Pabay - Peeblesshire

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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Pages

337-351

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'Pabay - Peeblesshire', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 337-351. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43469 Date accessed: 26 July 2014.


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Pabay

PABAY, an island, in the parish of Strath, Isle of Skye, county of Inverness; containing 21 inhabitants. This is a small island at the entrance of Broadford bay, about two miles from the eastern coast of Skye, and south-east of Scalpa. It is about a mile in length and six furlongs in breadth, and is flat and fertile. In one part are indications of iron-ore; and many of the rocks are of limestone, approaching to the nature of marble, and exhibit beautiful specimens of petrified fish and shells, and otherwise abound in petrifactions. It was some years since uninhabited, and used as a wintering-place for cattle. At its northern extremity are the vestiges of a small chapel.

Pabba

PABBA, an island, in the parish of Barra, county of Inverness; containing 25 inhabitants. It lies about eight miles to the south of Barra, in the sound of Pabba; is nearly one mile and a half long, and one mile broad; and consists of a single hill of gneiss. Its inhabitants are fishermen, who reside at its western end.

Pabbay

PABBAY, an island, in the parish of Harris, island of Lewis, county of Inverness, containing 338 inhabitants. This isle lies at the mouth of the sound of Harris, and is distant northward from Bernera about four miles; it is of nearly circular form, and measures in diameter two and a half miles. Its shape is conical, terminating in a peak considerably higher than any other islands in the sound. Pabbay at one time supplied the district with corn, and was called the granary of Harris; but from the sand-drifts which now cover its south-east side, it has lost much of its fertility; and on the north-west, where it is exposed to the spray of the Atlantic, scarcely any vegetation is discovered. Towards the south-west, however, which is in some degree sheltered by Bernera, it is very productive, and well cultivated.

Pabbay

PABBAY, an island, in the parish of Uig, island of Lewis, county of Ross and Cromarty. It is about a mile and a half in length, and is one of a group of isles lying on the western side of the main land of the parish: it is south-westward of Little Bernera about three miles.

Padanarum

PADANARUM, a village, in that part of the parish of Kirriemuir which formed the late quoad sacra parish of Logie, county of Forfar; containing 155 inhabitants.

Paisley

PAISLEY, a burgh, market-town, and ancient parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, of which it is the principal place, and the seat of a wide manufacturing district, 7½ miles (W. by S.) from Glasgow, and 50 (W. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing 60,487 inhabitants, of whom 48,426 are in the burgh and suburbs; 5626 in the village of Johnstone; 1086 in that of Elderslie; 1504 in the villages of Nitshill, Hurlet, Crossmill, and Dovecothall; 775 in those of Thorn, Overton, and Quarrelton; and 3070 in the rural districts of the parish. This place, of which the name is of very uncertain derivation, is by most antiquaries identified with the Vanduaria of Ptolemy; and of its having been a Roman station of considerable importance, there is positive evidence in the traces of a spacious and strongly-fortified camp, which, from the vestiges yet remaining, appears to have comprehended the site of the present town, and, in connexion with its several out-posts, to have extended to the river Cart. It occupied a commanding situation, comprising within its intrenchments the hill called Oakshaw Head, on the acclivity of which the prætorium was seated, overlooking the surrounding country. Of the triple intrenchments by which it was defended, there are still left portions of the ramparts, of lofty elevation and of great breadth; and parts of the ancient Roman road from Carlisle to Paisley are also distinctly to be traced in the immediate vicinity. The original town seems to have been indebted for its rise to the foundation, by Walter, progenitor of the royal race of the Stuarts, of a monastery for a prior and thirteen brethren of the Cluniac order, brought from the abbey of Wenlock, in the county of Salop, in 1163, by the founder, who was a native of that place. This monastery was built upon the eastern bank of the Cart, on the opposite side of which soon afterwards arose a village, consisting chiefly of conventual buildings, and dwelling-houses for various persons connected with the religious community, or attracted to the spot by the vicinity of a rich and prosperous establishment. The monastery, which was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, St. James, and St. Mirin, continued to flourish as originally founded till the year 1220, when it was raised to the rank of a mitred abbey by Pope Honorius III. In addition to its ample endowment by the founder and his descendants, it received numerous munificent donations from different families of distinction; and thus became one of the wealthiest institutions in the country. Its lands were erected into a royalty, under the jurisdiction of the abbots, who obtained from succeeding sovereigns many valuable privileges; and it continued to increase in importance until 1307, when it was burnt by the English army under Aymer de Valence.


Burgh Seal.

The Abbey was, however, soon afterwards rebuilt, on a more extensive scale, and in a style of great magnificence. The church, a stately cruciform structure, was completed by Abbot Tarvas in 1459, and, with the conventual buildings, and immediately adjacent lands forming the Abbey park, was inclosed by a lofty wall of hewn stone, more than a mile in circumference, by Abbot Schaw, in 1485. Thus, constantly augmenting in wealth, the monastery flourished till the Dissolution, when its revenues were estimated at £2468 in money, exclusively of 155 chalders of grain; and not less than twenty-nine parish churches were dependent upon it at the time. After the Reformation, the site of the Abbey and conventual buildings, with all its lands and possessions, was erected into a temporal seigniory by the king and parliament, in favour of Claude Hamilton, third son of the Duke of Chatelherault, who was created Lord Paisley in 1587. The lordship remained in his family till the year 1652, when it was purchased from his descendant, the Earl of Abercorn, by the Earl of Angus, who sold the greater portion of the lands to William Cochrane, first earl of Dundonald, and the remainder to various other proprietors, with whom they continued till the year 1764, when the lordship was repurchased by James, Earl of Abercorn. It is now the property of his descendant, the Marquess of Abercorn. The Abbey was successively the residence of the lords Paisley and the earls of Abercorn and Dundonald; but after the demolition of part of the buildings by the Earl of Dundonald, and the appropriation of the adjacent lands to the different purchasers, it ceased to be any longer a baronial residence, and was let in separate tenements. The fine massive wall by which the whole demesne was surrounded, was, with the exception of a very small portion still remaining, entirely removed; and the Abbey park is now the site of the New Town of Paisley, a considerable part of which was erected with materials obtained from the ruins of the venerable and truly magnificent Abbey. In the year 1597, the consort of James VI. paid a visit to the Earl of Abercorn in his baronial residence called the Place of Paisley, while the ancient Abbey was still the seat of that nobleman; and in 1617 the monarch himself, on revisiting his native country, was received in the great hall, when an address in the name of the community of the town and neighbourhood was delivered in his presence by a youth of nine years of age, the son of Sir James Semple, at that time sheriff of the county. In the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, the inhabitants of Paisley and the vicinity maintained a firm and loyal adherence to their lawful sovereign, and on the former occasion, anticipating an attempt of the Pretender to land upon their coast, appointed a nightly guard of twenty men to patrol the town, and themselves remained under arms, ready at a moment's notice to repel any assault that might be made. In 1745, the troops of the Pretender having entered Glasgow to levy contributions from the citizens, the inhabitants of this town prepared themselves for a similar visit, and concluded arrangements for treating with the assailants, whom they were not sufficiently strong to withstand by force; and the magistrates, having been summoned to appear before the secretary of the Pretender, procured exemption from molestation by submitting to an imposition of £500. In 1822, when George IV. visited Scotland, the authorities of the burgh waited upon His Majesty with an address of congratulation, and an invitation to Paisley, in the Abbey of which many of his royal predecessors had been interred.

The town is pleasantly situated on the White Cart, by which it is divided into two portions called respectively the Old and the New Town, the former on the west, and the latter on the eastern, bank of that river. It consists principally of two streets intersecting each other at right angles; the one, nearly two miles in length, forms part of the road from Glasgow to Beith and the Ayrshire coast, and the other is a continuation of the road from Inchinnan to Neilston. These two lines are crossed in various directions by numerous spacious and well-built streets, of which George-street and Forbes-street contain many very handsome houses. The appearance of the town has been much improved by the removal of numbers of the older houses, and the erection of others of more modern style; and among the most recent additions, Garthland Place, at the eastern entrance to Paisley, is distinguished as one of the most elegant ranges of building in this part of the country. The environs are pleasing, and several of the adjacent villages are seen with peculiar effect in the general landscape of the place. The streets are lighted with gas by a company incorporated in 1823, who embarked a capital of £16,000, and erected very extensive works for the supply of the neighbourhood. In 1844, an act for a second company was passed; but a compromise has been since effected. The inhabitants were till lately but indifferently furnished with water from the river, and from public and private wells. A company therefore was formed in 1825, and an act of parliament obtained for the supply of the town. After a sufficient capital had been subscribed, this project was abandoned, from the objections of some proprietors of land; but a new company, for bringing water from the Gleniffer hills, was formed in 1835, and a capital of £40,000 subscribed. An act was procured for carrying this plan into operation; and two very capacious reservoirs, covering nearly one hundred acres, and having an average depth of almost forty feet, have been constructed, furnishing an abundant supply of pure water for the use of the inhabitants, and of the different public works carried on in the vicinity. There is a public library, supported by subscription of about 200 proprietary shareholders; it comprises more than 4500 volumes in the various departments of literature. In the town is also a very extensive library containing several thousand volumes, maintained by subscription of the operative classes; a library annexed to the Faculty of Procurators has a large collection of the most approved law books; and a medical library is attached to the House of Recovery, under the management of the Medical Society. One newspaper is published weekly. The Philosophical Institution was established in 1808, for promoting the study of natural philosophy, general literature, and science, by the delivery of single lectures by the members gratuitously, and occasionally courses of lectures by eminent professors. Connected with it are a library of above 500 volumes, and a museum containing a very valuable collection of minerals and natural curiosities. There are also some curiosities in the pleasant gardens in the immediate vicinity of the town called Hope-Temple, comprising several acres of ground tastefully laid out, and forming an interesting place of resort to the inhabitants. An agricultural society was founded here in 1819, for the advance of improvements in husbandry by the distribution of prizes; the meetings are held annually, when a show of cattle and some ploughing-matches take place. There are likewise two horticultural societies, one established in 1782, and the other in 1832; both are well supported, and have tended greatly to improvement in the management of gardens, and the raising of flowers and vegetables. To the east of the town, in the suburb of Williamsburgh, some very commodious barracks have been erected within the last thirty years; they are pleasantly situated, and adapted to the reception of half a regiment of infantry.

The almost unequalled increase in the extent and population of Paisley, which formerly consisted only of one street, and contained scarcely 2000 inhabitants, is to be attributed to the introduction of the various manufactures of which it is the seat, and for which its situation near the river Clyde, affording great facility of communication, renders it peculiarly favourable. Not long after the union of the two kingdoms, when a free trade was opened, the few articles manufactured here, principally coarse checked linens and Bengals, were purchased by pedlars from England, who, selling them among their friends at home to advantage, regularly frequented this town as the principal mart, and, after acquiring some little property as itinerant merchants, took up their abode in Paisley, and became factors for supplying their correspondents in the south. The impetus thus given to the manufactures soon excited the attention of the Glasgow merchants, who bought large quantities, which they sent to London and to foreign markets. The manufacture of checked linen handkerchiefs, of different colours tastefully blended, was soon added to the articles previously made; and to these succeeded various fabrics of lighter texture, consisting chiefly of plain and figured lawns, and a new sort of sewing-thread, known by the appellation of ounce or nuns' thread, to distinguish it from other kinds manufactured at Aberdeen and Dundee. The manufacture of silk gauze, in imitation of that of Spitalfields, London, was introduced here about the year 1760, and was carried on with such success, and in such a variety of elegant patterns, as totally to supersede the making of that article by the London weavers. It soon became the staple manufacture of the place, and several companies from London settled in the town for the purpose of conducting it on a more extensive scale; it furnished employment to numbers of persons in the surrounding district for almost twenty miles, and the different manufactures here had agents for the sale of it in London, Dublin, Paris, and other parts of the continent. This manufacture, however, after a period of unexampled success for nearly thirty years, declined with the change of fashion, and was almost immediately succeeded by that of muslin, which was carried on by the same parties with much spirit and perseverance, and soon rose to a great degree of prosperity. The working of muslins with embroidery shortly followed; it was pursued with only moderate success for some time, but has been rapidly increasing within the last twenty years, and now gives employment to thousands of females in this widely extended manufacturing district. The value of the silk and linen gauze, and white sewing-thread, manufactured here in 1784, has been estimated at £579,185; and about 1790, the aggregate amount of all the goods of every kind manufactured annually was computed at £660,385. The number of persons employed in 1784 in the gauze and thread works was 27,484. From the reports of the Board of Trustees for the encouragement of manufactures, it appears that the linen trade had in 1784 reached its greatest height; the number of looms that year was 2000, and nearly 2,000,000 of yards were stamped. About 5000 looms were then, according to the same authority, employed in the silk gauze manufacture, and the quantity produced was estimated at £350,000.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the manufacture of shawls in imitation of those of India was attempted, at first only with comparatively moderate success; but by the perseverance and ingenuity of the persons embarked in it, the manufacture at length succeeded even beyond expectation, and shawls of soft and spun silk, and of cotton, were produced of admirable quality. Imitations, also, of the scarfs and turbans worn by the eastern nations were made, and exported in great quantities to the islands in the Archipelago and to Turkey; and the same style of work was introduced in several varieties for ladies' dresses. This trade flourished for a long time, affording employment to great numbers of persons; and is still carried on to a considerable extent. A more perfect imitation of the Indian shawl was eventually obtained, by mixing fine wool and silk in the production of what was called Persian yarn; and a still nearer approximation was made by the introduction of the fabric called Thibet, originally manufactured in Yorkshire, but afterwards adopted with improvements by the weavers of this place. The manufacture was at length brought to its present state of perfection by the use of cashmere wool from the east; this had been imported for some time by the French; and by obtaining yarn from France, the Paisley manufacturer produced an article of most beautiful quality. The manufacture of crape for dresses, and of embroidered crape and damask shawls resembling those of China, was introduced here about the year 1823, and carried on to a very considerable extent, affording lucrative employment to numbers of females, whose ingenuity and skill have produced specimens in many instances equal to those imported from Canton: this manufacture is still pursued, though less extensively than formerly. The shawls at present chiefly made are of three kinds; either entirely of silk, a mixture of silk and cotton, or wholly of cotton. The trade in them has been rapidly increasing, and the value of the quantities produced in a late year was estimated at nearly £1,000,000. The cheneille shawl was introduced into the town by Mr. Buchanan, afterwards of Glasgow, and is made on a very extensive scale: these shawls, of velvet on silk, from their extreme softness and the variety of their colours are in great estimation. The thread manufacture, in which cotton has been recently used in the place of linen, affords employment to many persons, and the quantity annually made is estimated at £100,000. The total number of looms in the town is more than 6000; there are 2000 in the villages; and in the surrounding districts, great numbers of persons are employed by the Glasgow houses. Machinery of every kind, and on the most improved principles, is used in all the factories; and for facilitating the operations, and bringing to greater perfection the articles made, numerous ingenious contrivances have been suggested, and successfully applied, both by the masters and the workmen.

The printing of silks and muslins is carried on to a limited extent, and the weaving of tartan employs numerous persons. The cotton manufacture, which was first attempted at Dovecothall, is also pursued, and on a considerable scale: there are at present three factories in the town, two of which are very extensive; and sixteen likewise in the village of Elderslie and the rising town of Johnstone. An iron-foundry on a large scale has been established for more than fifty years; and connected with it are works for the manufacture of steamengines and all kinds of machinery. There are also a manufactory for gasometers, and iron boats for canal navigation; three large brass-foundries in the town; two iron-foundries, and one brass, in the village of Johnstone; and five manufactories for machinery connected with the factories of the district. A very extensive tannery is conducted with great success. There are three public breweries, two of which are extensive; three distilleries; a large soap manufactory; and seven bleachfields, to most of which capacious reservoirs have been attached by the company for supplying Paisley with water. Two banks have been established in the town, in which are also three branch banks connected with Edinburgh and Glasgow, and numerous offices for fire and life insurance: the post-office has several deliveries daily; and the revenue, before the adoption of the system of the penny-postage, amounted to £3194. The market, which is amply supplied, is weekly, on Thursday; and there are four annual fairs, for three days each, respectively commencing on the third Thursday in February, the third Thursday in May, the third Thursday in August, and the second Thursday in November. At the August fair, the Paisley races, which have been long established, attract a numerous assemblage of visiters. A fair is also held at Johnstone, in July, for cattle; and a horse fair is held in December.

The town has great facility of intercourse with Glasgow, and with all other parts of the country, by excellent roads and bridges, of which latter, one of ancient structure, across the Cart, connects the Old and New Towns; while two others, over the same river, afford communication between the Abbey and town parishes. One of these, called, from its situation near the Seedhill craigs, the Seedhill bridge, was built with materials taken from the ruins of the Abbey. The Glasgow, Paisley, and Johnstone Canal, for which an act of parliament was obtained in 1805, was commenced in 1807; and that part of it forming a communication between Paisley and Johnstone was finished in 1810. In the following year, the portion between this town and Glasgow was opened. The whole line of navigation is eleven miles in length, about twenty-eight feet in width, and four feet and a half in average depth; and was completed at an expense of £130,000. In its progress it passes along two tunnels, one of which, under the Causeway-side-street of the town, is 240 feet long, and the other, near the western extremity of the town, 210 feet: it is carried across the Cart by a handsome aqueduct 240 feet in length, twenty-seven feet in breadth, and thirty feet in height, and the span of the arch over the river is eighty-four feet. It was not found necessary to construct a single lock. In addition to the boats for goods and merchandise, three boats were at first handsomely fitted up for passengers, each capable of conveying one hundred persons; and the facilities were afterwards greatly extended by the addition of lighter craft, called gig-boats, which were drawn by horses, and left the basin at Paisley every hour, from nine o'clock in the morning till eight at night, for Glasgow. The passage was performed in less than an hour; the number of passengers annually conveyed was 423,186, and the amount of fares received by the proprietors more than £9000. Not less than sixty-four horses were employed for these boats. By a recent arrangement, however, with railway companies, the conveyance of passengers is to be discontinued for twenty-one years, and the traffic confined to heavy goods, of which 68,063 tons were carried in the year ending 30th September 1844. The Railway from the New Town of Paisley to the river Clyde at Renfrew, for the conveyance of passengers and goods, was constructed by a company under an act obtained in 1835; and the line was opened in May 1837. It is three miles and a quarter in length, with a rise of about sixteen feet upon the whole distance; the earth-works are light, and there is only one stone bridge (having a semi-elliptical arch) over the railway, and four level road-crossings. The amount of capital is £23,000. The Glasgow, Paisley, and Greenock railway was commenced under an act passed in 1837; it begins at the south end of Glasgow bridge, proceeds to Paisley, and, running nearly parallel to the Clyde, terminates at Greenock, near the harbour, the whole line being twenty-two and a half miles. The portion between Glasgow and Paisley, common with the Ayr railway, noticed below, was opened on the 14th July, 1840: the capital of the company is now £866,666. The Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock, and Ayr railway proceeds through Paisley on a viaduct resting on several arches of different spans, according to the width of the streets and roads passed over, of which there are seven. Here, also, the railway is carried over the river Cart on a bold and splendid bridge of one arch, eighty-five feet in span; after which it curves, and passes over the Glasgow, Paisley, and Johnstone canal in its course to the south-west. Paisley is one of the principal intermediate stations. The works of this railway were commenced in May 1838; and the whole line, forty miles, between Glasgow and Ayr was opened in August 1840. The easy means of communication with so many important places now afforded to this town by these various lines of road, tends materially to increase its trade.

Paisley was in 1488 formed into a free burgh of barony by James IV., in favour of the abbot of Paisley and his successors, to whom he gave the power of appointing a provost, bailies, and other officers. The privileges which the inhabitants had previously obtained from the superior of the regality, were confirmed and greatly extended by a charter granted in 1490 by the abbot to the provost, bailies, burgesses, and community of the recently-created burgh; and in 1576, James VI. bestowed a charter confirming to them all altarages, chapelries, and lands within the burgh. This charter is regarded as the foundation of the claims of patronage exercised by the earls of Abercorn and Dundonald after the dissolution of the monastery, and acquired from the latter family by the magistrates and council of the burgh in 1733. In 1658 the corporation, in consideration of certain sums of money, obtained from Lord Cochrane, at that time proprietor of the lordship, the right of superiority of the burgh, with all its privileges and immunities, to be held of the crown; which liberties, rights, and possessions, with the power of electing magistrates, were confirmed to the inhabitants by charter granted by Charles II., in the year 1666. The government is at present vested in a provost, four bailies, a treasurer, and a council of ten burgesses, assisted by a town-clerk, chamberlain, and other officers. The provost, who is also a deputy-lieutenant of the county; the bailies, who are also ex officio justices of the peace; and the council, are all annually elected on the first Monday in November, under the authority, and subject to the regulations, of the Municipal Reform act; and the town-clerk, chamberlain, and other officers are appointed by the provost and council. The magistrates have jurisdiction over the whole of the ancient royalty, and hold courts twice in the week for the determination of civil actions, the town-clerk being assessor; also a court of requests, called the Conveners' court, in which parties appear on summons, and state mutually their cases, before taking ulterior proceedings in the civil court, which are frequently obviated by the advice given by the magistrates. The sheriff's court, for the recovery of small debts, removed from Renfrew to this place, is held weekly, and has tended to diminish the number of cases brought before the civil court, which previously averaged about 200, but subsequently not more than seventy, annually. A police court, also, is held daily by the magistrates, assisted by the town-clerk as assessor, for the decision of petty offences and breaches of the peace: the police establishment consists of a superintendant, two serjeants, four corporals, and twelve constables, appointed by the commissioners for the wards into which the town and suburbs are divided. Prior to the adoption of the Police act, an organization of special constables had been established, which, from its efficiency in preserving order, is still kept up, at the trifling expense of furnishing batons to the constables as ensigns of their authority.

Before the passing of the act for amending the parliamentary representation, the burgh merely shared in returning a member for the county; but since that time it has sent one of its own, and the limits of the ancient burgh have been extended over a wide agricultural district on the opposite side of the river Cart, which is now included within the parliamentary boundary. The number of persons occupying houses within the municipal bounds of Paisley to the amount of £10 per annum and upwards is 906, of whom 496 are burgesses; and of those occupying houses under £10 per annum, but above £5, 900, of whom 267 are burgesses. The number of £10 householders beyond the municipal, but within the parliamentary, boundary of the burgh, is 234, of whom eighty-six are burgesses; and of those occupying houses under £10 per annum, but above £5, 215, of whom sixteen are burgesses.

The County and Town Hall is a spacious quadrangular edifice in the castellated style, erected in 1820, at an expense of £28,000, raised by assessment on the county. The front, or western, range of the quadrangle contains a large court-house, county-hall, council-chambers, and offices for the different departments of the public business of the town and county. The eastern range comprises the house of correction, the common gaol, and a chapel between them for their joint accommodation, in which divine service is regularly performed every Sunday evening by the ministers of the Establishment and dissenting Presbyterians. The gaol has nineteen apartments for criminals, and fifteen for debtors; of the former there were 319, and of the latter 195, committed during a recent year: here is likewise a large airing yard. The house of correction consists of forty-two cells, an hospital for the sick, and two convenient airing yards. The average number of inmates is thirty-two; they are employed in winding yarn, weaving, needlework, picking wool, and other useful works; and such as need instruction are attended by a teacher daily for one hour. Classification and moral discipline are strictly observed, and attached to the prison is a library of religious books. The steeple of the former court-house and prison is still remaining, near the market-cross; and opposite to it are the coffee-room buildings, of handsome style, ornamented with pilasters of the Ionic order, and containing a spacious reading and news room.

The whole of the Paisley portion of the county, at present so populously inhabited, and forming so extensive a manufacturing district, was previously to the year 1736 one parish, now divided into the Abbey parish and the town parishes. The district is situated in the upper part of the shire, within two miles of the river Clyde; and is nearly nine miles in length, and of very irregular form, varying from half a mile to about five miles and a half in breadth. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Renfrew, on the north-east by that of Govan, on the east by the parish of Eastwood, on the south-east by Neilston, on the west by the parish of Kilbarchan, and on the south and south-west by the parishes of Neilston and Lochwinnoch. The surface is beautifully diversified, consisting around the town of numerous gentle eminences, either in rich cultivation or clothed with wood. To the north of the town the lands are generally level, being chiefly reclaimed moss; but towards the south they rise into hills, called the Braes of Gleniffer, the highest points of which have an elevation of about 700 feet above the river Cart, but which afford excellent pasturage for sheep, and in some of the lower heights are in a state of cultivation. The chief river is the Cart, or White Cart, which has its source in the high grounds between Eaglesham and the parish of Kilbride, and after forming its boundary for some few miles, enters the Abbey parish on the eastern side, and flows with a gentle course towards the town, whence it runs into the Clyde, after having united with the Black Cart near Inchinnan bridge. Above the town its banks exhibit much rich scenery, being in some parts very elevated, and crowned with wood. It formerly abounded with perch, trout, flounders, and other fish; but they have not been found in such numbers since the establishment of so many works upon its stream. The river has been rendered navigable to the town for vessels of sixty or eighty tons, by the construction of a short canal to avoid the shallows near Inchinnan bridge, and by various additional improvements of recent date, for which an act of parliament was obtained. The Levern, a smaller stream, on the banks of which are numerous cotton-mills, bleachfields, and other works, after forming part of the eastern boundary of the Abbey parish, joins the Cart, nearly at its entrance into the parish. The Black Cart has its source in Castle-Semple loch, borders the parish on the north-west, and falls into the Cart, as already remarked, near Inchinnan bridge. Various rivulets, also, descend from the higher grounds; the Espedair and Alt-Patrick burns may be considered the principal.

The soil in the upper lands is dry and light; in the lower parts, a stiffish clay, retentive of moisture. The whole number of acres is estimated at 16,160, of which about 12,700 are arable, 1000 in woods and plantations, 1700 moss, and about 700 waste; the chief crops are, oats, wheat, barley, beans, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture has been greatly improved, and the rotation plan of husbandry is prevalent; the farm-buildings are substantial and well arranged; the lands generally inclosed; and all the more recent improvements in the construction of implements have been adopted. Tile-draining has been carried on to a considerable extent; much waste land and moss, also, has been reclaimed and brought into cultivation. Due attention is paid to the rearing of live-stock, under the encouragement of the Agricultural Society; the dairy-farms are well managed, and the proximity of populous towns and villages affords a ready market for their produce. The cattle are of the Ayrshire breed, the sheep generally of the Leicestershire; the horses are the Clydesdales, and are considered of superior character. A number of racers and hunters are bred in the district. The woods consist of oak, elm, ash, plane, and horsechesnut; and the plantations, of birch, larch, and silver, spruce, and Scotch firs: the trees are all well attended to; and the plantations, occupying chiefly elevated situations, add greatly to the beauty of the scenery.

The substrata in the higher lands are mainly composed of trap-rock of the secondary character; and in the lower lands, of rocks belonging to the coal formation. Greenstone, hornblende with quartz and felspar, and porphyry of a greyish colour, are found in the hills: the greenstone is traversed with veins of jasper and chalcedony. The substrata in the lower division include ironstone, limestone, sandstone, fire-clay, and aluminous and bituminous shale. The sandstone is of a yellowish-white colour, tinged more or less with iron; it is extensively quarried at Nitshill, and the works afford constant employment to about 100 persons throughout the whole of the year. The limestone occurs in beds under the sandstone, and alternating with coal and ironstone; it is of a grey colour, and is quarried at Hurlet and Blackhall, where it is thickly imbedded with shells, crystal of calcareous spar, and small masses of mineral pitch. Coal is of course abundant in the lower portion of the Abbey parish; it has been found within the town, near Meikleriggs, and at Quarrelton, Hurlet, and other places. The coal at Quarrelton is in ten successive seams, varying from three to nine yards in thickness: a considerable quantity is of light inflammable kind, and the remainder closely resembling the Newcastle coal. It abounds with inflammable gas, and is liable to spontaneous ignition. The coal found at Hurlet occurs in a stratum about five feet and a half thick, extending over an area of nearly 500 acres, and contains a large quantity of sulphur; while at Nitshill are strata from one foot to almost three feet in thickness. Coal is also found near the road from Paisley to Beith, on the high grounds of Auchenlodmont, at Elderslie, and at Craigenfeoch; in the last place it occurs in four under-seams varying in thickness from three to five feet, and is wrought in separate lofts. The ironstone occurs in many places, and was formerly wrought to a great extent, and sent to the smelting-works on the river Clyde: ironore is still found in considerable quantities at Hawkeshead, Hurlet, and other places, occurring generally in round or lenticular masses of moderate size. Aluminous schist is abundant at Hurlet, the strata varying from six inches to three feet and a half in thickness. It is wrought by a company for the purpose of making alum, of which, in a late year, not less than 1200 tons were manufactured here; and about 300 tons of copperas were produced by the same company at their works at Nitshill. Large quantities of muriate of potash and sulphate of ammonia are manufactured at Glasgow, and sent to the alum-works by the Glasgow canal and the Hurlet railway. At this company's several works and collieries near Paisley nearly 400 persons are constantly employed; and about 200 more are engaged in the mineral productions at other places in the Abbey parish. From the abundance of ironstone and coal diffused through the district, it is not improbable that iron-works on a very extensive scale may be ultimately established here, and give a fresh impetus to the enterprising genius of the inhabitants. The rateable annual value of Paisley is £132,829, of which £66,941 are for the Abbey parish, which completely encircles, and includes part of the town.

The principal gentlemen's seats in the Abbey parish are, Johnstone Castle, the residence of Ludovic Houston, Esq., a spacious and elegant mansion, in a richly-wooded demesne forming one of the chief ornaments of the county; Househill, a handsome residence, pleasantly situated on the banks of the Levern, near its confluence with the river Cart; and Ralston House, built by the late William Orr, Esq. There are numerous other houses scattered over the parish, inhabited by opulent families, and surrounded with grounds tastefully embellished; and in the immediate vicinity of the town are many pleasing villas, erected by persons retired from business.

Paisley is the seat of a presbytery established in 1590, and having jurisdiction over all the parishes in the county, except those of Eaglesham and Cathcart, which, being only partly in Renfrew, were transferred to the presbytery of Greenock. Its ecclesiastical affairs, therefore, are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The stipend of the incumbent of the Old or Abbey parish, of which the population is 28,246, is £376, with a manse, a comfortable residence, erected in 1824, and a glebe valued at £67 per annum. A second minister was in 1641 appointed as a colleague to the incumbent, who at that time gave five chalders out of his own income for his support; and this allowance, having been subsequently augmented, produces to the minister of the second charge a stipend of £363, but without either manse or glebe. The church of this parish is part of the Abbey church, which was fitted up for the purpose, and will be more minutely described hereafter. The increase of the population early rendered the erection of an additional church indispensable; and in 1736, a church now called the Low Church having been completed, the burgh was erected into a separate parish by the Lords Commissioners, and a charter was obtained from Lord Dundonald, granting to the magistrates permission to build other churches within its limits, of which he conceded to them the patronage. In 1756, a church was erected on the eminence called Oakshaw Head, and, from its situation, was called the High Church. About twenty-five years afterwards, a third church was built in the burgh parish, to accommodate the rapidlyaugmenting population, and, from its relative position between the other two, obtained the appellation of the Middle Church; and after its erection, the parish was by an act of the Court of Teinds in 1781, divided into three parishes, called the Low Church, the High Church, and the Middle Church parishes. The population of these parishes respectively is, 7080, 14,798, and 10,363; and the stipends of the incumbents are £300 per annum each, paid out of the common property of the corporation, who are patrons of the livings. A new church was built by the corporation in the Low Church parish, and dedicated to St. George, in 1819, by which an increase of 600 sittings was obtained, being the difference between the number of seats in the Low church and in this, to which the incumbent of that parish was transferred; and after its erection the Low church was no longer appropriated as a place of public worship.

The still increasing population requiring further accommodation, a Gaelic church and six chapels of ease were erected. The Gaelic church was built in 1793, for the use of the Highlanders generally in the town of Paisley and the vicinity; and to each of the chapels of ease was till lately annexed a quoad sacra district, by which they were raised to the rank of parish churches. Of the six chapels or churches, that of Johnstone was erected in 1792, the church at Levern in 1835, and that of Elderslie in 1840; and in the burgh, the North church, the Martyrs, and the South church, have been completed, and a minister ordained to each. The South late quoad sacra parish was disjoined partly from the Abbey parish and partly from the parish of Low Church, and was about half a mile in length and a quarter in breadth, having a population of 3135, all resident in the town: the church, built in 1835–6, at a cost of £2129, contains 972 sittings. The North late quoad sacra parish was separated from the Middle parish in 1834, and was in extent about one square mile, and wholly a town parish, having a population of 2876. The church was built in 1833–4, at a cost of £1700, raised by means of collections and subscriptions, aided by a grant of £300 from the General Assembly; it contains nearly 1000 sittings. The late quoad sacra parish of Martyrs was separated from High Church parish in 1836, and extended over about twenty acres, its greatest length being about 400 yards, and its greatest breadth 220; this was also quite a town district, having a population of 3471. The church was built in 1835, at an expense of £2120, raised chiefly by subscription, and contains 1200 sittings. The whole number of sittings in the churches and chapels of the Establishment is 13,000. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Reformed Presbytery, Old Burghers, the Relief, and the United Secession; also an episcopal chapel; places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists, Scottish and Berean Baptists, Independents, Glassites, Unitarians, and Universalists; and in the New Town a Roman Catholic chapel. A home mission has been established, and is supported by subscription. Under its direction, three licentiates of the church are appointed to preach in the most populous parts of the town and neighbourhood; and there are two Sabbath-school Societies, one of which is maintained by members of the Established Church, and the other by the different denominations of Evangelical dissenters. There were also till lately two halls connected with dissenting congregations, for the study of theology.

The grammar school, of which the corporation are the trustees, had an endowment in land, with certain altarages, and revenues of chaplainships in the church of the monastery, given to the magistrates of the burgh for its foundation; but most of these endowments have been lost, and the rector receives only £17 per annum, with a school and dwelling-house from the corporation, by whom he is appointed, in addition to the fees. A school for commercial instruction is also partly maintained by the corporation, who pay the master a salary of £8. 6. 8., with a house. There are in the Abbey and burgh parishes about seventy schools, the masters of which, with some few exceptions, are supported exclusively by the fees: the master of a school at Seedhill has a schoolroom and dwelling-house, and £5 per annum bequeathed by Mr. Park about fifty years since for the instruction of children. Schools were lately established in the Abbey parish by the heritors, who assessed themselves for the maintenance of three teachers; and a school has been erected in the New Town with funds bequeathed for that purpose by the family of Corse, of Greenlaw. The parishes within the burgh recently obtained a grant of £700 from government for the erection of schools, with which, together with additions by the inhabitants, three new schools have been built, and a salary of £15 per annum guaranteed to each of the masters: in these schools are about 700 pupils. A charity-school founded in the town by Mrs. Margaret Hutchinson, has been additionally endowed with £500 bequeathed by the late Walter Carswell, Esq.; and a commodious schoolroom has been built, in which are about 250 scholars. An infant school has been erected in the New town, by subscription, on a site given by James Kibble, Esq., of Greenlaw; it is attended by eighty children. The whole number of scholars in the Abbey and town parishes was returned in 1834 as amounting to 4876; and since that period it has considerably increased. The poor have the interest of various bequests amounting together to £700. The Town's hospital was built in 1752, and an addition has been recently made to it for the reception of lunatics; it is under the control of fifteen directors chosen annually, and is visited daily by an experienced surgeon. The inmates who are capable of work are employed in some useful pursuit; and the children are duly instructed by the master, who takes them all with him to church twice every Sunday. The number of inmates in a recent year was 220, and the expense of their maintenance, £1347. There are six incorporated societies of trades, and numerous friendly and benefit societies, that distribute largely among their members when in need of help, by which the claims upon the poor's funds are greatly diminished. A dispensary was erected by subscription in 1786, and a house of recovery subsequently added; they are under the direction of a committee of subscribers, and a house-surgeon and apothecary, and are visited by six medical practitioners in the town. The building is capable of receiving at once forty-five inpatients; and in the course of a late year not less than 463 were admitted, exclusively of patients who merely received medicines and advice: the total expenditure of the establishment for the year was £466. 11. A savings' bank, called the Paisley Provident Bank, was established in 1815, in which the amount of deposits for the year is about £5090.

Of the ancient monastery of this place, a venerable and splendid cruciform structure, in the decorated style of English architecture, the chief remains are, the nave of the church, which is now the Abbey parish church, and a portion of the north transept, and of the cloisters, with St. Mirin's chapel. The western entrance is divided into three compartments by panelled and niched buttresses, terminating in conical pinnacles of recent addition and incongruous character: the centre has a richly-moulded and deeply-recessed archway of Norman character, supported on each side by a series of fifteen slender clustered columns. Above the doorway are two handsome windows of three lights, headed with geometrical tracery; and these are surmounted by one large window of five lights, headed with trefoil, and having the crown of the arch filled with flowing tracery of elaborate and beautiful design. The nave, ninety-three feet in length and thirty-three feet in breadth, is separated from the aisles by a range of ten massive clustered columns with plainly-moulded capitals, sustaining the arches of the triforium, which are of circular form, richly moulded, and subdivided by a central mullion into two pointed arches headed in cinquefoil. The nave is lighted by a series of twelve clerestory windows on either side, each of two lights, headed with elegant tracery. The original groined roof, embellished with sculptured bosses at the intersection of the arches, has been concealed by the insertion of a coved ceiling, which detracts greatly from the grandeur of effect produced by the arrangement and style of the interior. The aisles are lighted by handsome windows of the decorated style, divided into two, three, and in some instances four, lights, and enriched with tracery of various kinds; and in some parts the groined roof, in the same style as that of the nave, is still preserved. That portion of the transept which is remaining has a spacious and elegant window of two lights, with flowing tracery of beautiful design. Of the choir, a few feet of the walls remain above the foundation; and the bases of the massive clustered columns that supported the tower are to be seen. The cloisters appear to have inclosed a quadrangular area of about sixty feet, from which is an entrance to the chapel of St. Mirin on the east side. The chapel is about forty-eight feet in length and twenty-four feet in breadth, with a lofty and finely-groined roof: at the east end is a large window of four lights headed with trefoil, but now blocked up; beneath which is a cluster of sculptured figures in bold relief. In the south wall is a niche in which a piscina is placed; in the north wall are two spacious arches, built up; and at the east end is a vault under the elevated portion of the pavement, forming the place of sepulture of the Abercorn family. Nearly in the centre of the floor of the chapel is the altar-tomb of Queen Bleary, which was found in the area of the cloisters in a mutilated state, and, being re-constructed, was placed here under the direction of the late Dr. Boog. The sides and ends of this monument are divided into compartments, ornamented with sculptured figures of ecclesiastics, armorial shields, and other devices in bold relief; and on the slab is the figure of a female in a recumbent posture, with the head resting on a cushion, under a rich canopy, and the hands folded as in the attitude of prayer. Various conjectures have been made respecting the person to whose memory the monument was raised; but nothing satisfactory has been established. The chapel, from its extraordinary reverberation of sound, has obtained the appellation of the "sounding aisle." Within what was formerly the choir of the monastery, and in the adjoining cemetery, are numerous gravestones, and monumental inscriptions: the queens of Robert II. and III., and Walter, the great steward, and his lady, were interred in the Abbey church.

There are some remains of the ancient residence of the Abercorn and Dundonald families, let out in different tenements. Three miles to the south of the town are the shattered ruins of Cruickston Castle, the favourite resort of Mary, Queen of Scots; and about two miles also to the south of it, are the remains of the tower of Stewarts-Raiss, seated on the bank of the river Levern. Near the Braes of Gleniffer, by which it is overlooked, is the tower of Stanley Castle, rising to the height of forty feet, and crowned with a boldly-projecting battlement supported by corbels; it is still in good preservation, and forms an interesting feature in the landscape. Hawkhead House, the old residence of the Kelburn family, and now of the Earl of Glasgow, is an irregular quadrangular edifice, with a strong tower, round which additional buildings were erected; the grounds are finely laid out with stately avenues of trees forming an approach to the castle, and are deeply embosomed in woods. Blackwall House, situated on the banks of the river Cart, was a mansion of great strength, but is now a ruin; and Cardonald, a spacious castellated mansion, formerly the seat of Lord Blantyre, is now let out in tenements. Near the village of Elderslie is a house in which it is said the renowned Sir William Wallace was born; and near it is a tree called "Wallace's Oak," from its having afforded shelter and concealment to that hero and his friends, when pursued by a hostile force of superior strength. About two miles and a half to the east of the town is a saline spring called Candren Well, on the properties of which a treatise was written by the late Dr. Lyall, a native of Paisley. Among other distinguished natives may be enumerated, Andrew Knox, a relative of the Reformer, who was ordained as minister of this parish, and was afterwards bishop of Raphoe; Patrick Adamson, archbishop of St. Andrew's; Thomas Smeton, principal of the college of Glasgow; Robert Boyd, successively principal of the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow; Alexander Dunlop, father of the principal of that name; Robert Millar, author of the Propagation of Christianity and other treatises of merit; John Witherspoon, president of the college of New Jersey, and an eminent divine; Robert Findlay, professor of theology in the college of Glasgow; Robert Tannahill, author of some lyric poetry; Alexander Wilson, the American ornithologist; Dr. Robert Watt, author of the Bibliotheca Britannica; John Henning, a distinguished modeller; the gifted Professor Wilson, of Edinburgh; and William Motherwell, a poet of much merit.

Palnackie

PALNACKIE, a village and sea-port, in the parish of Buittle, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 6 miles (S. E.) from Castle-Douglas; containing 200 inhabitants. This place is situated on the river Urr, which is navigable from its influx into the Solway Frith to the village, for vessels not drawing more than seventeen feet water at spring, and twelve feet at neap, tides; and from the village to Dalbeattie, for vessels of smaller burthen. The port appears to have grown into consideration with the increase of Castle-Douglas, of which it is the chief shipping-place; and at present carries on a good trade in coal, lime, timber, slates, and various kinds of merchandise, and in fat-cattle, sheep, and other agricultural produce, with Glasgow and Irvine, with Liverpool, Whitehaven, and Workington, in the north of England, and also with North America. The number of vessels registered as belonging to the port is twenty, of the aggregate burthen of 1303 tons, and navigated by seventy-five men. A custom-house officer is stationed here; and all vessels in the coasting trade are cleared at the port both inward and outward. There is no regular harbour; but on one side of the creek a quay of wood has been constructed, at which six vessels can land or take in their cargoes at one time; and if it were extended along the bank of the river, and also on the opposite side of the creek, abundant accommodation would be provided for a very considerable number of vessels. No harbour-dues are exacted; but one farthing per ton is levied for the purpose of maintaining the quay in repair. About 11,000 quarters of grain, 125 tons of meal, 700 tons of potatoes, 3800 tons of timber, planks, and bark, and about 8000 head of fatcattle and sheep, are annually shipped from the port. A mail passes daily from Castle-Douglas through the village to Dalbeattie, and returns in the evening; and great facility of communication and conveyance is afforded by steam-packets.

Panbride

PANBRIDE, a parish, in the county of Forfar; containing, with the villages or hamlets of East Haven, Gallowlaw, Muirdrum, Newtown of Panbride, and West Haven, 1380 inhabitants, of whom 134 are in the village of Panbride, and 75 in Newtown of Panbride, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Arbroath. This place derived its name, in the Celtic language signifying "the town of St. Bride," probably from the dedication of its church to that saint. The parish is rather more than five miles in length, and about two miles in breadth; it is bounded on the south by the sea, and comprises 5400 acres, of which 4100 are arable, 600 woodland and plantations, and 700 natural pasture and moorland. The surface is generally level, though in some places rising into hills of gentle elevation; the shore is flat, and interspersed with rocks, and towards the water's edge gravelly, and abounding with pebbles, of which some are found of a very handsome kind, resembling agate. A considerable portion of the lands appears to have been anciently covered by the sea; and there are in several parts of the coast evident traces of its having retreated. There is no river of any importance; but two small rivulets intersect the lands, and unite their streams about a mile before they fall into the sea: in some parts of their course they flow past rocky banks, which rise perpendicularly to the height of fifty feet. The soil is various; towards the coast it is light and sandy; in some places, a rich loam; towards the centre, clayey; and in other parts, inclining to a sterile moor. The crops are, grain of all kinds, turnips, and potatoes. The system of agriculture is in a very improved state; the lands have been well drained, and inclosed partly with stone dykes and partly with hedges of thorn, which are kept in excellent order; the farm-buildings are substantial and well arranged; and the more recent improvements in the construction of implements have been adopted. Due attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, generally of the common black breed; but no sheep or horses are bred, except for domestic uses.

The woods and plantations, which consist of the ordinary forest-trees, and of Scotch fir, are well managed, and in a flourishing condition. The substrata are, sandstone of soft texture, intermixed with large masses of limestone of great compactness; and, in some parts, freestone of very excellent quality for building purposes: the freestone, which is of good colour, is extensively quarried; but the limestone is neither of good quality nor in sufficient quantities to remunerate the expense of working it. Panmure House, the seat of Lord Panmure, proprietor of the parish, is a spacious and handsome mansion, situated on an eminence in the north-western part of the parish, in a demesne richly embellished with woods and plantations, and commanding some beautiful views. At a short distance are the remains of the castle of Panmure, consisting chiefly of the foundations, and some of the vaults of that ancient structure, which was long the residence of the earls of Panmure, whose ancestor, Galfred de Maule, obtained from Edgar, King of Scotland, a grant of these lands in the year 1072. A lucrative fishery is carried on by the inhabitants of East and West Haven. The fish generally taken are, cod, haddock, lobsters, and crabs; the cod and haddocks are in great abundance, and considerable quantities of both are salted and dried for exportation. The fresh fish find a ready market at Dundee. The lobsters are caught from February to the end of May; and great numbers are sent to the London market, preserved alive during the passage in wells so constructed as to admit the sea-water to pass through them freely. Three boats at each of these places are employed in the fishery; and there are four vessels for general trade, varying from forty to sixty tons' burthen, belonging to the parish. The Dundee and Arbroath railway has an intermediate station at East Haven. About 100 persons in the parish are employed in hand-loom weaving, and there is a bleachfield which occupies thirty persons. The rateable annual value of Panbride is £4572. It is in the presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns, and patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £231. 1. 11., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £10 per annum. The church is a very ancient, and was originally a cruciform, structure: by the removal of the transepts, however, and other alterations, its external character has been destroyed, and the interior of what remains displays no elegant architectural details. It was repaired in 1775, and is adapted for a congregation of 600 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34. 4., with the fees, and a house and garden. A Sabbath school is well attended; and there is a parochial library, containing volumes chiefly on religious subjects. The ancestors of Hector Boetius were for several generations owners of property at Panbride; and that eminent historian is supposed to have been born here. James Traill, Bishop of Down and Connor in Ireland, who died in 1783, was also a native of this parish, of which his father was minister; and his grandson, the Rev. David Traill, D.D., is the present incumbent.

Papa

PAPA, an isle, forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of Burra and Quarff, in the county of Shetland; and containing 21 inhabitants. This is a small isle, lying in Scalloway bay, a short distance north-east of Oxna, and north-west of Burra about one mile.

Papa, Little

PAPA, LITTLE, an island, forming part of the parish of Aithsting and Sandsting, in the county of Shetland; and containing 11 inhabitants. It lies in St. Magnus' bay, near the island of Vementry, and is a small place, having a couple of families, and appropriated to the pasturage of cattle and sheep.

Papa-Stour

PAPA-STOUR, an island, forming part of the parish of Walls and Sandness, in the county of Shetland; and containing 382 inhabitants. This island lies at the entrance of St. Magnus' bay, about a mile west of the main land of the parish, and is about two miles in length and one in breadth. The surface is flat, and the soil sandy; excellent crops of oats, barley, and potatoes are often produced, and the pasturage is exceedingly rich. There are numerous voes, or small harbours, which afford safe anchorage for fishing-boats; and from the convenience of the beach, buildings are erected for drying fish, a branch of trade extensively carried on. The elevated grounds are irregular-shaped ridges, with roundish summits; and in almost every part of the coast are marks of the devastation of the Western Ocean in the form of stupendous cliffs and deep excavations. On the coast are also numbers of isolated rocks, one of which is called the Lady's Rock; and there is a very remarkable cave called Christie's hole, into which the tide flows: here boats' crews attack the seals at certain seasons, well armed with thick clubs, and provided with lights. The inlet of Hanna Voe, though of difficult access, is a secure harbour for vessels.

Papa-Stronsay

PAPA-STRONSAY, an isle, in the parish of St. Peter, Stronsay, county of Orkney; containing 28 inhabitants. It is a small isle, near the island of Stronsay, and at the mouth of a sound to which it gives name; its circumference is about three miles, and it is pleasant, remarkably fertile, and produces excellent crops. It anciently had two chapels, one dedicated to St. Nicholas, and the other to St. Bride, between the ruins of which is an eminence called Earl's Knoll, on which are vestiges of buildings and graves.

Papa-Westray

PAPA-WESTRAY, an isle, in the parish of Westray, North Isles of the county of Orkney; containing 340 inhabitants. This isle lies about three miles north-east of Westray, and is about four miles long and one broad, having a very fertile soil, and remarkable for the excellence both of its arable and pasture land. The surface for the most part rises gently towards the middle, and terminates on the north in the well-known Mull of Papa, a bold and lofty headland, where is a cave deemed one of the greatest natural curiosities in the Orkneys. The interior of this cave presents the appearance of an immense amphitheatre; the roof, upwards of seventy feet in height, is like a regularly-built arch; the beds of rock on every side rise one above another in the form of steps of stairs, and the ground is smooth and even. The entrance is about fifty feet in width; the breadth of the middle part is about sixty, and the farthest part of the interior forty-eight feet. In the southern extremity of the island is a beautiful freshwater lake, which extends nearly across it from one side to the other; and in one part of this lake is an islet, whereon are the ruins of a chapel said to have been dedicated to a female saint named Tredwall. The island belongs almost exclusively to one proprietor, who, with his family, constantly resides upon it. Kelp in considerable quantity is manufactured by the population.

Paplay

PAPLAY, Isles of Orkney.—See Holm and Paplay.

Parkhead

PARKHEAD, a village, forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of Camlachie, in the parish of Barony, suburbs of the city of Glasgow, county of Lanark, 1 mile (E.) from Glasgow; and containing 1150 inhabitants. This populous village is situated on the Clyde river, in the vicinity of the Glasgow waterworks, and in a district abounding in coal and iron mines, in which a large part of the population is employed, as well as in hand-loom weaving, and various other branches of manufacture. The water-works here were erected in 1806; the water of the river is filtered through sand-banks, and then conveyed to the city.

Partick

PARTICK, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Govan, Lower ward of the county of Lanark; containing 3628 inhabitants. This place was separated by an act of the General Assembly from the parish of Govan, and erected into a distinct ecclesiastical district. It is a romantic suburb of Glasgow, about two miles west-north-west of the city, and is the seat of several public works. Within its limits are the flour-mills and granaries belonging to the incorporation of bakers, the lands attached to which they received as a grant from the regent Murray, after the battle of Langside, as a reward for having liberally supplied his army with bread while quartered in the neighbourhood. The village of Partick extends into Barony parish, and contains, in the whole, 2747 inhabitants; it is seated on the banks of the Kelvin, and a short distance northward of the river Clyde. The lands adjacent to it were given by David I. to the see of Glasgow; and the Hutchesons, founders of the hospital in Glasgow which bears their name, possessed a mansion in the village that had at one time been the country residence of the archbishops of Glasgow. The district is in the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr: the stipend of the minister is £130, arising from seat-rents and collections. The church contains 516 sittings, of which seventeen are free; and the patronage is vested in the subscribers and managers. There are places of worship for members of the Secession, Free Church, and Relief.

Parton

PARTON, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 7 miles (N. W.) from Castle-Douglas; containing 808 inhabitants, of whom 40 are in the village of Parton, and 38 in that of Corsock. This parish, which is situated nearly in the centre of the stewartry, takes its name from a Gaelic term signifying "the Hill Top." On the east is the river Urr, which separates it from the parish of Kirkpatrick-Durham; on the north-west, the river Ken; and on the southwest, the river Dee. It is almost seven miles in extreme length and about five miles in breadth, comprising nearly 17,000 acres, of which about 9190 are arable and pasture, 1400 woodland and plantations, and the remainder uncultivated waste. The surface towards the north is diversified with hills, but of no great elevation; the most considerable are Mochrum Fell and Cruckie Height, commanding a fine view of the vales of the Ken and the Dee, which rivers, uniting about half a mile above the village of Parton, flow together under the name of the latter into the Solway Frith. There are several lakes, of which the principal are, Corsock, Lurky, and Falbey; but none are of sufficient importance to require description. The soil on the arable lands is light and sandy, and the chief crops are, oats, barley, and potatoes, of which last large quantities are raised; the farms are of moderate extent, and the lands inclosed with stone dykes. Numbers of sheep and cattle, generally of the native breeds, are pastured in the hills; and the mosses afford an ample supply of peat for fuel. A slate-quarry has been for many years in operation, producing slates of good quality for roofing; but since the reduction of the duty on English slates it has been less extensively wrought. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5210.

The principal seats are, Parton House, Corsock, and Nether Corsock, all handsome modern mansions finely situated. The villages of Parton and Corsock, though inconsiderable, are neatly built; and the surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified. There is a post-office under that of Castle-Douglas; and facility of communication is afforded by good roads, of which those from Castle-Douglas and Dumfries to New Galloway pass through the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £231. 6. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patroness, Miss Glendonwyn. The church, situated on the bank of the Dee, is a neat structure erected in 1834; and part of the old church, of which about one-half is still remaining, has been converted into a burial-place for the families of Glendonwyn and Maxwell. A chapel has been erected on the bank of the Urr; the minister derives his income from the seatrents and an annual donation from Mr. Fletcher, of Corsock. There are two parochial schools, of which the masters have respectively salaries of £31. 6. 6. and £20, but without either house or garden; the fees of the one average £16, and of the other £8. The number of children is about 120 in both. Near the church is an artificial mount, surrounded by a deep ditch; and about half a mile to the north of it is a larger, of similar character, about 200 yards in circumference at the base, not far from which are some Druidical remains. There are also some cairns, and at Corsock the remains of an ancient castle.

Pathhead

PATHHEAD, a village, in the parish of New Cumnock, district of Kyle, county of Ayr; containing 325 inhabitants. This is an agricultural village, not far distant from Afton-Bridgend, Castle, and Mansfield, also in the parish. It contains a place of worship for members of the Free Church.

Pathhead

PATHHEAD, a village, in the parish of Crichton, county of Edinburgh, 4½ miles (S. E.) from Dalkeith; containing 843 inhabitants. This is a neat village, pleasantly situated on the high road from Dalkeith to Fala, and is of a remarkably cheerful appearance, on which account, and from the beautiful scenery in the vicinity, it is a favourite summer retreat. The principal street is broad and well built, and in the neighbourhood are several elegant residences. At the foot of the village is a handsome bridge over the Tyne water, lately erected on the Ford property, under the direction of Sir John Dalrymple; it consists of five arches, eighty feet high and fifty feet in span, and crosses the beautiful vale between Ford and the finely-wooded grounds of Preston Hall and Oxenford. A post-office has two arrivals and despatches daily, and several coaches run on the line of the turnpike-road. Many of the inhabitants are engaged in the collieries of the district. In the village is a Free Church; near it is a place of worship for dissenters; and there are two or three schools, one of them an infants' school under the patronage of, and supported by, Mrs. Burn Callender, of Preston Hall.

Pathhead

PATHHEAD, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Dysart, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, ½ a mile (N. E. by E.) from Kirkcaldy; containing 2946 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation at the head of a steep hill overlooking the Frith of Forth; the hill is at the western extremity of the parish, and, conducting to Kirkcaldy, is thence called the Path. The village is divided into two portions, named respectively Pathhead proper, or Dunnikier, and Sinclairton. The former is of very ancient date, and is built upon the lands of Dunnikier; the mansion inhabited for many generations by that family is still remaining, and forms a conspicuous object terminating the lower street. Sinclairton, the more modern part, is separated from the former by the great road to Dundee, and extends about a mile northwards, on the estate of the Earl of Rosslyn. The houses are regularly built: a considerable part of the population are sailors; but the majority are engaged in spinning and weaving, and the manufacture of dowlas, ticks, and checks. A post-office has been established under Kirkcaldy. The ecclesiastical affairs were placed under the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife, and the patronage vested in the male communicants. The church has been built within the last fifteen years, at an expense of £3000, raised by subscription; it is a spacious and handsome edifice with a lofty tower, and is a pleasing feature in the appearance of the village. There are places of worship for dissenters. A school for 150 children has been established, and is endowed for the maintenance of a master, who has a salary of £120 per annum. On a rock projecting into the sea, are the. massive ruins of Ravenscraig Castle: this castle was given by James III. to William Sinclair, or St. Clair, Earl of Orkney, with the adjacent lands, when he resigned the title of Orkney. It was inhabited during the usurpation of Cromwell, and was held by a party of his soldiers; but it has been since untenanted, and suffered to fall into decay.

Patiemuir

PATIEMUIR, a village, in the parish and district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 2 miles from Dunfermline; containing 131 inhabitants. This village, which is situated in the southern part of the parish, is small, and chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in the various works in its vicinity, and in agriculture.

Patna

PATNA, a village, in the parish of Straiton, district of Carrick, in the county of Ayr, 7 miles (N. E. by N.) from the village of Straiton; containing 231 inhabitants. This village, which is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Doon, and has been wholly rebuilt within the last century, appears to have arisen from the opening of collieries and lime-quarries in its immediate neighbourhood. It consists partly of several neat and well-built houses inhabited by persons engaged in the various trades requisite for the wants of this portion of the very extensive parish in which it is situated, and partly of numerous cottages for those employed in the collieries and quarries. In these about forty persons are constantly occupied; and the average annual produce of the pits and quarries is estimated at £1200. The coal occurs in seams of different quality, varying in thickness from three and a half to about eight feet. The old road leading to the village, having become impassable, has been abandoned, and a more convenient road formed; but a still shorter road is highly requisite for the greater facility of conveying the produce of the lime and coal works to various parts of the parish. Coal which may be purchased at Patna for three shillings and sixpence per ton, cannot be delivered in the village of Straiton for less than eight shillings. A chapel in connexion with the Established Church has been recently erected for the accommodation of the inhabitants of this distant portion of the parish, on a spot of ground given for that purpose, in 1836, by Mrs. Leslie Cumming. The building, erected by subscription, is substantial, and adapted at present for a congregation of 600 persons; and has been so arranged as to admit of subsequent enlargement by the addition of galleries, when circumstances may render it expedient. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. A school, which affords a liberal course of instruction to sixty children, has also been established here; and the proprietor of the estate grants to the master a salary of £11 per annum, with a house and garden, in addition to the fees, which average £25. About thirty-five children also attend a Sabbath school.

Paxton

PAXTON, a village, in the parish of Hutton, county of Berwick, 4½ miles (W.) from Berwick; containing 284 inhabitants. This is a pleasant little village in the eastern quarter of the parish, and on the west bank of the Tweed, which is crossed by a handsome suspension-bridge, called Union bridge, near Paxton, and a short distance below the village of Horncliff, in the county of Durham. This bridge has been of great advantage to Berwickshire in the introduction of coal and lime, admitting two carriages abreast; and before September 1840, when a splendid bridge was built at Norham into Ladykirk parish, the Union bridge was the only connexion of the two sides of the Tweed between Berwick and Coldstream. On the estate of Paxton is a manufactory for bricks and tiles, where great quantities of the latter are made for drainage. Paxton House, beautifully seated on the bank of the river, is a spacious mansion in the Grecian style, after a design by Adam; it is built of red sandstone, and contains some very fine apartments and a picture-gallery. In the village is a school, for which a house and a dwelling for the master were built by a late proprietor of the Paxton estate; and there is also a small subscription library.

Peatie

PEATIE, a hamlet, in the parish of Kettins, county of Forfar, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Cupar-Angus; containing 53 inhabitants. This is a small place situated in the south-west part of the parish. A chapel which formerly existed here has been demolished.

Peebles

PEEBLES, a burgh, market-town, and parish, in the county of Peebles, of which it is the capital; containing 2632 inhabitants, of whom 1898 are in the burgh, 21 miles (S.) from Edinburgh. This place, which is of great antiquity, bears evident indications of having been once of much more importance and of much larger extent than at present. In 1151, Ingelram, who was rector of the church, and archdeacon of Glasgow, was made chancellor of Scotland by David I., and in 1164 promoted to the see of Glasgow. At a very early period, from its proximity to the royal forests, Peebles was the frequent resort of the Scottish kings, and the favourite residence of Alexander III., who founded a monastery for Red Friars, and built and endowed the church of the Holy Cross. During the invasion of Scotland by Edward I. of England, the bailie and burgesses of Peebles, which appears to have been made a burgh, though at what time or by what charter is not precisely known, swore fealty to the English monarch at Berwick in 1296. In 1304 the burgh, as then constituted, was granted by that king to Aymer de Valence; and in 1367 David II. conferred a charter, bestowing on the inhabitants all the privileges of a royal burgh, in acknowledgment of their loyalty in having contributed to his ransom when taken prisoner by the English at the battle of Neville's Cross. The town was frequently plundered by the English, and in 1545 was reduced to ashes by the Earl of Hertford, afterwards Duke of Somerset, in revenge for the defeat sustained by the English in a battle with the Scots under the command of the Earl of Angus. During the usurpation of Cromwell, the town was occupied by his troops while besieging the castle of Neidpath, the stronghold of the Frazers, sheriffs of the county, on which occasion the church of St. Andrew was appropriated as a stable for the horses of the soldiers. The inhabitants, in the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, strictly maintained their loyalty to the sovereign; and during the war with France, when the country was threatened with invasion, the county raised a corps of infantry and two troops of cavalry, consisting together of 820 men, well accoutred and well officered, for the protection of their native land.


Burgh Seal.

The town is beautifully situated on the north bank of the Tweed, and at the mouth of the stream called the Peebles water, which here falls into that river: the older portion of it is on the west, and the more modern portion, called the New Town, on the east, side of the Peebles water, over which are two bridges affording a communication between them. An ancient bridge of five arches over the Tweed, with three dry arches to afford a passage for the water in time of floods, was widened and remodelled in 1834, and is now a striking feature in the scenery; it formed but an indifferent means of communication between the parts of the parish on the opposite banks of the river, being inconveniently narrow, and an act was thus passed for the renovation and enlargement of the structure. A little below the town is a handsome iron bridge for foot passengers, erected about thirty years since by Sir John Hay, to connect portions of his grounds. The streets are gradually improving by the erection of handsome new houses as the old buildings fall into decay, but the place is not increasing in extent; it is amply supplied with water, and lighted with gas by the corporation. The chief trade carried on here is the woollen manufacture, which has been established for several years, and affords constant occupation to a tolerable number of persons: the making of stockings is carried on upon a small scale, and the weaving of cotton for the Glasgow houses gives employment to a few individuals, who work at their own dwellings. Branches of the Glasgow Bank and the Linen Company have been founded. The market, which is toll-free, after having been for some years discontinued, has been revived, and is held weekly on Tuesday; it is well supplied with grain and other articles of merchandise. Fairs are held on the second Tuesday in January, the first Tuesday in March, the second Wednesday in May, the Tuesday after the 18th of July, the Tuesday before the 24th of August, the Tuesday before the 12th of September, the second Tuesday in October, and the Tuesday before the 12th of December, for cattle, sheep, and various kinds of wares, and for the hiring of servants. The burgh, under a charter of James VI., confirming all previous grants, is governed by a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild and treasurer, and a council of twelve burgesses, assisted by a town-clerk and subordinate officers. The provost and bailies are elected by the council, and have the appointment of the lower officers of the corporation; they are justices of the peace by virtue of their office, and hold courts, as occasion requires, for the determination of civil pleas, and for the trial of cases of misdemeanor, in which the town-clerk acts as assessor. The police is under the management of the corporation. The burgh formerly was joined with Selkirk, Linlithgow, and Lanark, in returning a member to the imperial parliament, and the right of election was vested in the burgesses; but since the passing of the Reform act, it has had the privilege of voting only in the election of a member for the county. The town-house is in the centre of the High-street of the New Town, and the County Buildings at the west end of the street.

The parish is about ten miles in length from north to south, and six miles in breadth from east to west; and comprises 18,200 acres, of which 3000 are arable, 1500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The surface is diversified with numerous hills of small elevation, and with some fine tracts of level land along the banks of the rivers. The hills towards the north are covered with heath, and abound with moor game, but in the other parts are clothed with verdure; and the scenery is finely enriched by the plantations which have been formed on many of the lands, and which are in a flourishing condition. The Tweed pursues its pleasing course for more than five miles through the parish, which it divides into two nearly equal parts: soon after entering the parish it expands into a fine sheet of water, augmented by the Lyne; and in its progress it receives also the waters of the Manor and the Eddlestone, and the small burn of Haystone. All these streams abound with trout of excellent quality, of which very large numbers are taken during the season; and salmon are also found in the Tweed, but not of any great size, nor in any great quantity. The soil is mostly light, but tolerably fertile: the crops are, oats, barley, wheat, turnips, and potatoes; the system of agriculture is advanced, and the rotation plan of husbandry generally pursued. Considerable progress has been made in draining and inclosing the lands; the farm-buildings are substantial and well arranged, and all the more recent improvements in the construction of implements have been adopted. Great attention is also paid to the rearing of cattle, and to the improvement of the breeds: the cattle, of which about 300 are annually pastured, are chiefly of the Teeswater breed; and 8000 sheep, of the black-faced and Cheviot breeds, are fed on the pastures, and a proportionate number of lambs. The substratum is chiefly greywacke, of which abundance is found in the hills; it is of a fine texture, and has been quarried for building and other purposes. Transition limestone occurs in some parts of the parish, and a quarry was opened; but the quality of the stone was very inferior, and from the high price of the coal for burning it into lime, the works have been long discontinued. King's Meadows, Venlaw, Rosetta, Langside, Minden Cottage, and Kerfield, are all handsome residences beautifully situated. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,558. It is in the presbytery of Peebles and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and patronage of the Earl of Wemyss and March: the minister's stipend is £298. 3., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £24 per annum. The church, a substantial edifice of stone, was erected in 1784, and is adapted for a congregation of 850 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, for the Associate Synod, the Relief Church, and Episcopalians. Two schools are supported by the corporation; one a grammar school, of which the master has a good house for the accommodation of boarders, a salary of £10 per annum, and £16 from sixteen additional scholars, with the school fees; and the other an English school, the master of which has a salary of £38, and the school fees, which average about £40 per annum. There is also a school for young children, of which the mistress has a salary of £10 per annum, paid by the corporation. The poor receive the interest of funded bequests amounting to £700; and there are two friendly societies, which tend somewhat to diminish the number of applications for parochial aid. The tower of the ancient church of the Holy Cross is still remaining; and the market-cross, which was sold as building materials, was purchased, and erected in the pleasure-grounds of King's Meadows, by Sir John Hay, the proprietor of that estate. On the summit of Cademuir are some remains of a Roman camp; and on an eminence called Janet's Brae, about half a mile to the east of the town, are remains of two other camps. The late Duke of Queensberry was born in this town, and was brought up in the castle of Neidpath, the family seat. Peebles is the birthplace of the enterprising Messrs. Chambers, of Edinburgh.

Peeblesshire, or Tweeddale

PEEBLESSHIRE, or TWEEDDALE, an inland county, in the southern part of Scotland, bounded on the north by Edinburghshire, on the east by Selkirkshire and Edinburghshire, on the south by the county of Dumfries, and on the west by Lanarkshire. It lies between 55° 24' and 55° 50' (N. Lat.) and 2° 45' and 3° 23' (W. Long.), and is thirty miles in length and twenty-two miles in extreme breadth; comprising an area of about 360 square miles, or 234,400 acres; 2275 houses, of which 2118 are inhabited; and containing a population of 10,499, of whom 5118 are males, and 5381 females. This county takes the name of Peebles from its principal town, and that of Tweeddale, the more ancient and descriptive, from its chief river, the Tweed, which divides it into two nearly equal parts, flowing in a winding course through an ample vale of great fertility and beauty. It appears to have been originally inhabited by the Gadeni, a British tribe, who maintained their independence against the attempts of the Romans to reduce them under their authority; and who, after the abdication of the Roman government, associated themselves with the Britons of Strathclyde, descendants of the ancient Damnii. During the frequent aggressions of the Picts they continued to retain their distinction as a people; and, secured by their extensive forests, they maintained their power against the invasion of the Saxons of the south, long after the conquest of the Picts by the Scottish kings, till they became identified with the emigrants from the coasts of Ireland, who, settling in the peninsula of Cantyre, were soon mingled with the native inhabitants.

Afterwards, a party of Anglo-Saxons, under Eadulph, who had settled in Lothian, established themselves in the valley of Eddlestone, where they obtained a permanent settlement, and built a town to which they gave the name of their chieftain; and from these are descended many of the most ancient families in the county. During the wars consequent on the disputed succession to the Scottish throne on the death of Alexander III., the county became subject to Edward I. of England; but being rescued from the English yoke by the valour and intrepidity of Sir William Douglas, it maintained its independence till it again submitted to the English after the battle of Neville's Cross. Upon the restoration of David II., however, its independence was finally secured. For many years this part of the country suffered from incursions during the border warfare; and many of its gentry, who attended James IV. to the battle of Flodden Field, fell in that disastrous conflict. Prior to the Reformation the county formed part of the diocese of Glasgow; it has since been included in the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and comprises the presbytery of Peebles, and fourteen parishes. For civil purposes the county was originally under the jurisdiction of two sheriffs, of whom one resided at Traquair, and the other at Peebles; but since the abolition of heritable jurisdictions, it has been under that of one sheriff only, by whom a sheriffsubstitute is appointed, and who holds his several courts at Peebles, which is the county town. Besides Peebles, the only royal burgh in the county, it contains Linton, a burgh of barony, the villages of Innerleithen, Carlops, Eddlestone, Skirling, and Broughton, and a few inconsiderable hamlets. By the act of the 2nd of William IV., it returns one member to the imperial parliament.

The surface is generally hilly and mountainous, with intervening tracts of level and fertile land. The most mountainous district is on the south side of the Tweed, towards the source of which the hills are usually covered with verdure, but towards the confines of Selkirk are of bleak and barren aspect. Most of the hills in the other parts of the county are easy of ascent, and afford good pasturage for cattle and sheep; they are chiefly of conical form, and several of them are cultivated to a considerable height above the base. The principal rivers are, the Tweed, the Lyne, the Peebles or Eddlestone, and the Leithen. The Tweed has its source in a spring in Tweedsmuir, towards the western extremity of the county, which has an elevation of 1500 feet above the level of the sea; it takes a winding course eastward between banks richly wooded, and, flowing through the most romantic parts of the county into that of Selkirk, ultimately falls into the German Sea at Berwick. The Lyne has its source near the western extremity of the Pentland hills, on the northern confines of the county: taking a direction southward, it passes the village of Linton, to which it gives name, and, after a course of about fifteen miles, joins the Tweed about three miles above the town of Peebles. The Peebles or Eddlestone water rises near the south-west boundary of Edinburghshire, and, after a rapid course, in which it turns several mills, falls into the Tweed at Peebles. The Leithen water has its source in the north-east of the county; flows through the village of Innerleithen, to which it gives its name; and falls into the Tweed opposite to Traquair House. Of several smaller streams, tributary to the Tweed, the Manor and the Quair are the principal; and the Megget water, flowing through the district of that name, falls into St. Mary's loch, in the county of Selkirk. There are some small lakes, but none of sufficient importance to require particular notice, except the lake of Eddlestone, as being the source of the river South Esk, which flows into the North Esk at Dalkeith, in the county of Edinburgh.

Not more than 35,000 acres are arable, about 8000 meadow and pasture, and the remainder moorland, hill pasture, woodland, plantations, and waste. The soil on the level lands is chiefly a sandy loam, interspersed with tracts of richer loam resting on a gravelly bottom; on the skirts and acclivities of the hills, a loose friable earth, with a mixture of clay in some parts; and in other places, unprofitable moss and moor. The crops are, barley, oats, a small quantity of wheat, potatoes, and turnips. The farms are from 1500 to 3000 acres in extent; all contain arable and pasture land, but those in the level districts have a larger proportion of the former, and those in the hilly districts a larger proportion of the latter. The system of agriculture is in an improved state; the lands have been well drained, and are inclosed partly with fences of stone and Galloway dykes, but chiefly with hedges of thorn and ditches, and the plantations with mounds of earth. The farm houses and offices are substantial and commodious, the former roofed with slate, and the latter with tiles. Lime is found only in the northern part of the county, and is but little employed as manure, for which purpose farmdung and various composts are used; the dairy-farms are well managed, and the cows generally of the Ayrshire breed. Few cattle are pastured, the hill pastures being chiefly appropriated to sheep, of which more than 100,000 are reared; they are chiefly of the Cheviot breed, and great numbers are sent to the English markets. Though anciently abounding with timber, and celebrated as the resort of the Scottish kings for hunting in the forests, there are now scarcely more than twenty acres of natural wood in the county. Within the last thirty years, however, extensive plantations have been every where made; and most of the hills, formerly of barren aspect, are now crowned with thriving trees, and the banks of the rivers richly wooded. The plantations are, oak, ash, elm, beech, and Scotch, silver, and spruce firs; but of the firs the Scotch only, of which there are very large tracts, appears to thrive well.

The principal substrata are whinstone and freestone, of which the former is by far the more abundant, and of which most of the houses are built: coal is found towards the north-east extremity of the county, but not under circumstances favourable to the working of it. At Stobo is a quarry of blue slate of fine quality, which is extensively wrought, and of which the produce is sent to Edinburgh and other parts of the country. The seats are, Traquair House, Cardrona, Kailzie, Cringletie, King's Meadows, Hallyards, Darnhall, Pirn, Scotstown, Romanno, the Whim, La Mancha, Stobo Castle, New Posso, Quarter, Polmood, Portmore, Callends, Castle-Craig, Cairnmuir, Mossfennan, Rachan, Broughton Place, the Glen, and various other residences. The chief manufactures are, those of carpets, serge, and coarse woollen-cloths, to a very limited extent, and the weaving of linen and cotton for the manufacturers of Glasgow. The population, however, is generally pastoral and agricultural, and very little attention has been paid to any other pursuits, though the county possesses many requisites for the establishment of various branches of manufacture. Facility of communication is afforded by roads kept in good repair. The rateable annual value of the county is £74,810, of which £67,675 are returned for lands, £6247 for houses, £628 for quarries, and the rest for mines. The principal antiquities are the remains of numerous Pictish castles, forming throughout a chain of communication by signals, and of which in some instances several are found within the limits of one single parish. There are also considerable remains of ancient baronial castles, of which the most important are those of Neidpath, Oliver Castle, Henderland, and Drochil; the sites of camps, chiefly of Danish origin, and of one thought to be Roman, near which a handsome vase of bronze was discovered some years since; a few slight Druidical remains; and some ancient tumuli. Stone coffins containing human bones have been found; also battle-axes and other military weapons; some Roman coins; and, near Cairnmuir, a chain of twisted gold with some gold-beads, supposed to have been worn by the Celtic chieftains. Remains exist of ancient religious houses; and other monuments of antiquity are noticed under the names of the several parishes in which they occur.



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