river Ardoch issues from Loch Maghaig, and, uniting with the burn of Garvald, joins the Teith below the castle of Doune. The river Kelty bounds the parish on the west, and flows into the Teith at Cambusmore: and the Annat, or Cambus, which makes some picturesque cascades near the site of the old mansion of Annat, and has formed a deep glen in the solid rock, called the Caldron Linn, runs into the Teith at the ancient church of Kilmadock. There are two considerable lakes in the parish, Loch Watston, on the lands of Gartincaber, and Loch Maghaig, in the braes of Doune, each of circular form, and about a mile in diameter. Numerous springs flow from the sides of the Grampians, and from the acclivities of Uaighmor. Near the burn of Garvald is one issuing out of the solid rock, in the form of a spout; the water is supposed to possess mineral qualities, but has not been fully analysed.

The soil is exceedingly various; near the Forth, a fine carse clay; on the rising grounds to the north, rich garden mould; upon the south bank of the Teith, a tilly loam, but on the north bank less productive, being alternated with sand. The soil around Doune, being enriched with the manure of the town, is luxuriantly fertile. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, beans, peas, potatoes, and turnips, with rye-grass, flax, and clover. The system of agriculture has recently been much improved; and considerable tracts of waste land have been rendered fertile, and brought into profitable cultivation, by the adoption of the Deanston plan of thorough-draining introduced by Mr. Smith, of that place. The farmbuildings have also been much improved, and are in general substantial and commodious. The cattle are principally of the Highland black breed, for which the pastures are better adapted than for sheep, of which few only are kept, and these chiefly on the braes of Doune, and on the moors of Lanrick and Cambusmore. There is little wood of native growth; but plantations have been formed on the lands of the Earl of Moray, to whom onethird of the parish belongs, and on the pleasure-grounds of Cambusmore and Newton, which are celebrated by Scott in his Lady of the Lake. The mansions are, Doune Lodge, Gartincaber, Lanrick Castle, Cambusmore, Newton, and Argaty. Doune is a post-town, and the cotton manufacture is carried on extensively at Deanston, besides which there are several villages in the parish, all noticed under their respective heads. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads; and a suspension-bridge has been thrown over the river Teith, at Lanrick, under the superintendence of Mr. Smith, of Deanston. The rateable annual value of the parish is £18,200.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £288. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £7 per annum; patroness, Lady Willoughby de Eresby. The ancient church of Kilmadock was, with the exception of the eastern gable, taken down in 1744, and a church erected at Doune, which is now the parish church; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, and is seated for 1121 persons, but capable of holding a congregation of 1400. On the opening of the church, a service of communion-plate was presented by William Mitchell, Esq., of Jamaica, a native of the town of Doune. A church has been erected at Deanston; and there are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Secession, the Congregational Union of Scotland, and Wesleyans. The parochial school, for which a handsome building was erected in 1830, by the heritors, at a cost of £257, is well conducted, and attended by about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £40 per annum. There are several other schools in the parish, of which two are partly endowed, together affording instruction to about 600 children.

Kilmahog

KILMAHOG, a village, in the parish of Callander, county of Perth, 1 mile (N. W. by W.) from Callander; containing 116 inhabitants. It is situated in the southeastern part of the parish, and on the road from Doune to Lochearnhead, the principal road to the Western Highlands. On the west and south flows a stream issuing from Loch Lubnaig, and which, uniting with a rivulet from Loch Vennachar, forms the Teith. The village, the only one besides Callander in the parish, is beautifully seated on a plain; and in its vicinity is Leney House, the property of the Buchanan family.

Kilmalcolm

KILMALCOLM, a parish, in the Lower ward of the county of Renfrew, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Port-Glasgow; containing 1616 inhabitants, of whom 377 are in the village. This parish, which is situated on the Frith of Clyde, is about six miles in length and nearly of equal breadth. It comprises 25,000 acres, of which 8000 are arable land in a state of profitable cultivation, to which might be added 1000 more; about 250 natural wood and plantations; 6000 moorland in undivided common; and 10,000 pasture and waste. The surface is gently undulating, rising from the bank of the Clyde, and in various parts relieved by tracts of ornamental planting, which add much to the beauty and variety of the scenery. The village has an elevation of nearly 400 feet above the level of the sea, and commands an extensive and interesting view of the surrounding country, embracing the Frith, which skirts the parish for nearly four miles. The rivers Gryfe and Duchal, which have their source in the western confines, after intersecting the parish, unite their streams, and flow into the river Cart, which falls into the Clyde at Inchinnan. These streams abound with trout, and, towards the close of the year, with salmon, which come up from the Clyde to spawn. The soil is in general light and unproductive, and consequently a very small proportion is under cultivation: the system of husbandry is, notwithstanding, considerably improved; and with due encouragement, a great part of the waste lands might be reclaimed. The farm-buildings are also improving in their style; and the crops of grain are favourable, and equal in quality those of any other parish. Great numbers of sheep and cattle are fed on Duchal moor, which comprises nearly 6000 acres of undivided common; the cattle are generally of the Ayrshire breed. Some improvement has taken place in draining and inclosing the lands; but the fences are badly made, and indifferently kept. The rocks with which the parish abounds are of granite, and frequently extend to a great depth; but few minerals of any value have been found. The rateable annual value of Kilmalcolm is £9025.

The seats are, Duchal, a handsome modern mansion, well situated, and embellished with thriving plantations; Carruth, a substantial and elegant residence, with a tastefully-planted demesne; Finlayston, a modern mansion, commanding an extensive view of the Clyde; and Broadfield. The village is neatly built; there are three mills for grinding oats and barley; and a circulating library has been formed, with every probability of its being well supported. The public roads are convenient, and are kept in good repair. The parish is in the presbytery of Greenock and the synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and patronage of Dr. Anderson; the minister's stipend is £246, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum. The church, which is situated in the village, and has been rebuilt within the last few years, is adapted for a congregation of 1000 persons. There are places of worship for Baptists and Reformed Presbyterians. The parochial school, also situated in the village, is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with £10 fees, and a house and garden. John Knox, the celebrated Reformer, dispensed the sacrament at Finlayston House, then occupied by the family of the Earl of Glencairn. On this occasion the wine was put into the hollow of the lower parts of two candlesticks of silver, which, while that family remained at Finlayston, were regularly used in the church; but, upon their removal from the parish, they were exchanged for four cups of gilt copper, by the countess, who took the candlesticks away with her. The lords Lyle, as well as the earls of Glencairn, had property anciently in the parish; and several members of the two families are interred in the cemetery of the church.

Kilmalie

KILMALIE, a parish, partly in the district and county of Argyll, and partly in the county of Inverness; containing, with the village of Fort-William, and the quoad sacra district of Ballichulish, 5397 inhabitants, of whom 2741 are in the county of Inverness. The wide district comprehending the present parishes of Kilmalie and Kilmonivaig anciently formed one parish, under the appellation of Lochaber; but the two places were separated about the middle of the seventeenth century. The parish of Kilmalie is supposed to have derived its name from the dedication of its church to the Virgin Mary. During the rebellion in 1745, it suffered in some degree from the devastations of the royal forces, who, after their victory at Culloden, encamped at Fort-Augustus, whence they sent detachments to Lochaber; and a party of troops was finally stationed at the head of Loch Arkaig, to check the movements of the clan Cameron, whose chief, Locheil, had joined the Pretender. The parish is about sixty miles in length and thirty miles in extreme breadth. The surface is mountainous and wild, and is deeply indented with lakes, and diversified with ravines, which, when they intervene between the higher mountains, are narrow and precipitous, and when between those of inferior elevation, assume more the appearance of valleys. The mountain of Ben-Nevis, to the east of Fort-William, the loftiest in the country, has an elevation of 4370 feet above the level of the sea, commanding from its summit, which is difficult of ascent, a most unbounded and magnificent prospect. The summits of most of the higher mountains are perfectly sterile, and have a dreary aspect; and in the clefts on the north-east, snow in a frozen state is found at all times.

The principal inlets from the sea, in the parish, are, Loch Linnhe, in the south-west, reaching along the shores of Ardgour to the entrance of Loch Eil; Loch Leven, branching from Loch Linnhe towards the east, about ten miles to the south of Fort-William, and extending for almost twelve miles between the mountains of Glencoe and Lochaber; and Loch Eil, stretching in a north-eastern direction to Fort-William and the Caledonian canal, and then taking a north-western direction for nearly ten miles towards Arisaig. The only inland lake wholly within the parish is Loch Arkaig, situated among the mountains, and skirted by the military road from Fort-William by Corpach ferry. This lake is about sixteen miles in length and a mile broad; and near one extremity is a densely-wooded island, which has been for ages the burying-place of the family of Locheil and their chieftains. Loch Lochy, on the line of the Caledonian canal, and about a mile and a half to the east of Loch Arkaig, is chiefly in the parish of Kilmonivaig, but extends for nine miles into this parish. The valley between these two lakes abounds with romantic scenery. The river Lochy, issuing from the lake of that name, forms a confluence with the Spean at Mucomre Bridge, constituting, for about eight miles, a boundary between the parishes of Kilmalie and Kilmonivaig; and after receiving the river Nevis, which descends from Ben-Nevis in an impetuous torrent forming a magnificent cascade, it flows into the sea at Fort-William. The Lochy abounds with salmon, which are taken in great quantities, and sent to the London market; and herrings of small size, but of excellent quality, cod, whitings, haddocks, and flounders, with various other kinds of fish, are found in the lake. A considerable quantity of salmon, also, is packed in tin boxes, hermetically sealed, at Corpach Ferry, and forwarded to India. There are commodious bays at Corran-Ardgour, where is likewise a ferry; at Eilan-na-gaul; and at Camus-na-gaul, near the south entrance of the Caledonian canal, opposite to Fort-William. There is also a ferry on the Lochy, where are good quays on both banks of the river, and where, from the great intercourse with Fort-William, about two miles distant, a substantial bridge would afford very desirable accommodation.

The quantity of arable land in this extensive parish is very inconsiderable. Some attempts to reclaim portions of waste, and bring them under cultivation, have recently been made, and the result has been such as to encourage further efforts; but the people at present are chiefly dependent on the rearing of sheep and cattle, and on the fisheries. The soil on the coast, and along the shores of the rivers, is tolerably fertile, but in other parts sandy and shallow; the chief crops are oats and potatoes, of which latter great quantities are raised. The sheep-farms are well managed, and considerable attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, for which the hills afford good pasture; both the sheep and cattle are sent to the Falkirk trysts, where they find a ready sale. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8079. The rocks are mostly gneiss and mica-slate, and there are extensive beds of quartz and hornblende. At Ballichulish is a quarry of slate, which has not yet been much wrought; and at Fassfern is a quarry of good buildingstone, from which were raised materials for the construction of the Caledonian canal, and the quay at Fort-William. In the mountain of Ben-Nevis are found large detached masses of grey granite, weighing from ten to forty tons. The ancient woods, which were very extensive, have been partly cut down; but there are still remaining great numbers of venerable oaks, and firs of luxuriant growth. Extensive plantations, also, have been formed on the lands of the principal proprietors, and are all in a thriving state. Achnacarry, the seat of Cameron of Locheil, is an elegant modern structure, built of materials found near the spot. Ardgour, the seat of Colonel Mc Lean, is a handsome mansion of more ancient style, but recently repaired and enlarged; it is pleasantly situated near Corran Ferry, in grounds tastefully laid out, and enriched with plantations. Callart, the seat of Sir Duncan Cameron, of Fassfern, Bart., is beautifully situated on the banks of Loch Leven. The only villages in the parish are, Ballichulish and Fort-William, both of which are described under their respective heads, and Corpach, near the south extremity of the Caledonian canal, where the parish church is situated, and where a post-office has been established. Facility of communication is afforded by steamers twice in the week during the summer, and once during the winter, between Inverness and Glasgow.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Abertarff and synod of Glenelg. The minister's stipend is £287. 15. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £60 per annum; patron, Cameron of Lochiel. The church is a neat plain structure, erected in 1783, at a cost of £440, and contains 1000 sittings, all of which are free. A church has been erected at Fort-William, where are also an episcopal and a Roman Catholic chapel; and there are two churches in the quoad sacra district of Ballichulish. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school, situated at Fort-William, is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £45. Three schools are supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, who allow the masters a salary of £17 each, with a house and garden; and there is also a female school, at Fort-William, of which they give the teacher £8. A school is supported by the Gaelic School Society, who allow £20 per annum for the gratuitous instruction of fifty children; and there is a school on the grounds of Achnacarry, near the mansion, of which the teacher receives £10 per annum from Mrs. Cameron. At the western extremity of the parish is a monument, erected on the spot where Prince Charles Edward first unfurled his standard for the gathering of the clans, in the rebellion of 1745. In the churchyard is a monument to the memory of Colonel John Cameron, of Fassfern, of the 92nd Highland regiment, who was killed at the battle of Waterloo. Evan Mc Lachlane, of the grammar school of Aberdeen, an eminent scholar, who translated part of Homer's Iliad into Gaelic verse, was a native of this parish.

Kilmany

KILMANY, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing, with the village of Rathillet, 659 inhabitants, of whom 58 are in the village of Kilmany, 5 miles (N. by E.) from Cupar. This parish, of which the name is supposed by some writers to signify "the church of the monks," and by others "the church of the valley," is situated in the north of the county, and forms part of a rich and fertile vale, encompassed by the range of the Ochil heights, by one branch of which it is separated from the river Tay. It is about five miles in length, and one in average breadth, and comprises 4477 acres, of which 200 are woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable and in good cultivation. The surface is diversified with hills, of which the highest has an elevation of about 400 feet above the level of the sea; the scenery is generally pleasing, being partially enriched with plantations, and in some parts picturesque. An aperture in the hill of Kilmany forms a romantic glen, called Goales Den, which has been finely planted. Several of the hills, also, have been covered with thriving plantations; and on those that separate the parish from the Tay are some rich woods through which walks have been cut, affording beautiful views of the river, the Carse of Gowrie, and the hills of Angus. The plantations are of larch, fir, beech, and ash, interspersed with a few oaks; the most ancient timber is found in the grounds of Mountquhanie, Lochmalonie, and Rathillet, the proprietors of which estates have contributed greatly to the improvement of their lands. The valley is watered by the river Motray, which has its source in the height called Norman Law, from opposite sides of which descend two small streams: these unite their waters on the confines of the parish, to make the Motray, and, flowing near the base of the eminence whereon the church is built, run into the river Eden. The Motray, though but an inconsiderable stream, frequently in winter overflows its banks. A small rivulet called the Cluthie, which rises within the parish, after a course of about a mile falls into the Motray below the church; and there are also two small burns which, flowing through the pasture lands, add much to their fertility. The climate is temperate, and the air salubrious; and the inhabitants generally are of robust health.

The soil is good, and the system of agriculture improved; draining has been practised with success; lime has been long used with advantage, and within the last few years bone-manure has been introduced. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, potatoes, and turnips. The sheep are principally of the Leicester, Cheviot, and Highland breeds, of which 1000 are annually fed; the cattle are of the Old Fife breed, with an occasional mixture of the Teeswater, and on an average about 200 head are reared and fed in the parish. No horses are reared, except for agricultural purposes. The lands are but very imperfectly inclosed; and there is still great room for improvement in the fences and plantations, which are comparatively on a limited scale. The substratum of the hills is mostly trap rock or whinstone; in some places of a dark blue colour, and extremely brittle; and in others of a reddish white, and not very easily worked. This stone is occasionally quarried for building, but generally for the roads, and for the construction of drains and dykes. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7937. Mountquhanie, Kilmany Cottage, Lochmalonie House, Hill-Cairnie, and Rathillet House are all handsome mansions, pleasantly situated. The village consists of a few cottages, the residence of such as are not employed in agriculture, and who carry on the pursuit of weaving, at their own homes, for the manufacturers of Dundee and Cupar: many of the females are also employed in weaving during the winter. There are three corn-mills, seventeen threshing-mills, and a saw-mill, the last employed in converting inferior timber into staves for barrels, of which great numbers are sent to Leith and other places connected with the herring-fishery. The roads are good; and there are tolerable facilities of intercourse with the neighbouring market-towns, of which Cupar is the nearest. The parish is in the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife, and in the patronage of the United college of St. Andrew's; the stipend is £225. 7. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The church, situated on rising ground overlooking the river Motray, is a plain edifice erected in 1768, in good repair, and adapted for a congregation of about 350 persons. There is a place of worship for the United Associate Synod. The parochial school is at Rathillet, nearly in the centre of the parish; the master has a salary of £34, with £17 fees, and a house and garden. Two other schools, for younger children and for girls, are supported by Mrs. Gillespie, and Mrs. Thomson, of Charleton; the teachers have each an allowance of £10 per annum, with a house and garden, and the fees. The late Rev. Dr. John Cooke, professor of divinity in the university of St. Andrew's, and the Rev. Dr. Chalmers, were ministers of this parish.