Kinkell - Kirkcaldy

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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82-98

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'Kinkell - Kirkcaldy', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 82-98. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43454 Date accessed: 31 October 2014.


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Kinkell

KINKELL, county of Aberdeen.—See keithhall.

Kinloch

KINLOCH, a village, in the parish of Collessie, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 5 miles (W.) from Cupar; containing 58 inhabitants. It is situated a little to the south of the road from Cupar to Auchter-muchty, and a short distance from the village of Collessie. Not many years since, it was the largest village in the parish, having nearly four times its present amount of population; a number of families, however, who resided here, have removed to Monkton. The houses form a line, with an interval of twelve feet between every four. The lands around the village have latterly been much improved by draining.

Kinloch

KINLOCH, county of Perth.—See Lethendy.

Kinloch-Luichart

KINLOCH-LUICHART, a large quoad sacra parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty; consisting of parts of the parishes of Contin, Fodderty, and Urray; and containing 681 inhabitants. This district, which was disjoined for ecclesiastical purposes from the above-mentioned parishes in 1833, by authority of the General Assembly, is wholly rural; its greatest length is twenty-two, and greatest breadth seventeen miles. The population is all of the poor and working classes, and is thinly dispersed over this large extent, the land being chiefly let out as sheep-walks to tenants who do not themselves reside in the district. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the controul of the presbytery of Dingwall and synod of Ross, and the patronage is vested in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £120, entirely paid from the exchequer; and he has a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £3. The church was built in 1825–6, under the act for building additional churches in the Highlands; it contains 310 sittings, all of which are free. There is as yet no parochial school; but a school in which English and Gaelic are taught is supported by the Free Church; and there is a catechist, who was once allowed £8 per annum from the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge.

Kinlochspelve

KINLOCHSPELVE, lately a quoad sacra district, in the parish of Torosay, district of Mull, county of Argyll; containing 453 inhabitants. This district is in the eastern part of the island of Mull, and comprises between thirty and forty thousand acres, of which not more than the one-fortieth part is under tillage; between forty and fifty acres are under plantation; a considerable extent is natural wood, and the rest mostly sheep-walks. Two arms of the sea, called Loch Buy and Loch Spelve, may be said to divide the district into two nearly equal parts, and, with very moderate exceptions, the whole surface of the land is mountainous. In the northern division the mountains attain an elevation of about two thousand feet, and in the southern part they are twelve hundred feet in height: the prevailing rocks are trap and mica-slate, but there is also sandstone. During the spring months, cod and salmon, particularly the former, are taken in considerable quantity; and Loch Buy abounds in fish of various kinds: the produce of the season is partly forwarded to Glasgow, and much of it to Oban. The sheep and black-cattle reared here are sent to the great markets of the south, principally the Dumbarton and Falkirk trysts. The mansion of Lochbuy, the residence of the Maclaine family, is a splendid structure at the head of the loch, with two wings, and a handsome porch; the central portion has three stories. It stands in a level plain of several hundred acres, from which the mountains rise to an immense height all around, except in front, where the sea approaches. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Mull and synod of Argyll, and the patronage is vested in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £120, with a manse and glebe. The church is a neat plain building, beautifully situated at the end of the romantic fresh-water lake named Loch Uisge, and in a narrow vale with an aspect to the south; it was erected in 1828, and is seated for 360 persons. There is a parochial school, of which the master has a salary of £15., with about £8 fees.

Kinloss

KINLOSS, a parish, in the county of Elgin; containing, with the village of Findhorn, 1202 inhabitants, of whom 24 are in the hamlet of Kinloss, 2 miles (N. E.) from Forres. This place derives its name from the Celtic words Ceann-loch, signifying "the head of the bay," and descriptive of its situation on the border of Burgh-Head bay, in the Moray Frith, by which it is washed on the north. A magnificent abbey was founded here by David I., in the year 1150, and its establishment confirmed in 1174 by a papal bull; the abbots were mitred, and sat in parliament. It was richly endowed, and became the scene of many splendid banquets. King Edward I., also, resided here for the space of six weeks in the year 1303, and a part of his army remained for a still longer period. At the Reformation, Edward Bruce, of Clackmannan, was commendator; he was created Baron Kinloss in 1601, and his son, Thomas, became Earl of Elgin and Baron Bruce, of Kinloss, in 1633. By the latter, the lands and feu-duties were sold to Brodie, of Lethen. The parish was disjoined from Alves, Rafford, and Forres, and erected into a separate parish in 1657; it is nearly four miles long, and of about the same breadth, and comprises 5065 acres, of which 2850 are cultivated, 1765 undivided common, 250 under plantations, and the remainder waste. The coast extends for about four miles eastward, and is low, except in parts where sand-banks have been formed by repeated drifts. On the west is Findhorn loch, a capacious and secure natural harbour, formed by the expansion of the river of the same name, and communicating, by a narrow strait, with the Frith; at the mouth is the bar, a sandy ridge which shifts with heavy floods and strong easterly winds, but the nature and soundings of which are so well known to the pilots that an accident is of very rare occurrence.

The site of the parish is generally low, being not more than ten or twelve feet above the sea at high water; but near the southern boundary the surface rises considerably, and affords an extensive view, embracing the plantations of Grangehall, the ruins of the ancient abbey, with the church and several fertile and well-cultivated tracts, interspersed with farm-houses, and in the distance, on the north, the town of Findhorn, with its shipping. The sea is supposed to have made great encroachments on this coast, the bar at the entrance of the harbour being partly formed of land once in tillage, and the present town being the third of the same name, owing to inundations. The burn of Kinloss, which, flowing from east to west, falls into the bay of Findhorn a little below the church, divides the parish into two nearly equal parts. The soil exhibits several varieties; but they are all sandy, clayey, or gravelly modifications of the rich loamy earth which generally prevails: the proportion of moss is inconsiderable. The ordinary subsoil of the whole is sand or gravel. All kinds of white and green crops are raised, of good quality, amounting in annual value to nearly £12,000; and the produce of dairy-cows, fat-cattle, sheep, swine, and horses is also considerable. The six-shift course of husbandry, with every improved usage, is followed; and much attention is paid to the breed of the various kinds of stock. Among the most conspicuous advances are, the reclaiming of large tracts of waste ground; draining and inclosing; and the erection of neat and commodious farm houses and offices. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3925. The mansion of Grangehall is a spacious and handsome modern residence, of quadrangular form, and ornamented with thriving plantations of Scotch fir, larch, birch, and oak. That of Seapark, also a modern building, has been of late greatly improved, and the grounds beautified with many young trees.

A considerable part of the population are engaged in fisheries, and reside at Findhorn, in the northern portion of the parish. There is a daily post; and a turnpike-road runs between Findhorn and Forres, which has, at the bridge of Kinloss, a branch eastward to Burgh-Head and Elgin. Grain, sheep, cattle, and swine are sent for sale to Aberdeen, Glasgow, and London, and salmon also to the last place; herrings are exported to Ireland, the continent, and the West Indies. Fairs are held for sheep, cattle, and horses, at Findhorn, on the second Wednesday, O. S., in March, July, and October. The parish is in the presbytery of Forres and synod of Moray, and in the patronage of the Earl of Moray, and Mr. Brodie, of Lethen, alternately: the minister's stipend is £240, with a manse, and a glebe of between four and five acres, valued at £5 per annum. The church was built in 1765, and thoroughly repaired in 1830. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and £10 fees; also an allowance from the Dick bequest. The parish contains a flourishing friendly society; and a savings' bank, in connexion with that in Forres, has been lately established. The chief relic of antiquity is the ruin of the abbey, which, till it became dilapidated, was used as the parish church. In the year 1652, the walls were broken down, and the stones sold to Cromwell's soldiers, for the erection of the citadel of Inverness. Since that period, depredations have been made upon the materials, at different times; and all that now remains of this once imposing structure is the east gable, for the preservation of which a buttress of mason-work has been raised by the liberality of a resident gentleman.—See the article upon Findhorn.

Kinnaird

KINNAIRD, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the hamlets of Craigdallie, Flawcraig, Nethermains, and Pitmiddie, 458 inhabitants, of whom 90 are in the hamlet of Kinnaird, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Errol. The name is derived from a compound word of Celtic origin, signifying "high end or head," and is descriptive, either of the elevated site of the village, or of the high ground at the end of the estate of Kinnaird, on which stands an ancient castle. Very little is known concerning the early history of the place; but it is recorded that it belonged originally to the noble family of Kinnaird, whose present seat is Rossie, in the neighbouring parish of Inchture. In the reign of King William, in 1170, Randolph Rufus obtained from that prince the lands of Kinnaird, from which he took his surname, and which continued in his family till the time of Charles I. The parish is nearly three miles long and two broad, and contains above 3000 acres. It is situated half way beyond Perth and Dundee, and has a fine south-eastern exposure, looking down on the Carse of Gowrie, part of which is contained within its bounds. It has the parish of Collace on the north-west, Errol and Inchture on the south-east, Abernyte on the north-east, and Kilspindie on the south-west. Some of the higher grounds command extensive views, especially of the Highland mountains.

The land which lies in the Carse, though small in extent, is the richest part of the parish, the soil, consisting of a fertile black clayey earth. On the south side of the braes skirting the Carse, the land, though good, is inferior to the former, and chiefly a stringent binding earth; on the north side the soil is light and shallow, and covered for the most part with bent and heath, intermixed occasionally with natural pasture. About 1550 acres are under tillage, and 1500 are uncultivated, consisting principally of moor ground, pastured with Highland sheep in the winter, and at other times with oxen. Green crops are cultivated; but grain is the chief produce of the arable land, most of which is capable of yielding wheat, in general of very good quality. Live stock are but little attended to. The husbandry is excellent; and improvements, commenced here at an early period, have been ever since gradually advancing. The parish is entirely agricultural. Its rateable annual value amounts to £3195. The chief communication of the people is with Perth and Dundee, the great road between which places passes within half a mile; and there is a port on the Tay, about four miles off, from which much grain is shipped, and at which coal and lime are imported. The higher and lower parts of the parish have been connected by a new road, which forms a kind of thoroughfare between Strathmore and the Carse of Gowrie. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the minister is £184, with a commodious and substantial manse, recently built, and a good glebe consisting of ten acres. The church is large, built only a few years ago, and fitted up in a comfortable manner. There is a parochial school, the master of which has the maximum salary, with about £24 fees. The only relic of antiquity is the ruin of the ancient castle, erected in feudal times, with massive walls, and strong stone arches under the respective floors, and evidently intended as a place of defence as well as residence.

Kinnaird

KINNAIRD, a village, in the parish of Moulin, county of Perth, 1 mile (E. N. E.) from the village of Moulin; containing 70 inhabitants. This small village, which is beautifully situated on the banks of a tributary to the river Garry, has a pleasingly rural aspect, and is inhabited chiefly by persons engaged in agricultural pursuits. The surrounding scenery is richly diversified, and abounds with features of interest; and from the hills in the immediate vicinity is obtained a fine view of the valley of Glenbrierachan.

Kinnaird

KINNAIRD, a village, in the parish of Larbert, county of Stirling, 3½ miles (N. by W.) from Falkirk; containing 304 inhabitants. This village, which is situated in the south of the parish, has arisen on the lands of Sir Michael Bruce, Bart., whose seat is in the vicinity, from the quantity of coal underneath that estate; and is chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in the collieries, and in the works of the Carron Iron Company. The making of nails affords employment to a few of the inhabitants; and many of the females are engaged in tambouring muslin for the Glasgow manufacturers, at their own dwellings.

Kinneff

KINNEFF, a parish, in the county of Kincardine, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Bervie; containing, with the village of Catterline, 1029 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its name from its castle, founded, according to tradition, by Kenneth, one of the kings of Scotland, and of which there are still some vestiges near the church. In 1341, King David Bruce, returning from France with his queen and retinue, in order to avoid the English fleet, by which he was closely pursued, effected a landing on the shore of this parish. In gratitude for his escape, he afterwards built a chapel on the spot, of which, till within the last thirty years, there were considerable remains; and in commemoration of the event, the cliff under which he landed is still called Craig-David. During the siege of Dunnottar Castle by the forces of Cromwell, the regalia, which had been for security deposited in that fortress, were, on the prospect of its inability to hold out much longer against its assailants, dexterously removed from it by Mrs. Grainger, wife of the minister of this parish, and concealed under the pulpit of the church here till the Restoration. The parish, to which that of Catterline, which had previously formed a part of it, was reannexed in 1709, is of nearly triangular form, and extends for more than five miles along the coast of the German Ocean. It comprises an area of 6408 acres; 4798 are arable, about fifty woods and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface is intersected by several ridges of elevated ground, and diversified with hills, of which the hill of Bruxie, towards the north-western boundary, has an elevation of 650 feet above the level of the sea. The coast is precipitously rocky along its whole extent, presenting a rampart of cliffs rising abruptly to the height of 180 feet, and in some parts indented with small bays, the shores of which are covered with verdure almost to the margin of the sea, the whole forming a bold line of beautifully romantic scenery.

The soil near the coast is a rich deep loam, celebrated for its abundant produce of grain; in the interior it is of inferior quality, and in some parts, but for the improvement it has received from persevering efforts, it would be absolutely sterile. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is in an advanced state; the lands have been partially drained, and inclosed chiefly with fences of stone; the farm-houses are substantially built and well arranged. Considerable portions of waste have been brought into profitable cultivation. The moorlands afford good pasture for cattle, which are chiefly of the polled Angus breed; and on many of the farms much attention is paid to their improvement. There are some quarries of freestone, from which is raised stone of good quality, in quantities sufficient for the buildings within the parish; and along the coast, the rocks furnish excellent material for millstones. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6122. Fawside is a handsome modern cottage, pleasantly situated; there are also several ancient mansions, formerly the residences of proprietors, but now occupied as farm-houses. The village of Catterline is situated on the coast, and chiefly inhabited by fishermen, who employ two boats; the smaller village of Shieldhill employs only one boat. The fish taken here are, cod, ling, skate, haddock, and various kinds of shellfish. A small harbour has been constructed at Catterline, which see. There are also some salmon-fisheries in the parish, of which, however, the aggregate rents do not exceed £15 per annum; and several of the inhabitants are employed in hand-loom weaving for the linen manufacturers in the neighbourhood. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads: the coast road from Edinburgh to Aberdeen, and the great Strathmore road, pass through the parish.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Fordoun and synod of Angus and Mearns. The minister's stipend is £232. 3. 6., with a manse; and the glebes of Catterline and Kinneff are valued together at £28 per annum: patron, the Crown. The church, situated on the sea-shore, was built in 1738, and repaired in 1831; it is a neat structure containing 424 sittings. There are some remains of the ancient church in which the regalia were preserved during the interregnum. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there is a temporary place of worship at Catterline for Episcopalians. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a good house and garden, and the fees average £25 per annum. A parochial library was established in 1838, under the direction of the Kirk Session. In 1841, Sir Joseph Straton bequeathed £100 for promoting education, and £100 for encouraging industry among the poor. There are remains of a house called the Temple; and at the base of St. John's Hill is a farm named the Chapel of Barras, from which is inferred the probability of there having been an establishment of the Knights Templars here. Of the castle of Kinneff, little more than the foundations are left. On the summit of a peninsular rock, not far from it, are the remains of an ancient work called the Castle of Cadden; on another rock are the remains of some buildings styled the Castle of Whistleberry; and at a small distance are other remains, designated Adam's Castle. In digging a grave for Lady Ogilvie, of Barras, in the church, an earthen pot was found, containing a great number of small coins of silver, bearing inscriptions of Edward of England and Alexander of Scotland, and supposed to have been buried during the possession of the castle of Kinneff by an English garrison. Within a tumulus on St. John's Hill, which was opened about thirty years since, was found a tomb of flat stones, containing rich black earth, with a mixture of half-burnt bones and charcoal, but no sepulchral urn. In 1831, near the site of the castle, was found, by some workmen employed by the late Rev. A. Stewart, a vase containing a number of brass rings of various dimensions, two of which were entire, and a spear head of bronze; the vase was filled with strongly compacted black earth, in which the rings were imbedded. Dr. John Arbuthnott, the intimate friend of Pope and Swift, and physician to Queen Anne, lived for some time in this parish, at Kingorny, the property of his father, who, on being deprived of the living of Arbuthnott, of which he was minister, at the time of the Revolution, retired to this his patrimonial estate.

Kinnell

KINNELL, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 5½ miles (E. by N.) from Letham; containing 853 inhabitants. This place, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, is descriptive of the situation of its church upon a conspicuous eminence, is of considerable antiquity, and at one time formed part of the possessions of the abbey of Arbroath. The barony was granted by King Robert Bruce to his steady adherent, Sir Simon Fraser, in acknowledgment of his gallant conduct at the battle of Bannockburn; and Fraser, during the lifetime of his uncle, was styled the Knight of Kinnell. The lands were subsequently divided into four portions, of which Bolshan is now the property of Sir James Carnegie, Bart., Wester Braky of Lord Panmure, Easter Braky of the heirs of Mr. Alison, and Rinmure of the representatives of the late John Laing, Esq. The parish comprises an area of 5000 acres, exclusive of a large portion of the ancient forest of Monthrewmont, and part of Rossy moor, an undivided common; 4400 acres are arable, about seventy woodland and plantations, and the remainder moorland pasture and waste. The surface is gently undulated, and towards the east rises to a considerable elevation, forming the hill of Bolshan, near whose foot stood an ancient baronial castle, of which the last remains were removed about the year 1770, and the hill of Wuddy-law, where was a spacious tumulus. The lower grounds are enlivened with the windings of the river Lunan, which flows for nearly two miles through the southern part of the parish, dividing it into two very unequal portions. The Gightyburn forms its eastern boundary, separating it from the parish of Inverkeillor, and afterwards runs into the Lunan. The soil, though various, is not unfertile, and has been improved by judicious management; the crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, turnips, and potatoes. The rotation system of husbandry is prevalent, and all the different improvements in agriculture have been adopted; considerable portions of moor have been brought under cultivation, and the lands have been drained and partially inclosed. The farm houses and offices, most of which have been recently rebuilt, are substantial and well arranged; and on the several farms are thirteen threshing-mills, of which one is driven by a steam-engine of eight-horse power. The timber is chiefly oak, ash, elm, plane, and birch; the plantations, which are of modern growth, are Scotch firs, which seem to thrive best in the soil, with some larch and spruce. The cattle are of the black breed, to the improvement of which much attention is paid; and considerable numbers of sheep and swine are reared. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3878.

There are no villages properly so called; but about eighty scattered houses are termed Muirside. The population is chiefly agricultural; but many persons are employed in the weaving of linen-sheeting and Osnaburghs, for which 125 looms are in operation. There are also several mills for the spinning of flax, which are usually driven by water, but have steam-engines for use when the supply of water is deficient. Communication with the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads, of which that from Montrose to Forfar passes for nearly four miles through the northern part of the parish. Markets are held at Glesterlaw, on the lands of Bolshan, on the last Wednesday in April, the fourth Wednesday in June, the third Wednesday in August, and the first Wednesday after the 12th of October; they are chiefly for the sale of cattle, and are well attended. The Eastern Forfarshire Agricultural Association hold their meetings at the same place, at Lammas, when there is a show of cattle and horses, as well as an exhibition of improvements in the construction of implements. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns. The minister's stipend is £229. 10. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, almost entirely rebuilt in 1766, and repaired in 1836, is a sombre structure containing about 400 sittings. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £31, with a house and garden, and the fees average £15 per annum. There is also a school erected in the Muirside of Kinnell, by Sir James Carnegie, for the instruction of girls in reading, sewing, and knitting. A considerable number of silver pennies was found some time ago on the bank of the Lunan, between Hatton and Hatton-mill, together with a halfpenny of John Baliol; several of the coins were of the time of Edward I. of England. The tumulus on the summit of Wuddy-law was forty-five yards in length and four yards in height, formed of alternate layers of stones and earth. On the removal of a cairn on Hatton-mill, in 1835, a grave of rude stones was discovered, containing bones and a skull.

Kinnellar

KINNELLAR, a parish, in the district and county of Aberdeen, 2 miles (S. E. by E.) from Kintore; containing 483 inhabitants. The remains of antiquity still visible show the Druids and the Danes to have been each connected with this parish. In the churchyard, several immense stones, some sunk in the earth, and others remaining above ground, point out the site of a Druidical temple; and in the western direction, on an extensive common covered with heath, are the remains of numerous tumuli, the depositaries of urns, skulls, ashes, and bones calcined on beds of hot clay. This common is supposed to have been the spot where some sanguinary conflict took place between the Scots and Danes, probably on occasion of the latter, in one of their frequent incursions, landing at the mouth of the Don river, and encountering the former. A stone coffin was found a few years ago, in Cairn-a-Veil, about six feet long, constructed of six flags, and containing some black dust. On the hill of Achronie stands Cairn-Semblings, seen to a considerable distance on the west and north, and near which is a large stone whereon Irvine, Laird of Drum, sat, in order to make his will, when on his route to the battle of Harlaw, in which he fell.

The parish is rather more than four miles in length; but its breadth no where much exceeds two. It contains between 3000 and 4000 acres, and is bounded on the north by the parish of Fintray, from which it is separated by the river Don; on the south by the parish of Skene; on the east by Dyce and Newhills; and on the west by Skene and Kintore. The land throughout is a series of undulations, and the climate is bleak, the parish being almost without shelter from winds and storms. The soil is light and thin, and rests frequently upon a rough stony subsoil, requiring great labour and expense to reduce it to agricultural use; where, however, proper methods have been adopted, good crops are obtained. Almost the whole of the parish is arable, there being but a few acres under wood, and only a small district of rocky moor. Oats, barley, and turnips are the crops chiefly raised, the last of which is much promoted in growth by the prevailing use of bone-dust manure. The rotation is usually the six-years' shift; and every farmer has a threshing-mill on his premises. There are but few sheep; the cattle are of the black breed. Considerable improvements have taken place in husbandry within the last few years. Much land which was poor, and covered with heath and stones, has been, with considerable expense, brought into a state of profitable cultivation, well inclosed, and made to produce good crops of grain and turnips. The farm-houses, also, have been rendered comfortable and commodious. A spirit of emulation has been excited, leading to important practical results, by the institution about the year 1808 of prize-matches for ploughing, by a farmers' club in the neighbourhood; and much skill has been acquired in this branch of husbandry. The rateable annual value of Kinnellar is £2840.

A superior turnpike-road, from Aberdeen to Inverury, intersects the parish, and is traversed by the mail and three coaches every day to and from Aberdeen. The parish roads, however, are in bad repair, with the exception of one connected with a farm; and part of the road most used, leading to the church, is said to have been neglected for the last twenty-five years. The canal between Aberdeen and Inverury, constructed in 1797, passes through the parish, at its northern extremity, but, though of great advantage to those who reside in the upper districts, it is productive of little benefit to the larger portion of the inhabitants here, who are more distant from it. A passage-boat plies regularly; and several boats bring coal, lime, and manure from Aberdeen, and take back grain, wood, slate, and other commodities. Among the few mansions in the parish, is that of Glasgoego, not now in very good repair, its former proprietor having built a new residence in its vicinity. On the bank of the Don is a commodious house belonging to the Tower family; and on the property of the Ewing family is a small but elegant house, with very improved grounds around it. In the hamlet of Blackburn are a post-office, an inn, and some houses inhabited by tradesmen and others. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery and synod of Aberdeen; patron, the Earl of Kintore. The stipend of the minister is £160, of which £62 are received from the exchequer; and there is a manse, built in 1778. The glebe consists of five acres of land, valued at £13. 15. per annum; the minister also has an allowance of £20 as grass-money, and the like sum as moss-money, there being a want of moss in the parish. The church, a small building, of plain style, erected in 1801, is in good repair, and contains 250 sittings: it stands on the north side of the Don, about a mile from the river. In the 17th century, Archbishop Sharp gave the patronage to the dean of the university of St. Andrew's, reserving to himself and his successors a veto upon any appointment; and the university held this privilege till 1761. There is a parochial school, where the usual branches of education are taught, with Latin and geometry if required. The master has a salary of £26, with a house and garden, and about £11 fees; also an allowance from Dick's bequest to the schoolmasters of Aberdeen, Banff, and Moray.

Kinnesswood

KINNESSWOOD, a village, in the parish of Portmoak, county of Kinross, 4 miles (E.) from Kinross; containing 479 inhabitants. It is situated in the western part of the parish, and on the east side of Loch Leven: the road from Kinross to Leslie passes through it. A parchment manufactory, in which vellum is now made, has been carried on here for a considerable period; at present it employs but a few hands. The population chiefly consists of weavers. There is an annual fair in May, latterly very ill attended. Michael Bruce, the poet, remarkable for the beautiful effusions of his muse, collected after his death, which was caused by consumption, in his twenty-first year, was born in the village in 1746.

Kinnethmont

KINNETHMONT, a parish, in the district of Alford, county of Aberdeen, 2 miles (N.) from Clatt; containing 1107 inhabitants. This place is supposed by some to have taken its name, formerly Kennethmont, from one of the Kenneths, kings of Scotland, having been interred in the churchyard, which is an eminence similar to a mount. Others, regarding its present orthography of Kinnethmont as more correct, derive it from two Gaelic words signifying "head" and "moss," which express the proximity of the high ground of the church site to a mossy tract in the vicinity. The parish consists of Kinnethmont properly so called, and of the old parish of Christ's-Kirk, which has been annexed to it from time immemorial; it is situated at the western extremity of the fertile district of the Garioch. It is nearly oblong in figure; is six miles in length from east to west, and about three in breadth; and, with the exception of several hundreds of acres in plantations, and a few other tracts, is under tillage. The surface is pleasingly diversified with hills and vales, and enlivened by the Bogie, a good trout stream, which runs along the western boundary, and separates this parish from that of Rhynie. The ground is in some parts mossy, supplying the inhabitants with peat for fuel; but the prevailing soil is a light loamy earth, producing, when well cultivated, excellent crops. All kinds of crops are raised, under the operation of the rotation system; the farms vary in general from eighty to 100 acres, but there are many of much smaller extent. Houses built of stones and lime, and roofed with slate, are gradually displacing the old turf tenements; the scythe has entirely superseded the sickle, in the cutting of corn; and on the larger estates, threshing operations are performed by machinery. Much land has been trenched, marshy ground drained, and moorland brought under tillage to a considerable extent, during the present century, many portions now producing most luxuriant crops. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4578.

The mansion of Leith Hall is the seat of Sir Andrew Leith Hay, who served in the peninsular war, a narrative of which he has published, with some smaller works. There is also the residence of Ward House, situated upon an estate greatly improved and beautified, during a period of twenty years, by the late proprietor, Mr. Gordon. A turnpike-road, finished a few years ago, runs through the parish, from east to west, affording facilities of communication with Aberdeen, Huntly, Inverness, and other parts: public coaches once travelled on it. The agricultural produce is sent to Inverury, eighteen miles distant, whence it is conveyed by canal to Aberdeen for sale; and the carts, on their return from Inverury, bring lime and coal. An annual cattlefair is held in April, another in July, and a third in October. The parish is in the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Sir Andrew Leith Hay: the minister's stipend is £195, with a manse, and a glebe of twelve acres, valued at £15 per annum. The church, a neat and commodious structure, was built in 1812, and is capable of accommodating 600 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary branches; the master receives a salary of £25. 13., with a house, and about £10 fees, augmented by an allowance from the Dick bequest. The parish once had a small circulating library, consisting of historical and religious works; and a savings' bank, instituted fifteen years since. The remains of two Druidical temples are still visible; and a bag of silver coins has been found, with "Alexander I." engraved on one side. On the hill of Melshach is a chalybeate spring which has long been in much repute.

Kinnettles

KINNETTLES, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 3 miles (S. W.) from Forfar; containing, with the village of Douglaston, and hamlet of Kirkton of Kinnettles, 437 inhabitants. This place appears to have derived its name from the situation either of its church, or of an ancient mansion-house, near the extremity of a tract of marshy land, once the bed of a river. It is unconnected with any event of historical importance, though, from various relics which have at different times been discovered, it appears to have been inhabited at a very remote period. The parish is about two miles in length and the same in breadth, and comprises 3708 acres, of which 2840 are arable and in good cultivation, about 120 woodland and plantations, and the remainder waste. The surface is traversed by a hilly ridge of elliptical shape, which, by a very easy ascent, attains an elevation of about 350 feet above the level of the sea, dividing the parish into two valleys of nearly equal extent. It forms a branch of the Sidlaw hills, and one portion is called the Brigton and the other the Kinnettles hill, from its being in the two estates into which the lands are principally divided. This ridge is mostly in a high state of cultivation, and clothed near the top with rich plantations, forming a very interesting feature in the scenery; and from its summit, which is flat, are many extensive and varied prospects over the surrounding country. The lands are watered by a beautiful rivulet called the Kerbit, which has its source in the parish of Carmylie, and winds through the parish with a tranquil current, giving motion to several mills, and falling into the river Dean; it abounds with trout of excellent quality, and is much frequented by anglers. There are also numerous copious springs, affording an abundant supply of water.

The soil is extremely various, consisting of rich dry loam in some parts, in others being of a more damp clayey character, in others sandy and gravelly, and in some places an improvable moss. The crops are, oats, barley, wheat, a few acres of rye and peas, with turnips and potatoes. The system of agriculture is advanced; the rotation plan of husbandry is in general practice; the lands have been drained and partially inclosed, chiefly with stone dykes; and the farm houses and offices are substantially built, and well arranged. On most of the farms, threshing-mills have been erected; and all the more recent improvements in the construction of implements have been adopted. The dairy-farms are well managed, and all due attention is paid to the rearing of live stock: the milch-cows, of which about 100 are kept on the farms, are the Ayrshire and Angus. The cattle, generally of the Angus breed, average annually 500; and the sheep, which are of the Leicestershire and Cheviot breeds, with a few of the Linton, South-Down, and Merino, number 350. The plantations consist of silver, spruce, and Scotch firs, and larch, intermixed with oak, ash, plane, elm, beech, lime, birch, and other varieties. The substrata are chiefly whinstone, sandstone, and slate. The whinstone is of compact texture, varying in colour from a dark blue to a pale grey, and is extensively quarried both in the northern and southern districts of the parish; it is, however, very difficult to work, and is obtained only in blocks of small size, of very irregular form, and used chiefly for drains, and for repairing the roads. The sandstone is partly of a grey colour, and partly tinged with a reddish hue; it is quarried for building, and is raised in blocks of massive dimensions. The slate, which is of a fine grey colour, is found chiefly on the banks of the Kerbit rivulet, but not to any great extent; it produces good slates for roofing, and flagstones of very large dimensions and of excellent quality. Copperore, and also veins of lead, are imbedded in the sandstone; manganese is found in the whinstone strata; and garnets, mica, quartz, and calc and lime-spar in the freestone rocks. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4342.

The mansion-house of Kinnettles is a rather recent building. Brigton is a spacious mansion, partly ancient, but principally of modern erection, having been greatly improved and enlarged by the late proprietor; and there are some other good houses in the parish, of which those erected within the last fifty years are built of stone, and roofed with slate. The village of Kirkton is small, but neatly built, and is mostly inhabited by persons employed in the several handicraft trades requisite for supplying the wants of the inhabitants of the parish. The weaving of various kinds of cloth, chiefly Osnaburghs and brown sheetings, is pursued in different parts of the parish, but only to a very moderate extent. Facility of communication with the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads, of which the Strathmore turnpike-road passes for more than two miles through the centre of the parish, and the road from Forfar to Dundee through the eastern portion of it. There are bridges over the Kerbit, of which one, at the village of Kirkton, is a suspensionbridge. The parish is in the presbytery of Forfar and synod of Angus and Mearns, and patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12. 15. per annum. The church, erected in 1812, at the expense of the heritors, is a neat handsome edifice, adapted for a congregation of 400 persons. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with £40 fees, a house, and two bolls of meal annually in lieu of a garden. There is also a female school, of which the mistress has a house and garden, in addition to the fees. The poor have the interest of a bequest of £50 by Mr. James Maxwell. The upper stone of a hand-mill for grinding corn was discovered by the plough, in a field, in the year 1833; it was rather more than two feet in diameter, and an inch and a half in thickness, of mica schist intermixed with portions of siliceous spar, and studded with small garnets. A small conical hill near the banks of the Kerbit, and which is still called the Kirk Hill, is supposed to have been the site of some religious foundation; but nothing certain of its history is known. There are several springs of chalybeate properties, and two springs strongly impregnated with copper. Colonel William Patterson, F. R. S., many years lieut.-governor of New South Wales, was born in this parish in 1755; and John Inglis Harvey, Esq., who held the office of a civil judge in India, is also a native.

Kinnoull

KINNOULL, a parish, in the county of Perth, ½ a mile (E.) from Perth; containing, with the suburb of Bridgend, and the villages of Balbeggie and Inchyra, 2879 inhabitants, of whom 920 are in the rural districts. This place, which is supposed to have derived its name, of Gaelic origin, from the extent and beauty of the prospects obtained from the high grounds, was at an early period the property of the family of Hay. Sir George Hay, lord chancellor of Scotland, was created Earl of Kinnoull by Charles I. in 1633; and his descendant, the present earl, is still the chief proprietor in the parish. Of the ancient castle of Kinnoull, the baronial residence of the Hays, some slight vestiges were remaining till within the last fifty years; but the site is now occupied as a garden belonging to one of the villas on the banks of the river Tay. The parish, which is bounded on the west by the Tay, is about twelve miles in extreme length, and nearly four miles in breadth, comprising in the rural districts an area of 3700 acres, of which 580 are woodland and plantations, and the remainder, with the exception of about twenty acres of undivided common, arable, meadow, and pasture. The surface is diversified with wooded hills of pleasing aspect, of which the hill of Kinnoull, rising from the bank of the Tay to the height of 632 feet, is justly celebrated for the romantic beauty of its scenery. The ascent on the south is precipitously steep and rocky; but on the north, a spiral road of gradual ascent has been formed to the summit, which is crowned with thriving plantations, and commands a most varied prospect, embracing the city of Perth and the adjacent country. Not far from the top, which is divided into two points, is a hollow called the Windy Gowle, near which is a remarkable echo of nine distinct reverberations; and in a steep part of the acclivity is a cave, in which Sir William Wallace is said to have concealed himself from his pursuers. About two miles distant from the hill of Kinnoull, and forming part of the same range, is the hill of Murray's Hall, nearly of equal elevation, and commanding also an extensive prospect abounding with interesting features. The Tay divides, near the church, into two branches inclosing the island of Moncrieff, of which one-half is within this parish, and the other in the parish of Perth: the branch in this parish is navigable for vessels of sixty tons' burthen, and affords a more direct passage to the burgh of Bridgend. The river abounds with salmon of excellent quality, and the fisheries belonging to the parish produce a rental of £1200 per annum.

The soil, comprehending every variety, is luxuriantly rich; and the lands are in the highest state of cultivation, under a system of husbandry combining all the most recent improvements. A very extensive nursery was formed on the east bank of the Tay, by Mr. Dickson, in 1767, and, since his decease in 1835, has been conducted by his nephew, affording employment to about eighty persons: from this establishment most of the plantations in the parish, which are in a highly flourishing condition, have been supplied. There is also a nursery at the extremity of Bridgend. The principal substrata are of the trap formation, with some veins of sandstone of a reddish-grey colour, and of good quality for building, for which purpose it is extensively quarried. Agates of great beauty are found in the hill of Kinnoull, and many specimens of them are preserved in different museums. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8667. The mansion-houses are, Balthayock, an ancient castle of the Blair family, of which the more modern portion was built in 1578; Inchyra, of recent date, in the Grecian style of architecture; Murray's Hall, a handsome building; Barnhill, or Woodend, pleasantly seated on the Kinnoull branch of the Tay; and Bellwood, beautifully situated on the hill of Kinnoull, fronting the city of Perth. The village of Inchyra is on the east bank of the Tay, in a detached portion of the parish; about six miles from the church; it has a convenient harbour, accessible to vessels of 100 tons, with a yard for building and repairing ships, from which two vessels of sixty tons have been launched within the last few years. There is also a ferry across the Tay established here. Facility of communication is afforded by the river, and by good roads, of which the turnpike-road from Perth to Dundee passes through the parish. The suburb of Bridgend, and the village of Balbeggie, are noticed under their respective heads.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £269. 16. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Earl of Kinnoull. The present church, erected in 1826, after a design by Mr. Burn, at an expense of £4000, is a handsome structure in the later English style of architecture, containing more than 1000 sittings. In the aisle of the old church, which is still remaining as the burialplace of the Hay family, is preserved a monument to George, first earl of Kinnoull, who died in 1634, and whose statue has the left hand resting on a table, on which are placed the great seal of Scotland and a human skull, but without any inscription. There is a place of worship at Balbeggie for members of the United Secession. The parochial school is attended by about 140 children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £40 per annum. Murray's royal asylum for lunatics was founded by Mr. James Murray, a few years since, with funds which he inherited from his mother, to whom they had been bequeathed by Mr. Hope, her son by a previous marriage. Mr. Hope, with his whole family, was lost in the wreck of the Duchess of Gordon East Indiaman, on their return from Madras in 1809. The buildings were erected on the acclivity of Kinnoull Hill, after a design by Mr. Burn, at a cost of £40,000; and the institution was incorporated by royal charter, and opened for the reception of patients, in 1827, and placed under the superintendence of twenty-five directors, of whom nine are ex officio, four chosen for life, and twelve elected annually. The house is situated in the centre of a park, of twelve acres, laid out in gardens, shrubberies, and walks, affording ample opportunities of recreation and amusement; and, under an excellent system of management, affords reception and relief to 140 patients. At Balthayock are the remains of an ancient castle, supposed to have belonged to the Knights Templars: the walls, which are about fifty feet in height, and inclose an area fifty-two feet in length and thirty-seven feet wide, are of massive thickness, and still entire. It is situated on the brink of a deep ravine of very romantic appearance.

Kinross

KINROSS, a post-town and parish, in the county of Kinross, of which it is the capital, 15 miles (S.) from Perth, and 25 (N. N. W.) from Edinburgh; containing 2822 inhabitants, of whom 2062 are in the town, and 760 in the rural districts of the parish. This place, which derives its name, of Gaelic origin, from its situation at the head of a promontory extending into Loch Leven, is of very great antiquity. It was selected as a stronghold by the Pictish kings, of whom Congal, son of Dongart, founded a castle on an island in the lake, which subsequently became the occasional residence of several of the kings of Scotland. In 1257, Alexander III., after his return from Wark Castle, whither he had gone to have an interview with his father-in-law, Henry III. of England, resided at the Castle of Lochleven, where he was surprised, and, together with his queen, forcibly conveyed to Stirling. In 1301, and also in 1335, the castle was besieged by the English; but on both occasions the assailants were compelled to raise the siege, and to retire with considerable loss. In 1429, Archibald, Earl of Douglas, was confined here by James I., for some expression of disloyalty towards his sovereign; and in 1477, Patrick Graham, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, after having been for some time under restraint in a cell at Inchcolm, in pursuance of a sentence of deprivation pronounced by Pope Sextus and a college of cardinals, was imprisoned in the castle till his death.

But this ancient fortress derives its chief celebrity from the imprisonment in it of the unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots, who was placed within its dreary walls in 1567. A captive in the hands of the confederate nobles, she was sent from Edinburgh to the Castle of Lochleven, then belonging to William Douglas, one who had taken an active part against her; and in her journey thither she was treated with studied indignity, exposed to the gaze of the mob, miserably clad and mounted, and under the escort of men of the rudest bearing. The queen was now completely a prisoner, and her confinement was accompanied with circumstances of the greatest rigour; she was put under the charge of Lindsay and Ruthven, two noblemen familiar with blood, and of coarse and fierce manners. The lady of the castle, Margaret Erskine, daughter of Lord Erskine, had been mistress to the queen's father, James V., and was mother to the Earl of Murray. She had been afterwards married to Sir Robert Douglas; and their son, William, was, as already stated, proprietor of the Castle of Lochleven at this period. It was here that Mary made her celebrated resignation of the government in favour of her son, the infant James, and of the Earl of Murray. Feeling assured that her refusal to sign the necessary papers would endanger her life; listening to the insinuation of Robert Melvil, that any deed executed in captivity, and under fear of life, was invalid; and terrified by the stern demeanour of Lord Lindsay, she submitted to what she had at first passionately resisted. Without reading their contents, she, with a trembling hand, affixed her name to three instruments prepared by the confederates. By the first of these she was made to resign the government of the realm in favour of her son, and to give orders for his immediate coronation. By the second, the queen, in consequence of his tender infancy, constituted Murray regent of the kingdom; and by the third she appointed the Earls of Lennox, Argyll, Atholl, and Morton, with others, regents until the return of Murray from France, with power to continue in that high office if he refused it. From the galling restraint thus imposed upon her in the castle, however, Mary at length, on the evening of the 2nd of May, 1568, found means to escape. George Douglas, younger brother of the proprietor of Lochleven, had enthusiastically devoted himself to her interest; and though dismissed from the castle on that account, he had contrived to secure the services of a page who waited on his mother, Lady Douglas, and by his assistance effectually achieved his purpose of releasing the queen. On the evening in question, this youth, in placing a plate before the castellan, dropped his napkin over the keys of the castle, and carried them off unperceived: he hastened to Mary, and hurrying down to the outer gate, they threw themselves into a boat, first turning the locks they had found it necessary to open, and casting the keys into the lake, where they were discovered in the year 1806. Some friends of the rescued queen were lying in wait in the immediate vicinity, and with their aid she fled in the direction of Lanarkshire. In 1569, the Earl of Northumberland, who had incurred the displeasure of Elizabeth of England by the interest which he took in the fate of Mary, was imprisoned for three years in the castle, whence he was removed to England, and publicly executed for treason.

The town, though the chief town of Kinross-shire, and the place where the sessions are held, and the business of the county transacted, is not distinguished by any features of importance. It is not even a royal burgh; and the market which was formerly held here has been gradually discontinued, and is now entirely transferred to Milnathort, in the adjoining parish of Orwell. The streets are lighted with gas; works for that purpose having been erected on a site nearly equidistant from Kinross and Milnathort, by a company of shareholders established for the accommodation of both places. A public library is supported by subscription, under the direction of a committee; and there is a reading and news room established in an appropriate building in a central part of the town; also a library maintained by the tradesmen and artisans, and three juvenile libraries in connexion with Sabbath schools. The manufacture of cutlery, formerly carried on here to a very considerable extent, has been altogether discontinued. The chief manufactures at present are those of ginghams, checks, and pullicates, for the houses of Glasgow; and also, and of still more recent introduction, tartan shawls, plaids, and other articles of similar character, by some companies settled in the town. There is likewise a manufactory for damasks. The post-office has a daily delivery; and a branch of the British Linen Company's bank has been established. Facility of intercourse with the neighbouring places is afforded by excellent roads, of which the great north road passes through the town; and there are not less than thirteen bridges of stone over the various streams that intersect the parish. Fairs are held on the last Wednesday in March, the 1st of June, the last Wednesday in July, and the 18th of October, all O. S.; they are for cattle, agricultural produce, and various articles of merchandise. The government is under the management of a president, treasurer, and clerk, assisted by a committee of eight or ten persons; they are annually chosen by the inhabitants, at a general meeting held for that purpose, and the police and all other regulations are conducted by them, the expenses being defrayed by subscription. The county-hall is a handsome edifice, erected in 1826, at an expense of £2000, of which £750 were granted by government, and the remainder raised by voluntary contribution, and assessment of the heritors of the county; it contains a spacious hall for the courts, and the apartments requisite for conducting the public business. Attached to it is the gaol, comprising three wards for debtors, two cells for criminals, and a guardroom.

The parish, which is about four miles in length, from east to west, is bounded on the east by Loch Leven, and comprises 7062 acres, of which 6608 are arable, 271 woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough pasture and waste. The surface, though generally elevated, is flat, in no part rising into hills; the chief river is the Leven, which issues from the lake of that name, and has been rendered more copious and powerful in its stream by a contraction of the expanse of the lake. There are numerous springs of excellent water; and the scenery, in many parts romantic, is enriched by thriving plantations. Loch Leven, the principal object of attraction, as well from its natural beauty as from the historical events with which it is associated, was, previously to the contraction of its surface by draining, fifteen miles in circumference, and in its present state may be estimated at about twelve miles. It is studded with islands, of which the chief are, the island of St. Serf, in the parish of Portmoak, and the Castle island, in this parish, so called from the erection of the ancient castle. The latter isle, situated near the north-western extremity of the lake, is five acres in extent. The castle, which is defended by an outer rampart of stone, inclosing a spacious quadrangular area, consists chiefly of a lofty square tower at the north-west angle of the inclosure, and a round tower of smaller dimensions at the south-east. The building is without a roof, and at present is a mere ruin; some portions of what is supposed to have been the chapel are still remaining, and under the square tower is a dungeon. The whole area within the rampart is about 600 feet in circumference. The island is planted with trees, of which some are of great antiquity; and the surface affords good pasturage. The lake abounds with trout and various kinds of fish, but not in such variety as before its contraction; the season commences in January, and ends in September, and the fish chiefly taken are, trout, pike, perch, and eels, in which two boats and four men are constantly employed. The fishery is let at a rent of £204; the produce is sent to the markets of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Manchester, at which last place it is in great demand.

The soil is generally fertile and productive; the crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is improved; the lands have been well drained and inclosed; the farm houses and offices are substantial and commodious; and on most of the farms threshing-machines have been erected, of which one is impelled by steam. Considerable attention is paid to the rearing of live stock, and much improvement has been made under the auspices of the various agricultural societies established in the vicinity, several of which hold their cattle-shows in the town. About 400 cows, and a nearly equal number of calves, with 650 head of young cattle, are pastured annually; the number of sheep is 400, and of horses 300. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,102. The plantations are larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, intermixed in some parts with different kinds of forest-trees; they are judiciously managed, and in a thriving condition. The substrata are, sandstone, which is found in two varieties, the old red formation and the carboniferous; whinstone; and limestone. The whinstone, which is very compact, is quarried for the roads, for which purpose it is well adapted. Coal is supposed to exist, and it has been in contemplation to explore it; but an abundant supply of that mineral is procured from works not more than five miles distant, and at a very moderate cost. There are three extensive mills in the parish, all formerly for grain; but two of them have been converted into mills for spinning and carding, connected with the manufactories of tartan plaids. Kinross House, the seat of Sir Graham Montgomery, Bart., a spacious mansion erected by Sir William Bruce, architect to Charles II., was originally intended as a residence for James, Duke of York; it is finely situated, and was once surrounded by some very ancient and stately timber.

The parish is in the presbytery of Dunfermline and synod of Fife, and patronage of Sir Graham Montgomery; the minister's stipend is £184. 16. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £35 per annum. The present church, a handsome edifice in the later style of English architecture, was erected in 1832, at an expense of £1537, towards which the Rev. Geo. D. C. Buchanan contributed about £300; it is situated on an eminence nearly in the centre of the parish. The tower of the old church is still standing, by itself, in the town. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church and of the United Secession. The parochial school affords a liberal education, and is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with £55 fees, and a house and garden. A savings' bank, established in 1837, contributes to diminish the number of applicants for parochial relief; and there are four friendly societies, and a ladies' society for the distribution of oatmeal to necessitous females. The sum of £8. 6. 8. is annually given to twelve poor persons, in lieu of the foundation of an almshouse which was projected by Sir William Bruce; and the poor have also the interest of a bequest of £100 by George Graham, Esq., of Kinross. About a mile from the town is a small cairn; and there were formerly others, in one of which, when removed, was found a coffin, rudely formed of upright stones, with a slab resting on them, and inclosing several human bones, and some ashes apparently of burnt wood. On the lands of Coldon have been discovered about 400 silver coins, chiefly of Edward I. and II. of England, and a few of the reigns of Alexander III. and John Baliol. At West Green, in 1829, was found, deeply imbedded in the earth, an ancient seal of pure gold, of singular workmanship; it has the arms of Scotland on the dexter side of the shield, impaled with those of England on the sinister, and is supposed to have been the private signet of James IV. On the lands of Lathro have been discovered, by the plough, several graves, containing some human bodies and a skull: near the spot is an eminence called the Gallows Know, which renders it probable that these may have been the skeletons of malefactors, executed here prior to the abolition of heritable jurisdictions. Dr. John Thomson, professor of general pathology in the university of Edinburgh, was a native of this parish.

Kinrossie

KINROSSIE, a village, in the parish of Collace, county of Perth, 1¼ mile (W.) from Collace; containing 157 inhabitants. It lies in the western part of the parish, on the road from Collace to Cargill, and is built on an eminence not far distant from the church. Formerly, two considerable annual fairs were held at this place, of which the ancient cross is now the only memorial, the business in cattle and small wares having been transferred to Burreltown and other places in the neighbourhood. A part of the population is engaged in loom manufactures, which have latterly much increased in the parish.

Kinross-shire

KINROSS-SHIRE, an inland county, in the south-east of Scotland, bounded on the north by the Ochils, which separate it from Strathearn, in the county of Perth; on the east, by the Lomond hills; on the south-east and south-west, by the Benarty range; and on the west by the Cleish hills, which divide it from the county of Fife. It lies between 56° 9' and 56° 18' (N. Lat.) and 3° 14' and 3° 35' (W. Long.), and is about eleven miles in length and nine miles in extreme breadth; comprising an area of seventy square miles, or 44,800 acres; 1928 houses, of which 1812 are inhabited; and containing a population of 8763, of whom 4195 are males, and 4568 females. Prior to the year 1426, the greater portion of the county was part of that of Fife; and for a considerable time after its separation, it contained only the parishes of Kinross, Orwell, and Portmoak; but in 1685 were added the parishes of Cleish and Tulliebole, and some small portions of the county of Perth. It remained, however, notwithstanding this accession of territory, under the jurisdiction of the sheriff of Fifeshire till the year 1807, when, conjointly with Clackmannan, it was erected into a sheriffdom. Before the Reformation the county was included within the archdiocese of St. Andrew's; it is at present in the synod of Fife and presbyteries of Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy, &c. For civil purposes it is under the superintendence of a sheriff-substitute, who resides at Kinross, the county-town, where all the courts are held; it contains the populous village of Milnathort and a few hamlets. The shires of Kinross and Clackmannan unite in sending a member to parliament.

The surface, though hilly towards the boundaries, is generally level in the interior, and is divided into several extensive plains. The chief of these are, Blair-Adam, between the Benarty and Cleish hills, through which the great north road passes; a wide level opening towards the Crook of Devon, on the road to Stirling; and another between the Ochil and Lomond hills, to the north-west, leading towards Cupar of Fife. The principal river is the Leven, which issues from Loch Leven, and flows through a narrow valley into the Frith of Forth at the town of Leven. Several rivulets rise in various parts, and flow into Loch Leven, the only lake in the county. This noble sheet of water, which has an elevation of nearly 360 feet above the level of the sea, is of oval form, and twelve miles in circumference, covering about 4000 acres, and abounding in trout, pike, perch, and eels. There are some small islands in it, of which one, near the shore at Kinross, is five acres in extent, and contains the remains of the castle in which Mary, Queen of Scots, was detained a prisoner, and which is supposed to have been originally founded by Congal, King of the Picts, in the fifth century, and subsequently enlarged. Another island, called St. Serf's, from the foundation of a priory dedicated to St. Serf, or Servanus, at a very ancient period, and of which no vestiges are to be traced, is 100 acres in extent, and affords pasturage to great numbers of cattle and sheep. An act of parliament was obtained within the last few years, for partly draining this lake, which has been carried into effect, at an expense of £40,000; and about 1000 acres have been recovered from it; but the soil, contrary to expectation, is poor and sterile, and not likely to afford any equivalent remuneration.

About four-fifths of the land are in profitable cultivation, and divided into farms varying from 50 to 300 acres in extent; the soil is partly light and dry, partly a rich loamy clay, and partly moor. The system of agriculture is greatly improved; the lands have been well drained and inclosed; and excellent crops of oats and barley are produced, and, in the best soils, fine crops of wheat. The pastures on the low lands are principally for cattle; and considerable numbers of sheep are fed upon the Cleish and Ochil hills. Above 3000 acres are in woodland and plantations, of which latter the most important are on the lands of Blair-Adam, 1300 acres in extent, consisting of oak, ash, larch, elm, spruce, and silver and Scotch firs, all, except the Scotch firs, in a thriving condition. The minerals are not extensive. Coal is found in the south, but is not wrought; freestone of excellent quality is quarried in the parish of Cleish, and whinstone is every where abundant. Red sandstone prevails in the district to the north of Kinross, and limestone may be obtained in abundance on the Lomond hills. The manufacture of cutlery, which was formerly carried on to a great extent, has been discontinued; and the only branches now pursued are, the weaving of cotton for the manufacturers of Glasgow, and the manufacture of tartan shawls and plaids, for which some large establishments have been commenced at Kinross and Milnathort. Facility of communication is afforded by excellent roads in every direction. The rateable annual value of the real property in the county is £44,010, of which £38,892 are for lands, £4375 for houses, £210 for fisheries, £93 for mines, £29 for quarries, and the remainder for other descriptions of property not comprised in the foregoing items.

Kintail

KINTAIL, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 10 miles (E. S. E.) from Lochalsh; containing, with the village of Dornie and Bundalloch, 1168 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from a Gaelic term, signifying "the head of two seas," and descriptive of its situation on a point of land where two seas meet. Nothing is known concerning its history earlier than the period of Alexander III., who presented to Colin Fitzgerald, the founder of the noble family of Mackenzie, the Castle of Donan, in the village of Dornie, now a ruin, for his eminent services in the royal cause, both by sea and land, at the battle of Largs. The family, indeed, derive their crest of a burning mount from the lofty and famous mountain here, called Tulloch-ard, upon the top of which, in ancient times, a barrel of burning tar was exhibited as a signal for the rendezvous of the vassals of the Mackenzies, on the commencement of hostilities. The parish, which is situated on the west coast of Ross-shire, is about eighteen or twenty miles long, and five or six broad; it is surrounded by hills in every direction, and is altogether one of the most mountainous and wild districts in the country. The northern division, called Glenelchaig, is separated from the southern and western parts by a lofty and almost inaccessible ridge; and a length of about ten miles only of the extent of ground in the parish is inhabited, which portion is contained between the north-east end of Loch Loing and the south-east end of Loch Duich. The approaches on all sides are majestic and commanding. The mountains of Ben-Ulay, Glasbhein, Soccach and Maam-an-Tuirc, in the parish, abound with picturesque and romantic scenery; and their vicinity is plentifully enriched with every variety of valley, wood, and water. The mountain of Tulloch-ard, however, situated on the north side of Loch Duich, and embracing an extensive view of the Western Isles, is the most celebrated, both for its towering appearance and its history in legendary song. The pass of Bealach, a few feet only in breadth, and inclosed by lofty and precipitous rocks, the whole encompassed with lonely glens and wild mountain woods, is a spot which has always interested the admirer of wild and lonely scenery. There are many good springs, and a few inland lochs, the chief of which are Loch-a-Bhealich and Loch Glassletter, abounding with fine trout, and famous for angling. The waterfall of Glomach, situated in a sequestered valley about seven miles from Shealhouse, is highly celebrated. The stream is precipitated from an elevation of 350 feet, and, obstructed in its fall by the projection of a rugged crag, throws forth a volume of beautiful spray, of unusual dimensions; it is surrounded on all sides with mountainous and barren scenery. The chief rivers are the Loing, which separates Kintail from Lochalsh; the Croe, which divides it from Glensheil; and the Elchaig. The Croe runs into Loch Duich, and the two others into Loch Loing.

The parish is almost entirely pastoral. The larger farms are held by the proprietors of the parish, two or three in number; and the most improved system of husbandry is adopted on these lands. The chief attention is paid to the breeding of sheep; and by crossing the old stock with the Cheviots, it has of late years been greatly improved, the sheep now fetching the highest price at the markets in the south, particularly that of Falkirk, to which they are chiefly sent. There are several small but thriving plantations, which consist of Scotch firs, spruce, larch, oak, ash, birch, and elm. The rocky strata are composed chiefly of gneiss, distinguished frequently by a variety of veins; there are also considerable beds of granite and sienite. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3017. Dornie and Bundalloch form one village, situated on the north-east shore of Loch Loing; it is inhabited principally by fishermen, and is very thickly peopled. The bays worth notice are those of Dornie, Corfhouse, and Inverinate. A parliamentary road from the western coast to Inverness runs through the parish, and is in very excellent condition; and more distant communication is afforded with this neighbourhood by the Glasgow and Skye steam-boats, by which all necessaries are obtained. There are fisheries for salmon established on Loch Duich and the river Croe; they are let to strangers, who send the fish to the London market. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg, and the patronage is in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £177, with a good manse, built in 1831, and a glebe of the annual value of £40. The church, which is inconveniently situated at a great distance from the body of the parishioners, is capable of accommodating about 300 persons; it was repaired about 1820, when two small galleries were erected; but is at present in a dilapidated state, and too small for the population. The Roman Catholics have a place of worship. There are two catechists in the parish; and a parochial school is maintained, where the usual branches of education are taught, the master having a salary of £27, with a house, and an allowance in lieu of garden. Two other schools are supported by the Gaelic Society. The chief relic of antiquity is the ruin of Ellandonan Castle, near the village of Dornie, surrounded by beautiful and picturesque scenery; it is supposed to have been built about the time of Alexander III.

Kintessack

KINTESSACK, a village, in the parish of Dyke, county of Elgin, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Forres; containing 122 inhabitants. It is a small village, lying a short distance from the shore of the Moray Frith. Until within these few years there was a good school here, but it was given up for want of sufficient support; there is, however, a small female school.

Kintore

KINTORE, a royal burgh and a parish, in the district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Inverury, and 12 (N. W. by W.) from Aberdeen; containing, with the village of Port-Elphinstone, 1299 inhabitants. The name of Kintore signifies in Gaelic "the head of the forest." This place was formerly remarkable for its castle, said to have been built by Robert Bruce for a hunting-seat, and which was the occasional residence of several of the Scottish kings, who enjoyed the pleasures of the chase in the adjacent royal forest. This castle, called the Castle of Hall Forest, was granted, with surrounding lands, which are supposed to have extended from the west part of the parish to the church of Dyce, a distance of five or six miles, to Robert de Keith, great marischal of Scotland, by Bruce, after the battle of Inverury, or, as is more generally supposed, after that of Bannockburn, for his eminent services rendered to the king. Upon this, it became the seat of the family; the son of Robert de Keith was created Earl of Kintore, and it continued to be inhabited so late as the 17th century by the family, who hold the property at the present time. The castle appears to have been of considerable strength, and its vicinity was the scene of various conflicts: here, indeed, Bruce is said to have completed the destruction of the army of Edward I., after the defeat of Cumyn, Earl of Buchan, near Inverury.

The town, situated on the bank of the river Don, was once of some consequence, being the place of meeting of the great northern road by Aberdeen, and the roads leading to some of the principal passes of the Grampian mountains. It is, however, at present of small dimensions, and the houses and buildings are not of sufficient importance to merit particular notice, the village of Port-Elphinstone having become, chiefly on account of its situation at the head of the Aberdeenshire canal, the main point of interest and traffic. The burgh contains several good shops for necessary commodities; but, through the facilities of intercourse with Aberdeen, many articles are procured from that place. There are a subscription library and a savings' bank; and the post-office established in the town is the oldest in the district of Garioch. A branch of the great northern road from Aberdeen to Inverness extends westward, and at last joins the Alford turnpike-road; and the royal mail besides several other coaches pass and repass daily: there is likewise a depôt at the town, on the Aberdeenshire canal. The northern part of the parish, as well as Port-Elphinstone, has Inverury as its post-town. Monthly markets are held, chiefly for the sale of cattle. Kintore was erected into a royal burgh by a charter of King James IV., dated February 4th, 1506, and is governed by a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and nine councillors. The old council, with the magistrates, choose the new magistrates; then the old council, with the new magistrates, choose the new council: there is no restriction with respect to re-election, and the present resident chief magistrate has consequently been in office for many years. The burgh has neither property nor debt; its only revenue consists of feu-duty paid by Lord Kintore, amounting to £9. 6. Scots, and of £1.13. 4. sterling, paid annually by the family of Craigievar to the poor of Kintore, as a fine for the murder within the burgh of one of the family of Gordon of Craigmile. The magistrates have no power of taxing the inhabitants; the cess and burgh charges, amounting to £5. 2. per annum, are paid by Lord Kintore. Nor have they for many years been in the practice of exercising jurisdiction, either civil or criminal, except in confining a disorderly person for the night; peace is maintained by a town-serjeant and one or two special constables, Lord Kintore providing a gaol and town-house. The burgh is classed with the Elgin district of burghs in returning a member to the imperial parliament.

The parish, including the lands of Creechy and Thainston, which were detached from the parish of Kinkell, and annexed to it in 1760, is above six miles in length, from the southern to the northern extremity, and at its greatest breadth measures a little more than three miles. It comprises 8430 acres, of which 3408 are under cultivation, 2478 waste or permanent pasture, 652 waste, but capable of cultivation, and 1892 under wood. The surface is uneven, and in many places rugged; but there is no high land except the hill of Thainston, which rises about 280 feet above the level of the sea, and by its beautifully-wooded scenery, in connexion with the smoothly-gliding stream of the Don, invests the locality with a lively and interesting appearance. The lands rising from the town, which is situated in the vale of the Don, are alluvial and rich, occasionally interspersed with hollows of mossy soil. The level and cultivated parts not immediately on the side of the river consist of a light sandy earth, or drained moss; on the higher grounds the soil is so thin in many places that the substratum is scarcely covered. Considerable portions of peat-moss have been reclaimed, and the remainder supplies fuel. Grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips are raised; and their aggregate annual value, with the revenue from pasturage, hay, and the cuttings of woods and plantations, amounts to above £10,000. The cattle are chiefly of the Aberdeenshire breed, and much care is taken in selecting those of good shape, and without horns. Formerly large flocks of sheep, numbering upwards of 2000, were pastured upon the moors; but very few are now kept, on account of the extensive plantations since formed. The most improved system of husbandry is followed; large tracts of waste land have been reclaimed and cultivated, and embankments have been raised against the inundations of the river Don. Furrow-draining has been successfully practised; and during the last thirty years more than 300 acres have been trenched, drained, and inclosed by the tenants, under the encouragement of the proprietor. The rateable annual value of Kintore is £4525.

The rock in the parish, as in most of the neighbouring parts, consists of granite, which exists in large masses forming the substratum, and is also found in blocks lying on the surface, and rendering the improvement of some of the waste grounds a work of great labour. Part of the wood is ancient; but a large proportion is plantation, containing chiefly larch and Scotch and spruce firs, about 250 acres of which, for some years past, have been annually planted by Lord Kintore. The mansion of Thainston is an elegant modern structure, beautifully situated in a well-wooded tract, and commanding fine and extensive views. The parish is in the presbytery of Garioch and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Earl of Kintore: the minister's stipend is £184, with a manse, and a glebe of eight acres, valued at £23 per annum. The church, situated in the town, was built in 1819, and contains accommodation for 700 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin and Greek, in addition to the elementary branches; the master has a salary of £30, with £30 fees. A legacy was lately left by Mr. John Buchan, of Aberdeen, a native of Kintore, for the promotion of education, the will directing £200 to be put to interest, to form an endowment for a school to be founded in the western extremity of the parish. A charitable bequest of £9 per annum, called Davidson's, is confined to the poor of the burgh. The only relic of antiquity of interest is the ruin of the castle, situated about a mile to the west of the Aberdeen road; it is a rectangular structure, containing two lofty arched apartments, one over the other, and forms an impressive object from several points of observation. Arthur Johnston, the poet, celebrated for his elegant Latinity, was a pupil in the parochial school of Kintore; and Sir Andrew Mitchell, ambassador to the court of Prussia in the reign of Frederick the Great, possessed the estate of Thainston, where he often resided.

Kintulloch

KINTULLOCH, a village, in the parish of Dunbarny, county of Perth, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Perth; containing 119 inhabitants. This place takes its name from a Gaelic term signifying "the top of a gentle rising ground or green eminence," on account of its contiguity to a slope near a brook. The lands were granted, under William the Lion, to Hugh Say, an Englishman, whose estate, having descended to Arabella, his sister, passed in part from her by gift, after the death of her husband, Reginald de Warrene, to the monks of Scone in 1249, and finally, after frequently changing proprietors, came into the possession of Mr. Grant, of Kilgraston. The village is situated half a mile south-west of the church, and is chiefly inhabited by cottars, whose tenements are remarkable for the cleanliness of the interior, and for the tasteful manner in which the fronts are ornamented with roses and evergreens. At one extremity of this pleasing spot, is a splendid gateway leading to Kilgraston. There is a school, of which the master has a free house and garden, allowed by the Grant family.

Kippen

KIPPEN, a parish, partly in the county of Perth, but chiefly in the county of Stirling; containing, with the greater portion of the late quoad sacra parish of Bucklyvie, the village of Kippen, and the hamlets of Arnprior, Cauldhame, Kepp, and Shirgarton, 1922 inhabitants, of whom 397 are in the village of Kippen, 10 miles (W.) from Stirling. This place derives its name, in the Gaelic language signifying "a promontory," from the situation of the village at the extremity of an eminence which terminates near Boquhan, in the eastern portion of the parish. Few events of historical importance are recorded in connexion with the place, though, from the names of several localities, indicating ancient fortresses, of which there are now scarcely any vestiges remaining, it appears to have been the scene of frequent hostilities between the different clans in the vicinity. In the reign of James V., a dispute arose between the inhabitants of the baronies of Arnprior and Glentirran, respecting the course of the stream issuing from Loch Leggan, which dispute terminated in a sanguinary battle near the loch, when many persons on each side were killed. Upon this occasion, the king, who at that time resided in the castle of Stirling, ordered the stream to be diverted into the channel it at present occupies, and, depriving both parties of their claim, erected on its banks a mill, which still retains the appellation of the Royal mill.

The parish is bounded on the north by the river Forth, and is about eight miles in extreme length, varying from two to four miles in breadth, and comprising rather more than 10,000 acres, of which 5300 are arable, 600 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface of the parish, which contains two portions of the county of Perth, stretching from north to south, and detaching nearly one-third of Kippen from the county of Stirling, is pleasingly diversified with rising grounds of moderate elevation. Along the shore of the Forth extends a level tract of carse land in a state of the richest cultivation, from which the ground rises towards the south by a partly abrupt, but generally gradual, ascent for more than a mile, beyond which it again subsides by a gentle declivity. From the higher grounds is obtained an extensive and varied prospect over the surrounding country, embracing the whole of the carse, Stirling Castle, the rocks of Craigforth and the Abbey Craig, the braes of Monteith, and the range of the Grampians from the Ochil hills to Ben-Lomond. The river Forth is here of inconsiderable width, and the stream greatly discoloured by the floating moss, which has also injured the fishery, previously very lucrative. There are several rivulets flowing through the glens that intersect the parish, and most of them abound with trout of good quality. The burn of Broich, issuing from Loch Leggan, runs through the beautiful glen of Broich, and afterwards, in its course to the Forth, serves chiefly to float off the moss in the plain below. The burn of Boquhan, which is the boundary line between the parish and Gargunnock, has its rise in the rock of Ballochleam, and in its descent has made for itself a channel through the substratum of red sandstone, which it has excavated into caverns of singular form: flowing along the richly-wooded glen of Boquhan, it falls into the Forth at the bridge of Frew. Some smaller rivulets, in their way through their respective glens, exhibit picturesque cascades; and on the moor of Kippen is Loch Leggan, a fine sheet of water about a mile in circumference, of which the shores are well wooded, and which is the only lake in the parish.

The soil for some breadth from the shore of the Forth is light and fertile, and in the carse between it and the higher grounds, a deep rich clay; on the acclivities, a loam alternated with sand and gravel; and towards the summit, of lighter and less productive quality. There are also considerable tracts of moss, with which, indeed, the whole carse appears to have been formerly overspread. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, beans, potatoes, and turnips; the system of husbandry is in a highly-improved state. The lands have been drained, and are generally well inclosed; and much moss has been reclaimed and brought into cultivation: the farm-houses are substantial and commodious, and on most of the farms are threshing-mills. The dairy-farms are well managed; the cows are usually of the Ayrshire breed. Considerable attention is paid to live stock, and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. There are about sixty or seventy acres of ancient woods remaining. The plantations, which are extensive, are chiefly, on the higher lands, larch and Scotch fir; and on the lower, oak, ash, and elm, which are all in a thriving state. In the glens are also large tracts of coppice-wood, and a great part of the moor has recently been planted. The principal substrata are red sandstone and limestone; and coal is supposed to exist, though some attempts to explore it have not been attended with success. The sandstone is extensively quarried on the moor; it is soft when taken from the quarry, but hardens on exposure to the air, and is of excellent quality for building, for which purpose large quantities are sent to a considerable distance. The limestone is found chiefly in the southern district of the parish, and is also of good quality; but, from the want of coal, which is to be obtained only from a great distance, it is but little wrought for manure. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8775. The seats are, Garden, a handsome modern mansion, to which recent additions have been made; and Broich House, also a modern residence, beautifully situated, and in the grounds of which is a stately and venerable yew-tree, said to be about 300 years old.

The village of Kippen is near the turnpike-road from Stirling to Dumbarton, and has a pleasingly-rural appearance. A public library is supported by subscription, and there is a library of religious books for gratuitous circulation; a post-office, also, has been established under that of Stirling, and has a daily delivery. There was until recently a distillery for whisky, which paid duties amounting to £17,000 per annum. Fairs for cattle are held on the first Wednesday in January, the second Wednesday in April, the 26th of May, the 23rd of October, and the first, second, and third Wednesdays in December. Facility of communication is maintained by the road from Stirling to Dumbarton, which passes for seven miles through the parish; by a turnpike-road from the village to Glasgow, which intersects the parish for three miles in a south-west direction; and by good bridges over the Forth, in excellent repair. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £250, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum; patrons, the Galbraith family, of Blackhouse. The church, erected in 1825, is a handsome structure in the later English style of architecture, with a square embattled tower, and contains 800 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. A church in connexion with the Establishment was built in 1835, at Bucklyvie, where is also a place of worship for the United Secession. There are two parochial schools, one at Kippen, of which the master has a salary of £27. 15. 6., with a house and garden, and fees amounting on the average to £20; and the other at Claymires, in Bucklyvie, of which the master, in addition to the fees, has a salary of £5. 11., with a house and garden. The late Rev. James Miller, of Edinburgh, who was a native of this parish, bequeathed, in trust to the Kirk Session, property for the foundation of a bursary of £24 in each of the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, for young men who are intended for the ministry. There are not any remains of the ancient castle of Arnfinlay, or of the tower of Garden, formerly in the parish; and of several small heights called Keirs, supposed to have been originally Pictish or Celtic fortresses, and on which are still vestiges of military works, nothing of the history is distinctly known.

Kippochill

KIPPOCHILL, a village, in the parish of Barony, suburbs of the city of Glasgow, 1½ mile (N.) from Glasgow; containing 235 inhabitants.

Kirk

KIRK, a hamlet, in the parish of Lundie and Fowlis, county of Forfar, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Dundee; containing 75 inhabitants. The population of this small place is entirely agricultural.

Kirkaldy

KIRKALDY, county of Fife.—See Kirkcaldy.

Kirkandrews

KIRKANDREWS, a village, in the parish of Borgue, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 2 miles (W.) from Borgue; containing 47 inhabitants. It is seated on the south-east shore of Wigton bay, into which opens a small bay of its own name, about a mile north-west of Boreness Point. This small village was formerly of greater extent and importance than it is at present, and was noted for the periodical celebration of horse and foot races, to which numbers were attracted from all quarters. The ruins of its ancient church have a beautifully-picturesque and romantic appearance.

Kirkbean

KIRKBEAN, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 12 miles (S.) from Dumfries; containing, with the villages of Carsethorn and Preston-Mill, 891 inhabitants, of whom 91 are in the village of Kirkbean. This parish, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, is descriptive of the situation of its church at the foot of a mountain, is bounded on the east and south by the Solway Frith, and is about six miles in length and three in average breadth, comprising nearly 11,000 acres, of which 5000 are arable, and the remainder hill pasture, plantation, moorland, and waste. The surface is mountainous and rugged, especially towards the west, where are lofty ridges of hills terminating in the height of Criffel to the north, which has an elevation of 1900 feet above the sea. From Criffel the land slopes gradually towards the shore, which is tolerably level, and in a high state of cultivation. The hill commands from its summit very extensive and varied prospects, embracing views of Annan, Carlisle, Dumfries, Castle-Douglas, and the Isle of Man; and in favourable weather the mountains of North Wales, and the north coast of Ireland, may be indistinctly seen. The coast is generally low and sandy, but interspersed with rocky precipices of considerable elevation, in one of which, near Arbigland House, is a naturally-formed arch of romantic appearance; the principal bay is that of Carse, and the most prominent headlands are Borron Point and Saturness.

The soil in some parts is light and sandy; in others of greater depth and fertility; and a considerable tract of land, recovered from the sea by an embankment constructed by the late Mr. Oswald, has been brought into profitable cultivation. The crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips; the rotation system of husbandry is practised, and guano has been introduced as manure. Much improvement has been, and continues to be, made by draining the lands, which are also well inclosed; many of the farms are extensive, and the farm houses and offices are substantial, and kept in good repair. The hill pastures are stocked usually with sheep of the Cheviot breed, and great attention is paid to the rearing of live stock; the cattle are of the native breed, with the exception of the cows on the dairy-farms, which are Ayrshire. There is little ancient wood, and the plantations are far from being extensive. The substrata are chiefly white granite, of which most of the rocks are composed, and limestone and sandstone of a coarse kind; the limestone is of inferior quality, though well adapted for building purposes. Indications of coal have been observed, but not holding out sufficient inducement to operation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5758. Arbigland House is a handsome mansion, situated near the coast, in a tastefully-embellished demesne; Cavens is also a handsome residence, belonging to the Oswald family. The village of Kirkbean stands on the estuary of the Nith, in a beautifully-rural valley, and consists of pleasing cottages kept in the neatest order, and surrounded by thriving plantations; there is a post daily to Dumfries, and facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-road to Dumfries, which passes through the parish. At Saturness, on the coast, are several small cottages, which, during the season, are inhabited by respectable families for the purpose of sea-bathing; and at Preston-Farm there was anciently situated a village which possessed the various rights and privileges of a burgh of regality, and of which the ancient cross is still remaining. At Carsethorn, also a bathing-village, steam-packets touch twice a week, in their passage from Dumfries to White-haven and Liverpool; and vessels anchor safely in its bay when they cannot proceed so far as the harbour of Dumfries.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery and synod of Dumfries. The minister's stipend is £202. 12. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. The church, erected in 1776, is a commodious and handsome structure, with a tower crowned by a dome, the latter erected by subscription in 1835; it is beautifully situated in the vale, and its site is adorned with clumps of plantation on little knolls surrounding it. The members of the Free Secession have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction to about seventy children; the master has a salary of two chalders of meal, with a house and garden, and the interest of a bequest of £608. 4., producing £24. 6. 6., for which sum he teaches thirty poor children gratuitously: the fees average £28 per annum. There is also a school, about three miles distant from the former; the master has the interest of a bequest of £400 by Messrs. Marshall, of Glasgow, to which £100 have been added by the present minister. The poor have the interest of various bequests, amounting in the aggregate to £350. At Wreaths, and also at Cavens, are some remains of castellated buildings, of which the latter was the property, and occasionally the residence, of the Regent Morton; and at Borron Point are vestiges of an ancient moat and ditch called Mc Culloch's Castle, of which the history is unknown. Among the distinguished natives of the parish have been, Admiral John Campbell, who accompanied Commodore Anson in his voyage of circumnavigation, born here in 1719, while his father was minister of the parish; and the late Dr. Edward Milligan, lecturer on medical science in Edinburgh, who died in 1833, at the age of 47. John Paul, better known as the notorious Paul Jones, and whose father was gardener at Arbigland, was also a native.

Kirkcaldy

KIRKCALDY, a royal burgh, a sea-port, and parish, in the district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 14 miles (E. by N.) from Dunfermline, and 10 (N. by E.) from Edinburgh; containing 5275 inhabitants, of whom 4785 are in the burgh. This place derives its name from an ancient church founded here by the Culdees, and annexed, in the reign of David I., to the monastery of Dunfermline, into which that monarch had introduced an establishment of Benedictine monks from Canterbury. The origin of the town is very obscure, neither is there any authentic history of its early progress, though it is supposed that its proximity to the sea, and the abundance of fuel in the vicinity, induced numbers to settle here at a remote period, for the cultivation of commerce and manufactures. The first notice of the town occurs in a charter of David II., erecting it into a burgh of regality in favour of the abbot of Dunfermline and his successors, in whose possession it remained for more than a century. In 1450, it was granted by the commendator and convent to the bailies and community of the burgh, together with the harbour, the burgage acres, and common pastures, with all the tolls, customs, and other privileges pertaining to it, to be held by them for ever. This tenure, however, was subsequently altered; and instead of being one of the burghs of Dunfermline, the town was constituted a royal burgh, and invested with all the immunities enjoyed by royal burghs in their fullest extent; but, the original charter being lost, the date of this change cannot be precisely ascertained. Under these rights the town continued to flourish, and in 1622 contributed 1030 merks towards the relief of the French Protestants. It had, about this time, not less than 100 vessels belonging to the port, and had attained a degree of importance which placed it next in rank after St. Andrew's. In 1644, the privileges of the burgh were confirmed and extended by charter of Charles I., who created it de novo a royal burgh and free port; and the government, which had been previously exercised by two bailies and a treasurer, was vested in a provost, who was also admiral of the port, two bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, and council.


Burgh Seal.

During the war in this reign the inhabitants embraced the cause of the parliament, and zealously subscribed the solemn league and covenant. They sent large numbers to join the army of the Covenanters; and at the battle of Kilsyth, in which they were defeated with great slaughter by the Marquess of Montrose, not less than 480 of the men of Kirkcaldy were killed. In the progress of the war the town suffered repeated injuries; and under the usurpation of Cromwell it continued to languish and decline. According to the burgh records, from the commencement of the civil war to the restoration of Charles II., as many as ninety-four vessels belonging to the port were captured by the royalists, or lost at sea; and in 1682 the town was reduced to such distress, that an application was made to the convention of royal burghs to take its poverty into consideration, and administer to its relief. At the time of the Revolution, the inhabitants, in the zeal of their attachment to the cause of William III., apprehended the chancellor of Scotland, the Earl of Perth, and, after detaining him for some time in custody under a guard of 300 men, delivered him to the Earl of Mar at Alloa. William, in return for their loyalty, granted the inhabitants an abatement of their annual assessment; and the town, with the trade of the port, now began to revive, and continued to prosper till the Union, when, in common with all the other sea-ports on the coast of Fife, it fell into decay. It then and afterwards suffered so much, indeed, that its shipping, in 1760, was reduced to one coasting sloop of sixty tons' burthen, and two ferry-boats of thirty tons each. From this time, however, the trade began to increase; and though it was much impeded by the disputes with America, it continued to advance, and at the conclusion of the war there were twelve vessels belonging to the place, which is now one of the most flourishing sea-ports in Fife.

The town is situated on the north of the Frith of Forth, upon a narrow strip of level land at the base of a ridge of rising ground, and extends for a mile and a half along the shore, consisting principally of one street of, to a large extent, old ill-built houses. Towards the centre of this line, the street expands for some distance into greater width, containing numerous modern well-built houses of handsome appearance, and a few good inns. Considerable improvements have been for some time in progress; and the town has recently been enlarged by the formation of several streets diverging from the main line towards the sands on the south, and others built on the acclivities of the hills towards the north. The streets are well paved, and lighted with gas by a company who have erected works for that purpose; the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. Numbers of the ancient houses have been taken down, and rebuilt in a better style; and the town generally is in a state of progressive improvement. A subscription library is well supported, and contains a collection of more than 4000 volumes; a mechanics' library has also been established, in which are 1500 volumes; and there are two circulating libraries, comprising together nearly 3000. An institution has been formed within the last few years, in which lectures on literary and scientific subjects are regularly delivered during the winter months. Two public reading and news rooms are supported by subscription, and are well supplied with newspapers and periodical publications; and a weekly journal is published in the town. An agricultural association has also been founded, which holds meetings twice in the year, and awards premiums for samples of seed, the finest specimens of live-stock, and the best crops of every description raised in the district.

The chief manufactures carried on are those of the various kinds of coarse linen, consisting of checks, striped holland, dowlas, ticking, sail cloths, and other articles, in which great improvements were some time since made by Mr. James Fergus, who adapted the manufacture of ticking, which had previously been made here for the manufacturers of Glasgow only, to the use of the English markets, and introduced the making of checks of cotton and linen mixed, drills, and ducks. The gross value of the linens manufactured is now estimated at £80,000 per annum, and, including the different descriptions of linen goods, £200,000 per annum, affording occupation to more than 1100 weavers, exclusively of hand-looms in private dwellings. Connected with the factories are extensive bleaching-grounds and dye-houses. There are several mills for the spinning of flax, in which about 6000 spindles of yarn are produced daily, and of which quantities are exported to France and other parts of the continent to the value of £60,000 annually; these mills are driven by steam-engines of twenty-horse power, and give employment to considerable numbers of females. The manufacture of steam-engines and the various kinds of machinery for the use of the mills, for which there are three establishments in the town, engages about 200 men. The manufacture of salt, formerly very extensive, is still carried on, but upon a limited scale; there are also two tanneries, two breweries, a distillery, and several collieries in the parish.

The trade of the port consists chiefly in the exportation of yarn and various manufactured goods, coal, and agricultural produce; and in the importation of flax, timber, and other merchandize. The foreign trade is with North and South America, the Mediterraneant France, the Baltic, Norway, Denmark, Prussia, the Hanse Towns, and Germany: about ninety vessels from foreign parts annually visit the port. The coasting-trade is also considerable. The number of vessels registered in 1842 as belonging to the port was ninety-one, of the aggregate burthen of 8911 tons, and employing about 800 seamen. A couple of vessels are engaged in the whale-fishery, which was formerly much more extensive. Two smacks sail regularly from Kirkcaldy to London, and trading vessels to Leith and Glasgow; steam ferry-boats ply four times a day between this place and Newhaven, and contribute greatly to facilitate the trade of the town. The jurisdiction of the port extends over fifty-two miles of coast, from Aberdour, in the Frith of Forth, to the upper part of the bay of St. Andrew's, including the sub-port of Anstruther and various creeks. The harbour, which is under the direction of a number of trustees appointed under an act of parliament in 1829, is situated at the eastern extremity of the town, and is inclosed by two stone piers at the east and west ends. Though capacious, however, it is very inadequate for the trade of the port, being accessible to vessels of any considerable burthen only at spring tides. Attempts are consequently now in progress for its improvement, by the extension of the eastern pier under the superintendence of Mr. Leslie, civil engineer, of Dundee; the cost is estimated at £10,000, and further improvements are in contemplation, which, when carried into effect, will render it safe and convenient, at an expense of £40,000. The shore dues, from which the corporation derive their chief revenue, amounted in 1842 to £1715. The custom-house establishment consists of a collector, comptroller, land-surveyor, three land-waiters, and fourteen tides-men; and the amount of duties paid in 1842, according to official returns, was £4766.

There are branches of the Bank of Scotland, the Commercial Bank, the National Bank of Scotland, and the Union Bank of Scotland, the buildings for which add much to the appearance of the town. The post-office has two deliveries daily; and in addition to the facilities of communication by steam-boats, the roads to Dundee, Perth, St. Andrew's, and Glasgow pass through Kirkcaldy. The chief market, which is amply supplied with corn, is on Saturday, and is attended by dealers from all parts; the average quantity of grain sold is about 35,000 quarters, of which 10,000 only are disposed of by sample, and the remainder in the stock market. Fairs for horses and cattle are held on the third Friday in February, the third Friday in July, and the first Friday in October. The government of the burgh, since the passing of the Municipal Reform act in the reign of William, has been vested in a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and a council of twenty-one members, including the provost, bailies, dean of guild, and treasurer. The provost, who is ex officio a justice of the peace for the county, and the other officers of the corporation, are elected by the council, and the council are elected by the constituency at large. There are seven incorporated trades, the smiths, wrights and masons, weavers, shoemakers, tailors, bakers, and fleshers, all of which, except the weavers, possess exclusive privileges of trading. The magistrates hold courts for the adjudication of civil causes to any amount; in criminal cases their jurisdiction is limited to misdemeanors. The town-hall and gaol form one building in the High-street, surmounted with a spire: the hall, in which the courts are held and the public business transacted, is spacious and handsomely fitted up, and contains a portrait of Walter Fergus, Esq., of Strathore. The gaol is under excellent regulations; proper attention is paid to the health and comfort of the prisoners, who are profitably employed, and its management is well adapted for their reformation. The whole buildings, which are in the Norman style of architecture, were erected at a cost of £5000. The burgh is associated with those of Dysart, Kinghorn, and Burntisland, in returning a member to the imperial parliament.

The parish formerly included the chief part of that of Abbotshall, which was separated from it in the year 1650; but it is now of very inconsiderable extent. It is only two miles and a half in length, and scarcely one mile in breadth; and comprises little more, besides the town site, than the burgh acres, and the common lands once belonging to the town, not exceeding in the whole 1050 acres, of which 160 are woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable. The soil near the town is rich and fertile, from the abundance of manure; in other parts less productive. The surface rises from the shore of the Frith, a level sandy beach, towards the north into a bold ridge, which has an elevation of 300 feet above the sea: the only stream is the Eastburn, which, after receiving some tributaries in a course of less than three miles, flows into the frith at the extremity of the parish bordering upon that of Dysart. The substrata are principally sandstone, slate, and coal, which last occurs in several seams varying from nine inches to three and a half feet in thickness; one mine only is at present in operation, and the coal is raised from a depth of forty-six fathoms. Iron-ore is found in the coal district, in globular masses; but the price obtained does not remunerate the trouble of working it. The rateable annual value of the parish is £18,239. Dunnikier House, the seat of James Townsend Oswald, Esq., a handsome mansion erected about 1790, is beautifully situated in a richly-wooded demesne; and in the town and immediate vicinity are some pleasing villas.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcaldy, of which this is the seat, and the synod of Fife. The minister's stipend is £200, with a manse and glebe valued at about £50 per annum; patron, the Crown. The parish church, situated upon rising ground in the High-street, is a handsome structure in the later English style, erected in 1807, on the site of the ancient building, which had fallen into a state of dilapidation. A portion of the old tower, however, is attached to the west end, and detracts greatly from the appearance of the church; but its removal, and the erection of a tower or spire of corresponding style, are in contemplation. The interior is well arranged, and contains 1480 sittings. A church to which a quoad sacra district was till lately annexed, containing a population of 1977 persons, has been erected near the east end of the town, at an expense of £2000; it is called East Port Church, and has 840 sittings. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Secession, Episcopalians, Independents, Bereans, Original Burghers, and Scottish Baptists. The Burgh school is supported by the corporation and by the fees, and is under the superintendence of a rector, to whom they pay £50, and an assistant, who has a salary of £40; it is attended by 170 children, who are instructed in the classics and in the various branches of a commercial education. The fees produce £50 per annum to each master; but neither has a dwelling-house. Schools have been erected in the town and in Pathhead, Kinghorn, and Abbotshall, and teachers appointed, under an endowment by Robert Philp, Esq., who, in 1828, bequeathed £74,000 for the education and clothing of 400 of the most needy children of the district. To each of these, on leaving school, are allowed from £7 to £10, according to merit, to enable them to acquire a trade, or to introduce them into creditable employment. The master of the Kirkcaldy school, under this trust, has £100 per annum; and a mistress to teach the girls to sew has a salary of £15. There are numerous other schools, partly endowed, and partly supported by the fees; and the number of children attending them is about 700. Mr. John Thomson, in 1810, bequeathed £780, of which he appropriated one-half of the proceeds to the payment of school fees for poor children, and the remainder to the relief of the aged. An institution for the benefit of old and disabled mariners belonging to the port, and for their widows and orphans, was established about the year 1590, to the support of which the masters and crews of the various vessels long contributed a per-centage of their pay. This institution is called the "Prime Gilt-Box of Kirkcaldy," and has funds amounting to nearly £3000. There are also a ladies' benevolent society, a clothing society, and a fund for supplying the poor with coal. In 1828, the gallery on the north side of the church, which was densely crowded to hear the Rev. Edward Irving, of London, fell down; and many lives were lost. Dr. Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations, and one of the most illustrious men, as a writer, to whom Scotland has given birth, was born at Kirkcaldy in 1723. After an absence of many years, which were occupied in literary pursuits, and, for some time, in discharging his professional duties in the chair of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow, he returned to Kirkcaldy, where he composed his most celebrated work. He died in 1789; and it is not a little remarkable that, to this day, no monument to his memory has been erected in his native town.