Montrose - Musa (Isle of)

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

Supporting documents

Pages

272-294

Citation Show another format:

'Montrose - Musa (Isle of)', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 272-294. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43464 Date accessed: 02 September 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Montrose

MONTROSE, a royal burgh, sea-port, and parish, in the county of Forfar; containing 15,096 inhabitants, of whom 13,402 are in the burgh, 21 miles (E. N. E.) from Forfar, and 72 (N. E. by N.) from Edinburgh. This place, anciently called Celurca, is supposed to have derived its present name from the Gaelic Main Ross, signifying "a promontory in the fens;" though the device of the town-seal apparently favours the fanciful derivation from the Latin Mons Rosarum, or "the Mount of Roses." The town, which is situated on a peninsular eminence in the German Sea, is of remote antiquity; it seems to have received a charter from David I., conferring upon it all the privileges of a royal burgh; and though there is no authentic record of its early history, it appears to have been identified with many incidents of historical importance. In 1330, Sir James Douglas, attended by a numerous and splendid retinue, embarked at this port, bearing with him the heart of Robert the Bruce, to be deposited in the holy sepulchre at Jerusalem. In 1493, the inhabitants of Montrose suffered so much oppression from John Erskine, Lord of Dun, that the magistrates of the burgh, on petition to James IV., obtained a summons from the king, commanding his appearance before the council at Edinburgh. In 1534, the study of Greek was introduced into the schools of Scotland by John Erskine, grandson of the former, and associate of John Knox in promoting the Reformation, who established in the burgh school a teacher of that language, whom he had brought from the continent. James Graham, the celebrated Marquess of Montrose, at one time a resolute champion for the Covenant, but subsequently a zealous adherent of Charles I., was born here in 1612. In February, 1716, the Pretender embarked at this port, on the failure of his enterprise, with the Earl of Mar and a single attendant, for the continent.


Burgh Seal.

The town is situated on the western shore of the peninsula, bounded on the east by the German Sea, and on the south by an outlet from the bay of Montrose formed by an expansion of the South Esk, which bay bounds the town on the west. It consists of one spacious street called the High-street, and of several other wellformed streets, among which are Castle-street, Murraystreet, and Bridge-street, the last leading to the suspension-bridge which connects the town with the island of Inch-Brayock, in the entrance of the bay. To the northeast of the town are the Links, about four miles in circuit, supposed to have been originally covered by the sea, and to which a communication was opened from John-street in 1830, and by Union-street, a handsome range of houses, in 1838. The streets are well paved, and lighted with gas; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with excellent water conveyed by pipes from springs in the parish of Dun. A public subscription library, established in 1785, has a valuable collection of several thousand volumes; and a reading society was formed in 1819, which has a library of nearly 2000 volumes. A commercial reading and news room, and also the Exchange Coffee-house, are well supplied with daily journals and periodical publications; and two weekly newspapers are published in the town. Subscription assemblies are held in a handsome suite of rooms. A horticultural society was formed in 1825, and is well supported; and a natural and antiquarian society, established in 1837, has a museum containing a collection of specimens in zoology, mineralogy, geology, and antiquities.

The principal manufactures carried on are the spinning of flax and weaving. There are five mills for spinning linen yarn, of which four are driven by steam-engines of 120-horse power in the aggregate, and the other, on the North Esk, driven by water; there are also two belonging to houses in the town, but within the parish of Logie-Pert, producing about 300,000 spindles yearly. The articles chiefly woven are, sheetings, dowlas, ducks, canvas, Osnaburghs, bagging, sacking, and tarpaulins, of which 25,000 pieces are annually made in the town, exclusively of large quantities in branch establishments. There are a foundry, two establishments for the manufacture of machinery in which steam-power is employed, two tanneries, two roperies, and sail-cloth manufactories, two manufactories for candles, one for soap, and one for starch, five breweries, a meal and a flour mill, and establishments for making bricks and tiles. Ship-building is also carried on to a considerable extent, and there is a patent-slip for repairing vessels. There are salmonfisheries in the rivers; and great quantities of cod and other white-fish are taken off the coast, and, after being dried, sent to the English markets. The trade of the port consists chiefly in the export of grain and other agricultural produce, and manufactured goods, chiefly sent coastwise; and in the importation of flax, hemp, tallow, timber, and deals, from foreign ports, and, as the port has now the privilege of bonding, wines and foreign spirits for the supply of the adjacent districts. The number of vessels registered as belonging to the port in 1843 was 209, of the aggregate burthen of 23,596 tons; and the amount of duties paid at the custom-house was £28,523. The jurisdiction of the port extends from the Lights of Tay, on the south, to Todhead, on the north, including Arbroath. The harbour, which might be made one of the best on the eastern coast of Scotland, has a depth of eighteen feet water on the bar at the entrance, at the ebb of the spring-tides; and is accessible to large vessels, except during strong easterly gales. The isle of Inch-Brayock is connected with the southern shore by a swivel-bridge, affording a passage for vessels to Old Montrose, where is a pier for landing coal and lime; and with the main land on the north by an elegant suspension-bridge erected in 1829, at a cost of £20,000, from a design by Sir Samuel Brown, of the Royal Navy. After a severe gale in 1838, which destroyed a great portion of the suspension-bridge, it was speedily repaired at an expense of £3000, by Mr. J. M. Rendel, civil engineer. The towers from which the chains that sustain the platform are suspended, are seventy-one feet in height, and the distance between them 432 feet; the breadth of the platform is twenty-six feet within the rods, and on each side of the central roadway is a footpath, separated by an iron palisade. The quays and warehouses are commodiously arranged, and substantially built. A wet-dock has been constructed, capable of receiving 6000 tons of shipping; and two lighthouses have been erected below the harbour: in the larger, to which a life-boat is attached, and where the lightkeeper resides, are accommodations for the reception and recovery of shipwrecked mariners.

By charters of David I. and II., confirmed and extended by charter of James IV., dated 1493, the government of the burgh is vested in a provost, three bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, master of the hospital, and twelve others, forming a council of nineteen. There are seven incorporated trades, viz., the blacksmiths, wrights, shoemakers, weavers, masons and slaters, bakers, and tailors. The fees of admission into the trades, for strangers vary from £5 to £10, for sons and sons-in-law of burgesses from £2 to £5, and for apprentices from £3 to £6; and of admission as members of the guildry, £16. 16. for strangers, £10. 10. for apprentices, and £8. 8. for sons and sons-in-law of guild members. The magistrates exercise jurisdiction within the burgh, in civil cases to any amount, and in criminal cases chiefly for misdemeanors; they hold a bailie-court weekly, in which they are assisted by their town-clerk, who acts as assessor. The town-hall, situated in High-street, contains the guildhall, council-room, the courts, and a coffee-room and public library; and a new gaol has recently been built, well adapted to the purpose. The burgh is associated with those of Forfar, Brechin, Arbroath, and Bervie, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of qualified voters is about 475. The post-office has a good delivery; and there are branches of the National Bank, the British Linen Company's Bank, and the Eastern and Western Banks. The market is on Friday, and is well supplied with grain and other agricultural produce, of which great quantities are shipped from the port; and fairs are held annually at Whitsuntide and Martinmas, chiefly for hiring servants. Facility of communication is afforded by excellent roads; and the Aberdeen steam-boats, for seven months in the year, touch at the port, taking in goods and passengers.

The parish, which is bounded on the east by the German Sea, and on the north and south by the North and South Esk respectively, is about three miles in length and nearly of equal breadth; comprising 3900 acres, of which, with the exception of the beach and some steep acclivities, the whole is arable and in good cultivation. The surface is generally level, with a gradual ascent towards the north-west, from the summit of which, though of inconsiderable elevation, the view of the basin of Montrose, a circular sheet of water nearly three miles in diameter, and of the adjacent country, abounding with handsome mansions and pleasing villas, is strikingly beautiful. The soil in the lower parts is sandy, and in the higher light and thin; but it has been much bettered by good management, and some tracts of moorland and moss have been brought into profitable cultivation. The crops are, grain of all kinds, with potatoes and turnips, and the various grasses: the green crops, from the high prices they obtain, are raised in great abundance. The system of husbandry has been much improved; round the houses of the principal proprietors, plantations of different sorts of forest-trees have been formed; and in the north-west are plantations of fir. The substratum is principally limestone, of which there is a quarry on the lands of Hedderwick; but for building and other purposes stone is chiefly brought from Brechin. The rateable annual value of the parish is £28,845.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Brechin and synod of Angus and Mearns. There are two charges. The minister of the first charge has a stipend of £295. 5. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Crown. The minister of the second charge has a stipend of £340, without either manse or glebe; patrons, the Magistrates and Town-council. The parish church, with the exception of the tower, was rebuilt in 1791, and was repaired in 1832, when the old steeple, being thought insecure, was taken down, and replaced by a handsome square embattled tower surmounted with a lofty spire, at a cost of £3000. The interior, which is well arranged, has two tiers of galleries, and contains 2500 sittings. The church dedicated to St. John was originally built as a chapel of ease, in 1829, at an expense of £3969, by subscription: in 1834 an ecclesiastical district, including a population of 4999, was assigned it by act of the General Assembly, forming the late quoad sacra parish of St. John. The structure is neat and substantial, and contains 1500 sittings; the minister's stipend is £150, derived from the seatrents and collections. There are two Episcopalian chapels, one of which, dedicated to St. Peter, is in strict connexion with the Church of England; and also places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Secession, Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans. The Montrose academy is under the direction of a rector, who teaches the mathematics, geography, and French; two teachers of the Latin, and two of the English, language; and two teachers for writing and arithmetic. The salary of the rector is £50, in addition to his fees, which are considerable; of the first Latin master, £40, with fees, and of the second, £50 from a bequest by Mr. Erskine; of the first English master, £40, and of the second, £25; the salary of the writing masters, £25 each, in addition to their several fees. The number of children attending the academy averages 350. There are also a school for eighty children, assisted by the Kirk Session, and of which the master has a house and garden, and a payment of £2 per annum, in addition to the fees; a free school founded by Mr. David White, of which the master has a salary of £36, with a house and garden; and another, founded by Miss Stratton, of which the master and mistress divide between them the interest of £900 bequeathed by that lady. In these two last about 175 children are gratuitously taught; and there is a school erected by the trades, of which the masters have the house, but no salary. There are likewise numerous private schools, supported exclusively by the fees; and various Sabbath schools.

The lunatic asylum, with which were formerly connected the infirmary and dispensary, was erected in 1779, and has been subsequently enlarged and improved; it was incorporated by royal charter in 1811, and placed under the direction of the provost, first bailie, parish ministers, and principal inhabitants of the town, and under the immediate care of a keeper, matron, and resident medical attendant. In 1838, the infirmary and dispensary were detached from the asylum; and a handsome building was erected for the purpose, at a cost of £2500, to the west of the bridge. The funds of the ancient hospital of the Grey Friars were appropriated to the use of the poor, and are now vested in the town-council, producing about £280 per annum, which sum is distributed in monthly payments. The poor have also some bequests varying from £100 to £1000 each, made by charitable individuals, and a bequest of £3000 by John Erskine, Esq., in 1786, of which £50 per annum were for an additional teacher in the academy, and the remainder to be divided among eight orphans of the school, each of whom receives from the fund about £17 per annum. The same benefactor bequeathed £2000 for ten poor families, each of which receives an annual payment of £12. 12. Dorwood's House of Refuge was founded in 1839 by William Dorwood, Esq., of this town, who gave £10,000 towards its erection and endowment, and £600 for additional buildings and furniture. The buildings form a handsome structure in the ancient English style of architecture, and are adapted to the reception of 200 inmates; the institution is under the superintendence of twenty-four trustees. Montrose gives the title of Duke to the family of Graham.

Monymusk

MONYMUSK, a parish, in the district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, 125 miles (N. by E.) from Edinburgh; containing 895 inhabitants. This parish appears to have derived its name from the two Gaelic words, Monaugh, "high or hilly," and Mousick, signifying "low and marshy ground," which denominations are descriptive of the general appearance of the land. A priory was founded here in the 11th century by Malcolm Canmore, who is said to have encamped at Monymusk, on his expedition to the north, and to have vowed that if he returned victorious he would devote the village to St. Andrew, the tutelary saint of Scotland. On his arrival at the river Spey, he was stopped by the priests in their canonicals, who, with his permission, passed over to the enemy, and finished the campaign without any effusion of blood. In consequence of this affair he founded and endowed the priory of Monymusk, as appears from an old Latin document in Monymusk House, which was extracted from the register of St. Andrew's, and which, after describing the assigned boundaries, concludes with the following passage: "And thus these are the marches which King Malcolm bequeathed, on account of a victory granted, to God and the Church of St. Mary of Monymusk, giving the benediction of God and St. Mary to all who preserve the rights of the Church." Few other events of historical importance have occurred; but there is a field near the bank of the river Don, called the Camp field, where, according to tradition, King Robert Bruce's army lay immediately previous to the battle of Inverury.

The parish is about seven miles in length and between four and five in breadth; it contains 12,600 acres. On the north and north-west are the parishes of Keig, Oyne, and Chapel of Garioch; on the south and east, the parishes of Kemnay and Cluny; and on the west, the parish of Tough. There are great inequalities of surface, some parts being low and flat, and others considerably elevated: on the north and west are several hills, of which the most lofty, named Cairnwilliam, rises 1400 feet above the level of the sea. The numerous woods and plantations give a pleasing variety to the scenery; they include almost every kind of tree common to the country, but on the higher grounds the fir is most extensively cultivated. In the old "Garden of Paradise," laid out in 1719, and now forming a part of what is called Paradise Wood, are numbers of spruces and larches upwards of 100 years old, some of which are of large dimensions and noble and commanding appearance. The river Don, rising in the mountains of Corgarff, divides the parish into two unequal parts, and, after pursuing a winding course of sixty miles from its source, falls into the sea at Old Aberdeen; its mean breadth in this part is thirty-five yards. About 5370 acres are cultivated or occasionally in tillage; 3080 are either waste or pasture, and 4150 are in plantations. The total annual value of the produce, which consists of all kinds of grain and green crops, is £14,910. The sheep are few in number, having been found injurious to the hill plantations; but the rearing of cattle and horses receives much attention, and the breeds are in general good. The modern system of husbandry is followed; great improvements have recently taken place in the construction of the farm-buildings, which are now of stone and lime, and have slated roofs; and on some farms the fields are well inclosed with stone dykes. Granite is the principal kind of rock; it is of superior quality and in great abundance, and from the quarries wrought here many large blocks were procured by a company at Aberdeen, for building the colonnade of the market-place in Covent Garden, London. An iron-mine is said to have been discovered many years ago in one of the hills, of which the ore yielded 13/20 of iron; but owing to the scarcity of fuel in this part of the county, it was not wrought. A quarry of felspar was worked for some time by an agent of one of the Staffordshire potteries; this, also, was abandoned, on account of the expense of the land carriage to Aberdeen. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4285.

Monymusk House, the only mansion of note, is an ancient spacious structure, pleasantly situated on the south bank of the Don, and has a library containing about 5000 volumes, and a collection of valuable paintings, most of which are by the old masters. This mansion is the residence of Sir James Grant, of Monymusk, Bart., proprietor of the whole parish, and the lineal descendant of Francis Grant, of Cullen, who was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705, and afterwards appointed one of the senators of the college of justice by the title of Lord Cullen. The population is chiefly agricultural; but there are a distillery and two saw-mills, which give employment to several people: the timber here prepared for use is all grown in the parish. The small village of Monymusk is a place of considerable antiquity, being mentioned by Buchanan as Monimuscum vicum, where Malcolm Canmore lay encamped, in his journey towards the north to quell the insurrection in Moray. It has recently been almost entirely rebuilt by the proprietor, and now forms a very neat square, with some fine old trees growing in the centre. There is a daily post established here; and it has two turnpike-roads passing through it, in different directions, to Aberdeen. Monthly markets for the sale of cattle and grain have lately been established, and are held in the village on the second Mondays of December, January, February, March, and April; there are also three annual fairs, two of which are at Whitsuntide and Martinmas, chiefly for the hiring of servants, and the other on the last Thursday of August, for cattle, and small wares of various kinds. The fuel consists principally of peat, turf, and wood; but coal also is procured from Aberdeen and Kintore.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Garioch and synod of Aberdeen; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the minister is £203; and there is a good manse, with a glebe of seven acres, worth £12. 6. per annum. The church is very ancient, with a square tower at the west end, and is supposed to have been built in the 11th century at the time of the founding of the priory by Malcolm Canmore, who is said to have endowed both church and priory. There is also an episcopal chapel in the village, seating about 150 persons. In the parochial school, Latin and the usual branches of education are taught; and the master has a salary of £26, about £14 fees, and a portion of the Dick bequest; also an excellent house rent free, a good garden, and an allowance of £10 or £12 a year for teaching as many poor scholars. There is an endowed school called Lord Cullen's, the teacher of which receives a salary, in meal and money amounting to £50; it was founded by Sir Francis Grant, of Cullen, in 1718, out of the estate of Monymusk; and a school-house was built in 1824, on the north side of the Don. Two friendly societies are supported, one of which, named "Sir Archibald Grant's Lodge of Gardeners," was established in 1808, and the other, a "Benefit Male and Female Society," in 1824. The interest of £765 three per cent. consols, the bequest of the late Dame Johnston, is distributed in January amongst poor families not receiving parochial relief, or aid from any other charitable fund. The only antiquities are two Druidical circles and the old building called Pitfichie Castle, which belonged originally to the family of General Hurry, of Urrie, and afterwards to the family of Forbes, as part of the estate of Monymusk. Lord Cullen, one of the senators of the college of justice, an ancestor of the present family of Grant of Monymusk, and founder of the school already noticed, was a landowner here: as an advocate and judge, he was distinguished by profound erudition and most inflexible integrity. The Rev. Alexander Nicol, canon of Christchurch, and regius professor of Hebrew in the university of Oxford, whose reputation as a general scholar and linguist was of the highest order, was a native of Monymusk; he was born in the village in 1793, and died in 1828.

Monzie

MONZIE, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the villages of Chapelhill and Herriotfield, 1261 inhabitants, of whom 118 are in the village of Monzie, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Crieff. The name Monzie is derived from the Gaelic Moighidh, signifying "a level tract." There are few events of importance connected with the place; but numerous relics of antiquity, of both Druidical and Roman origin, are still visible, although all historical memorials identifying them with any particular transactions worthy of note are entirely lost. The parish is twelve miles long and about seven in extreme breadth, and contains about 50,000 acres. It is bounded on the north by Dull, Weem, and Kenmore parishes; on the south by Crieff; on the east by Fowlis; and on the west by Monivaird and Comrie. This is a mountainous district lying on the south side of the Grampian hills, the only habitable portions being two narrow valleys called the Back and the Fore part, which are separated from each other by a ridge of lofty hills four miles broad. Only about one-third of the land is arable; the remainder is covered with heath, coarse grass, and moss, appropriated to the pasturage of vast flocks of sheep. The lands are watered by the Almond, the Shaggie, the Keltie, and the Barvick, the first of which, a considerable river, running for about twelve miles along the boundary of the parish from east to west, falls into the Tay two miles above Perth. All the streams are stocked with trout, and in the Almond there is likewise a plentiful supply of sea-trout. Like most of the Highland districts, the parish is famed for its cascades, which are numerous in all the streams, and of which the Barvick especially exhibits an almost uninterrupted succession throughout its whole course, the effect being greatly increased by the abrupt, lofty, and, in many places, well-wooded banks of rock between which the stream passes.

The soil is light and dry, and tolerably fertile, though in general rather shallow: the usual white and green crops are raised. The sheep are the Highland or blackfaced, and to their improvement great attention is paid; the cattle are mostly a cross between the Highland and Lowland, but a few Ayrshire cows are kept for the dairy. The character of the husbandry is good, and considerable advances have been made in draining and trenching; but the expense of procuring lime, which is brought from Perth, a distance of from fourteen to seventeen miles, is a serious impediment to agricultural improvement. Many of the farm-steadings have lately been rebuilt on a better plan; but much in this respect remains yet to be done. The parish being to a great extent pastoral, there is much land uninclosed; where fences have been erected, however, they are in general in good condition. The prevailing rocks are slate, sandstone, and limestone: there are two slate-quarries, and one of superior sandstone of a red colour, and of great durability; but the limestone, on account of its inferior quality and its distance from coal is not wrought. The mansion-houses are, Monzie Castle, the residence of Campbell of Monzie, a massive square building with a circular turret at each corner, erected in 1806, and containing a superior collection of paintings, ancient armour, &c.; Cultoquhey House, the seat of the Maxtones, an elegant edifice, from a design by Smirke, erected about eighteen years since; and Glen-Almond Cottage, the occasional residence of the Patton family, also a modern and comfortable house. Monzie and Gilmerton are the chief villages: the first, often called the Kirkton, consists of a cluster of cottages, nestling in a sunny corner round the church; the other, the larger of the two, has sprung up within these few years. There are a few hand-loom weavers. A fair for sheep and general traffic is held at Monzie on the 22nd of August: a fair on the 23rd, formerly held here, has been transferred to the neighbouring parish of Crieff, and now makes one of its eight fairs. Oats and barley are sent hence to Crieff, and potatoes to London, by way of Perth. The Glen-Almond road, one of the grand passes into the Highlands, runs through the parish, besides which there are several roads for local convenience. The rateable annual value of Monzie is £4300.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the minister is £159, of which a tenth is paid by the exchequer; and there is a manse, with a glebe of twelve acres of superior land. The church, a neat but unpretending edifice, was built in 1830-1, and contains sittings for 512 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There is a parochial school, in which are taught the classics, French, and geometry, with the usual branches of education; the master has a house, a salary of £34, and about £30 per annum in fees. At a small distance from the village of Monzie, upon an eminence called Knock-Durroch, "the oaken knoll," is an intrenchment of an oval form, supposed to be Roman; and on the estate of Cultoquhey is another of the same kind, but considerably larger. The principal relic of antiquity, however, is the camp at Fendoch, thought to have been constructed by the soldiers under Agricola or one of his successors. It is situated upon tableland, near the mountain pass called the Small Glen, and not far from the fort of Dunmore, which had the complete command of the passage; it covers forty-five acres of ground, and is said to have been capable of containing 12,000 men. Adjacent to it are several large cairns, and other relics pointing it out as the arena, in ancient times, of important military transactions. In the vicinity of Glen-Almond is a cave called the "Thief's Cave," from its having been the retreat of a noted sheepstealer called Alaster Baine, who at last was executed at Perth; and near this cave is a very curious natural pile of large stones, called "the Kirk of the Grove," in the vicinity of which stands a solitary aged pine, marking out the reputed sepulchre of Fingal's father. Towards the upper extremity of the pass before named is a stone of cubical form, eight feet high, said to point out the grave of the far-famed Ossian, the Caledonian bard.

Moodiesburn

MOODIESBURN, a village, in that part of the parish of Cadder which formed the late quoad sacra parish of Chryston, Lower ward of the county of Lanark, 1 mile (N. E. by E.) from Chryston; containing 220 inhabitants. It lies in the eastern part of the parish, on the high road from Perth to Glasgow.

Moonzie

MOONZIE, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county of Fife, 2 miles (N. W.) from Cupar; containing 174 inhabitants. This place, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, signifies "the Hill of the deer," was anciently the seat of the Crawfurd family, of whom Alexander, the third earl, is said to have built the castle of Lordscairnie, here, in which he occasionally resided, and of which there are still considerable remains. Sir William Ramsay, also, who lived in the reign of David II., and was taken prisoner at the battle of Durham in 1346, when the Scottish army was completely defeated, resided at Colluthie, in the parish. The parish, which is one of the smallest in Scotland, is situated on the south side of the Grampian hills, and is less than two miles in length, and not a mile and a half in breadth; comprising an area of about 1260 acres, of which, with the exception of a few acres of plantations, the whole is arable. The surface is diversified with hills and dales: towards the west are several rising grounds of considerable elevation, which, sloping gradually towards the east, terminate in a valley of considerable extent. The highest grounds are about 300 feet above the level of the sea; the lower grounds are intersected by the Moonzie burn, which has its source in Lordscairnie Myre, and falls into the river Eden.

The soil is generally a black loam of great fertility, resting on a substratum of trap-rock, but in some parts is a strong coarse clay, with a few acres of moss. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, peas, beans, and potatoes; the lands are in excellent cultivation under a highly-improved system of husbandry, and have been well drained and inclosed. The farm-buildings are substantial and commodious; and on several of the farms are threshing-mills, of which two are driven by steam. Sheep are reared upon one farm, of a breed between the Cheviot and the Leicestershire; the cattle are principally of the Fifeshire black kind, which has superseded the Teeswater, for some time the favourite breed. Great attention is paid to the improvement of the livestock; and several of the farmers breed a considerable number of horses for agricultural purposes. The plantations, chiefly on the summits of the hills, are mostly Scotch firs. There are some small clusters of houses in several parts, inhabited by agricultural labourers; but none can properly be called a village. Facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-road from Cupar to Newburgh, which passes along the boundary of the parish, and by a statute road in good repair. The rateable annual value of Moonzie is £2215. Its ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife. The minister's stipend is £187. 17. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum; patron, the Earl of Glasgow. The church, situated on rising ground in the south-west portion of the parish, is an ancient plain structure without either tower or spire; it has recently been repaired, and contains 171 sittings, all of which are free. The parochial school is attended by about sixty children; the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees average £18 per annum. The remains of Lordscairnie Castle stand on some gently-rising ground nearly in the centre of what is called the Myre, previously to the draining of which, the castle must have been surrounded with water. They consist chiefly of the walls, which are about six feet in thickness and forty feet in height, and comprise four stories: of the wall that inclosed the court, little is left except one of the several towers by which it was defended. There are also some remains of Colluthie House, now repaired, and converted into a private residence; and stone coffins have been found at various times in the parish.

Moray

MORAY, county of.—See Elginshire.

Mordington

MORDINGTON, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 4 miles (N. W.) from Berwick-on-Tweed; containing 392 inhabitants. This place, situated on the border, and consequently exposed to frequent hostile incursions, was celebrated for its ancient castle, seated on the summit of a rock rising almost perpendicularly from the bank of the river Whiteadder, which winds round its base. It appears to have been regarded as a fortress of importance at an early period, and to have been alternately in the possession of the Scots and English; and in treaties of peace concluded between the two kingdoms, it invariably formed an article of separate stipulation. It was in the hands of the English for a considerable time prior to the reign of Henry VIII., by whom it was voluntarily restored to James V. in 1534, from which period till the Union it was held, with the lands appertaining to it, in royal demesne. Previously to the middle of the 17th century the parish comprised only the barony of Mordington and the lands of Edrington; but the manor of Lamberton was then severed from the parish of Ayton, and annexed to Mordington. The church or chapel of Lamberton, which had been an appendage of the priory of Coldingham, but had long fallen into decay, is distinguished for the marriage contract concluded within its walls between James IV. of Scotland, and Margaret, daughter of Henry VII. of England, in the year 1503.

The parish is about four miles in extreme length, and of very irregular form; it is bounded on the east by the German Sea, and on the south by the river Whiteadder, and comprises 3600 acres, of which 2600 are arable, 30 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moorland pasture and waste. The surface is greatly varied, and rises in the northern portion into numerous eminences commanding extensive and richlydiversified prospects over the surrounding country, with part of the county of Northumberland, terminating to the south in the range of the Cheviot hills, towards the east embracing a view of the ocean, and to the west, the Rubberslaw, the Eildon, and the Lammermoor hills. The southern portion has a gentle declivity to the banks of the Whiteadder, and on the east towards the sea. The scenery is enriched with woods of ancient growth and with thriving plantations, and is in many parts very picturesque, the river winding beautifully between precipitous banks richly wooded: the coast is one continued series of steep and rugged rocks, of which some in detached masses project boldly into the sea. The soil is various, in some parts marshy, and in others fertile and productive; the chief crops are, grain of every kind, with potatoes and turnips. The system of agriculture is advanced; manure of all kinds is obtained in abundance from Berwick, and bone-dust has been employed with success in the cultivation of turnips; the lands have been drained and inclosed; the farm houses and offices are substantial and well arranged, and all the more recent improvements in implements are in general use. Considerable numbers of cattle and sheep are pastured in the upland parts, but few are reared on the farms. The plantations are in a flourishing condition. The chief substrata are, sandstone, indurated marl, and trap-rock with porphyry; coal is supposed to exist in abundance, though at a considerable depth. Two seams of it have already been discovered, varying from twentysix to thirty-two feet in thickness, and it is thought that beneath these there is another seam; lime has been also found, near the coal, but of very inferior quality. Mordington House, pleasantly seated on an eminence, and Edrington House, situated in a richly-wooded demesne, are both handsome mansions.

A lucrative fishery is carried on at the small village of Ross: the fish generally taken off the coast are, cod, ling, and haddock, lobsters, crabs, and salmon in small quantities; the cod, ling, and haddock are sent chiefly to Edinburgh, and the lobsters by smacks to the London market. Salmon and trout are found also in the Whiteadder, but not in any large quantity. A flour-mill is set in motion by the Whiteadder, near the castle of Edrington, and a threshing-mill, above 500 feet distant, is worked by the same wheel by means of a shaft carried through a tunnel in the rock. The agricultural produce of the parish is sent to Berwick, and to the newly-established market at Eyemouth; and wool-staplers from all parts of Yorkshire attend to purchase wool, for the manufacture of which several of them have mills on the banks of the Whiteadder, whereof one is within the parish. The rateable annual value of Mordington is £3328. It is in the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and in the patronage of J. Campbell Renton, Esq.: the minister's stipend is £157. 11. 8., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £37. 10. per annum. The church, erected in 1757, is a neat plain edifice adapted for a congregation of 170 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords a liberal education to about fifty children; the master has a salary of £34, with £23 fees, and a house and garden. A small library is supported by subscription; it contains a well-assorted collection of books, which circulate gratuitously. A portion of the outer walls of the chapel of Lamberton is still remaining, and is appropriated as a place of sepulture by the family of the present proprietor of the Lamberton estate. There is also a small portion of the castle of Edrington, or Mordington, existing, though in a very dilapidated condition. On the heights towards the north-west are the remains of a circular camp supposed to be of Danish origin; it appears to have been defended with a triple entrenchment, of which the ramparts are about twenty feet high: one-half, within this parish, is tolerably entire; but the other, in the parish of Ayton, is almost obliterated.

Morebattle and Mow

MOREBATTLE and MOW, a parish in the district of Kelso, county of Roxburgh; containing 1051 inhabitants, of whom 365 are in the village, 7½ miles (S. S. E.) from Kelso. The name of Morebattle is supposed to have been derived from the Saxon words Mere, "a marsh," and Botl, "a hamlet," descriptive of its state in former times, when it seems to have been to a considerable extent under water. The name of Mow has been traced to the ancient British word Moel, which signifies "bare" or "naked," and it is also descriptive of the appearance of the district to which it is applied. Few events of importance are recorded in connexion with the parish; but it contains some circular rows of stones called the Trysting-stones, and on the heights are traces of encampments which, like similar antiquities in many neighbouring places, indicate the scene of military operations of the particulars of which we are altogether ignorant. There is also a tower or fort called Whitton, now nearly in ruins, which was demolished by the Earl of Surrey in the reign of Henry VIII., on the occasion of his making an inroad into this part of the country. Another fort, called Corbet-House Tower, was burnt in 1522 by the English, who were then plundering the banks of the Kale and Beaumont, in retaliation for a marauding expedition of the Scots into Northumberland, of which Launcelot Ker, of Gateshaw, had been one of the leaders. This tower was repaired and renewed about thirty years ago by the late Sir Charles Ker.

The length of the parish from north to south is about nine and a half miles, and its breadth from east to west six miles; it contains 23,000 acres. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Yetholm and Linton; on the south by Northumberland and Hownam parish; on the east by part of Yetholm and by Northumberland; and on the west by Hownam, Eckford, and Linton. The surface is diversified throughout by hill and valley, the parish extending to the summit of the Cheviot range; and the lands exhibit the usual features of mountain scenery. The principal hills are, part of the Cheviots, the Curr, the Schell, the Whitelaw, Percy hill, Woodside hill, and Clifton hill, the last of which rises majestically with its well-rounded top from the eastern side of the valley of Beaumont. These hills vary in height from 500 to upwards of 2000 feet, and are covered in general with rich verdure. Some of them, especially the Cheviot range, command beautiful prospects of the counties of Northumberland, Berwick, and Roxburgh, with the German Ocean on the east, and on the west and south the mountainous tract stretching from Westmorland to the sources of the Clyde and the Tweed.

The circle embraced by the eye from the Grubit hills, though not so extensive as that from some others, is more picturesque and striking, and crowded with wellarranged and interesting objects standing in the midst of a wide field of the most attractive scenery. The fine vales of the Kale and the Beaumont lie at the base of this eminence, and are studded with the pleasant villages of Yetholm and Morebattle, the Primside and Linton lochs, the romantic church of Linton, the wooded villas of Marlfield and Clifton Park, the celebrated ruins of Cessford Castle, the tower of Corbet House, and many cheerful farm-houses with their neighbouring and peaceful cottages. The distant perspective includes on the one side the lofty range of the Cheviots, and on the other the district of Merse, ornamented with many seats of the gentry, the rich vale of the Teviot, and the windings of the Tweed, with other interesting objects, the back-ground terminated by the hills of Lammermoor and Selkirkshire. Wood is wanting generally throughout the parish, and in several places waste patches prominently appear; but some of these have been recently cultivated and planted, and it is expected that this description of improvement will now make gradual progress. The climate is dry and salubrious, except in the higher parts, where, on account of the peculiar character of the land, the winters are severe and stormy. The chief rivers are the Kale and the Beaumont, both of which rise in the Cheviot range. At the close of autumn, salmon from the Teviot and Tweed ascend the Kale for the purpose of spawning, and great numbers are killed in the night by torch-light: the streams also abound in excellent trout. The lochs are those of Yetholm and Linton, but only parts of them are in this parish.

The soil in general is light, and well adapted to turnip husbandry, which prevails to a considerable extent. The higher lands are in pasture; but the lower are under tillage, and produce, besides turnips, much barley and oats, with a small quantity of wheat: the five-years' rotation is usually followed, in which case the land remains for two years in grass; but in the four-years' shift it lies in grass only one year. Dung produced on the farm, lime, and guano are the manures chiefly used; and the last of these has vastly multiplied the turnip crops, the larger part of which are eaten off the ground by the sheep, which thus supply a sufficient manuring for the remaining years of the rotation. The cattle are mostly of the short-horned or Teeswater breed; and the sheep are mainly the Cheviots and the Leicesters, the former kept on the higher grounds, and the latter on the lower: there is also a cross between these two breeds on some of the farms. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,388. The village stands on an eminence on the banks of the Kale: the houses, formerly consisting of only one story, with a thatched roof, are now principally of two stories, and covered with slate. A small common near it was divided among the inhabitants about forty years ago by consent of the Marquess of Tweeddale, of whom the houses are held on lease; it has since been inclosed and cultivated, and now produces good crops, to the great advantage of the villagers. The whole population of the parish are employed in agricultural pursuits and in the domestic trades required by the neighbourhood. Coal is the fuel used, but being brought from a distance of seventeen or eighteen miles, is procured only at considerable expense. A turnpike-road passes through the village, communicating with the Kelso and Jedburgh road on the west, and running to Northumberland on the east.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Kelso and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; patron, the Duke of Roxburghe. The stipend of the minister is £235, with a large manse, and a glebe of eleven acres of good land: the house is badly constructed, but has lately undergone considerable repairs. The church, situated on the north side of the village, was built in 1750, and seats 450 persons: it was originally dedicated to St. Lawrence, from whom a well below the churchyard is still called Lawrie's well. There are places of worship belonging to the Free Church and United Secession. Two parochial schools are maintained, in which are taught mathematics and Latin, with all the usual branches of an ordinary education. The master of the school at Morebattle has the maximum salary, with about £30 fees, and a house and garden; and the master of the other school, which is situated at Mowhaugh, on Beaumont water, has a salary of £17, with about £10 fees, and the allowance of house and garden. There is also a parochial library containing nearly 700 volumes. About eighty-five years since, £1500 were left by Mr. Moir, a native of the parish, for the support and education of indigent orphans. Thomson, the author of the Seasons, occasionally resided in the parish, at Wideopen, the property of his maternal uncle.

Morgay

MORGAY, an island, in the parish of North Uist, county of Inverness; containing 2 inhabitants.

Morham

MORHAM, a parish, in the county of Haddington, 3½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Haddington; containing 287 inhabitants. This place appears to have derived its name from its situation at the head of an extensive tract of land which was formerly an uncultivated moor. There was anciently a castle here, the baronial residence of the Lord of Morham, which in the 12th century belonged to the family of Malherb, who subsequently took their name from the estate; and, by marriage with the daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas de Morham, the lands were conveyed to John de Gifford, of Yester, from whom they passed to the Hays, of Locherwart, ancestors of the Marquess of Tweeddale. The glen of Morham is by some writers supposed to have been the resort of the early preachers of Christianity in this part of Britain, and probably of St. Baldred while promulgating the Christian doctrine; a small elevated rock is pointed out as the station occupied by the preacher, and the opposite slope, ascending gradually from the bank of a rivulet, as the place of his assembled hearers. The parish is about three miles in length, and varies in breadth from half a mile to one mile; it comprises 1840 acres, of which, with the exception of 60 in woods and plantations, the whole is in good cultivation. The surface rises towards the Lammermoor range of hills, but no where attains an elevation of more than 300 feet above the level of the sea; it is watered by a small rivulet, and by springs which afford a sufficient supply for domestic use. The soil is generally clayey, of greater or less stiffness, in some parts exceedingly rich and fertile; and from a judicious course of husbandry, there is, as already stated, no waste or unproductive land. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips; the lands are well inclosed, chiefly with stone dykes, but on some farms with hedges of thorn, both of which are kept in good repair; draining has been very extensively practised, and all the more recent improvements in agricultural implements have been adopted. The farm houses and offices are commodious, but inferior to those of other parishes in the district; and especially the cottages of the labourers require improvement. About 400 sheep are annually pastured; but the lands being almost exclusively under tillage, the breed of live-stock is very little attended to. The substratum is mostly trap-rock, in some parts interspersed with porphyry, and tinted with iron-ore; coal was formerly wrought here, but the works have been long discontinued. Freestone is still quarried, but not in great quantities; it is of a coarse quality, and very soft. The nearest markettown is Haddington, which is the principal mart for the agricultural produce of the parish, and for the supply of its inhabitants with the necessary articles of commerce; there is, however, but little facility of communication, the roads, though good, being very circuitous, and no regular mode of conveyance being established. The rateable annual value of Morham is £3318. It is in the presbytery of Haddington and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and patronage of Sir Charles Fergusson: the minister's stipend is £156. 1. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum. The date of the foundation of the ancient church is unknown; it was taken down, and the present edifice erected in 1724, a neat and substantial structure affording sufficient accommodation for all the parishioners, and capable of being much enlarged at an inconsiderable expense. The parochial school, for which a school-house has been recently built, affords a suitable education to more than seventy children, of whom several attend from the adjoining parishes; the master has a salary of £34, with £36 fees, a house, and an allowance in money for deficiency of garden ground. The vault of the Dalrymples, of Hailes, occupies a small aisle of the church. Sir David Dalrymple, the first baronet of that family; his son, Sir James, auditor of the exchequer, and connected by marriage with the earls of Haddington; and Lord Hailes, who died in 1792, were all interred here.

Mormond

MORMOND, a village, in the parish of Strichen, county of Aberdeen, 1¼ mile (N. N. E.) from Strichen; containing 681 inhabitants. This place takes its name from the adjacent hill of Mormond, an eminence rising to the height of 800 feet above the level of the sea, which was used as one of the stations in the recent trigonometrical survey of Scotland, and is supposed to be the Roman post Ad Montem Grampium of Richard of Cirencester. The building of the village, which is situated on a tributary of the North Ugie, was commenced in 1764, at the instance of Lord Strichen, the proprietor, and at that time one of the judges of the court of session. The houses are chiefly of native granite, and are disposed in regular streets; many of them have slated roofs, and are of exceedingly neat and interesting appearance, and the cleanly and industrious population comprise masons, blacksmiths, carpenters, tailors, and numerous shoemakers and weavers. The turnpike-road from Peterhead to Banff passes through the village, in which there are several inns, and a neat town-house with a spire, built in 1816, by the order of Mrs. Fraser, of Strichen, mother of Lord Lovat.

Morningside

MORNINGSIDE, a district, within the limits of the parish of St. Cuthbert, suburbs of the city of Edinburgh, 1½ mile (S. by W.) from Edinburgh; containing 1795 inhabitants. This district was separated for ecclesiastical purposes from the parish of St. Cuthbert, and comprehends a large and fine portion of the southern suburbs of the metropolis; it is richly studded with mansions, villas, and other handsome residences, and is remarkable for the salubrity and mildness of its air. The village of Morningside is a favourite summer resort of the citizens, and is delightfully situated on an acclivity beyond Boroughmuir-Head and Burntsfield-Links, looking towards the Blackford, Braid, and Pentland hills. In its immediate vicinity is the City and County Lunatic Asylum, an extensive range of building, with additions from designs by Mr. Burn. Around the village are also the old castle of Merchiston, the seat of the inventor of logarithms; Greenhill, the property of Sir John Forbes, of Pitsligo, Bart.; Burntsfield House, that of Sir George Warrender, Bart.; St. Margaret's Convent, Falcon Hall, Whitehouse, Woodburn, Canaan House, Woodville, Canaan Lodge, Millbank, Viewpark, and several others. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Edinburgh and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; patrons, the Congregation, Trustees, and Session. The church was erected in 1837, from a design by Mr. Henderson, and is a neat building beautifully situated, containing 634 sittings. Here are also a place of worship for members of the Free Church; and a considerable academy, of some celebrity.

Mortlach

MORTLACH, a parish, in the county of Banff, 11 miles (N. E.) from Keith; containing, with the village of Dufftown, 2594 inhabitants, of whom 770 are in the village. This place, which is of very remote antiquity, was originally the seat of a bishopric; and there is still extant a charter granted by Malcolm II. to the first bishop, in which it is called Morthelac, or Morthlac, a name supposed to be a corruption of the Gaelic Morlay, signifying "a great hollow," and minutely descriptive of the situation of its church. In 1010, Malcolm obtained here a signal victory over the Danes, by whom he had been defeated in the year preceding, and before whom he was now retreating, after having lost three of his principal nobles in the previous skirmish. Arrested in their retreat by the narrowness of a pass near the church, and which also retarded the pursuit of the enemy, the flying army had time to rally and renew the conflict, in which Malcolm killed the general of the Danes with his own hand, and put his army to the rout with great slaughter. From this circumstance some writers suppose the place to have derived the appellation of Mortis-Lacus, of which its present name might be only a modification. The parish is of irregular form, fifteen miles in its greatest length and nearly twelve at its greatest breadth; it is bounded on the north by the parishes of Boharm and Botriphnie, on the east by Glass, on the south by Cabrach and Inveraven, and on the west by Aberlour. It is nearly inclosed by hills, of which the highest are the Corhabbie and the Benrinnes, the latter having an elevation of 2561 feet above the level of the sea. The surface is intersected by the small rivers Fiddich and Dullen, the former of which rises in Glenfiddich, and the latter in Glenrinnes, on the confines of Glenlivet; and after uniting their streams about a mile below the church, they flow together into the Spey near the northern extremity of the parish, which extends to the river Doveran on the south.

The whole number of acres is 35,000, of which 5000 are under tillage, and the remainder, with the exception of 600 acres of woodland, is pasture and waste, whereof but a few acres seem capable of being brought into cultivation. The soil is in general a rich and deep loam, producing excellent crops; the system of agriculture is greatly improved, and much attention has recently been paid to the draining and reclamation of unprofitable land. Limestone of good quality is found in the parish, and slate is also quarried; granite is very general, but no quarries have hitherto been opened. In some parts are indications of alum and lead-ore, and the laminæ of some of the rocks resemble asbestos: antimony in small quantities is imbedded in the limestone rocks; and in those of grey slate, small garnets are frequently found, especially in those to the east of the river Fiddich. The plantations consist of ash, elm, oak, birch, plane, Scotch fir, and larch. Great attention is paid to the breed of cattle, which are mostly a cross between the Highland and Aberdeenshire; and numbers of sheep, chiefly of the black-faced breed, are fed. Grain is occasionally sent to the village of Dufftown, and sold to persons resorting thither for that purpose; and cattle-markets are held five times in the year. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5197. Its ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of Moray; the patronage is vested in the Crown, and the stipend of the incumbent is £192. The manse, a very ancient building, was enlarged in 1807, and is now a comfortable residence; the glebe, which has been greatly diminished by the encroachment of the river Dullen at different times, comprises at present about five acres, valued at £8 per annum. The church, a venerable structure, was enlarged by Malcolm II. in fulfilment of his vow on the occasion of his victory over the Danes; and in the north wall are inserted three skulls of Danes slain in that battle, which are still in a state of entire preservation. It was again enlarged in 1824, and now affords accommodation to 886 persons. At Glenrinnes is a missionary church, built many years since at the expense of the heritors and inhabitants of the district; and the minister has a stipend of £60 per annum, Royal Bounty, with a house and garden, and three acres of land, rent-free. Near the parish church is a Roman Catholic chapel, a neat building erected within the last few years. The parochial school affords a good education to about ninety children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees on the average amount to £25. Dr. John Lorimer bequeathed £200 for the maintenance of a bursar in this school, and an additional sum of £200 for an exhibition to Marischal College, Aberdeen, for the further prosecution of his studies. There is also a school at Glenrinnes, under the General Assembly, attended by about fifty scholars on the average; a circulating library is supported, and there is a small library for the use of the Sunday school. The poor have the interest of 1500 merks bequeathed by William Duff, Esq., who also gave 500 merks to the use of the schoolmaster; and £100 by Alexander Forbes, Esq., which he appropriated to the benefit only of four families. On a commanding situation on the bank of the Fiddich, are the ruins of the ancient castle of Auchindown, the founder of which is unknown; it was till lately the property of the Gordon family, in whose possession it had been for more than three centuries. A massive ring of gold, consisting of three links, was found among the ruins within the last thirty years, with an inscription which was legible when the links were placed in a particular position. Near the confluence of the rivers Fiddich and Dullen are also the remains of the castle of Balvery, situated on the summit of a bold eminence; the entrance gateway is still entire, and above the lofty entrance is the motto of the Atholl family, "Furth Fortuine and Fill the Fettris:" this castle is the property of the Earl of Fife. On the Conval hill, in this parish, are the remains of a Danish camp. A large stone, which is said to have been placed over the grave of the Danish general who was killed by Malcolm in the battle of Mortlach, now forms part of a fence; and there is an upright stone, about seven feet in height, having on one side a cross and representation of two animals, and on the other a snake, rudely sculptured.

Morton

MORTON, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 15 miles (N. W. by N.) from Dumfries; containing, with the village of Thornhill, and part of Carronbridge, 2161 inhabitants. The name of Morton, which is Anglo-Saxon, signifies "the stronghold or dwelling on the moor;" and the parish appears to have been thus denominated from the old castle of Morton, a very strong place, the striking ruins of which are still to be seen upon an extensive moor at the bottom of a beautiful green hill. This castle is supposed to have been originally the possession of a Norman chief named de Moreville, whose family had settled in Scotland in the 10th century, obtained a large part of the estates in this neighbourhood, and risen to great power and eminence. He was appointed hereditary lord high constable of Scotland; and his grandson, Hugo de Moreville, in the year 1140, founded the monastery of Kilwinning, in Ayrshire, and in 1144 the abbey of Dryburgh, in Teviotdale. Hugo afterwards gave a portion of land called the Park to the abbey of Melrose; but this property, with the church of Morton, was eventually bestowed on the monks of Kelso. The possessions at Hugo's death, came to his son, and subsequently to his grandson, William de Moreville, who dying without issue, they all fell, by marriage with Emma, sister of William, to Roland, Lord of Galloway, who also, with the castle and all the property, obtained the office of lord high constable. Allan, Roland's son, married Margaret, the eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, by whom he had three daughters, the eldest of whom was married to John Baliol, the father of John Baliol, King of Scotland. After Bruce ascended the throne, the lands of the Baliol family and their adherents were conferred as rewards of service on the friends of the new king, of whom Randolph, Bruce's nephew, obtained extensive grants of land in Annandale, as well as the castle of Morton, which he held when regent during the minority of David Bruce.

But the property here not long after passed into other hands; for Robert II. bestowed his daughter, Egidia, on William Douglas, natural son of Archibald Douglas, Lord of Galloway, to whom he gave as a dowry the castle of Morton and the district of Nithsdale. In 1390, Douglas set out for Prussia to the Holy war, and was killed at Dantzic, on the Vistula, by assassins hired by Clifford, an Englishman, formerly his rival, and still envious of his honour and promotion. Since this time the castle and lands of Morton have been in the possession of some branch of the family of Douglas. The parish has long given a title to the Douglases, earls of Morton, whose residence at one time is said to have been Morton Castle, and who were proprietors of the whole lands, with the exception of the Mains of Morton, lying north-west of the castle, and which belonged to the Douglases, lairds of Morton, one of whom, Malcolm Douglas of Mains, was distinguished for his bravery in the border wars. The last of this family of Mains was Captain James Douglas, who died at Bratford, in the parish of Penpont, about the beginning of the last century. The earls eventually sold their property and interest here to Sir William Douglas Cashoggle, who built a house a little south of Thornhill, called the Red House, where be sometimes resided; but William Douglas, first earl of Queensberry, obtained from Cashoggle nearly all his lands, as well as the lands of Morton-Mains from the other family, and, being lord of the regality of Hawick, procured authority in 1610 to translate that regality to Thornhill, to which he gave the name of New Dalgarnoch. In 1810 the Scotts, dukes of Buccleuch, succeeded to this and other property of the dukes of Queensberry.

The parish is six miles in length from north to south, and its mean breadth is about two miles; it contains 7680 acres. It is bounded on the north and north-west by the parish of Crawford, in Lanarkshire; on the west by the parish of Durisdeer, from which it is separated by the Sheilhouse rivulet and the river Carron; on the south-west by the Nith, with the exception of about 120 acres called Morton holm, lying on the south-west bank of that river; and on the south-east and east by the parish of Closeburn and Dalgarno, from which it is divided by the Cample. The surface throughout is diversified by hill and valley, except along the banks of the rivers, where it is flat. The rising grounds consist partly of three considerable ridges north of the Nith, large tracts of which are uncultivated, and on the first of which the village of Thornhill is situated. The surface afterwards is gradually depressed until the declivity of the third ridge terminates in a valley; and then appear other hills and mountains, one of which rises 2500 feet above the level of the sea, though there is generally a considerable tract of rich arable and meadow land near the bases of the heights. In the interior of the parish, are numerous springs, rivulets, and burns; and the rivers Carron and Cample run, as already stated, on its western and eastern boundaries, and the river Nith on the south-west.

The soil is rich and productive along the banks of the rivers, and on the first of the three ridges light and fertile, resting upon a gravelly bottom: on the two other ridges it is wet and heavy, and lies upon a clayey subsoil. About 2600 acres are under cultivation; 580 are under wood, ninety of which consist chiefly of British oak fifty years old; and 4500 acres are waste or natural pasture, 1200 of which are considered capable of profitable cultivation. The grain is chiefly oats and barley, and the green crops produced are of good quality. The sheep usually reared are the black-faced, which, as being more hardy, are considered better suited than the Cheviots to the climate of the parish; the cattle are mostly the black Galloways, but the cows preferred for the dairy are of the Ayrshire breed. The stock of draught horses has within these few years been much bettered. The best system of husbandry is now adopted, and great improvements have been made of late. Large tracts of uncultivated land have been fully reclaimed; inclosures and plantations are increasing with unusual rapidity; and farm houses and offices of a very superior kind are rising in every direction. The Duke of Buccleuch is sole proprietor of the parish, with the exception of the farm of Ridings; and its rateable annual value amounts to £2817. The rocks which lie under the arable land consist chiefly of red sandstone; the mountains rest on the primitive and whinstone formations. The mansion-house of the duke's chamberlain is elegant and commodious. There are two villages, viz. Carronbridge and Thornhill, the latter of which has received great attention from the proprietor, and exhibits many important improvements. It has excellent shops, two good inns, and a tannery employing about thirty hands; and is a clean, healthy, and populous village, through which the high roads from Dumfries, and from Galloway by Minnyhive and Penpont, pass to Edinburgh and Glasgow. There are fairs in this village in February, May, August, and November, on the second Tuesday in the month, Old Style; many persons meet here to hire servants, and there is a considerable traffic in coarse woollen and linen cloth, and in yarn made in the neighbourhood.

The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Penpont and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. The stipend of the minister is £237; and there is a small but comfortable manse, with a glebe of about twenty acres, worth £25 a year. The church, an elegant edifice in the early Norman style, was built in 1840; it stands on an elevated spot near the village of Thornhill, chosen by the duke, by whom, it is understood, the plan of the building was designed; and from its picturesque appearance is a great ornament to the surrounding country. There is also a dissenting meeting-house, formerly belonging to the Antiburgher persuasion, but now held by the United Associate Synod. A parochial school is maintained, the master of which has a salary of £34, about £30 fees, and a free house and garden, with upwards of two acres of land. Other schools are supported by fees; and there is a flourishing subscription library in the village of Thornhill, instituted in 1814; besides three or four friendly societies in the parish. Among the antiquities is a Roman fort or castellum with intrenchments, called the Deer Camp; it is situated about two miles north of Tibbers, the great station in the parish of Penpont. The castle of Morton, however, is the most considerable relic of antiquity, though not above half of it now remains; it stands on the margin of a deep glen, and the ruin is about 100 feet in length, and nearly thirty in breadth. The wall of the south front, still entire, is about forty feet high, and has at each corner a round tower twelve feet in diameter: the foundation walls are generally eight, but in some places ten, feet thick. About the beginning of the last century a boat, cut from one solid piece of wood, and resembling an Indian canoe, was dug out of the bottom of a tract of moss not far from the castle, a circumstance which has led to the conclusion that the ground on which it stands was formerly encircled by a loch. In the vicinity other relics have been discovered, indicating the occurrence of hostile engagements. There are several chalybeate springs in the parish; and near the castle is a spring issuing from a peat-moss, impregnated with a small quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen, and the water of which has proved of singular advantage in cutaneous complaints.

Morvern

MORVERN, a parish, in the district of Mull, county of Argyll, 18 miles (W. S. W.) from Strontian; containing 1774 inhabitants. This place, which anciently formed part of the territory of the celebrated Somerled, Thane of Argyll, takes its name from the Gaelic term Mhor Earrain, signifying "the great division, mainland, or continent." The parish is in the northern part of the county, and measures in extreme length from east to west twenty miles, and fifteen miles at its greatest breadth; comprising 85,369 acres, of which 4054 are arable, 78,246 pasture, and the remainder wood. It forms a peninsula, being bounded on all sides by water except along its eastern limit, which extends for twelve miles; and its line of coast falls but little short of 100 miles. On the north it is girt by Loch Sunart, on the west and south by the sound of Mull, and on the south-east by Linnhe loch. Towards the middle of the parish, Loch Aline, running into the land on the south from the sound of Mull, and Loch Teagus, in like manner penetrating from Loch Sunart on the north, form a kind of peninsula of the western division of the parish, though not so perfect a peninsula as the larger. The coast is marked by numerous creeks and bays, where vessels find good anchorage and shelter; and there are also several ferries for the convenience of local transit, affording great accommodation to the people. The inhabited islands of Oransay and Carna, belonging to the parish, are situated in Loch Sunart. The former is barren and rocky, about two miles long, and pierced in many places on each side with creeks and bays, which sometimes nearly meet each other; it is separated from the main land on the south by Druimbuy, a safe and commodious harbour, scarcely surpassed by any on the western coast, though but little frequented. The island of Carna, not far to the north-east of Oransay, lies near the entrance of Loch Teagus, and has in many parts a rugged and forbidding surface, but in its eastern portion is verdant, fertile, and pleasant. The loch of Aline, on the south, has a convenient harbour; but some draw-back to its extensive use is found in its narrow entrance, and the necessity of waiting frequently for a favourable wind and tide. The bay of Ardtornish, with north and westerly winds, also offers safe anchorage.

The surface in the interior is varied by several mountains; the highest are those of Ben-eaddan, Benna-hua, and Si'ain-na-Rapaich, the first of which rises 2306 feet above the level of the sea, and has towards the summit a series of excavated steps called Fingal's Stairs. The scenery of the parish in general is not interesting; but some portions supply a very pleasing, and occasionally a splendid, contrast to the less inviting tracts. The more distant views, also, especially those of the sable waters of the sound of Mull, and of the lofty mountain ranges on the isle, are of considerable interest; and several of the scenes have been celebrated by the muse of Scott. Airi-Innis is the largest inland lake, measuring two miles in length and half a mile in breadth; besides which there are the lakes of Daoire-nam-Mart and Ternate. The principal river is that of Gear-Abhain, which, after being increased by numerous tributaries, and flowing through a pleasant valley till enlarged by a supply of water from Airi-Innis, falls into Loch Aline. Minor streams, and torrents and cascades, occur in every part of the locality; and among the last the most celebrated are the falls of Ardtornish, which overhang the bay of the same name, near the ruins of the ancient castle. The waters in different directions contain a tolerable supply of fish, and the usual kinds are taken in the sound of Mull, with the exception of haddock and whiting, which latter, however, are abundant in Lochs Linnhe and Sunart. There is a small salmon-fishery in Loch Aline.

The soil is of moderate fertility, and the crops generally cultivated are oats, barley, and potatoes, with small quantities occasionally of sown grasses and turnips; but no more grain is raised than is necessary for home consumption. Husbandry has, however, been considerably improved, chiefly by the subdivision of farms and the introduction of a better system of cropping; much bad land, also, has been improved, and several tracts of moss reclaimed. The small holders are usually tenants at will; where leases are granted the period is for nineteen years. The sheep are mostly the black-faced, frequently crossed with Cheviots, and the cattle are the Argyllshire or West Highland; large numbers of sheep are constantly grazed, and some hundreds of cows. The rocks in Morvern are of two distinct species. The country from Ardtornish, on the south, stretching along the sound of Mull to the north-western boundary, in breadth about five miles, consists principally of lofty ranges of the trap formation; while in the interior and the upper part of the parish the substrata are chiefly gneiss and mica-slate. Freestone from the quarries of Loch Aline and Ardtornish has been used for many public works. Good lead-ore is found at Lurg, in GlenDubh; and at Ternate, on the property of Ardtornish, are indications of copper, a metal once wrought here. The parish is said to have been formerly covered with wood, large quantities of which were consumed, while standing, in the disturbed times of 1745. The mosses abound in the remains of forests; and immense trunks of oak are seen on the sides of mountains, as well as large coppices of this and other wood in different places, the cutting of which was a lucrative source of revenue previously to the sale of the Argyll estates in 1819, when the lands passed to other proprietors according to the present divisions. Almost every other description of timber has also suffered from the axe since the extensive introduction of sheep-farming; but some very fine old trees are yet remaining, and the shores of Loch Sunart display heights richly clothed, especially with birch, to the great embellishment of the scenery. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4752. There are three ferries on the sound of Mull, and two on Loch Sunart; but the communication with distant places is carried on chiefly by the Tobermory steam-vessels, which, if suspended in the winter, are replaced by a packet-boat plying between Loch Aline and Oban. The parish is almost entirely destitute of roads; and, in consequence, the communication of the post-office with that of Oban, which takes place three times a week, is much impeded. A fair is held twice annually, on the days preceding the Mull summer and winter markets, for the sale of black-cattle, the hiring of servants, and general business. Coal is imported occasionally for fuel; but peat is in general use, though procured at much trouble and expense.

The parish is in the presbytery of Mull and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Duke of Argyll: the minister's stipend is £155, with a mause, and a glebe of sixty acres, valued at £27. 10. per annum. Morvern being formed of the two ancient parishes of Kilcolumkill and Kilumtaith, united shortly after the Reformation, there are two churches, at which the incumbent officiates alternately, as well as at several other stations. One of the churches was built in 1780, and the other in 1799; both are in good repair, and afford sufficient accommodation, and all the sittings are free. A portion of the parish, at the head of Loch Sunart, has been united quoad sacra to the parliamentary parish of Strontian, in the parish of Ardnamurchan; and a missionary preaches in this quarter every fortnight, supported by the Royal Bounty. There are also two catechists, maintained from the same fund. A Roman Catholic chapel has lately been erected. There are three parochial schools, where English and Gaelic are both taught, with the ordinary branches of education; and the higher studies may be followed, if required, at one of the schools: the maximum salary is divided among the masters, who have also about £8 each in fees. The ruins of a religious establishment founded by St. Columba are still visible; and in the parish is also a vitrified fort, with several old castles, of which the most interesting is the ruin of Ardtornish. This was in ancient times a stronghold of the Lords of the Isles, and the place where a meeting was held between the commissioners of Edward IV. and those of John, of the Isles, on the 19th of October, 1461, when the treaty was concluded in which the latter acknowledged himself a vassal of the crown of England, and engaged to assist Edward in reducing the Scots to his sway. Here is also shown the tomb of the celebrated Machd-Mhic-Ian, who is said to have been killed in this parish in 1625, in an encounter with the clan Cameron.

Mosstodlach

MOSSTODLACH, a village, in the parish of Speymouth, county of Elgin, 2½ miles (S.) from Garmouth; containing 93 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Fochabers to Elgin, at its junction with the road from Garmouth to Rothes. The river Spey flows at a short distance from it, on the east.

Motherwell

MOTHERWELL, a village, in the parish of Dalziel, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from Hamilton; containing 726 inhabitants. It lies on the eastern border of Hamilton parish, and on the east side of the river Clyde; and derives its name from an ancient well dedicated to "Our Lady." The inhabitants are chiefly weavers, dependent upon Glasgow for work. The well partly supplies the village with water.

Moulin

MOULIN, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the villages of Kinnaird and Pitlochry, and part of the late quoad sacra parish of Tenandry, 2017 inhabitants, of whom 172 are in the village of Moulin, 13 miles (N. W. by N.) from Dunkeld. This place, of which the name is of doubtful etymology, is of considerable antiquity; and formed part of the possessions of David, eleventh earl of Atholl, upon whom King Robert Bruce conferred the office of constable of Scotland. On David's revolting against his sovereign, his estates were forfeited; and the barony of Moulin was granted by the king to Sir Neil Campbell and his wife, sister to Bruce, whose son John was subsequently created Earl of Atholl by David II., but died without issue at the battle of Halidon-Hill, in 1333, when the title and estates again reverted to the crown. The pass of Killiecrankie, in this parish, is memorable for the celebrated battle which took place there in 1689, between the English army under General Mackay, and the Highland forces commanded by Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, in support of the exiled James II. of England. In this battle, which terminated in favour of the Highlanders, not less than 2000 of Mackay's forces were slain, and Dundee was so severely wounded that he died soon after, and was interred in the church of Blair-Athol.

The parish is naturally divided into the nearly parallel districts of Atholl and Strathardle, separated from each other by a hill of inconsiderable height, about four miles in extent. The district of Atholl is about seven miles in length, and from five to seven in breadth; and that of Strathardle is eight miles in length, and nearly seven miles in breadth. The surface is diversified with mountainous heights, of which the most conspicuous is Bein-Breacaidh, rising to an elevation of nearly 3000 feet above the level of the sea; and with numerous verdant hills of gentler aspect, which add much to the beauty of the scenery. The vale of Atholl is watered by the Tummel and the Garry rivers, which unite their streams within the limits of the parish; and Strathardle, by the rivers Briarachan and Ardle, of which the former rises in the parish, and, uniting with the Arnat, forms the Ardle, whence the Strath has its name. The Garry and the Tummel are both impetuous streams, and in their course make numerous cascades; the most striking is the fall on the Tummel, near its confluence with the Garry at Faskally. The Garry runs for nearly three miles through the wildly romantic pass of Killiecrankie, between precipitous masses of rugged rock, which overhang the stream and obstruct its current, at times concealing it from view by thick branches of trees that have taken root in the clefts of the rocks. Both these rivers abound with trout; and during the season, salmon and grilse are found in great plenty, and of excellent quality. The only lake is Loch Broom, which is also much frequented by anglers. The parish is chiefly pastoral; about 3000 acres are arable, 2000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder mountain pasture and moorland. The soil along the banks of the rivers is light and sandy, but in other parts a deep loam of great fertility; and for a considerable breadth around the village of Moulin is a tract of the richest land in the county, producing exuberant crops of grain of every kind. The system of husbandry is much improved, and the regular rotations are observed according to the nature of the lands. The hills afford good pasturage for sheep, of which more than 13,000 are reared in the parish, chiefly of the black-faced breed, with a few of the Leicestershire; and the cattle are of the Highland breed, with a few of the pure Angus and Ayrshire. The horses reared are generally a cross between the native Highland and Clydesdale breeds. There are extensive remains of natural wood, consisting chiefly of oak and birch, of which latter there are numerous fine specimens in the pass of Killiecrankie; the plantations, also very extensive, are of oak, ash, beech, birch, larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, for all of which the soil appears to be well adapted. The substrata are, limestone, hornblende, mica-slate, of which also the rocks are mainly composed, and granular quartz; and large masses of marble of fine crystalline texture, and boulders of granite and quartz, are found in various places. The principal mansion-houses are, Edradour, Faskally, Urrard, Balnakeilly, Baledmund, Kindrogan, and Dirnanaen, most of which are elegant structures, beautifully situated in demesnes embellished with woods and plantations, and commanding finely-varied prospects. The rateable annual value of Moulin is £8117.

The village of Moulin stands in the southern portion of the parish, in the heart of a district abounding with picturesque scenery, and has a pleasingly-rural aspect; it consists of well-built cottages, and is inhabited chiefly by persons engaged in agricultural pursuits. Facility of communication is afforded by the great north road from Perth to Inverness, which passes through the parish; and a fair is held at Moulin on the first Tuesday in March, for the sale of horses and the purchase of seed corn. There is a post-office in the village of Pitlochry. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £150. 14. 3., of which one-third is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £26. 13. 4. per annum; patron, the Duke of Atholl. The church, erected in the village of Moulin, in 1831, is a neat substantial structure containing 650 sittings. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house, and £2 in lieu of garden; and the school fees average about £10, to which may be added £7 allowed by the Commissioners of Bishops' Rents, for the gratuitous instruction of poor children. There are also six Sunday schools, and a school for females at Pitlochry, of which the mistress receives £5 per annum from the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. In the parish are numerous upright stones, supposed to be Druidical remains. Near the village of Moulin are the ruins of an ancient castle, of which the origin is unknown; it is a quadrilateral structure of stone, eighty feet long and seventy-six wide, and was formerly surrounded by a lake, which has been drained, and the ground recently covered with plantations. There are also vestiges of Pictish houses. Coins of Edward I. of England, and Alexander III. of Scotland, were discovered some years since on the farm of Stronchavie; and in the pass of Killiecrankie, broken swords and fragments of military weapons have been found, some of which are deposited in the mansion of Urrard.

Mount-Pleasant

MOUNT-PLEASANT, a suburb of the town of Newburgh, in the parish of Abdie, district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing 524 inhabitants.—See Newburgh.

Mousa

MOUSA, an island, forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of Sandwick and Cunningsburgh, in the parish of Dunrossness, county of Shetland; containing 12 inhabitants. This island lies close to the east coast of the mainland, and at the entrance of Aith's Voe; it is also called Queen's Isle, and is about a mile in length and three-quarters of a mile in breadth. The village of Cunningsburgh is distant from it, north-westward, about two miles. In this island is a most perfect specimen of an ancient Scandinavian fortress, or, as some call it, Pictish castle: it is nearly entire, and in shape resembles a dice-box; its height is about forty-two feet, and over the walls, its diameter fifty feet; the walls are about ten feet in thickness, and hollow in the middle. It stands on the shore, and seems to have been a place of defence. Opposite to it are the ruins of another castle of the same description, round which are still visible the sites of a number of small houses.

Mouswald

MOUSWALD, a parish, in the county of Dumfries; containing, with the hamlets of Old Brocklehirst and Cleughbrae, 683 inhabitants, of whom 131 are in the village of Mouswald, 7 miles (E. S. E.) from Dumfries. The name of this parish was formerly spelt Muswald and Mosswald; the termination is probably derived from the Saxon word Walda, or Wealt, signifying "the woody district," and which, with the prefix moss, or mous, may be interpreted "the forest near the moss." Some, however, give to the termination the sense of "a long range of high land." Few important events are recorded in connexion with the parish; but at Mouswald Mains was the seat of Sir Simon Carruthers, laird of Mouswald, whose only daughter married into the Queensberry family, who thus came into the possession of the estate. The family of Grierson, of this parish, are descended from Gilbert, second son of Malcolm, laird of Mc Greggor, who died in 1374; his son obtained a charter from the family of Douglas of the lands and barony of Lag, in Nithsdale, and of Little Dalton, in Annandale, and his descendants have continued in this part of the country. Their present seat is Rockhall, in the parish of Mouswald. The last inhabitant of the castle of Lag, their former seat, which stands in the Glen of Lag, surrounded by lofty hills, in Dunscore parish, was Sir Robert Grierson, who, by virtue of his prerogative as baron of the regality, tried, condemned, and executed a sheep-stealer at Barnside Hill, about the end of the 17th century. This is said to have been the last instance in Nithsdale of a criminal suffering death by the sentence of a baron-bailie.

The parish is between four and five miles long and from two to three broad, and contains nearly 6000 acres; it is bounded on the north by Lochmaben, on the south by Ruthwell, on the east by Dalton, and on the west by Torthorwald. The surface is in general tolerably level; what rising grounds there are, ascend so gently that they are cultivated to the very summit, and the highest hill scarcely reaches 700 feet above the level of the sea. The only river is the Lochar, which, however, runs through the parish but for a very few yards. A part of the extensive moss called Lochar Moss lies within this parish, and contiguous to it a considerable breadth of both the pasture and arable ground is wet and marshy. A large proportion of the district near the farms immediately bordering on the moss is of a light and sandy soil, or thin earth resting upon gravel mixed with stones; and though carefully laid down with grass seeds, it runs into broom in two or three years. The land in the eastern part of the parish, however, which is higher, has a tolerably deep and rich soil, producing good crops. Upwards of 4000 acres are cultivated or occasionally in tillage; 1260, including more than 1100 of moss, afford indifferent pasture; and 150 acres are in woods and plantations. All kinds of white and green crops are grown. The cattle are the black Galloways, to the breed of which much attention is paid; and many very fine draught horses are reared, and large numbers of pigs, which latter in general are sent to London. Most of the modern improvements have been introduced; but the fences and a few farm-houses are still, to a great extent, in an unsatisfactory state. The chief rocks are greywacke and greywacke-slate, and in one place is blue limestone. The great post-road from Carlisle to Dumfries and Portpatrick runs through the parish from south-east to north-west; and on it both the Carlisle and the Portpatrick mail-coaches travel, together with several other coaches to different parts. There are also two excellent parish roads, besides others, facilitating the communication in every direction; and several convenient bridges. The rateable annual value of Mouswald is £3997. Its ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Marquess of Queensberry. The stipend is £200; and there is a commodious manse, with a glebe of 16 acres, valued at £20 per annum. The church is a handsome edifice, built a few years ago, and seats 386 persons. There is a parochial school, where the classics, with the usual branches, are taught; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 5., with the legal accommodations, and about £10 fees. The remains of several border forts are still visible, with some ancient cairns.

Mow

MOW, county of Roxburgh.—See Morebattle.

Moy

MOY, county of Elgin.—See Dyke and Moy.

Moy and Dalrossie

MOY and DALROSSIE, a parish, partly in the county of Nairn, but chiefly in the county of Inverness, 12 miles (S. E.) from Inverness; containing 967 inhabitants, of whom 15 are in that portion within the county of Nairn. This place comprises the ancient parishes of Moy and Dalrossie, which appear to have been united at a distant period not precisely ascertained. The former of these parishes is supposed to have derived its name from the Gaelic term Magh, signifying "a meadow or plain," which is its character; but the name of the latter is of doubtful origin. By some writers it is thought to have been derived from the Gaelic Dalfergussie, signifying "the valley of Fergus," of which, however, there is no corroborative evidence. With great appearance of probability Moy is thought to have been originally called Starsach-na-Gael, descriptive in the Gaelic language of its position at a pass between the Highland and the Lowland territories. This pass, which was bordered by high mountains on both sides, was so narrow that it might be easily defended by a few men against the largest numbers of assailants, and was consequently of great importance to its Highland proprietor, who could at any time make predatory incursions into the Low countries with perfect security, and prevent any of the clans from proceeding through his territories without his permission. So sensible, indeed, of their dependence upon him were the neighbouring chieftains, that they willingly agreed to pay a certain tax, consisting of a portion of their booty, as often as they passed through this defile with the spoils they had taken in their frequent depredations. The lands, in the year 1336, were granted by the Bishop of Moray to William, the seventh lord Mackintosh, the chief of the clan Chattan, which consisted of sixteen different tribes, each having its own leader, but all united under the government of the chieftain, of whose baronial residence, on an island in Loch Moy, there are yet considerable remains. Deadly feuds often arose between these rival bodies; and numerous tumuli are still left, which were raised over the ashes of those slain in conflict. Near the pass previously noticed was a spacious cavern, to which the women and children retired with their cattle during the absence of the clan, and in which they remained in safety under the protection of the very few men whom it was necessary to leave for the defence of the pass.

During one of these feuds, the clan Cumming had so far prevailed over the Mackintoshes as to force them to retreat for refuge to their stronghold on the island of Loch Moy; and damming up the outlet through which a river issued from the lake, they had raised the waters to such a height as nearly to inundate the island, and threaten their destruction. In this emergency, one of the Mackintoshes constructed a raft, and, furnished with the necessary apparatus, approached the outlet during the night, and, perforating the dam, which was of boards, with numerous large holes, stopped them with plugs having cords attached to their extremities, and fastened all these to one common rope. When the whole of the preparations were adjusted, pulling this rope, the plugs were all withdrawn at once; and the accumulated waters, rushing with irresistible impetuosity, swept away the dam, the bank of turf which inclosed the lake, and the entire forces of the Cummings that had encamped behind it. Such, in fact, was the rapidity of the torrent that it bore down the raft with the bold adventurer who had contrived it, and who, after having thus effected the deliverance of his clan, perished in the midst of his enemies. During the rebellion 1745–6, the Young Pretender, on his approach to Inverness finding that it was occupied by Lord Loudon, with an army of 2000 of the king's forces, diverted his route to the castle of Moy, the seat of the chieftain of the clan Mackintosh, who was at that time serving with his chief vassals under Loudon at Inverness. On reaching the castle, he was cordially received by Lady Mackintosh, who, mustering the remainder of the clan, which had been left for her protection, placed herself at their head, and rode before them as commander, with pistols at her saddlebow, to raise the neighbouring clans for the service of the prince. Loudon, receiving intelligence of the Pretender's movements, made a sudden march to Moy during the night, in the hope of taking him by surprise, and making him his prisoner. At the approach of Loudon's troops, the few Mackintoshes that remained, dispersing themselves in different parts of the woods, fired upon the royal columns as they advanced, and imitating the war-cries of Lochiel, Keppoch, and other well-known clans, threw them into the utmost confusion and dismay. The royal forces, thinking that the whole Highland army was at hand, and distracted by the darkness of the night, retreated to Inverness, and in such disorder that the event, which took place on the 16th of February, 1746, is still recorded as the "Rout of Moy."

The parish is about thirty miles in length and five miles in breadth; comprising an area of 150 square miles, of which fifty are in the district of Moy; and containing 96,000 acres, of which 3000 are arable and in cultivation, 1600 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill pasture, moorland, and waste. The surface, generally elevated, is diversified with numerous hills of various height, and intersected by mountainous ranges dividing it into glens forming the habitable portions, and watered by rivers along the banks of which are found the small tracts of arable land. The mountains are not remarkable either for their height or for any peculiarity of feature: the highest has an elevation of about 2500 feet above the level of the sea, and the most interesting of the ranges is Monadh-lia, one of the widest in the country; it is stocked with deer and every variety of game, and is marked with many glens, through the largest of which flows the river Findhorn. This river has its source among the hills of the range, issuing from a chasm in a remarkable mass of rock called the Cloven Stone; in its course it receives tributary streams from the various glens it passes, and is subject to extraordinary degrees of elevation and depression. The swiftness of its current is so great as to bear away before it large portions of the soil which interrupt its progress, the stream forming for itself a straight channel, through which it flows without deviation; and it rises frequently with such rapidity, that a boat crossing it at low water is often carried away by the torrent before it can reach the opposite shore. The only other stream that has any claim to be considered as a river is the Funtack, which issues from Loch Moy, and, after flowing through the small glen to which it gives name, falls into the Findhorn within the parish. Loch Moy is nearly two miles in length, and about three-quarters of a mile in breadth; its depth in some places is eighteen fathoms, and being surrounded with woods of hanging birch, it has in summer a truly picturesque appearance. There are two islands in the lake, whereof the larger contains the remains of the ancient castle, near which have been traced the foundations of a street supposed to have comprised the houses of those vassals who lived with their chief. On this island is an elegant monument erected in 1824, by Lady Mackintosh, to the memory of her late husband, Sir Æneas Mackintosh, Bart. The other island is merely a rude heap of stones, thought to have been artificially formed into a mound, for the administration of justice by the ancient chieftains; and till near the close of the last century it had a gallows for the execution of criminals. The Findhorn formerly abounded with salmon, though within the last few years the number has greatly diminished; and trout, char, and eels are still abundant: the trout, though not large, are of excellent quality, and afford good sport to the angler. Loch Moy is more noted as containing char and eels, than for trout.

The soil of the arable lands is of good quality, generally either alluvial or a fine black mould, producing favourable crops of grain of all kinds, with potatoes and turnips. The system of husbandry is beginning to improve; and under more favourable tenure, the farm buildings and offices are assuming a more substantial and commodious arrangement, especially on the lands of Mackintosh and Tomatin, where many comfortable farm-houses have been built. Of the hill pastures, comprising nearly 92,000 acres, about 23,000 are common; and of all this extensive tract scarcely 1000 acres are susceptible of cultivation. In their present state these districts afford excellent pasturage for sheep and black-cattle, on the rearing of which the farmers principally depend for their support. The expense and difficulty of procuring lime have hitherto precluded any considerable effort for the improvement of the lands; and though there is every probability that lime might be obtained within the parish, instead of bringing it from a distance, yet no attempts have been made to work it. The rateable annual value of Moy and Dalrossie is £3646. Though originally abounding with wood, there is little of the ancient timber remaining, except on the lands of Moy Hall, the property of the Mackintoshes; and most of the plantations are comparatively of modern growth. Birch, aspen, and mountain-ash appear to be indigenous to the soil; and the more recent plantations are chiefly larch, and fir, of which Mr. Macbean has within the last few years planted nearly two millions of trees on his lands at Tomatin. The primitive rocks are generally granite and gneiss, interspersed with large boulders of sienite: in the east end of the parish is a quarry of granite, of fine texture and colour, well adapted for buildings of every kind, and more especially for such as require strength and durability. Moy Hall, the seat of Alexander Mackintosh, Esq., chieftain of the clan Chattan, is a handsome modern mansion, situated in a richly-wooded demesne near the northern extremity of Loch Moy; it was erected in 1807, by Sir Æneas Mackintosh, and consists of a central quadrangle with two wings. In the grounds near the house is a beautiful monument of marble, erected to the memory of the late Mrs. Mackintosh, who died in London in 1840, by her surviving husband the present proprietor. There are also handsome mansions at Tomatin and at Corrybrough, on opposite banks of the river Findhorn, beautifully seated in well-planted grounds, and inhabited by their respective proprietors.

No village has been formed within the parish; neither is there any trade or manufacture carried on, beyond the weaving of tartans and blankets for domestic use, which affords employment to the females of the families during winter. Markets for the sale of cattle, horses, and other commodities, are held monthly at Freeburn, where there is a commodious inn, on the Saturday following the Muir of Ord markets, and are numerously attended by dealers; a market for lambs is also held annually, about Lammas. Facility of communication with Inverness and the neighbouring towns is maintained by good roads, of which the great Highland road from Inverness to Perth, passes for seven miles through the parish; and by bridges over the river Findhorn, of which the most important is one built in 1829, at a cost of £2600, to replace a previous structure which had been destroyed by flood. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Inverness and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £234. 3. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum; patrons, the Mackintosh family, of Geddes. There are two churches, in which the minister officiates on alternate Sabbaths. The church of Moy, situated on the margin of the loch, near the northern extremity of the parish, was erected in 1765, and thoroughly repaired in 1829; it is a neat plain structure containing 360 sittings. The church of Dalrossie, at a distance of nine miles from that of Moy, and on the bank of the Findhorn, is a very ancient structure of small pebbles, containing 380 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £10 annually. There are several other schools, partly supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and by other societies. In the southwestern portion of the parish are numerous mineral springs, one of which is strongly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen, but the exact proportion has not been ascertained: several of these springs have been used medicinally with considerable success.

Muck

MUCK, an island, forming part of the parish of Small Isles, in the district of Mull, county of Argyll; and containing 68 inhabitants. The name in Gaelic of this little verdant island of the Hebrides, Elan-nan-Muchd, literally signifies "the Isle of Swine." It is about two miles in length, and less than one in breadth, and lies four miles south-by-west from the island of Eigg. The surface is pretty low, with the exception of one hill, and even this is of inconsiderable height; the soil is generally good. The coast is rocky, and indented with several creeks, which afford shelter for fishing-boats, but no safe anchorage for vessels: in two of these creeks are small piers. The rearing of black-cattle, and a fishery of cod and ling here, are productive. The chief want of the inhabitants is fuel, which they procure from Ardnamurchan and other neighbouring places. On the north side of the island lies Elan-nan-Each, the "Island of Horses," which is of inconsiderable extent, but affords good pasture. Muck formerly contained many more inhabitants than it does at present.

Muckairn

MUCKAIRN, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Ardchattan, district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 12 miles (E. by N.) from Oban; containing, with the villages of Stonefield and Calnadaluck, 960 inhabitants. This parish, of which the name in the Gaelic language signifies "the den of wild boars," from the number of those ferocious animals that anciently infested this part of the country, is bounded on the north by Loch Etive, and on the east by the river Naunt and the loch of that name. It is about nine miles in length from east to west, and from five to six miles in average breadth. The quantity of arable land does not exceed 400 acres; about 100 are meadow, nearly 2000 coppice wood, and the remainder hill pasture and waste. The surface is divided by the Mallore range of hills, extending from the north-east to the south-west, but of which the highest has not an elevation of more than 1100 feet above the level of the sea; and there are some detached eminences, of which the loftiest is Deechoid. From the Mallore range the ground slopes gradually towards the north, with occasional undulations forming sequestered valleys between the higher lands, which are crowned with wood. The coast is generally low, and in several places rocky, and is indented with the fine bays of Stonefield and Airds bay, and with numerous creeks; and in some parts the shore is marked with boldly-projecting headlands. The bay of Stonefield, and that of Salenrua, a little beyond it, afford good anchorage; and in the former is the beautiful island called Abbot's Isle, clothed with verdure, and embellished with a few aged sycamores. The rivers are, the Naunt, which flows between richly-wooded banks, forming in its course some picturesque cascades; the Lonan, which, after a rapid course for a few miles from east to west, runs into Loch Nell, in the parish of Kilmore; the Luacragan, intersecting the parish from south to north for a few miles, and falling into Airds bay; and the Lusragan, which, flowing for a few miles in a parallel direction, joins Loch Etive a little above Connel ferry. The chief lakes are, Loch Andow, on the west, nearly two miles in length; and Loch Naunt, on the east, of about half that extent; both abounding in trout. The soil of the arable land, and the system of agriculture, are similar to those of Ardchattan; and the cattle and sheep on the pastures, of the same breed. About 280 cows, 220 head of cattle, and 3000 sheep are generally reared annually.

The smelting of iron at the Lorn furnace by an English company, to whom the coppice woods have been let on lease, affords employment to a considerable number of the inhabitants of the district, who are partly engaged in the making of charcoal, and partly in the smelting-works, for which the ore is brought from Lancashire. The iron produced in these works is in very great repute, and is conveyed to Ulverstone in the vessels which arrive from that port with the ore. The only village is Bunawe, situated at the influx of the river Awe into Loch Etive, where is a well-sheltered bay affording accommodation for the vessels that bring the ore, for the landing of which, and also for shipping the produce of the foundry, a substantial quay has been erected. The nearest market-town is Oban: there is a post-office at Bunawe, and facility of communication is afforded by the county-road from Oban and the Western Isles to Inverary, which passes for eight miles through the district. The church, built in 1829, under the provisions of the act of parliament for the erection and endowment of additional churches in the Highlands, is a plain neat structure, situated at the south-eastern extremity of Muckairn, and containing 350 sittings. The minister has a stipend of £120 from government, with a manse and offices, and an allotment of land for a garden. The parochial school, for which a handsome school-house, capable of receiving 130 scholars, with superior accommodations, was erected in 1836, by the lady of General Campbell, of Lochnell, is well conducted; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 3., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £15 per annum. There is also a school at Auchlevan, to the master of which the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge till of late paid a salary of £17 per annum. A good school-house was built by General Campbell, who also gave the master a dwelling-house and a portion of land; and since the discontinuance of the salary by the society, the present proprietor of Lochnell has made the master an annual donation of £12. There are numerous remains of old ecclesiastical establishments, and several Druidical circles in a more or less perfect state; and on a plain near the site of the present church, was an ancient obelisk, which, on the arrival of the news of the victory of Aboukir, the workmen of Lorn furnace removed to the neighbouring hill, and erected to the honour of Lord Nelson.

Muckart

MUCKART, a parish, in the county of Perth, 2½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Dollar; containing, with the village of Pool, 706 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its name, signifying in the Gaelic language "the head of a boar," either from the form of one of its principal hills resembling that animal, or from its having been anciently much infested with wild boars. Early in the fourteenth century it belonged to Lamberton, archbishop of St. Andrew's, who in 1320 erected here the ancient palace of Castleton, which, together with the lands appertaining to it, was sold by one of his successors to the Earl of Argyll, in whose possession it remained till the middle of the sixteenth century, when the estate was divided, and passed into the hands of several proprietors. In 1644, the church, and nearly every house in the parish, were burned by the Marquess of Montrose in his warfare with Argyll, when he destroyed Castle Campbell, and other property belonging to the earl; the memorial of which devastation is still preserved in the name of the pass in Glendovan by which he entered the parish. The parish is about four and a half miles in length, and of irregular form, varying from less than a mile to more than two miles in breadth; and is bounded on the north and west by two small rivulets, which separate it respectively from the parishes of Glendovan and Dollar, and on the south and east by the river Devon. It comprises about 4300 acres, of which 2700 are arable, 1000 meadow and pasture, 300 woodland and plantations, and the remainder undivided common. The surface is intersected by a branch of the Ochil hills, of which the highest point, called Sea Mab, has an elevation of nearly 1400 feet above the level of the sea; the hills are covered with excellent grass, affording good pasturage, and the scenery has been greatly improved by plantations of recent formation, which are in a thriving condition. The Devon rises to the west of the Ochil range, and, after pursuing a very devious line, falls into the Forth near the town of Alloa. In part of its course, the stream runs in a channel formed by nature in the solid rock; and in its progress it makes numerous picturesque falls, descending abruptly from a height of thirty feet into a circular cavity, from which, by the violence of its fall, the water rebounds, and then flows into a succession of similar cauldrons, from the last of which it is precipitated more than forty feet into the plain beneath. There are four bridges over the Devon within the limits of the parish. The most remarkable, called the "Rumbling bridge," consists of two arches, the one immediately above the other: the lower arch, which formed the ancient bridge, has an elevation of more than eighty feet above the level of the stream, is very narrow, and being undefended by any parapet, must have been a very dangerous passage previously to the erection of the upper arch, which is a commodious approach to the parish from the south. Another of these bridges is distinguished by the appellation of the "Vicar's bridge," from the circumstance of the vicar of the adjoining parish of Dollar having been killed here in revenge of his having abjured the Roman Catholic religion.

The soil varies greatly in quality in different places; near the river it is light and sandy, in other parts more rich and fertile, and in the higher grounds gravelly, with portions of moss. The lands have been much benefited by draining, and the system of husbandry is materially improved; considerable progress has been made in inclosing the lands; the fences are chiefly of stone, with some inclosures of hedges, and both are generally well kept up. Attention is also paid to the improvement of the breed of cattle, which are principally of the short-horned kind; and the South-Down and Leicestershire breeds of sheep have been introduced with success. The substrata are mostly whinstone, of which the hills are composed, ironstone, limestone, freestone, and sandstone, with some coal in the western portion of the parish. The ironstone is of rich quality, but is not wrought, though obtained in abundance on the opposite banks of the river; the limestone is worked by the proprietors of the lands for their own use, and lime is also procured in the immediate neighbourhood, and at a moderate cost. One seam of the coal is worked, which affords an abundant supply of fuel, and considerable quantities are sent to Strathearn. Boulders of whinstone, and occasionally of sandstone, occur. The ironstone and limestone abound with fossils and shells; some fine specimens of rock-crystal are also found in the whinstone. The rateable annual value of Muckart is £4000. The nearest market-town is Alloa, which is also the post-town; but a post has been likewise established to Dollar. Facility of communication is afforded by excellent roads, six miles of which are turnpikeroads, and particularly by the construction of the new lines from Stirling to Milnathort, and from Dunfermline to Crieff, which have contributed greatly to the improvement of the parish. Muckart is in the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling, and patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, repaired in 1789, being in a very dilapidated state, and far from adequate to the wants of the parishioners, a new one was built in 1838. There are places of worship for the United Secession and Free Church. The parochial school affords a useful education to the children of the parish; the master has a salary of £25. 6. 8., about £17 fees, and a house and garden, with £9 per annum, the interest of a bequest. A library for the united use of this parish and those of Glendovan and Fossoway has been established in the village. There are some slight remains of Castleton, the old episcopal residence built by Archbishop Lamberton, which appears to have been a spacious edifice communicating by a subterraneous passage with the river: part of one of the turrets only is remaining. Stone coffins have been found in various parts of the parish.

Mugdrum

MUGDRUM, an isle, in the parish of Abernethy, county of Perth. It lies in the river Tay, a short distance from, and nearly opposite to, the town of Newburgh, and is about a mile in length, and 200 yards in breadth. The island is surrounded by a high embankment, the level surface being considerably lower than that of the tide at high water; and the channel on the southern shore has been greatly deepened by a dredging-machine, which, in its operation, took up at the rate of 4000 tons of gravel daily. The new house and woods of Mugdrum are prominent on the south shore of the Tay, the old house and bank overhanging the river. Mugdrum was formerly much infested with rats, which were exterminated by a breed of wild cats; and some of these latter animals are still on it, resisting all attempts to be domesticated.

Muiravonside

MUIRAVONSIDE, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 3 miles (W.) from Linlithgow; containing, with the villages of Burnbridge, Maddiston, Rumford, and part of Linlithgow-Bridge, 2249 inhabitants. The compound term Muir-avon-side is derived from the original moorish appearance of part of the parish, and its situation on the bank of the river Avon, which runs along its boundary on the south-east and north-east for nine miles, separating it in one part from the county of Linlithgow. In ancient times the parish formed part of that of Falkirk, and was chiefly the property of the Livingstone family, who in 1540 obtained by marriage the old castle of Haining, a manorial residence. Sir James Livingstone, second son of the first earl of Linlithgow, was created Lord of Almond, the appellation, probably, of the district adjacent to the castle, and which is supposed to have been that portion of Falkirk now forming this parish: the silver communion cups of Muiravonside are still named "the cups of the church of Almond." The priory called Manuel or Emmanuel, situated on the west bank of the Avon, was founded about the year 1156, for Cistercian nuns, by King Malcolm IV., by whom, and several of his successors, it was richly endowed; and the prioress, Christiana, in 1292, as well as her successor, Alice, in 1296, swore fealty to Edward I. at Linlithgow. The ruins, together with other estates, came into the possession of the crown by the forfeiture of the Earl of Callendar and Linlithgow in 1715.

The parish is about seven miles long, and in average breadth measures two miles, comprising 7000 or 8000 acres, the whole of which are arable, with the exception of a very small proportion of moss, waste, and plantations. There are some naked and dreary tracts, with a marshy soil, in the western portion; but the general variety of the surface, and the rising grounds, which are of moderate elevation, commanding extensive prospects of the Forth, the towers of Clackmannan, Stirling, and Linlithgow, the glens that ornament the course of the Devon, the Grampian hills, and numerous plantations, confer on the scenery a character of interest and cheerfulness. The principal inconvenience felt in the interior is the deficiency of streams, owing to the peculiar distribution of its land, which consists of an irregular and broken ridge lying between the Avon and the alluvial plains of the Forth. Springs are seldom seen throughout the range of clayey soil which covers two-thirds of the parish; the only streams are the Holloch, Manuel, and Sandyford; and though in the mosses there are some powerful springs, the infusion of iron is so strong as to form a crust of red ochre around their outlets. The soil, besides the extensive clayey portion, comprehends sand, peat, and marl, in which last was found an interesting specimen of the ancient elk, with a horn, now forming part of the collection in the College museum of Glasgow. There is also a considerable extent of gravelly earth; and the surface is singularly marked in parts with numerous picturesque mounds and hillocks, which, with the breaks, fissures, and perpetual variations of the sandstone rock along the course of the Avon, and its beautiful scenery of overhanging wood, constitute some of the most prominent and striking features in the locality.

All the ordinary kinds of grain and green crops are raised. The ground is manured with dung procured from Edinburgh, and with lime obtained in large quantities from Linlithgow. In the eastern part of the parish, where the farms are large, the houses and offices good, and the lands well cultivated, furrow-draining has been extensively carried on, and secure fences raised; but most of these improvements are still wanting in the western part, where the farms are comparatively small. The live stock are excellent in the superior district; but in the western their quality is inferior, the want of proper fences, and other causes, contributing to injure the breed. The appearance of the whole parish, especially that of the eastern district, has undergone an entire change within the last fifty years; the thicket which at the close of the 18th century almost overspread it, has been cleared; and ground formerly covered with broom and heath now displays in perfection the results of agricultural labour and skill. The rock and coal formations in this neighbourhood are remarkably intersected with trap dykes. Along the course of the Avon is sandstone, and several quarries are wrought of fine blue whinstone; there are also two quarries of superior freestone, the one producing a material differing in some respects from that of the other, but both wrought in large quantities. Coal has been raised in many different places; but the only pits now in operation are those of Stanrig, Blackbraes, and Craigend. Iron, also, is procured by the Carron Company near the village; and large quantities are supposed to exist in other parts. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6735. Maudiston is the principal village, situated on a declivity in the midst of picturesque scenery. Part of the village of Linlithgow-Bridge, built by Alexander, Earl of Linlithgow, about the year 1650, is likewise in this parish; its customs were given in 1677, by Charles II., to Earl George, and many of the landholders in Muiravonside inherit estates granted in perpetual feus by the last earl in order to raise money to carry on the rebellion of 1715. The Edinburgh and Stirling turnpike-road passes through the district, as do also the railroad by Slamannan to Glasgow, another between Glasgow and Edinburgh, which crosses the vale of the Avon by a viaduct of more than twenty substantial arches, and the Union canal, which has a bridge of twelve arches in the midst of a profusion of beautifully sylvan and verdant scenery. The produce is usually disposed of at Falkirk. The parish is in the presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £225, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £9 per annum. The church is a plain structure, built about the year 1812, and accommodates 500 persons. There is a place of worship for the United Secession. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin, writing, arithmetic, grammar, and geography; the master has a salary of £34. 4., with a dwelling, three and a half acres of land, and £24 fees: the land, which is valued at £6 per annum, is an ancient bequest of the Callendar family. There is a parochial library containing 120 volumes. The chief antiquities consist of the ruins of Manuel Priory and Almond Castle, the latter of which was deserted as a place of residence about the year 1750. A line of fortified eminences extends from Hazlelaw to Sight hill, but nothing is known of their origin; and stone coffins have been frequently discovered in various places.

Muirdrum

MUIRDRUM, a village, in the parish of Panbride, county of Forfar, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Arbroath; containing 112 inhabitants. This is a small village, on the great line of road between Dundee and Arbroath. It has a post-office, which, from its central situation, is a great convenience to the neighbourhood around: the mail-coach runs daily both to the north and south, and several public coaches once passed regularly at different periods of the day.

Muirhead

MUIRHEAD, a hamlet, in the parish of Kettle, district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing 106 inhabitants.

Muirhead

MUIRHEAD, a hamlet, in the parish of Liff, Benvie, and Invergowrie, county of Forfar; containing 81 inhabitants.

Muirhead

MUIRHEAD, a village, in the parish of Cadder, forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of Chryston, Lower ward of the county of Lanark; and containing 49 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly seated in the south-eastern part of the parish, on the great road from Perth to Glasgow, and a short distance south-south-west from the village of Chryston. It retains about three acres of the ancient common lands; and the inhabitants of both villages have the right of common-age, and the privilege of cutting turf, which, however, is confined to the surface, which they have the power to cut as long as heath and rushes grow upon it. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the works at Garnkirk.

Muirhouses

MUIRHOUSES, a village, in the parish of Carriden, county of Linlithgow; containing 139 inhabitants. This is a small village, situated a short distance westward of Carriden, and eastward of the high road from Linlithgow to Borrowstounness.

Muirkirk

MUIRKIRK, a parish, in the district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 10 miles (W. by S.) from Douglas; containing, with the village of Glenbuck, 3125 inhabitants. The origin and history of this place are both involved in obscurity and uncertainty; little more of it is known than that, previously to the year 1626, it formed part of the parish of Mauchline, and as such was included in the barony of the earls of Loudoun. An attempt has been made to deduce the history of some transactions connected with the place, from the existence of various stones in different parts; but they are neither inscribed with any characters tending to explain the cause of their erection, nor are they of sufficient magnitude to warrant the opinion of their being monuments of commemoration. The parish, which is situated on the river Ayr, is about eight miles in length from east to west, and seven miles broad from north to south; and comprises about 30,000 acres. Not more than 5000 are in cultivation, and of these only 1000 are under tillage; 250 are woodland and plantations; and the remainder is now in a state of nature, though a very considerable portion might be rendered fertile, and brought into cultivation, at a moderate expense. The surface is very irregular; it is tolerably level near the banks of the rivers, but in other parts rises abruptly into lofty eminences. The highest of these is the hill of Cairntable, which has an elevation of 1650 feet above the level of the sea, and is crowned by two large cairns; it is chiefly composed of breccia, and for many years afforded a supply of millstones for the use of the parish. The higher grounds are clothed with a kind of dark-coloured heath that gives a cheerless aspect to the scenery, which is increased by the want of timber. The river Ayr has its source in this parish, in a spot where two artificial lakes have been formed by the Catrine Company, as reservoirs for the supply of their cotton-works, and which cover about 120 acres of ground. From these the river issues, receiving in its course through the parish numerous tributary streams from the hills, of which the chief are the Garpel, Greenoch, and Whitehaugh; and thus augmented, it pursues its course, for about thirty miles, and falls into the Frith of Clyde at Ayr. There are springs affording an ample supply of excellent water, and also some which have a petrifying property.

The soil is various, consisting of sand, gravel, loam, clay, and peat-moss, which last is found in some parts twenty feet in depth: the crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips. The rotation system of husbandry has been generally adopted, and the state of agriculture is improved; hundreds of acres, also, have been tile-drained; but much remains to be done, and the abundance of lime and coal in the parish afford every facility of improvement. The plantations are chiefly spruce, larch, and Scotch fir. Surface-draining has been practised on some of the farms, with very beneficial results, by the tenants at their own expense; it has been done, however, only on a very limited scale. The farm-houses are substantial and commodious, especially those of more recent erection; but very few of the lands are inclosed, and those only with stone dykes. Several of the dairy-farms are well managed; the cows are of the Cunninghame breed, and a considerable number of young cattle of the same breed are annually reared, to the improvement of which adequate attention is paid. The sheep, whereof great numbers are fed, are the black-faced, which seem to be well adapted to the quality of the pastures. The woods appear to have been almost destroyed, though from old documents it is clear that this was a forest towards the close of the 12th century; and from the numerous trees found imbedded in the mosses, and from some detached portions of trees still found in various parts, it is evident that the parish formerly abounded with timber. Wellwood, the property of the Duke of Portland, is an ancient mansion beautifully situated on the banks of the Ayr, and embosomed in thriving plantations. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6179.

The substrata are chiefly coal, ironstone, and limestone. The coal formation is part of the great coal-field of the country; the seam at present worked is about twenty-five feet in thickness, though in other parts nearly forty feet. The ironstone is found in belts about six inches thick; and the limestone, which is of good quality, is extensively quarried. Iron-ore, lead, and manganese have also been found; the two former were worked for some time, but the working was not productive, and it was consequently discontinued. The iron-works in this parish, which are very extensive, were erected in 1787, and have since been carried on with great spirit by the proprietors. The works consist of four blast-furnaces for the manufacture of pig-iron, an extensive foundry, and a rolling-mill for bar-iron; two of the furnaces are at present in use, and these afford employment to about 400 men, who are constantly engaged. The bar-iron is of excellent quality, and superior to that of most other forges: until a very recent year it was beaten into bars instead of being formed by rollers, as in other works. There were formerly some iron-works established at Glenbuck by an English company; but they were abandoned many years since. The village of Muirkirk has greatly increased since the opening of the works in its neighbourhood; it is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in the collieries and limestone-quarries, and in the iron-works. Two circulating libraries, containing large and well-assorted collections of volumes, are supported by subscription. Fairs are held in February and December; but they are not well attended. A branch bank has been established; and facility of intercourse with Strathaven, the nearest market-town, and with other places in the neighbourhood, is maintained by good roads which pass through the parish. Muirkirk is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and patronage of the Marquess of Hastings: the minister's stipend is £157. 17. 3., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, erected about the year 1813, is a neat and substantial edifice adapted for a congregation of 913 persons, and is conveniently situated nearly in the centre of the parish. There are places of worship for Burghers, the United Secession, and Independents. The parochial school affords instruction to about seventy children; the master has a salary of £28 per annum, with £30 fees, and a house and garden. There are three friendly societies, the Muirkirk, the St. Thomas's, and the St. Andrew's masonic lodges, all established for many years, and which have contributed very materially to diminish the number of applicants for parochial relief, and to keep alive a spirit of independence among the poor. Some of the springs in the parish are slightly impregnated with iron, sulphur, and other minerals. According to tradition, there was anciently a religious establishment on the summit of Cairntable; but of what order, or when or by whom founded, nothing is recorded.

Muirside

MUIRSIDE, a hamlet, in the parish of Logie-Pert, county of Forfar, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Montrose; containing 95 inhabitants. This is a small place lying in the eastern part of the parish, a short distance from the village of Craigo.

Mull, Isle

MULL, ISLE of, in the district of Mull, county of Argyll; containing 10,064 inhabitants. This forms one of the Hebrides, or Western Islands, of which it ranks as the third in extent. It originally constituted part of the dominions of the ancient lords of the Isles, who, holding their territories under the kings of Norway, exercised a kind of sovereignty independent of the Scottish monarchs, with whom they were frequently at war. In 1480, a sanguinary battle took place in a bay situated at the northern extremity of the island, since then called Bloody Bay, between Angus, Lord of the Isles, and the Earls of Crawford, Huntly, and others, in which the latter were defeated with great slaughter. In 1588, the Florida, a vessel belonging to the Spanish Armada, was blown up in the harbour of Tobermory, on the northern coast, by Maclean, of Dowart, who was then proprietor of that portion of the island; and parts of the wreck have at various times been met with. An attempt to raise this vessel was made in 1740, by Sir Archibald Grant and Captain Roe, but without success, though they obtained several of her guns; timbers have been since discovered, and some of the wood thus found was presented by Sir Walter Scott to George IV., on that monarch's visiting Edinburgh in 1822. Archibald, the ninth earl of Argyll, having joined in the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth, in the early part of the reign of James II. of England, landed with his followers at the bay of Tobermory, in an unsuccessful attempt to invade Scotland, and, being afterwards made prisoner, was sent to Edinburgh, where he was publicly executed.

The island is bounded on the north and east by the sound of Mull, which separates it from the main land, and on the south and west by the Atlantic Ocean; it is about thirty-five miles in extreme length and twenty miles in breadth, comprising an area of nearly 480 square miles. The form of the island is extremely irregular, it being deeply indented, especially on the western coast, with arms of the sea, of which Loch-na-Keal divides it into two irregular peninsulas, connected by an isthmus not more than four miles in breadth, between Loch-na-Keal and the sound of Mull on the east. The surface in some parts towards the coast is tolerably level, containing small tracts of arable land; but in the interior, mountainous and diversified, with lofty hills of rugged aspect. Many of the mountains rise to a height of more than 2000 feet; and the highest, Benmore, which is of easy ascent and sometimes visited by tourists, has an elevation of 3068 feet above the level of the sea, commanding from its summit an unbounded and interesting view of the Atlantic, and of the numerous islands off the coast. There are several inland lakes, but none of any considerable extent; the largest is Loch Frisa, in the northern part of the island, from which issues the rivulet of Aros Water, flowing eastward into the sound of Mull. From the smaller lochs of Ba and Uisk, also, flow several streamlets; but there are no rivers.

The coast, from its numerous indentations, is nearly 300 miles in extent. At its northern extremity is Bloody Bay, already noticed, to the south-east of which is the harbour of Tobermory, sheltered from the sound by Calve island, at its entrance; and still further south-east is Aros Castle, an ancient quadrangular structure situated on the summit of a boldly-projecting headland, and in the vicinity of which was once an inn for the accommodation of travellers visiting the isle of Staffa. Near the south-eastern extremity of the coast, between the bay of Mc Alister and Loch Don, on a boldly-projecting promontory, are the remains of the castle of Dowart, the old baronial residence of the Macleans, and till within the last few years garrisoned by a detachment from Fort-William. On the south side of Mull is Loch Spelve, which from a small inlet at its entrance, divides into two spacious branches, in the eastern of which is an island. Along the whole southern coast, forming part of the Ross of Mull, the only bay of any extent is Loch Buy, in which are two small islands, and from the mouth of which, westward to the sound of Icolmkill, the indentations are formed by projecting headlands, whereof Eglish-naBraren and Ardalanish point are the most prominent. South-west of the Ross of Mull are the islands of Erraid and Icolmkill or Iona, of which the latter, of much larger extent than the former, is separated by the sound of Icolmkill, and is about three miles in length and one mile in breadth, and celebrated for its early monastic importance, the details of which are separately noticed. The Ross is bounded on the north by Loch Scriden, which deeply indents the island, separating the Ross from the district of Gribun, where is situated the mountain of Benmore; and still more to the northward is Loch-na-Keal, the arm of the Atlantic before named, extending eastward towards the sound of Mull, from which it is divided by the isthmus connecting the two peninsulas of Mull. Near Loch-na-Keal is the island of Staffa, about one mile in length and half a mile in breadth, remarkable for its basaltic columns and its romantic caverns; and at the entrance of the loch are, the island of Little Colonsay, having pasturage for sheep, and, to the east, the fertile island of Inniskenneth, and Eorsa. Between Loch-na-Keal and Loch Tua, to the north, are the islands of Gometra and Ulva, separated by a narrow sound, and affording good pasture for cattle; and near the mouth of Loch Tua are the Treshinish isles, of which the principal are Lunga and Fladda, with several small islets, beyond which, to the north-west, are the large islands of Coll and Tiree.

The soil of the arable lands is generally rich and deep, producing favourable crops; but the island is principally adapted for the pasturage of sheep and cattle, of which great numbers are reared, and sent to the various southern markets. The sheep are chiefly of the Tweeddale breed, which has been substituted for the Old Highland, formerly reared; but on the Lowland pastures are many of the Cheviot breed, which has been introduced within the last few years. The cattle are generally of the Highland black breed; and the horses, though small in stature, are much prized for hardiness, strength, and agility. The woods for which the island was formerly celebrated have dwindled into a few coppices of oak, birch, and hazel, to which little attention is paid; some recent plantations, however, of larch, fir, and other trees, are in a thriving state; and in sheltered situations are numerous ash-trees of luxuriant growth. The rocks are chiefly composed of trap, sandstone, and limestone, and those on the shores are of basaltic formation; granite is also found in various parts of the island, and coal has been discovered in several places, especially in the bed of a rivulet near the base of the mountain of Bein-aninich, on the coast of the Ross of Mull, and at Brolas and Gribun. Frequent attempts to work the coal have been made at different times, but from want of capital or adequate skill, the works were soon discontinued; the coal is thought to be good. The island comprises the parish of Kilfinichen and Kilviceuen, that of Kilninian and Kilmore, and the parish of Torosay, with their several quoad sacra districts, and the sea-port town of Tobermory, in the presbytery of Mull and synod of Argyll. See the articles on the several parishes, villages, and subordinate islands.

Mungo, St.

MUNGO, ST., a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Ecclesfechan; containing 618 inhabitants. The name was originally Aber-milk, the old British term Aber, signifying "a confluence of waters," being descriptive of the situation of the parish, part of which is a kind of peninsula formed by the junction of the rivers Milk and Annan. In the 12th century, however, the Bruces having built a castle on the water of Milk, the name of the place was changed to Castlemilk. The lands in ancient times belonged to the see of Glasgow, and the parish is mentioned in the year 1170, by Pope Alexander, under the new name; in 1290 William de Gosford, the parson of Castlemilk, swore fealty at Berwick to King Edward I. The church was early dedicated to St. Mungo, founder of the see of Glasgow; and by the name of this favourite patron the parish is now invariably called. Robert de Bruce, the second lord of Annandale, granted the church, as a mensal church, to the see of Glasgow, about the year 1250, at which period, also, he gave the churches of Moffat, Kirkpatrick, Drumsdale, and Hoddam, "cum consensu Roberti de Bruce, filii sui." The parish was at this time, as already stated, called Castlemilk; and the estate of the same name, from which the parish was so designated, was the ancient residence of the lords of Annandale, who had a strong castle upon the lands. This castle came from the Bruces to the Stuarts by Walter, high-steward of Scotland, marrying the daughter of King Robert Bruce; and it thus descended to Robert, also high-steward of Scotland, their son, the first of the Stuarts who came to the crown. It afterwards passed to the Maxwells and the Douglases. In the 16th century it was besieged by the Duke of Somerset, protector in the minority of Edward VI.; the station of the siege is still in existence, and in 1771 there were balls found while planting the spot, since which it has been called "the Cannon Holes." It was again involved in the miseries of war under Oliver Cromwell, against whose strong works, yet visible, it held out for a considerable time. The castle was, however, in 1707, superseded by a dwelling-house, which has since become one of the most beautiful and picturesque mansions in the county.

The parish is about four miles in length from north to south, and two and a half in breadth, and contains 5000 acres. It lies in the Upper ward of the ancient stewartry of Annandale, and is bounded on the north by Tundergarth; on the south by the parish of Dalton; on the east by Hoddam; and on the west by Dryfesdale. The surface consists of gradually-rising grounds, which, commencing at the extremities of the parish, attain the highest elevation in its centre, where there are two ridges called the Nut-Holm hill, on which are the vestiges of a Roman and a British camp. The high wooded grounds of Kirkwood, situated in Dalton parish, and those of Nut-Holm, form a beautiful vale a mile in length, through which the river Annan flows in a serpentine course, and in the middle of which stands the manse completely shrouded in wood. The Water of Milk divides the parish nearly in the centre; the banks are in many places beautifully clothed with natural wood, and its neighbouring hills with flourishing plantations. The river forms a confluence with the more considerable stream of the Annan at the south-eastern extremity of the parish; both have very fine salmon, sea-trout, and herlings, and were much resorted to by anglers when the fish were more abundant. The soil composing the vales of Annan and Milk, to the extent of 286 acres, is alluvial; the holm land of the Annan is light and sandy, and that of the Milk a deep rich loam constituting the most valuable land in the parish. The alluvial soils run a foot and a half deep, and are free from stones. About 4300 acres are under profitable tillage; 400 are waste, half of which are capable of cultivation; and 300 acres remain under wood. All kinds of grain and green crops are produced, and the total annual worth of the produce may be said to average above £9000. The most improved system of husbandry is followed, and considerable attention has been paid to the buildings, to draining the lands, subdividing the farms, and erecting fences. The markets resorted to are those of Annan and Lockerbie; the fat-cattle and sheep are sent via Annan by steamers to Liverpool. The rocks mainly consist of greywacke, greywacke-slate, white and red sandstone, limestone, and quartz; rolled masses of sienite are also found, and sometimes common jasper: the covering rock of the parish is porphyritic amygdaloid. The marl-pits, formerly so prolific, are nearly exhausted, which is also the case with the peat mosses. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3952.

The chief seat is the mansion of Castlemilk, built in the year 1796, and standing on the site of the ancient castle, on a beautifully-sloping hill, in the midst of the rich valley watered by the meandering and picturesque stream of the Milk. There are two other mansions, Milk Bank, and Kirk Bank, the latter situated in the vale of the Annan, in a spot of remarkable beauty; they are also modern buildings. The Glasgow and Carlisle road runs for three miles through the parish; and the old branch of that road, three and a half miles long, divides it nearly into two equal parts: on these lines of road there are good bridges over the Water of Milk. The Glasgow and London mail, and sometimes a heavy coach, pass here. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Crown. There is a good manse, with a glebe worth £50 a year; and the stipend is £174. 16. The church, recently erected, and situated in the centre of the parish, is a very neat structure: the former church, built in the reign of Alexander III., was taken down owing to its dangerous state. There is a parochial school, established in 1704, in which are taught Greek, Latin, and French, with all the usual branches of education; the master has the maximum salary, with a house and garden, and about £40 a year in fees. A Sunday school for infants is well supported, and there is a school library consisting of 200 volumes. Among the antiquities are several camps; and on opening a tumulus was found much animal charcoal, the remains of burnt bodies of slain; the sarcophagus contained only a bone and some burnt ashes.

Munlochy

MUNLOCHY, a village, in the parish of Knockbain, county of Ross and Cromarty, 7 miles (S. W. by W.) from Fortrose; containing 85 inhabitants. This village is situated on the north coast of the Moray Frith, on a small bay of the same name, and on the road from Killearnan to Fortrose. It is a fishing-village, around which considerable improvements have latterly been made by the proprietor of the land.

Murroes

MURROES, a parish, in the county of Forfar; containing, with the hamlets of Bucklerhead and Kellas, 736 inhabitants, of whom 55 are in the hamlet of Hole of Murroes, 5 miles (N. E.) from Dundee. This parish, the name of which is corrupted from the word Muirhouse, a term expressive of the former uncultivated nature of the soil, touches the parish of Dundee on the south, and is three miles in length and rather more than two in breadth, comprising 4600 acres, of which 4000 are cultivated, 190 acres under wood, and the remainder waste. The surface is undulated, and rises considerably towards the north; the lands in general are well cultivated and have a pleasing appearance. The scenery is enlivened by two rivulets, which, after turning in their course several threshing and corn-mills, and a flax-mill, fall into the Dighty not far from its influx into the Tay. The soil is mostly a black loam, resting on rock, gravel, or clay, the only difference in it being that some portions are much more deep, rich, and fertile than others. All kinds of grain are raised, as well as the usual green crops, to the annual average value of £17,000; and the produce of the dairy amounts yearly to about £1500. The land is cultivated after the most improved usages; and the farmers, encouraged by kind and generous landlords, employ their skill, perseverance, and capital with the best success. Draining is regularly practised; most of the lands are inclosed, some with hedges, but the principal with stone dykes; and many of the farm-houses are of superior character. The cattle are of several breeds; but the Angus is most prevalent. Some of the arable land lets at about 16s., much at from that to £1. 12. per acre, and the best at £3. The substrata consist principally of whinstone and freestone, the latter abundant, and of good quality. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7389.

The chief mansion is the house of Ballumbie, a substantial and commodious residence, commanding beautiful views of the Tay and the surrounding country. There are three hamlets; and the inhabitants find a quick sale for their produce at Dundee, whence they procure coal for fuel, as well as from Broughty-Ferry. The parish is in the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £172, with a manse, a glebe valued at £15 per annum, and an allowance of £1. 13. 4. in lieu of pasture. The church is a plain antiquated building, supposed to have been erected before the Reformation; it accommodates 400 persons with sittings, and is pleasantly situated in the south-eastern part of the parish, surrounded with lofty trees. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin and Greek, in addition to the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, a garden, and £18 fees. The antiquities comprise the remains of the three ancient castles of Powrie, Wedderburn, and Ballumbie, the last formerly belonging to a family of the name of Lovel, to the heir of which, tradition asserts that Catharine Douglas, celebrated in history for the resistance she opposed to the conspirators who assassinated King James I. in the Blackfriars monastery at Perth, was espoused.

Musa, Isle

MUSA, ISLE, in the county of Shetland.—See Mousa.