Tain - Tobermory

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1846

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Pages

526-546

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'Tain - Tobermory', A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846), pp. 526-546. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43483 Date accessed: 28 July 2014.


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Tain

TAIN, a royal burgh, the county-town, and a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 30½ miles (N. by E.) from Inverness, and 201 (N. by W.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the village of Inver, 3128 inhabitants, of whom 2287 are in the burgh. This place, the name of which is of uncertain derivation, appears to have attained a considerable degree of importance at a very early period; and the ancient town, according to an old document preserved among the records of the Northern Institution at Inverness, was first erected into a burgh by charter of Malcolm Canmore. The whole surrounding lands were annexed to the see of Ross, of which St. Duthus was bishop about the year 1200; and to that saint was dedicated a chapel near the town, which had the privilege of sanctuary. In 1306 King Robert Bruce, at that time in his greatest difficulties, sent his queen and daughter for safety to the stronghold of Kildrummy, in Marr, from which, when threatened with a siege, they escaped, and took refuge in the sanctuary of St. Duthus, at this place; but the Earl of Ross, violating the sanctuary, seized their persons, and delivered them to the English. About the year 1427, Mc Niell, Lord of Criech, in Sutherland, having a feud with Morvat, Lord of Freswick, in Caithness, the latter was defeated, and fled with his attendants to the chapel of St. Duthus, whither they were pursued by Mc Niell, who set fire to the chapel, and put the whole party to the sword. James V., in the year 1527, made a pilgrimage to the chapel, then in ruins, to which he walked barefoot; and the path that was made for him upon that occasion, still retains the appellation of the King's Causeway. The ruins of this ancient chapel yet remain, consisting chiefly of the roofless walls, combining great strength and rude simplicity of architecture; they are situated on an eminence near the sandy plain on which the ancient town stood. A memorial of the saint is preserved in the device of the town seal, and in the names of numerous localities in the parish.


Burgh Seal.

The town stands near the head of the bay of Tain, in Dornoch Frith, and though irregularly built, contains some substantial houses. Many improvements have recently been effected: several of the streets have been straightened by the removal of ancient houses, which have given place to others of better appearance, particularly towards the east, to which the town has been considerably extended. A handsome building has been erected, in which public meetings are held. Though within a short distance of Dornoch Frith, the numerous shoals and sand-banks on the coast preclude the possibility of forming a harbour; and the town consequently has but little trade, except what it derives from its situation in the centre of a wide agricultural district, of which it is the principal mart. An iron-foundry for the manufacture of cast-iron goods of every sort for domestic use, is carried on to a considerable extent for the supply of the surrounding country; there are also extensive ale breweries, and several mills for grinding meal, sawing timber, carding wool, and for dyeing, all driven by the burn of Morangie, which flows near the town.

The markets, which are numerously attended, and abundantly supplied with provisions of all kinds, and with fish from the village of Inver, are held on Tuesday and Friday. Fairs are held annually, for ponies, cattle, and agricultural produce, on the first Tuesday in January, the third Tuesday in March, the second Wednesday in July, the third Wednesday in August, the third Tuesday in October, and the Tuesday before Christmas. Facility of communication is afforded by good public roads, which pass through the parish for many miles, and by a considerable number of bridges kept in good repair. The burgh, after the destruction of its ancient charters, obtained from James VI. a charter confirming all its former privileges and immunities as a royal burgh, and which was ratified and extended by Charles II. in 1675. The government is vested in a provost, three bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and nine councillors: the fees paid for admission as a burgess vary from £1.10. to £5. 5., but the only privilege is freedom to trade. The magistrates, assisted by the town-clerk, who acts as assessor, exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction within the royalty; but very few cases in the former, and none in the latter, have been tried within the last few years. The burgh is associated with Dingwall, Dornoch, Kirkwall, and Wick, in returning a member to the imperial parliament. The town and county hall, a handsome building erected in 1825, was destroyed by an accidental fire in 1833, and has not been rebuilt; the gaol is used for the whole of the surrounding district.

The parish, which is bounded on the north, and partly on the east, by Dornoch Frith, is nearly ten miles in length from north-east to south-west, and, including the peninsular projection into the Frith at Meikle Ferry, four miles and a half in breadth, though the average breadth is less than three miles. The surface is naturally divided into three distinct portions. That on the shore of the Frith is flat and sandy, and scarcely fifteen feet above the level of the sea: about a quarter of a mile towards the south-west, the land rises to a ridge nearly fifty feet in elevation, forming a fine tract of table-land, on which the town is built, and behind which is a highly-cultivated and richly-wooded district. Beyond this is the upland portion, consisting of a chain of hills, of which the highest, called the Hill of Tain, is 780 feet above the sea. The Frith, in that part immediately below the town, is at high-water five miles broad, but at ebb tides is diminished to about three miles; towards the north-west it is greatly contracted by the projection of the headlands at the ferry, after which it assumes the appellation of the Frith of Tain. There are no rivers of any importance in the parish; the principal stream is the Morangie burn, which, after turning several mills in its short course, flows into the Frith below the town. In the uplands are numerous springs, some of which are slightly chalybeate. The number of acres in the parish has not been ascertained; but it is estimated that more than 5000, belonging originally to the corporation, have been divided into lots, and brought under tillage. The soil, though various, is generally fertile, and well adapted for the growth of wheat, of which considerable quantities are raised. Much waste land has been reclaimed by draining, and now produces the usual crops of grain; and great improvement has taken place within the last few years, in the system of agriculture, and the inclosing of the lands. The plantations are, Scotch fir, of which much is exported for props in coal-mines, and larch, elm, ash, beech, and birch; all thrive well, and there are many fine trees of venerable and stately growth. The substrata are chiefly white and red sandstone, of which the hills are mostly composed; and large boulders of gneiss and granite occur in some places, one of which, called the Stone of Morangie, measures about 1500 cubic feet. There are extensive quarries of the white sandstone in the Hill of Tain. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5475.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Tain and synod of Ross. The minister's stipend is £281. 5. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £9 per annum; patrons, the family of Hay Mc Kenzie. The old church of St. Duthus, founded by Thomas, Bishop of Ross, and made collegiate for a provost and eleven prebendaries, at length became dilapidated; and in 1815, the present church was built, at the eastern extremity of the town, and nearly in the centre of the parish. This is a neat structure containing 1200 sittings. One-half of the congregation still speak the Gaelic language only; and for their accommodation the ancient church, though the interior has suffered some trifling mutilation of its ornaments, might be fitted up at a trifling expense. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school, which is also the burgh school, is now vacant; the late master had a salary of £44. 10., one-half paid by the heritors and the other by the burgh, with a house and garden, in addition to the fees, which, however, were moderate. The Tain Academy, for which a handsome and spacious building was erected by subscription in 1812, is under the management of a rector, and two masters for the ancient and modern languages; it has an endowment of about £200 per annum, in addition to the fees, and is well attended. There are a Gaelic school at Inver, and various other schools, several Friendly societies, and a Masonic lodge. The sum of £500 was left to the parish by a Mr. Robertson, the interest to be regularly distributed at Christmas for the relief of reduced householders; and there is also a sum of £300, left by the late George Murray, Esq., of Westfield, to the poor.

Tanara Isles

TANARA ISLES, in the parish of Lochbroom, forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of Ullapool, county of Ross and Cromarty; and containing 99 inhabitants. These are two islands situated at the entrance of Loch Broom, and distant from Ullapool, north-westward, about eleven miles; they are the principal of a group known as the Summer Isles, and are called respectively Tanara-Beg and Tanara-More. The latter, which, as its name implies, is the larger island, is about two miles in length and one in breadth, and upwards of 400 feet high: like the rest of the group, it is bare and bleak, and without any thing of pleasing aspect. It contains, besides a farm, and other buildings, an extensive range of smoking-houses for the use of the herring-fishery; but they have been latterly rendered of little value, owing to the desertion from this quarter of the herring shoals. A pier here, however, is still an occasional rendezvous for fishing-vessels visiting the coast.

Tangleha

TANGLEHA, a small hamlet, in the parish of St. Cyrus, county of Kincardine; containing 19 inhabitants.

Tannachy, New

TANNACHY, NEW, a village, in the parish of Rathven, county of Banff, 3 miles (E.) from Garmouth; containing 136 inhabitants. This is a fishing-village, close to Port-Gordon, on the southern shore of the Moray Frith, and about two miles west-south-west of Buckie. Port-Tannachy and Port-Gordon are separated from each other by a very narrow stream.

Tannadice

TANNADICE, a parish, in the county of Forfar; containing 1654 inhabitants, of whom 128 are in the village, 7 miles (N. by E.) from Forfar. The name of this place, of Gaelic origin, is descriptive of the position of its church and village in a deeply-sheltered plain on the banks of a river. It appears to have formed part of the possessions of the earls of Buchan, whose residence, the Castle of Quiech, of which there are at present no remains, was situated on the north side of the river South Esk, and was well adapted, from its foundation on a precipitous rock, to be the stronghold of a feudal chieftain. Few events of historical importance are recorded in connexion with the place, and the lands are now divided among a great number of proprietors. The parish is about twelve miles in length from east to west, and of very irregular form, being from eight to ten miles in extreme, and only about four in average, breadth; it comprises 38,400 acres, of which 7000 are arable, 5000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder, comprehending the lower part of the Grampian hills, sheep-pastures. The surface is excedingly various, rising gently from the south-east, in successive undulations, towards the Grampian range, and in some parts attaining a considerable degree of elevation. The highest of these eminences is St. Arnold's Seat, which is 800 feet above the level of the sea, and commands an extensive and interesting prospect embracing the city of Edinburgh, the Pentland and Lammermoor hills, and much picturesque and richly-diversified scenery: on the summit is a cairn, of considerable magnitude, and conspicuously seen from almost every part of Strathmore. The principal river is the South Esk, which rises in the parish of Clova, and after flowing through this parish, receives, at its south-eastern extremity, the river Noran, which rises also in the parish of Clova. Both these streams in their progress display much beautiful and romantic scenery; they abound with excellent trout, and are much frequented by anglers, and salmon is also sometimes found in the South Esk, though in very inconsiderable quantities.

The soil is extremely various, but not generally unfertile; the chief crops are grain of all kinds, with potatoes and turnips. The whole system of agriculture is improved, and the rotation plan of husbandry adopted; the lands are well drained, and inclosed with stone dykes; the farm-houses are substantially built of stone, and roofed with slate, and the offices conveniently arranged: guano, &c., have been introduced for manure. The hills afford excellent pasture for sheep, of which, on an average, nearly 3000 are reared annually; and great numbers of black-cattle are bred, and, when fattened, sent to the Glasgow and London markets. The horses reared in the parish are much esteemed. The woods contain many stately trees of ancient growth; and the plantations, chiefly of fir and larch, intermixed with several varieties of forest-trees, are in a very flourishing condition. The principal rocks are whinstone and red sandstone, the latter of which is quarried for building dykes to inclose the lands. Slate of dark-blue colour is also found in abundance; but it is of inferior quality, and, from the facility with which slate of better colour and quality can be obtained, is not quarried. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9792.

The seats are, Downie Park, which is the residence of Mrs. Rattray, widow of the late Lieut.-Colonel Rattray, by whom it was erected, an elegant mansion situated on the South Esk, and commanding some beautiful scenery; Inshewan, a handsome modern mansion, finely situated on the same river, in a highly cultivated demesne with an extensive moor which has been recently planted; Tannadice House, about four miles lower down the stream, also a mansion of modern erection, built by Charles Ogilvie, Esq., embracing some good views, and embosomed in a demesne embellished with young and flourishing plantations; and Whitewells, a pleasant and spacious residence on the opposite side of the river. The houses of Easter and Wester Ogle, and Glenquiech, are also handsome residences; and at Marcus is a picturesque cottage in the English style, built by Col. Swinburne. The village is on the banks of the South Esk, over which, a mile off, is a stone bridge of 105 feet span; and contains several well-built houses. Many of the inhabitants are employed in spinning flax for the manufacturers of Dundee and Montrose, and much yarn is also sent from those places to be cleaned here: for this purpose there are two spinning, and four plash, mills, affording employment to about 200 persons. Facility of communication with the towns in the district, and with distant places, is provided by several lines of good road, of which two join with the turnpike-road to Dundee; and by bridges of stone over the rivers South Esk and Noran. The parish is well supplied with fuel.

The parish is in the presbytery of Forfar, synod of Angus and Mearns, and patronage of the Rector and Scholars of St. Mary's College, St. Andrew's; the minister's stipend is £160, with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £16 per annum. The church is an ancient edifice, and being in an almost ruinous state, is about to be rebuilt; it is adapted for a congregation of 619 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords a liberal course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £15 fees, and a house and garden. There is another school, the master of which has a house and garden rent-free, and about £10 per annum, in addition to the usual fees; also a school for females, the mistress of which has a cottage and garden, with an annual supply of meal, and a daily quantity of milk, both the gift of Lady Airlie. A parochial library in the village is managed by the parochial schoolmaster, and another, in Glenogle, by the schoolmaster of that district. A savings' bank has been for many years established, in which the amount of deposits exceeds £300; it is under good regulations, and has slightly assisted to diminish the number of poor. Several tumuli have been removed in the parish within the last few years, and the ground brought into cultivation; they contained some coffins, in which were urns of rude pottery, and ashes. The site of the ancient castle of Quiech is now occupied by a small cottage. Near the village was the castle of Barnyards, the erection of which was commenced by a member of the Lindsay family, but never finished, the founder being compelled to flee for having killed the proprietor of Finhaven in a quarrel. A hill in the parish, called Castle Hill, perpetuates the memory of a third castle, whereof nothing remains but the vestiges of the fosse by which it was surrounded.

Taransay

TARANSAY, county of Inverness.—See Tarrinsay.

Tarbat

TARBAT, a parish, in the district of Mainland, county of Ross and Cromarty, 10 miles (E. by N.) from Tain; containing, with the villages of Balnabruach, Portmahomack, and Rockfield, 1826 inhabitants. This parish, which occupies the eastern peninsula of the county, terminating in the narrow point of Tarbat Ness, is bounded on the east and south-east by the Moray Frith, and on the north by the Frith of Dornoch. It is about seven miles and a half in extreme length, varying from less than a mile to four miles in breadth; and comprises about 6400 acres, of which 3500 are arable, 200 woodland and plantations, 1000 meadow and pasture, and the remainder moor and waste. The surface, though varied, is tolerably level, in no part rising to an elevation of more than 200 feet above the level of the sea; it is, however, diversified with some few undulations. There are no rivers within the parish: among the springs of water are some that have a petrifying quality. The coast, which is upwards of fifteen miles in extent, is indented with numerous bays and creeks, of which that of Portmahomack forms an excellent and commodious harbour, affording shelter for vessels in easterly gales; the others are adapted for boats employed in the fisheries. There are several caves in the rocks that line part of the coast: to one, containing a spacious chamber surrounded with a naturally-formed bench of stone, the entrance is so low as to afford admission only to a person kneeling; while to another the entrance is by a stately porch, projecting considerably from the rock.

The soil is generally light, and a great proportion of it sandy, but there are also large portions of rich black loam of great depth; among the crops are, barley, oats, rye, potatoes, and turnips. The system of husbandry has been greatly improved under the encouragement given by Mr. Mc Leod and other proprietors of land. The larger farms vary from 150 to 350 acres; the buildings are mostly substantial and well arranged, and on all the principal farms are threshing-mills, one of them driven by steam. Marl found under several of the mosses, and some of which is of very fine quality, and sea-weed, of which abundance is obtained upon the coast, are the chief manures; the lands have been partly inclosed, and are generally under profitable cultivation. Many cattle and sheep are reared in the parish; extremely good samples of each are to be seen on several of the farms, and some have been sold at remarkably high prices. The plantations consist of the common Scotch fir, interspersed with ash, beech, elm, oak, sycamore, hornbeam, and hawthorn; but from want of proper attention, the trees of the older plantations are mostly of diminutive growth. There are several valuable quarries of freestone of excellent quality, in active operation. Geanies, the seat of Mr. Murray, a landed proprietor, is a handsome modern mansion, beautifully situated on the shore of the Moray Frith, in a well-planted demesne. The rateable annual value of the parish is returned at £4168.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Tain and synod of Ross. The minister's stipend is £251. 2. 10., with a manse, and a glebe of six and a half acres; patrons, the Crown and the Mc Kenzie family. The church was repaired about forty years ago. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £30, with a house, an allowance of £2 in lieu of a garden, and the fees, averaging £7 per annum. The first earl of Cromartie bequeathed twelve and a half bolls of barley annually, and the late Miss Margaret Mc Leod, of Geanies, £100 to the poor of the parish. Near the village of Portmahomack, on an eminence called Chapel Hill, a number of human bones have been found in rude coffins of flagstones, and, in the vicinity, several stone chests, each containing an entire skeleton of unusually large size. On a small creek on the north side of Tarbat Ness, called Port-Chaistel or Castlehaven, are some remains of an ancient castle, from which the first earl of Cromartie took one of his titles; and there are considerable remains of the castle of Balloan, on the shore of the Moray Frith, thought to have been originally built by the earls of Ross. Near the site of the lighthouse on Tarbat Ness, is the foundation of a monument said to have been built by the Romans for a landmark.

Tarbert

TARBERT, a sea-port town, in the parish of Kilcalmonell, district of Cantyre, county of Argyll, 31 miles (N.) from Campbelltown, and 140 (W.) from Edinburgh; containing 594 inhabitants. This place, which is an ancient burgh of regality, and was the chief town of the shire of Tarbert when the county of Argyll formed two shires, is situated on the margin of East Loch Tarbert, which is an arm of Loch Fine, approximating so closely to West Loch Tarbert as to make the district of Cantyre a peninsula, and leaving an isthmus but little more than a mile across. In 1809 a memorial was presented to the parliamentary commissioners, in which it was stated that the village of Tarbert was one of the most considerable places in the West Highlands, on account of the excellence of its harbour, and the peculiar advantages of its locality. It is the centre of communication between the numerous sea lochs that indent the coast of this part of the county, and offers great facilities of transit between the districts on the east and west. A quay and land-breast under the village had been constructed by the proprietor, previously to the year just mentioned; and the commissioners in answer to the memorial, agreed to the enlargement of the quay, the renewing of the land-breast, which had become ruinous, and the improvement of the approaches to the harbour by the removal of some rocks obstructing the entrance. Though small, the place wears the appearance of a bustling port, and has attained, through continued and thriving traffic, considerable prosperity; it has a good herring-fishery, and is much frequented by steamers and other vessels. A small fair for horses is held in the beginning of August. A general post-office has long been established, communicating daily with Glasgow by steam-vessels; and mails are also dispatched hence by land to Campbelltown, where is a sub-office. There is a chapel supported by the Royal Bounty; and the members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The castle of Tarbert, once of great strength, is now in ruins.

Tarbolton

TARBOLTON, a parish, in the district of Kyle, county of Ayr; containing 2612 inhabitants, of whom 1083 are in the village, 8 miles (S.) from Kilmarnock. The word Tarbolton or Torbolton, written also in ancient records Thorbolton, is derived from a round hill near the village, called in the Celtic language Tar, and from Bol, the name of the god of the Druids, whose worship was formerly celebrated here; the three syllables together, Tar-bol-ton, consequently signify "the town at Baal's or Bol's hill." In that part of the parish of Barnweill, suppressed in 1673, which was annexed to Tarbolton, was situated the monastery of Fail, founded in the year 1252, and belonging to the Red Friars, who were called Mathurines from the establishment of this order in Paris, dedicated to St. Mathurine. They were also named Patres de Redemptione Captivorum, it being a part of their duty to redeem captives from slavery. The chief of the convent was styled "Minister," and was provincial of the Trinity order in Scotland, in consequence of which he had a seat in parliament; and to the institution were annexed the churches of Barnweill, Symington, Galston in Kyle, Torthorwald in Dumfries-shire, and Inverchaolain in Argyllshire. The only remains of the monastery, however, are a gable, and part of the side wall of the manor-house of the "Minister."

This parish measures in extreme length seven miles, and four miles in breadth, and comprises 12,500 acres, of which 10,868 are under cultivation, 960 are in natural wood and in plantation, and the remainder meadowland, morass, and waste. The surface is undulating throughout, rising in some parts into eminences about 400 feet above the level of the sea, from which there are prospects of a range of very interesting and beautiful scenery. The great valley of the Ayr, reaching from the Doon to Ardrossan, a distance of nearly twenty miles, stretches itself below, and is ornamented by the picturesque windings of the river, pursuing its course along the southern boundary of the parish, between banks clothed with a variety of trees; while further off are seen the Cumnock hills, with those of Carrick, the Frith of Clyde, Ailsa, the hills of Argyllshire, and the heights of Kilbirnie, with occasionally, in the distance, Cairnsmuir in Galloway, Fair-head promontory, Ben-Lomond and Ben-More, and the strikingly-beautiful isle of Arran. Besides the Ayr, remarkable for the deep and dangerous places here called "weels," which are hidden from view by the sable hue of the stream, there are several small rivers, the chief of these being the Fail, which rises in Lochlee, a lake recently drained. This water, after passing the monastery, flows through the loch of its own name and that of Tarbolton, and, enlivening by its passage the pleasure-grounds of Montgomerie House, falls at last into the Ayr at a place designated Failford. The two lastnamed lochs are merely plains flooded during the winter months to turn two small mills. These mills are still under the system of thirlage; but as the Duke of Portland exonerated his tenantry from their obligation to use the Millburn mill, in consequence of which Lochlee loch was converted into good arable ground, it is expected that the other lochs will shortly, under the extension of the same enlightened system of parochial economy, yield to the operations of the plough, and that their fine rich loamy soils will ere long exhibit fruitful and abundant crops.

The parish partakes in the extreme humidity and rainy character of the climate of the county in general, forbidding the extensive cultivation of wheat; but other kinds of grain are raised, to the annual average amount, in value, of £8965; and the green crops, including £200 for gardens and orchards, are returned at £14,754, making a total of £23,719. The farms that are cultivated under the rotation system, averaging about sixty acres in size, produce considerable crops of turnips; and rye-grass is sown on many lands, for the sake of the seed. Tile-draining is general, and subsoil-ploughing is coming into practice; most of the farms have threshing-mills, some of them driven by water-power; and there are four corn-mills, a flour-mill, and three tile-works, the last of great advantage to the advance of husbandry. Great attention is paid to the dairy. The average rent of land is £1 per acre, and the leases usually run eighteen or nineteen years. The substrata in Tarbolton consist chiefly of red sandstone, trap, and coal, which together produce annually about £4000. The coal was wrought so early as the year 1497; and the mineral lying in the south-western, and a small portion of that in the north-eastern, quarter, belong to the Ayrshire coalfield. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,125. The principal mansion is Montgomerie House, the property of William Paterson, Esq., an elegant modern residence situated on the southern bank of the Fail, and shrouded in beautiful woods. There are four other residences, named respectively Enterkine, Smithston House, Drumley, and Afton Lodge.

The village is about six miles from the sea-coast; it contains many persons engaged in various manufactures, which have been rapidly increasing here during the last half century. About the year 1794 the weaving of muslin was commenced; and the articles produced in the parish consisted principally of jaconets and lawns till the year 1825, when silks were introduced, comprising persians, sarsenets, bandanas, satins, and velvets; and within the last few years, challes, made of silk and wool, victorias, a fabric of silk and cotton, and mousselins de laine, woven of cotton and wool, with several other varieties, have been added. These branches employ together about 140 looms, the work being all supplied from Glasgow. Many females, also, are engaged in "sewing," who were once occupied at the spinning-wheel; and the fabrics here wrought are in general beautifully executed. At the hamlet of Failford, two and a half miles from Tarbolton, is a manufactory for razor-strops; and hones are prepared at Stair-Bridge; the famous hone-stone, called the Water-of-Ayr stone, being plentiful here. There is a daily despatch of letters from the village; and the road from Ayr to Edinburgh, by Muirkirk and Douglas-Mill, runs through the parish from west to east, and that from Kilmarnock to Dalmellington from north to south. The farmproduce is sold at Ayr and Kilmarnock; coal is procured at the Weston or Crawfordston colliery, three and a half miles from Tarbolton, and cannel coal can be obtained at Adamhill, two miles from the village. A fair is held on the first Tuesday in June, and another on the second Tuesday in October, both Old Style, and chiefly for the sale of dairy-stock. The lands of Tarbolton, by a charter of Novodamus of King Charles II. to John Cunninghame, Esq., of Enterkine, were constituted a free burgh of barony, with the power of holding within the burgh a weekly market on Thursdays, and two fairs annually. Two bailies and twelve councillors are elected by the householders on Christmas-eve, and there is a town-house, and also a lock-up house, erected in 1836 by subscription.

The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of William Paterson, Esq.: the minister's stipend is £244, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £6 per annum. The church, finished in 1821, at a cost of £2500, is a handsome edifice containing 950 sittings, and is ornamented with a spire ninety feet high, and a clock having four dials. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £30, with a dwelling, and £16 fees. The parish contains two subscription libraries: there is a savings' bank; also two or three friendly societies. A range of almshouses was erected and endowed, by a bequest of the late Alexander Cooper, Esq., of Smithston, at Failford, near the junction of the Ayr and Fail rivers, for eight persons, who have each a weekly allowance and an allotment of garden ground. The hospital is spacious and handsome, and is designed for inhabitants of Tarbolton and Mauchline, in indigent circumstances, upwards of forty years of age, and who have never solicited alms. The chief relic of antiquity, besides the ruin of the ancient monastery, is a circular mound, inclosed by a hedge and planted, and called King Coil's tomb; it is situated to the south of Montgomerie House, and is universally stated by tradition to be the depository of the remains of Coilus, king of the Britons, who was slain here in an engagement with the Picts and Scots. The tomb was opened in 1837, when, at the depth of about four feet, were discovered several urns, some ashes, and burnt bones, with many stones, all disposed in order. On the Hill, already mentioned, a beautiful green mount with a moat at the summit, an annual festivity takes place on the eve of the Tarbolton June fair, resembling, and supposed to be derived from, the religious rites of the Druids formerly celebrated here. A piece of fuel is demanded and given from every house, and all that is collected is carried to a spot on the hill where there is a turf altar three feet high; a large fire is kindled, and the more youthful and robust leap upon the altar, after the manner of the ancient worshippers of Baal, numerous spectators standing around. A stone celt, used by the Druids for cutting the mistletoe, and probably also for the slaughter of victims, was discovered a few years since in the process of forming a drain in a field; it is made of hard clay-stone, and is ten and a half inches long, with one end narrow and blunt, and the other broad and sharp. This celebrated hill, about a mile from which the celt was found, was subsequently the court-hill of the barony of Tarbolton; and a hall once situated on the summit was the chief messuage of the barons. At Park-Moor are the vestiges of a Roman camp, with trenches; and numerous urns have been found in the parish, as well as several warlike instruments.

Tarfside

TARFSIDE, a hamlet, in the parish of Lochlee, county of Forfar; containing 32 inhabitants. This is a small hamlet in the eastern part of the parish, on the north side of the river Tarf; and is distant eastward of the church of Lochlee about five miles.

Tarland and Migvie

TARLAND and MIGVIE, a parish, in the district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 31 miles (W.) from Aberdeen; containing 1093 inhabitants. The ancient parish of Tarland derives its name, signifying in the Celtic language a "level tract," from a tract of land near the village, extending more than two miles in length, without any striking elevation or depression of the surface from one extremity to the other. The etymology of the name of the ancient parish of Migvie is altogether involved in obscurity. At what time these parishes were united, cannot be ascertained from any authentic records; but the union is supposed to have taken place soon after the Reformation, or about the commencement of the 17th century. The parish is so subdivided by intervening portions of other parishes adjacent, as to render it almost impracticable to describe its form or state its superficial contents with any tolerable degree of accuracy; it is generally thought, however, to comprise an area of about twenty-two square miles. The western portion of Tarland is separated from the eastern portion by Migvie and intervening parts of the parishes of Strathdon and Logie-Coldstone; it is bounded for three or four miles on the south by the river Don, and divided into two nearly equal districts by the river Ernan, which, flowing from west to east through the glen to which it gives name, falls into the Don. The eastern portion of Tarland is separated from the south-eastern portion of Migvie by part of the parish of Logie-Coldstone, and is bounded on the south by the burn of Tarland, over which is a substantial bridge near the village, whence the stream runs in a south-eastern course, through the parishes of Coull and Aboyne, into the river Dee. The north-western portion of Migvie is divided from the western portion of Tarland by the parish of Strathdon; and is washed for nearly two miles on the north by the Don, and intersected nearly in the centre by the river Deskry, which flows through it from east to west, and falls into the Don. The south-eastern portion of Migvie is separated from the north-western portion by intervening parts of the parishes of Logie-Coldstone and Towie, and is bounded on the east, and on the south, by nameless rivulets which unite at the south-eastern extremity, and flow into the burn of Tarland.

The surface in some parts is diversified with hills of moderate elevation, interspersed with various glens, watered by the rivers from which they take their names; in other parts are level straths of great beauty and fertility, of which the principal is Strath-Don, in Tarland. The scenery in general is of pleasing character, and in some places enriched with wood, and highly picturesque. The soil is greatly varied: on the low grounds near the village, and along the burn of Tarland, it is a deep rich loam, alternated with clay and gravel, and alluvial deposits; on the higher grounds, it is in some spots light and moorish, but in others, especially towards the north, of richer quality, chiefly a clayey loam. The system of husbandry has been much improved within the last thirty years; and the arable lands are now in a state of good cultivation, producing, since a more plentiful supply of lime has been brought from Aberdeen, abundant crops of excellent grain of every kind, of which large quantities are sent to the Aberdeen market. The farms are of moderate extent, and the farm-buildings generally substantial and commodious; the lands have been inclosed and drained, and many of the recent improvements in the construction of farming implements have been adopted. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3508. The plantations were till lately on a limited scale, but are now pretty extensive: the moorlands on the Earl of Aberdeen's property have been recently planted with Scotch fir and larch, intermixed with ash and various sorts of forest-trees, all which are in a thriving state. The principal mansion-houses are, Candacraig, Edinglassie, Inverernan, and Skellater, all of which are situated in Strath-Don.

The village is in the eastern portion of Tarland, and on the north bank of the burn, over which a bridge was erected in 1835; the houses are neatly built, and attached to each is a small portion of land, in the cultivation of which the inhabitants are partly employed. It is a burgh of barony, and had formerly a weekly market, which has been for many years discontinued. On the burn is a large mill for grinding meal, fitted up with machinery of the most approved construction; and in the village are several shops for the sale of groceries and various wares for the supply of the neighbourhood. A library, containing a good selection of volumes, is supported by subscription, and a savings' bank under the patronage of the Earl of Aberdeen; there are also an excellent inn, a stamp-office, and a post-office which has a daily delivery. Fairs are held at Tarland annually for cattle, sheep, and horses, on the last Wednesday in February, the Wednesday before the 26th of May, the Friday after St. Sair's fair in June, the Friday in the week after the Old Rain fair in August, and the Tuesday and Wednesday after the 22nd of November, all O. S. A fair is held in Migvie on the second Tuesday in March, O. S. Facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-road from Tarland to Aberdeen, made within the last few years; and by cross roads, which intersect the parish in various directions, and are kept in good repair by statute labour. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £177. 3. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Crown. There are churches both at Tarland and Migvie, in the latter of which the minister officiates every third Sunday. The church at Tarland, rebuilt in 1762, and in good repair, is a neat plain structure, with a small turret of ancient date, which formed part of the original church, and is of elegant design; the interior is well arranged, and contains 500 sittings. The church of Migvie was rebuilt in 1775, and contains 300 sittings. The parochial school affords instruction to about seventy children: the master has a salary of £28, with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. 9. in lieu of garden; the fees average £15 annually, and he has also a portion of the Dick bequest. About a quarter of a mile to the south of Migvie church, are the ruins of an ancient castle, the baronial seat of the earls of Mar, situated on a small eminence: at what time it became a ruin is not known, and little of its history has been preserved; the site is now overgrown with turf, and but few vestiges of the building can be traced. There are also some remains of Druidical circles in various parts of the parish, and in the immediate vicinity.

Tarrinsay

TARRINSAY, an island, in the parish of Harris, island of Lewis, county of Inverness; containing 88 inhabitants. This is an isle of the Hebrides, lying on the west coast of Harris, at the entrance to West Loch Tarbert. It is a high, rocky, and conspicuous island, about four miles in length and one in breadth, and having little or no soil: the inhabitants employ themselves in fishing and kelp-burning. There are remains here of two religious houses.

Tarves

TARVES, a parish, in the county of Aberdeen, 17 miles (N. N. W.) from Aberdeen; containing 2397 inhabitants. The level appearance and fertility of this place are supposed to have led to the adoption of its present name, derived from two Gaelic words. At a very remote period the parish was made a regality, over which the abbots of Arbroath were appointed superiors; and one of the abbots accordingly, in the year 1299, by virtue of his office, claimed a culprit from the king's justiciary at Aberdeen. Near the time of the Reformation, the regality passed to James Gordon, of Haddo, ancestor of the Earl of Aberdeen, one of whose titles is Baron of Tarves, and who takes that of Viscount of Formartine from the district of that name, in which this parish is wholly situated, with the exception of a small portion in the district of Buchan. Tarves is about eleven and a half miles in extreme length, and six and a half at its greatest breadth, and comprises above 12,000 acres, of which nearly 11,000 are arable and good pasture, 1000 woodland, and the remainder moss and moor. The surface, though distinguished chiefly by several extensive levels, is diversified and ornamented by some pleasing undulations, slopes, and acclivities of moderate elevation; and the lower grounds are watered by numerous rivulets, carrying off the drainage, and emptying themselves into the river Ythan. This stream divides the parish into two portions, by far the larger being situated on the southern side, and both now belonging to the Earl of Aberdeen.

The soil varies considerably; that which is most general is a good fertile loam, of brown hue, resting on a stony clay, and sometimes broken through by the crags of the substratum. The neighbourhood of the streams is covered with alluvial mould, and in other parts a tenacious earth is found interspersed with patches of peat-moss. The crops usually raised are, barley, oats, bear, turnips, potatoes, and cultivated grasses; the potatoes are grown only in small quantities for home consumption, but the turnip husbandry is practised to a considerable extent, and with much success, the drill system being universally employed, and the first manure being farm-yard dung, followed by bone-dust. The grain is of excellent quality, and the crops heavy; and the pastures, covered with white clover spontaneously produced, are rich and prolific. The district shares in the general celebrity of the county, for the number and superiority of its cattle, which are fattened, and sold at about three years of age to the graziers at Aberdeen, or sent by steamers to London, and disposed of at Smithfield market. The long-horned Aberdeenshire cattle, formerly prevailing here, have given place to the polled Buchan, which have been crossed by those of Galloway; there are also some crosses between these and the Teeswater breed. The agriculture throughout the parish has undergone a total change since the latter part of the last century; the lower grounds, where the stagnant waters rendered the operations of the plough impracticable, have been well drained, and the higher parts cleaned, well prepared for the various sowings, and preserved by good inclosures. The quantity of arable land has been more than doubled; the produce has increased in a ten-fold degree; and the scythe, having been found far more economical, is used instead of the sickle for cutting the grain, which is usually threshed by the farmers at mills erected on their own premises. The farm houses and offices on most of the lands south of the river have lately been rebuilt with stone and lime, and these two articles have been also extensively used in agricultural improvement; the stone, which is abundant in the parish, in the construction of numerous fences; and the lime, which is imported in large quantities, for manuring the land. The rocks are of the primitive formation, and consist chiefly of granite and gneiss in alternate beds, sometimes found at a great depth, and at other places rising above the surface; besides which there is a range of mountain limestone in the eastern quarter. The lands were formerly interspersed with massive blocks of blue sienite, which for a long period greatly harassed the husbandman; but by skill, and much labour and perseverance, these have been gradually, and nearly all, removed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7610.

The mansion of Schivas, situated on the north side of the Ythan, and once the residence of the proprietor of that portion of the parish, is ornamented with several fine beech-trees, and a large and beautiful plane, planted, according to tradition, by a daughter of the Gray family. The Grays were Roman Catholics, and their ancestor, 200 years since, built the house, the present dining-room of which was their private chapel; it still exhibits a cross, in a recess where the altar once stood, with the inscription I. H. S. Jesus hominum salrator, and there is also a niche in which the eucharistal elements and the holy water were kept. Good turnpike-roads run from Tarves to Aberdeen, and the sea-port of Newburgh, ten miles distant, at both which places a market is found for the farm produce; and from the latter, supplies of English lime are brought up the river Ythan, in lighters, to a place named Waterton, six miles from Tarves, and, on account of the good condition of the parish roads, are easily sent in every direction. There are six ancient markets, or fairs, for horses, cattle, and grain. The parish is in the presbytery of Ellon, synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Earl of Aberdeen: the minister's stipend is £192, of which about £30 are received from the heritors by a private agreement; with a manse, and a glebe of four acres, valued at £10. 10. per annum. The church was built in 1798, and repaired and improved about 1823; it is a spacious and comfortable edifice, accommodating 870 persons with sittings. There is a place of worship for Seceders at Craigdam. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £28, with a house and garden, £23 fees, and an allowance of about £35 from the Dick bequest. A school is supported at Craigdam by the bequest of a person named Barron, whose legacy of £600 produces £18 per annum, which sum is given as a salary to the master; and the Earl of Aberdeen allows to the master of a school at Barthol chapel, a house, and a piece of land. The chief antiquity is the castle of Tolquhon, the seat of the ancient family of Forbes, built about 1589, and now a ruin; it is a quadrangular structure, inclosing a spacious area, and entered by an arched gateway defended by two towers with loop-holes for the discharge of arrows, and stands nearly shrouded in wood, among which are some very fine old yews.

Tealing

TEALING, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 5½ miles (N.) from Dundee; containing, with the hamlets of Balgray, Balkillo, Kirkton, Newbegging, and Todhills, 854 inhabitants, of whom 517 are in the rural districts. This place derives its name, signifying in the Gaelic language "a country of brooks or waters," from the small streams with which the district abounds; it is chiefly the property of Mr. Scrymseour, and Lord Douglas. The parish, which is situated on the southern brow of the Sidlaw hills, is bounded on the south by the Fithie burn, which separates it from the parish of Mains and Strathmartine; it is about four miles in length, and rather more than two miles in average breadth, comprising 5400 acres, whereof 4630 are arable, 450 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moorland pasture and waste. The surface is hilly, forming part of the Sidlaw range, whose highest point within the parish is the Craig-Owl, which has an elevation of 1600 feet above the level of the sea, and from which the lands slope gradually towards the southern boundary. The scenery is pleasingly varied, and enriched with thriving plantations; and from the higher grounds are obtained extensive and interesting prospects over the adjacent country. The burn of Fithie is the principal stream connected with the parish; it abounds with trout of large size, and is much frequented by anglers. The soil in the higher lands is light and gravelly, and rather adapted for pasture than for tillage; on the arable lands, a rich black loam of great depth, in some parts alternated with clay; and in the southern districts, of a marshy quality, and chiefly in meadow and natural pasture. The principal crops are oats and barley, with potatoes and turnips, and the usual grasses: wheat was formerly raised to a very great extent, and towards the close of the last century, the cultivation of it was revived; but after a fair trial, its growth was abandoned as altogether unprofitable. The system of husbandry has been much improved; the lands have been rendered more productive by extensive and judicious draining, and the use of manure, of which a plentiful supply is obtained from the town of Dundee, in the immediate vicinity; and a due regard is now paid to the rotation of crops. The farms are of moderate size, and the farm-buildings substantial and well arranged; the lands have been inclosed, and the fences are kept in good repair. Threshing-mills, driven by water, of which there is an abundant supply from the numerous brooks that intersect the parish, are in almost common use. Considerable attention is paid to the management of the dairy-farms, the produce of which is sent to the market of Dundee; and the hills afford good pasturage for black-cattle, usually of the Angus or native breed. No more horses, however, are reared than are required for the purposes of husbandry, and there are but very few sheep of any kind. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5263.

The plantations consist of larch and Scotch fir, interspersed with ash, elm, beech, and other forest-trees, for which the soil appears well adapted; they are regularly thinned, and mostly in a thriving state. The rocks are chiefly composed of a greyish kind of slate-stone, and the principal substrata are freestone, of good quality for building, and whinstone, for the repair of the roads: there are several freestone quarries in operation, from which, also, considerable quantities are raised for pavements, and sent to Dundee. Tealing House, the property and residence of the Scrymseour family, situated in the eastern portion of the parish, is the only mansion-house of importance. There are several small villages, or rather hamlets, all of which are noticed under their own heads. Facility of communication is maintained by the turnpike-road from Dundee to Aberdeen, which passes through the eastern extremity of the parish; by the Dundee and Newtyle railroad, which intersects its south-western boundary; and by cross roads, kept in repair by statute labour, and which have been recently much improved. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns: the minister's stipend is £162. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1806, is a neat substantial structure, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, and contains 700 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction to about thirty children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average £10 annually. A parochial library, supported by subscription, is in a very flourishing state. The late Mrs. Scrymseour, of Tealing House, bequeathed £100 to the poor. On the farm of Priestown has been discovered a subterraneous structure of large flat stones without any cement, and containing several apartments, in which were wood ashes, fragments of earthen vessels, and a quern. Near Tealing House is a passage under ground, formed of loose stones about four feet in height, and four feet wide, and extending for a considerable length: in it were found an instrument resembling an adze, and a broad earthen vessel. It is still in its original state, though the entrance has been closed up. On the farm of Balckembeck are some remains of Druidical circles; and on two sandy hillocks have been discovered stone coffins containing a skull and several human bones, with urns of earthenware filled with ashes.

Bridge Of Teith

BRIDGE OF TEITH, a village, in the late quoad sacra parish of Deanston, parish of Kilmadock, county of Perth, a short distance from Doune; containing 163 inhabitants. This place takes its name from a bridge over the river Teith, erected here in 1535, by Robert Spittel a descendant of Sir Maurice Buchanan, and who, having become a member of the order of Knights Hospitallers, obtained that name by way of distinction. Robert, who was tailor to James IV., having one day left home without providing himself with money, was refused a passage over the river by the ferryman; and is said to have erected this bridge, which is a substantial structure of two arches, in a spirit of retaliation, for the accommodation of the public. He was also the founder of the hospital at Stirling for the relief of decayed tradesmen. The village is neatly built, and chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in agriculture, or employed in the extensive works in the vicinity, for the establishment of which, the Teith, from its copious supply of water and its powerful falls, affords every advantage. A place of worship for members of the United Secession has been erected here; and near the bridge are some vestiges of one of the six chapels dependent on the monastery of Kilmadock.

Templand

TEMPLAND, a village, in the parish of Lochmaben, county of Dumfries, 2 miles (N.) from the town of Lochmaben; containing 111 inhabitants. It is situated in the northern part of the parish, on the east side of the Kinnel water. The population is wholly agricultural.

Temple

TEMPLE, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh, 10 miles (S. S. E.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the village of Gorebridge, and part of Stobbsmills, 1159 inhabitants. The name of this place was derived from an establishment of the Templars, or Red Friars, founded by David I. The parish comprehends the ancient parish of Clerkington, and the chapelries of Morthwait and Balantrodach. The manor of Clerkington was given to Walter Bisset by David II., who also transferred the church, with its tithes and pertinents, to the monks of Newbottle, granting them, in addition, five merks yearly from the manor. In the reign of Robert III., Archibald, Earl of Angus, sold the barony to Adam Forrester, of Corstorphine, to whom it was confirmed by a charter from Robert, who likewise granted him a release of the Castle Wards, issuing from this barony to the king. Mark Ker, the Commendator of Newbottle, at the time of the Reformation enjoyed the patronage of the church, with the rent of five merks from the mill of Clerkington; and he transmitted the whole unimpaired to his descendants. In 1695, however, it appears that Sir John Nicolson possessed that part of the parish called Clerkington, which then formed a barony named Nicolson. In this year it was sold to Archibald Primrose, of Dalmeny, in Linlithgowshire, who obtained a charter under the great seal, by which this property, with some adjacent lands, was erected into the barony of Rosebery, from which he assumed his peerage title when created a Viscount in 1700. The first earl of Rosebery, in 1712, disposed of the estate to the Marquess of Lothian, who changed its name into New Ancrum; but being sold by the family in 1749 to Mr. Hepburne, he restored the old name of Clerkington. In 1821, Archibald John, the fourth earl of Rosebery, purchased it from one of Mr. Hepburne's descendants; he gave the barony the name it had possessed when in his family, and was created a peer of the United Kingdom under the title of Rosebery in 1828.

The lands of Morthwait, the hamlet of which stands three miles from Clerkington, were granted by David I. to the monks of Newbottle, who also obtained from Alexander II. the forest of Gladewys. Upon this, they established a chapel at Morthwait, the patronage of which was vested in the abbot until the Reformation, after which the commendator, coming into his place, enjoyed his privileges, and the estates of the abbey were converted into a temporal lordship, that descended to the heirs of the commendator, earls of Ancrum and marquesses of Lothian. The chapelry or manor of Balantrodach was situated on the east of the Gladehouse water, which is afterwards called the South Esk. This manor was granted by David I. to the Templars, who formed here their principal seat in Scotland, and built a chapel. On the suppression of the order in 1312, all their property and privileges in this parish passed to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem; and at the Reformation the estates were converted into a temporal lordship for Sir James Sandilands, their preceptor, who was created Lord Torphichen. The barony and regality became vested in the family as lords of parliament; and on the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions in 1747, Lord Torphichen received £134. 12. 6. as a compensation for this regality. After the Reformation the parish of Clerkington and the chapelries of Morthwait and Balantrodach were united into one incumbency; the Templars' chapel was used as the church, and the patronage of the new parish of Temple was distributed into three shares, corresponding with the three ancient establishments. One of these passed to Lord Torphichen; and the other two, at first belonging to the earls of Ancrum, were acquired in the 18th century, with the manor of Clerkington, by the Hepburnes.

The extreme length of the parish is about nine miles; its greatest breadth is five miles, and it contains about 20,000 acres, to which must be added 300 acres, locally situated in Borthwick parish, but belonging to the parish of Temple. It is bounded on the north and north-west by Carrington parish; on the south and south-west by the parishes of Eddleston and Innerleithen; on the east and north-east by Borthwick; on the south-east by Heriot; and on the west by Penicuick. The most elevated ground is the mountain range of Moorfoot, a continuation of Lammermoor, stretching nearly from north-east to south-west, and which is from 1500 to 2100 feet above the level of the sea. The South Esk, the principal river, rising in the Moorfoot hills, runs in a north-east direction for about twelve miles through the parish, when it is joined by the North Water, which, issuing from West Loch, in Eddlestone parish, after winding about forms the north-west boundary of this parish. The river afterwards joins the North Esk, which falls into the Frith of Forth at Musselburgh. The soil on the arable land is mostly dry and sharp, resting on a gravelly bottom; in the eastern quarter it is chiefly clay, and on the higher lands a large proportion of it is mossy, reaching to a depth of from three to four inches. About one hundred acres are under wood, consisting principally of oak, ash, elm, beech, and pine. The most improved methods of husbandry have been introduced; and the land, which is tolerably fertile, produces good crops. The farm-buildings and inclosures are generally in fair condition; the latter are usually formed of stones. Some waste land has recently been reclaimed, but the low price of agricultural produce has at times operated to damp efforts of this description. The average rent of arable land is about £1 per acre, and the leases usually run nineteen years: there are four proprietors, the chief being R. Dundas, Esq., of Arniston, and the Earl of Rosebery; and the rateable annual value of the parish amounts to £6792. The rock of the Moorfoot hills is greywacke, and in most parts of the parish there is an abundant supply of limestone and freestone, which are quarried to a considerable extent: in the eastern part, the district detached from Temple contains a large supply of coal.

The villages are Temple and Gorebridge, with a part of Stobbsmills, the larger portion of which is in the parish of Borthwick. The population of the village of Temple amounts to about 200; and the rest, excepting the inhabitants of Gorebridge and Stobbsmills, are scattered over the parish. They are all employed in agricultural pursuits, with the exception of those engaged in the quarries and coal-pits, and in the gunpowder manufacture, which is carried on to a very considerable extent. It was commenced at Stobbsmills in 1794, and has been since largely extended, the works now exporting powder to almost every part of the globe; the buildings occupy nearly three-quarters of a mile square, and the apartments exposed to the greatest risk are detached, and situated between the natural barriers of a glen or artificial mounds planted with trees. A line of turnpike-road running from Peebles to Dalkeith traverses the parish, on which the carrier from the village of Temple travels to Edinburgh. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; patron, Dundas of Arniston. The stipend of the minister is £158, of which £92 are received from the exchequer; with a manse, an old building repaired about forty-five years ago, and a glebe of fourteen acres, valued at £30 per annum. The old church, a small Gothic structure, is supposed to have been built very early; the new one was erected in its place in 1832, and is neat, commodious, and well situated, accommodating 500 persons with sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there is a chapel at Gorebridge, belonging to the United Secession; also a small chapel once held by the Anabaptists, in that part of Stobbsmills within the parish of Temple. There is a parochial school, in which are taught the classics, mathematics, and all the usual branches of education; the master has the maximum salary, with a house, and school fees amounting to about £30 per annum. Two private schools are supported entirely by fees; and there is a good subscription library at Gorebridge, consisting of 800 volumes; also a friendly society at Stobbsmills, and a savings' bank jointly for the parishes of Temple and Borthwick. A few years ago, a medal of Oliver Cromwell was found on the farm of Rosebery, which is in the possession of the landed proprietor.

Temple

TEMPLE, a village, in the parish of Largo, district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife; containing 109 inhabitants. This is a small place at the mouth of the Kiel, and is included, with Drumochy, in the village of Lower Largo; and inhabited, like Drumochy, by fishermen and artisans. It is distant east-north-east from Leven about two miles.

Tenandry

TENANDRY, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parishes of Blair-Atholl, Dull, and Moulin, county of Perth; containing 769 inhabitants, of whom 199 are in the parish of Blair-Atholl, 306 in that of Dull, and 264 in Moulin. This district consists of certain portions of the parishes above enumerated, which were separated for ecclesiastical purposes, by act of the General Assembly, in 1836, and formed into the late quoad sacra parish of Tenandry. The church was erected in that year, by Mr. and Mrs. Hay, of Seggieden, and Miss Stewart, of St. Fort, by whom it was endowed; and is a neat structure containing 500 sittings. The minister has a stipend of £85, arising from the endowment, and an allowance of £8. 6. 8. for communion elements, from the Sunday collections; the appointment of the incumbent is in the founders of the church for their lives, and after their decease will be vested in the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship.

Terregles

TERREGLES, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 2 miles (W.) from Dumfries; containing, with the village of Newbridge, 564 inhabitants. This place derives its name, which is a corruption of French words signifying "the lands of the church," from its having anciently belonged to the abbey of Lincluden, founded about the year 1150, by Uthred, father of Roland, Lord of Galloway, and who endowed it for nuns of the Benedictine order. This establishment, which was subsequently changed by Archibald Douglas, Lord of Galloway, and made collegiate for a provost and brethren, subsisted till the Reformation, when its lands were erected into a temporal barony in favour of the earls of Nithsdale, whose descendant, Marmaduke Constable Maxwell, Esq., is the present proprietor. Some vestiges of the ancient castle of the earls are still remaining, and the foundations of an extensive village, which is said to have contained 300 inhabitants, may be traced upon the farm of Terregles-town, in the neighbourhood whereof is an eminence called the Gallows Hill. The parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Cairn, and on the east by the Nith, is about five miles in length and nearly three miles in average breadth, comprising an area of almost 5000 acres, of which 200 are woodland and plantations, about 300 hill pasture, and the remainder arable. The surface is diversified with hill and dale, and the scenery is generally of pleasing character, and in many points beautifully picturesque. Towards the west is a fine range of hills of moderate height, partly covered with wood, and partly affording pasture for sheep and cattle. From the summit of these hills is an extensive view, embracing the town of Dumfries, the valley of Nithsdale with the windings of the river, a portion of the Solway Frith, and the Cumberland hills in the distance. The lower grounds are watered by the small river Cargen, which affords excellent fishing for salmon and trout, and which, flowing through the parish in a south-eastern course, falls into the Nith below the town of Dumfries.

The soil is mostly a light loam alternated with sand; but it is fertile, and produces abundant crops of all kinds of grain, with turnips and potatoes. The system of agriculture is in a highly-improved state; and the rotation of crops, according to the quality of the land, is carefully observed on all the farms. The plantations are well kept, and thriving. The substratum is chiefly of the red sandstone formation; the hills generally consist of primitive rock. Terregles House, the seat of Mr. Maxwell, and Lincluden, that of the Honourable Mrs. Young, are both handsome modern mansions finely situated in grounds tastefully laid out, and embellished with plantations. There is no village of any importance. Facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-road from Dumfries to Portpatrick, which passes through the parish, and by statute roads kept in good repair. The rateable annual value of Terregles is £4303. Its ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery and synod of Dumfries: the minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., of which one-fourth is paid from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum: patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. The church, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, was built in 1806: the churchyard, which contains numerous handsome monuments, is inclosed by a stone wall. The parochial school, for which an appropriate building was recently erected, is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £16 per annum. The poor receive the interest of £410 vested in the Kirk Session. The remains of the abbey of Lincluden stand on the bank of the river Cairn, a little above its influx into the Nith, and consist of the chancel, in which is the monument of Margaret, daughter of Robert III., and wife of Archibald, Earl Douglas, and Lord of Galloway; with some other portions of the buildings, in a very dilapidated state.

Texa

TEXA, an isle, in the parish of Kildalton, district of Islay, county of Argyll. It lies on the south-eastern side of the island of Islay, near the main land of the parish, and is about two miles in length and upwards of half a mile in breadth, having on the northern shore excellent anchorage for vessels of large size. There is some good pasturage. On the isle are the ruins of a chapel, of which the burial-ground is still in use.

Thankeston

THANKESTON, a village, in the parish of Covington and Thankeston, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 1 mile (S. by W.) from Covington; containing 113 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly situated in the eastern part of the parish, and on the west side of the Clyde, which separates the parish from that of Liberton: over the river is a bridge, erected by subscription in 1778. The high road from Biggar to Douglas passes through the village.

Thorn

THORN, a village, in the Abbey parish of the town of Paisley, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; containing, with the population of the contiguous village of Overton, 504 inhabitants. It is situated in the western part of the parish, in a large and flourishing mining and manufacturing district, and, like other considerable villages in this quarter, is inhabited by colliers, weavers, and handicraftsmen. In the vicinity are freestone and other quarries.

Thornhill

THORNHILL, a post-village, in the parish of Morton, county of Dumfries, 14 miles (N. N. W.) from Dumfries, and 61 (S. W. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing 1416 inhabitants. This is a considerable place, finely situated on an eminence in the south-western part of the parish, and on the east side of the river Nith, from which it is distant about half a mile. It is regularly built, consisting chiefly of two wide streets crossing each other at right angles; and in the centre is a neat stone pillar, or cross, erected by the last Duke of Queensberry, and surmounted by a pegasus and his grace's arms. The village is now the sole property of the Duke of Buccleuch, by whom it has been very greatly improved since the year 1827; and its present appearance is peculiarly clean and pleasing. It contains numerous excellent shops, two good inns, a tannery, wherein about thirty hands are employed, a brewery, and other works, chiefly of a domestic kind; and has a post-office, a branch bank, a subscription library, a literary society, a Freemasons' hall, built in 1834, and a spacious bowling-green and quoiting-ground. The agreeable aspect of the village is much heightened by the erection of the new parish church in its vicinity, a handsome edifice in the Norman style, standing on an elevated spot, and built in 1840; there are also places of worship for members of the Free Church, and for a dissenting congregation. Two high roads cross each other here; one leading from Dumfries to Glasgow, Sanquhar, and Edinburgh, by Leadhills; the other going westward into Galloway, by Minnyhive. Several fairs are annually held, in which woollen and linen cloth and yarn are sold.

Thornhill

THORNHILL, a village, in the parish of Kincardine, forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of Norrieston, county of Perth, 10 miles (W. N. W.) from Stirling; containing 531 inhabitants. This is a considerable village, immediately adjoining that of Norrieston, and is pleasantly situated in an insulated portion of the parish, on the high road from Stirling to Monteith, upon both sides of which the houses, mostly detached, are built, occupying somewhat elevated ground. It contains a tannery employing several hands, and some of the inhabitants are weavers and handicraftsmen; but the greater number are agricultural labourers. The church of Norrieston is situated here; and there are two schools, of which the teachers have free dwellings, school-houses, and gardens.—See Norrieston.

Thornliebank

THORNLIEBANK, a village, in the parish of Eastwood, or Pollock, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 1 mile (S. W.) from Pollockshaws, on the road to Glasgow; containing 1620 inhabitants. This village, which is comparatively of modern date, owes its establishment to the introduction of the cotton-manufacture and other works connected with it, in which, with the exception of two or three dozen families, the whole of the inhabitants are employed. It is almost exclusively the property of Messrs. Crum, whose very extensive works have been long carried on here; its proximity to the coal-works of the parish, and its plentiful supply of water, rendering the place peculiarly favourable. The houses, inhabited chiefly by persons employed in these works, are comfortable, and neatly built; and the whole has an aspect of cheerfulness and prosperity. The spinning of cotton affords occupation to more than 150 persons; about 120 are engaged in power-loom, and nearly fifty in hand-loom, weaving. The printing of calico is carried on extensively, employing nearly 400 persons; and 200 more are occupied in bleaching and finishing. A school has been opened in the village, for the instruction of the children of the persons employed in these several works; the master has a good house and garden provided for him by the Messrs. Crum, who have also erected a spacious and commodious schoolroom. It is well attended; and the school fees, though moderate, produce a competent income.

Thornton

THORNTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Carrington; county of Edinburgh, 2¼ miles (W. N. W.) from the village of Carrington; containing 70 inhabitants. It is a small place, situated in the north-western part of the parish, near the borders of the parishes of Lasswade and Cockpen.

Thornton

THORNTON, a village, and lately a quoad sacra parish, partly in the parishes of Dysart and Kinglassie, but mostly in the parish of Markinch, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 4 miles (S. by E.) from the village of Markinch; containing 844 inhabitants, of whom 674 are in the parish of Markinch. The village, which contains 545 persons, is chiefly inhabited by those engaged in the neighbouring collieries or employed in the various spinning-mills, bleachfields, and other works in the vicinity; it presents but little claim to description. There are vitriol works established here, in connexion with some works at Glasgow. The church was erected in 1836, at an expense of £450; it is a neat plain structure containing 450 sittings. The minister's stipend is £60 per annum, derived chiefly from seat-rents and collections.

Thornton

THORNTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Glammis, county of Forfar; containing 53 inhabitants.

Thorntonloch

THORNTONLOCH, a village, in the parish of Innerwick, county of Haddington, 2¼ miles (E. by N.) from the village of Innerwick; containing 119 inhabitants. This village is situated on the coast of the North Sea, near the mouth of the Frith of Forth, and close to the line of road from London to Dundee. It consists of a number of irregularly built and straggling cottages of mean appearance, inhabited, for the most part, by labourers employed on the several farms of the parish, and by a few persons connected with the contiguous harbour of Skateraw.

Three-Mile-Town

THREE-MILE-TOWN, a hamlet, in the parish of Ecclesmachan, county of Linlithgow, 1¼ mile (N.) from the village of Ecclesmachan; containing 26 inhabitants. This small place lies in the north-west part of the parish, on the high road from Kirkliston to Linlithgow.

Thurso

THURSO, a burgh of barony, sea-port, and parish, in the county of Caithness; containing 4881 inhabitants, of whom 2510 are in the burgh, 20 miles (N. W. by W.) from Wick, and 55 (N. N. E.) from Dornoch. This place derives its name from its situation at the mouth of the river Thurso, or the river of "Thor." From the weights used here being adopted in the reign of David I. as the standard of assize for the kingdom, it appears to have attained a high degree of commercial prosperity at a very early period. Few events, however, of striking importance are recorded in its history; and it was not till the year 1633 that it obtained a charter erecting it into a free burgh of barony, granted by Charles I. to the master of Berrydale, at that time its superior. In the reign of this monarch, during the wars of the Covenanters, the Earl of Montrose, having landed on one of the islands of Orkney, visited this place, and resided for some time in a house of which the ruins are still remaining. In 1746 a party of Highlanders under the command of their chieftain, Mc Leod, encamped near Thurso for some time, previously to the battle of Culloden, in order to recruit their numbers; but the inhabitants, stedfast in their loyalty to the reigning monarch, pursued them on their departure; and at a ferry near Dunrobin Castle, attacking the party, took several of their officers prisoners. The barony passed from the lords of Berrydale, in 1718, to the ancestor of the late Sir John Sinclair, author of the well known Statistical Account of Scotland, whose representative, Sir George Sinclair, of Ulbster, Bart., is the present proprietor.

The town is pleasantly situated, and extends along the shore of the spacious bay of the same name; it is irregularly built, consisting of an ancient and a modern portion, in which latter are many substantial and handsome houses. Two public libraries are supported by subscription, and there is also a reading and news room, well supplied with the daily journals and periodical publications; a Masonic lodge has been established for several years. The environs of the town, which commands an extensive sea-view embracing the fine bay of Thurso, the Pentland Frith, and the Isles of Orkney, abound with interesting features, enlivened with numerous seats and much pleasing scenery. The principal manufactures are those of linen and woollen cloths, and nets for the fisheries, in which 200 persons are employed; there are also a large tannery and a rope-walk. The several handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood are carried on in the town, and there are numerous shops well stored with various kinds of merchandise, and some good inns. The fisheries in the bay are extensive, consisting chiefly of haddock, cod, and lobsters. In the river, and around the bay, the salmon-fisheries produce a rental of £1000 per annum; and the herring-fishery affords employment to considerable numbers during the months of June, July, and August.

The chief trade of the port is the exportation of grain, cattle, sheep, and other agricultural produce; of paving stones, in the dressing of which many of the inhabitants are employed; and of the produce of the fisheries, in which fourteen vessels belonging to the port are constantly engaged. There is a considerable coasting-trade, and about forty vessels annually enter and clear out from the harbour. The harbour, which is sheltered from the waves of the Pentland Frith by Dunnet Head on the north-east, and Holburn Head on the west, is easily accessible at spring-tides to vessels not drawing more than twelve feet water, and which, after passing the bar, may anchor in perfect safety; but for want of a pier, they can only load or unload their cargoes at low-water. Within the limits of the bay are the Scrabster roads, about a mile to the west of the town, where vessels of any burthen may at all times find safe anchorage, and where it is in contemplation to erect a commodious pier. The post-office has a tolerable delivery, and a branch of the Commercial Bank of Scotland has been established some years in the town. The market of Thurso, which is abundantly supplied with provisions of all kinds, is on Friday; and fairs, chiefly for the sale of sheep and cattle, are held annually in June, July, and September. Facility of communication is maintained by the turnpike-road along the coast, which passes for eight miles through the parish; by other good roads towards the south and west, along which the mail travels daily; and by bridges across the various rivers, one of which is a handsome bridge over the Thurso, erected near the town. Two sailing packets ply from Thurso to Leith, and, during the summer months, a steamer weekly from Wick to Leith. The government of the burgh is vested in two bailies and twelve councillors, elected annually by the superior, and of whom the elder bailie is ex officio a justice of the peace for the county: the jurisdiction, though originally limited to the old town, has been extended to the new town. There are no incorporations possessing exclusive privileges, and any one is at liberty to carry on trade within the town without becoming a burgess. For nearly two centuries the sheriff of Caithness was in the habit of holding his courts here, till 1828, when they were transferred to Wick, the county-town, at the suit of Earl Gower and the magistrates of that royal burgh; the only court at present held at Thurso is that of the justices of the peace for the recovery of small debts. The town-hall has been removed, and the only prison is a small lockup house for the temporary confinement of offenders till their removal to the county gaol at Wick.

The parish, which is bounded on the north by the North Sea, is about eight miles in length and nearly five in breadth, and comprises 22,040 acres; 12,000 are arable and pasture in almost equal portions, forty woodland and plantations, and the remainder moor and waste. The surface rises from the sea-shore in gentle undulations towards the south, though without attaining any considerable degree of elevation; and the scenery is strikingly diversified, combining prominent features of romantic grandeur with the more picturesque appearances of richly-cultivated vales and pleasing villas. The principal rivers are, the Thurso, which rises in some springs near the borders of Sutherlandshire, and after receiving numerous tributaries in its course, runs northward through the parish, and falls into the bay of Thurso near the town; and the Forss, which has its source in the parish of Reay, and after forming the western boundary of this parish, flows into the sea at Crosskirk bay. Both these rivers abound with salmon. The coast is about eight miles in extent, and with the exception of that of the Scrabster roads, to the west of Thurso bay, which is a level sand, is bold and rugged. At the extremity of Holburn Head, which projects boldly into the sea, is an isolated rock about 160 yards in length, and eighty in breadth, separated from the main land by a deep narrow channel, and rising perpendicularly to a height of 400 feet above the sea; it is the resort of numerous aquatic birds during the summer months.

The soil, though various, consists chiefly of clay and loam resting on a substratum of sandstone or clay-slate; the chief crops are grain of all kinds, with potatoes and turnips, and the usual grasses. The system of husbandry has been for some time gradually improving; the lands have been partly drained and inclosed, and considerable portions of waste land been brought into cultivation: the farm-buildings, also, have been greatly bettered, and are now generally commodious and well arranged. The sheep are usually of the Cheviot and the Leicestershire breeds; and the cattle, to the improvement of which much attention is paid, are chiefly the Highland and Teeswater. The plantations, though not extensive, are mostly in a thriving state; they consist of oak, elm, plane, common and mountain ash, and firs of various kinds. There are several quarries of whinstone, freestone, and slate, wrought with success; and large quantities of Caithness flags, in the dressing of which 250 men are employed, are sent to London, Newcastle, Glasgow, and other towns. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8052. Thurso Castle, the seat of Sir George Sinclair, originally the baronial residence of the earls of Caithness, is an ancient mansion, situated on the shore of the North Sea, and commanding a good view over the bay of Thurso and the Orkney Islands; it has been greatly enlarged and improved by the present proprietor. Forss House, the seat of James Sinclair, Esq., is a handsome modern mansion, beautifully situated on the bank of the river Forss, in a richlyplanted demesne embracing a fine prospect of that stream, which forms a beautiful cascade nearly in front of the house. Murkle House, the property of Sir John Gordon Sinclair, of Stevenston, Bart., is also a handsome mansion, at the north-eastern extremity of the parish, overlooking the bay of Murkle.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Caithness and synod of Sutherland and Caithness. The minister's stipend is £203. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17. 10. per annum: patron, Sir George Sinclair. The church, erected in 1832, by the late Sir John Sinclair, at an expense of £6000, is an elegant structure in the later English style of architecture, with a tower and spire 140 feet high; and contains 1540 sittings. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church, Original Seceders, and Independents. The parochial school is attended by about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average £50 per annum. Half a mile to the west of the town are the ruins of an ancient castle, formerly the palace of the bishops of Caithness, originally built by Bishop Gilbert Murray, about the year 1230; it is beautifully situated on the shore of the bay, and though little of it is now left, it appears to have been a place of great strength. In the town are the remains of the old church, dedicated to St. Peter, which was built by Bishop Murray in 1240, and enlarged in the 17th century; it continued to be the parish church till the erection of the present structure in 1832, and the walls are still entire. On the extreme point of Holburn Head are the remains of a camp supposed to have been formed on the invasion of Caithness by the Norwegians. About two miles to the east of the town is the tomb of Earl Harold, who was killed in battle while attempting to recover his possessions from the usurpation of Earl Harold the Elder: a castellated building of considerable extent was erected over it by the late Sir John Sinclair, which is called Harold's Tower, and forms a conspicuous feature in the landscape. Sir John Sinclair, who died in 1835, and Richard Oswald, Esq., one of the plenipotentiaries of the British court for settling the peace of 1783, were natives of this place.

Tibbermore

TIBBERMORE, or Tibbermuir, a parish, in the county of Perth, 4½ miles (W.) from Perth; containing, with the villages of Hillyland and Ruthvenfield, 1651 inhabitants. This place was anciently the residence of several of the bishops of Dunkeld, of whom Bishop Geoffrey died here in 1249, and Bishop Sinclair in 1337. A convent for Carmelite friars was founded by Bishop Richard in 1262; and the prelates continued to hold their synods at Tibbermore till the year 1460, when they were removed by Bishop Lauder to his cathedral. The barony was once the property of the earls of Gowrie, whose seat, Ruthven Castle, is distinguished as the scene of the event called the Raid of Ruthven, an attempt made by the earl and his confederate lords to force James VI., whom Gowrie had invited to the castle on a hunting excursion, to dismiss his ministers, the Duke of Lennox and Earl of Arran, for which purpose that monarch was for some time detained in confinement. After the attainder of the earl for this conspiracy, the castle, of which the name was changed from Ruthven to Huntingtower, and the barony, were conferred by James VI. on the Tullibardine family, from whom they passed by marriage to the Duke of Atholl, by whose descendant the barony was divided into small portions, and sold to various persons. The first engagement between the Covenanters, under Lord Elcho, and the forces of the Marquess of Montrose, took place in this parish, when the former, amounting to 6000 men, were totally routed with the loss of 2000 slain on the field, and 2000 prisoners.

The parish, which is bounded on the east by the Tay, and on the north by the river Almond and the rivulet called the Pow, is about six miles and a half in length, varying from one mile to three miles in breadth; and comprises an area of about 5900 acres, of which 250 are woodland and plantations, 180 heath and peat-moss, and the remainder arable land in high cultivation. The surface is in some places boldly undulated, and the scenery agreeably diversified. A narrow level tract nearly three miles in length, and inclosed on the north, south, and west by steep banks rising from fifty to 100 feet in height, opens gradually towards the Tay into an extensive plain, through which flows a branch from that river, called the Mill-Lead, originally formed to drive some mills at Perth, and which has contributed greatly to the prosperity of this parish. The soil on the banks of the Almond is a sandy loam; towards the south-east, a tenacious clay; on the higher lands, a light gravel; and in the western portion cold and wet; though, by draining and good management, generally fertile. The system of agriculture is in a highly advanced state, and every improvement in husbandry has been adopted. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, peas, potatoes, and turnips; the farm houses and offices are substantial and well arranged, and the inclosures in excellent order. The plantations, which have been much extended, are mostly Scotch fir; and on those of older date is some valuable timber. The substratum is chiefly the old red sandstone, in some places intersected with trap-dykes affording good materials for the roads. The sandstone is also of superior quality, and has been extensively quarried: three quarries are now in operation, from which was raised much of the stone used in the buildings of Perth and the vicinity. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9996. Huntingtower Castle, the property of General Cunningham, is in tolerable repair, but at present occupied by a tenant; it does not appear to have been a place of much strength: the two towers that defended the entrance are still entire. Newton, the residence of the general, is a handsome modern mansion, pleasantly situated in grounds embellished with thriving plantations.

There were formerly several villages; but they have mostly disappeared, and the only villages worthy of notice at present are the buildings in connexion with the bleaching and calico-printing works at Huntingtower-field and Ruthven-field. The bleach grounds at Huntingtower-field, belonging to Messrs. Turnbull and Son, are very extensive; the quantity of cloth bleached annually is about 1,500,000 yards, and from eighty to one hundred tons of linen yarn are bleached for a powerloom factory in the neighbourhood. The works afford constant employment to 150 persons, of whom nearly one-third are women and children. A little below these works, and on the same stream, are large flour and barley mills belonging to the company. Ruthven printfield, also on the same water, and belonging to Messrs. Duncan, of Glasgow, is on a very extensive scale; and in addition to the calicoes, the printing of mouselines de laine is conducted here with great success. The quantity of calico and muslin produced annually averages 2,000,000 yards, of which about two-thirds are printed by blocks, and the remainder by machinery: the works give employment to nearly 400 persons, of whom about one-half are women and children. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads, of which the turnpike-road to Crieff passes through Tibbermore for nearly three miles: the parish roads are kept in excellent order. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling, and the patronage is in the Crown: the minister's stipend is £255. 12. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, rebuilt in 1632, and enlarged in 1810 by the erection of an aisle for their work-people by the Ruthven-field Company, is in good repair, and contains 600 sittings. The parochial school, situated near the church, is attended by about forty children; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, in addition to the fees. A school has been established at Ruthven-field, to the master of which the proprietors of the works allow a house rent-free, and guarantee a salary of £50, in the event of the fees not amounting to so much. There is also a parochial library, supported by subscription.

Tigerton

TIGERTON, a village, in the parish of Menmuir, county of Forfar, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from Brechin; containing 91 inhabitants. This village, which is of recent origin, is situated nearly in the centre of the parish, and on the road to Brechin; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the linen manufacture, which is carried on to some extent in the parish.

Tillicoultry

TILLICOULTRY, a parish, in the county of Clackmannan; containing, with the villages of Coalsnaughton and Devonside, 3560 inhabitants, of whom 2300 are in the village of Tillicoultry, 4 miles (N. E. by N.) from Alloa. The name of this place is by some writers supposed to be of Gaelic etymology, and descriptive of the situation of Tillicoultry on a rising ground in the rear of the county; others deem it a corruption from the Latin, denoting that the place was a settlement of the ancient Culdees. It was once the property of the family of Mar, to whom the lands were granted in the 12th century by Alexander III.; and the estate continued in the possession of that family till about the commencement of the 17th century, after which it passed successively by purchase to numerous families, of whom the last purchaser was R. Wardlaw, Esq., in 1814. Since that time the lands have been divided among various proprietors, the principal of whom is J. Anstruther, Esq. The parish, which is watered by the river Devon, is about six miles in length, and from one mile to two miles and a half in breadth, comprising an area of more than 7500 acres, of which 5000 are chiefly hills, including some of the highest of the Ochil range. The remainder of the area forms a plain, sloping gradually from the foot of the hills towards the south, and intersected by the Devon, beyond which the surface rises gently into a ridge nearly parallel to the Ochils. The most lofty of the Ochils within the parish is Bencleuch, which has an elevation of 2400 feet above the level of the Forth, and commands from its summit an unbounded view of the surrounding country, embracing the Grampian mountains, and the Dundaff, the Lomond, and the Pentland hills. Among the hills, which are interspersed with numerous romantic glens, rise several springs, which, issuing down the declivities, swell into burns. Of these, one, partly bounding the parish on the west, and passing between richly-wooded banks, makes some picturesque cascades; but the largest of the burns is that of Tillicoultry, formed by the union of two streams which rise about the middle of the Ochil range, and, flowing through the plain, turn the machinery of some mills. The Devon has its source in the hills behind Alva, in Perthshire, and falls into the Forth at the village of Cambus.

The soil is various, in some parts a rich fertile loam, in others sandy and gravelly; and on the hills are large tracts of deep moss. The crops are, oats, barley, and wheat, with the usual green crops. The system of agriculture is in a highly improved state; the lands are well drained, and inclosed partly with stone dykes, and partly with hedges of thorn kept in good order; the farm-houses are substantial, and all the more recent improvements in implements of husbandry have been adopted. The hills afford good pasturage for sheep, of which considerable numbers are reared, chiefly of the black-faced breed, and remarkable for the fineness of their wool. The plantations, which on the north of the Devon are extensive, consist of oak, ash, elm, beech, plane, birch, larch, and pine; all are well managed, and in a very thriving state. The rocks in the parish are mostly of the trap and porphyritic formation, and the principal substrata are sandstone of every variety, whinstone, and coal; in the hills are found iron and copper ores, silver, lead, and cobalt. The iron-ore was long ago wrought to a considerable extent in the Mill Glen, above the village, and there are still some remains of the buildings occupied by the miners; it was partially wrought about forty years since by the Carron Company, and at a later date, much more extensively, by the Devon Company. The copper-ore was wrought for several years by a company from London, and four different veins were found, of which one was eighteen inches in thickness; but though of good quality, the proceeds did not repay the expense of procuring it, and the works were consequently abandoned. Coal of various quality is abundant. There are several seams of it, of which the uppermost is of rough cherry coal, three feet thick, and found at a depth of seventeen fathoms: the second, of finer quality, and five feet in thickness, is at a depth of twenty-six fathoms; and a seam of splint-coal is found below this, at a depth of thirty-two fathoms, and three feet in thickness: the lowest is a seam of main coal, six feet thick, which lies at forty-two fathoms from the surface. Great quantities of coal were formerly sent to Alloa, for exportation; but from the increased demand, the whole produce of the collieries is now distributed throughout the surrounding districts. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5109.

Tillicoultry House and Harviestoun, both modern mansions pleasantly situated in grounds embellished with plantations, are the principal seats. The village of Tillicoultry, which is rapidly increasing in population and extent, is neatly built, and contains several handsome houses, inhabited by persons engaged in the manufactures carried on in the vicinity; there are also shops well stocked with various kinds of wares and merchandise for the supply of the neighbourhood. The chief articles manufactured are, Scotch blankets and serge, for which the place has been long in repute, and especially shawls and tartans, which were recently introduced. There are not a few well-built mills and factories in full operation, affording employment to 1200 persons, of whom more than 600 are women and children; and many others are engaged in hand-loom weaving at their own homes. The quantity of wool annually consumed in these manufactures is 40,000 stones. There is also an extensive manufactory in the village, for all kinds of machinery connected with the mills; and various handicraft trades are carried on. A branch of the Glasgow Bank has been established here, and there is a post-office subordinate to that of the town of Alloa. Facility of communication is provided by the roads to Alloa, Stirling, and Kinross, which pass through the parish; the bridge over the river Devon has been widened, and there is also a bridge of wood below the village, for foot passengers. There are two other villages in the parish; namely, Coalsnaughton, which is chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in the collieries, and is rapidly increasing; and Devonside, where are five woollen-mills.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £240. 12.7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £44 per annum; patrons, the heirs of R. W. Ramsay, Esq. The church, a handsome structure erected in 1829, and situated in the centre of the parish, contains 650 sittings. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church, United Secession, and Unitarians. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £25. 13., with a house and garden; and the school fees average about £10 per annum. There are two subscription schools in connexion with the Established Church, one at Tillicoultry, of which the master has a salary of £8, paid by Mr. Ramsay, and Mr. Johnstone, of Alva; and the other at Coalsnaughton, built by Mr. Ramsay, who pays the master a salary of £5, in addition to the fees. In both villages are also evening schools for the children employed in the factories. On Castle-Craig, above the village of Tillicoultry, are some remains of an ancient fort; and at Cunninghar, remains of a Druidical circle of granite stones. Near Harviestoun House was found a sword in 1796, and in 1802 an urn, both supposed to be Roman: the latter, inclosed within a rude stone coffin, contained some ashes, and a spear-head of flint.

Tingwall, Whiteness, and Weesdale

TINGWALL, WHITENESS, and WEESDALE, a parish, in the county of Shetland, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from Lerwick; containing, with the village of Scalloway, and the islands of Linga, Oxna, and Trondray, 2957 inhabitants. This district consists of the ancient but now united parishes of Tingwall, Whiteness, and Weesdale. The first of these at one time comprehended the lands of Lerwick, which were disjoined from it, and erected into a separate parish, in 1701, and also those of Sound and Gulberwick, which were severed in 1722, and united to Lerwick. Tingwall appears as a place of some consideration in the ancient history of the Shetland Isles. It was created an archdeaconry, after bishops had been appointed for these islands by permission of Adlebert, Archbishop of Bremen; and most of the church lands were conveyed by Sir Jerome Cheyne, one of the archdeacons, to his nephew, in whose family they were allowed to remain without litigation. At the establishment of Presbyterianism in Scotland, in 1592, this place became the seat of the presbytery of Shetland, the business of which was, however, afterwards removed to the village of Scalloway. It is also celebrated in the ecclesiastical history of Scotland for its process of augmentation, a former incumbent, the Rev. William Mitchell, having obtained from the house of lords a decision in favour of an increase in the stipends of the clergy, by an appeal from the court of session, where, after a sharp discussion, the case had been rejected. During the time that Shetland belonged to the Danish crown, the chief magistrate, who was called the Foud, resided here; and when, in 1271, the isles were separated from those of Orkney, and united to Faroe, one "Foud" and "Lagamand" was appointed for both localities conjointly, who resided at Scalloway. The assize was held at a small holm in the loch of Tingwall, where, also, an appeal was admitted from the other courts, which were all regulated by the law called Gula Thing; and the final sentence was executed on criminals upon a hill in the vicinity. This superior court was removed to Scalloway when the islands were ceded to Scotland.

The parish is situated in the Mainland, and washed on the north, south, and west by the sea. Tingwall is from twelve to fourteen miles in length, from north to south; Whiteness, lying on the west of Tingwall, between five and six miles in length; and Weesdale, to the north-west of Whiteness, from six to seven miles in length; the three comprising together upwards of 20,000 acres, about 2500 of which are under tillage. The shore in general is similar to that on the other parts of the islands; but this locality is superior on account of its excellent harbours, formed by arms of the sea. The principal of these are, Deals voe, Laxfirth voe, Wadbister voe, and Catfrith voe, on the north; Weesdale voe, Binnaness voe, and Whiteness voe, on the west; and Cliff sound and Scalloway voe on the south; to the west of the latter of which is a cluster of islands belonging to the parish, and affording, in the waters towards the interior, several spots of fine anchorage. The surface comprehends much variety. A number of valleys lying parallel with each other run through the district from north-east to south-west; and on the sides rise hills, for the most part barren, and unfit for tillage, but serviceable for the pasturage of cattle and sheep, and for the supply of peat, which constitutes the chief fuel. Among the numerous lakes, most of which are well stocked with fish, the principal are, the lakes of Tingwall, Asta, and Girlsta, in Tingwall; and that of Strom, in Whiteness, where are the remains of a small fort which, according to tradition, was inhabited by a son of one of the ancient earls of Orkney, who was slain at the Standing-stone of Tingwall by order of his father.

The soil is in some places a light brown earth, in others a dark loam, and frequently moorish. The produce consists of almost every variety: wheat and rye seldom arrive at maturity for want of sun, but barley, oats, turnips, and potatoes thrive well, and with the last Lerwick and Scalloway are usually supplied from this parish. Grass-seeds, hay, peas, and pasture-grass, are likewise cultivated; and an improved system being practised here, founded on a regular rotation of crops, the district has advanced in husbandry far beyond most others in the Shetland Isles. The land in many parts is prepared by the spade; but ploughs are also much used, drawn generally by horses, but often by horses and oxen together. Shell-marl, of which there is a good supply, is found highly beneficial as manure. Draining has recently been carried on to a considerable extent, and is still attended to. Much waste land, also, has been reclaimed; but a large proportion of open common of the best quality is destroyed by the practice of cutting up the turf for various purposes, and carrying it to the respective farms. On many of the high grounds, too, especially those on the east side of Tingwall, which appear capable of cultivation, the moss has been so deeply cut out in places as to leave nothing but the rugged substratum of clay-slate and micaceous schistus, with stones of coarse granite and gneiss. The progress of agricultural improvement is much obstructed by the nature of the subsoil in some lands, and of the substratum in others. A bed of fine blue slate was lately discovered on the north-east of Tingwall, which is very superior to the grey slate generally quarried, and being such a valuable acquisition, it was for a time wrought. Sienite is found on the shores, and hornblende on some of the hills, where there is also a considerable quantity of quartz. The rateable annual value of the parish is £957. The only village is Scalloway (which see); and communication is carried on without any other tracks than those formed by the feet of horses, except in the Tingwall district, where roads have been constructed, which are now in very superior order compared with their former condition. Here, as in the Shetland Isles generally, the principal article of trade is fish, the taking of which constitutes the main occupation of the inhabitants. The first fishing in the year, which is that of cod and ling, begins in the spring, and is carried on in open boats; the produce is very considerable, and is exported partly to Leith and Liverpool, and partly to Spain. The "summer" fishery begins about the end of April, and is carried on in sloops of twenty tons' burthen, which bring home large freights of ling, saith, tusk, and other fish; that of herrings commences in June, and again in August, and is often a source of great profit to the inhabitants, who, however, by its failure at times, as well as by that of the agricultural crops, are occasionally reduced to great distress. Cattle and ponies, with several articles common to the islands, are exported to England; and oatmeal, tobacco, coffee, tea, and spirits, are imported for the use of the inhabitants.

The parish is in the presbytery of Lerwick and synod of Shetland, and in the patronage of the Earl of Zetland: the minister's stipend is £263, exclusive of a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £20. The church at Tingwall was built in 1788, and contains 570 sittings, but, when full, can accommodate 700 persons. A church has recently been built at Whiteness, in the place of the old church dedicated to St. Ola, for the use of the districts of Whiteness and Weesdale; and a missionary officiates who is supported by the Royal Bounty. A church has also just been erected at Scalloway, for the benefit of the village and its neighbourhood. There is a small place of worship for Independents. The parochial school is situated at Tingwall; the master receives a regular salary of £35 a year, a dwellinghouse built in 1799, and £8 fees. In addition, there are a school in Weesdale, another in Whiteness, and a third at Scalloway, all supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge: in the island of Trondray, also, a school is maintained by the General Assembly; and at Laxfirth, a spacious school and a dwelling-house have been built by Mr. Hay. The principal antiquities are, the remains of numerous chapels, and the fine ruin of a castle near Scalloway. There are also several tumuli, originally used as places of sepulture by the Scandinavians, in which have lately been discovered urns containing calcined bones; and arrowheads, and steinbartes, or stone axes, here called thunderbolts, have been frequently found. A church formerly existed at Weesdale, dedicated to Our Lady, whose shrine is still visited by persons from various parts of Shetland, in the expectation of obtaining relief from trouble.

Tinwald

TINWALD, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Dumfries; containing, with the villages of Amisfield, Kirkland of Tinwald, and Trailflat, 1085 inhabitants. The name of Tinwald is by some considered to be of Gaelic origin, and to signify "the Harbour," in reference to the Tinwald isles, which are said in a Spanish history to have had the best harbour in Scotland. It is by others derived, and perhaps more correctly, from the Saxon word Tin or Ting, the appellation of the ancient courts of the Saxons or Scandinavians, which were held on high mounds in the open air: one of these mounds, of artificial construction, rises adjacent to the church. Trailflat, once a parish, was united to Tinwald, in 1650; the name is of Gaelic origin, and signifies "a sloping wet side." The illustrious family of Charteris, of Amisfield, has been from a very early date conspicuous in this locality. The name is of very great antiquity in Scotland, and is supposed to be of French extraction, having been brought into Britain by William, a son of the Earl of Charteris in France, who came to England with William the Conqueror, and whose son or grandson removed to Scotland in the time of David I., and became the founder of the family here. Sir Thomas Charteris of Amisfield, was made lord high chancellor of Scotland by David II. in 1342, but was killed at the battle of Durham, where the king was taken prisoner. His great grandsire, of the same name and title, had been appointed to the same dignity by Alexander III., in 1280; and in the reign of James VI., the important office of warden of the west marches was held by Sir John Charteris, also of Amisfield. The family greatly declined, however, in consequence of the rigorous treatment of Cromwell for the aid afforded by Sir John Charteris to Montrose, to facilitate the restoration of Charles II.

The extreme length of this parish, which is divided by a ridge running from north to south, is about six miles, and its greatest breadth about four miles. It contains 9405 acres, and is bounded on the north by the parish of Kirkmichael, on the south and south-west by the parishes of Torthorwald and Dumfries, on the east by Lochmaben, and on the west and north-west by Kirkmahoe. The surface is pretty equable throughout, with the exception of the range already mentioned, and even the acclivity of this is gentle; the sides are cultivated in general nearly to the summit, and the elevation of the highest part does not exceed 682 feet above the level of the sea. There is a loch called Murdoch Loch, of small dimensions, and not above eighteen feet at its greatest depth: it has recently been considerably diminished by draining. The streams worthy of notice are the Ae and the Lochar, the former of which, rising in Queensberry hill, washes the northern boundary of the parish, and, soon after forming a junction with the Kinnel, falls into the Annan above Lochmaben; it flows rapidly over a gravelly bed, and occasionally does serious damage by its violent floods.

The soil runs through the several varieties of alluvial mould, sand, gravel, dry clay loam, stiff spongy clay, cold moorish clay, and sea sand mixed in different proportions with the native earth. The larger portion is arable, and on the dry loamy soil in the southern district early green crops of the finest quality are raised; the crops in the north-eastern quarter are later, and of inferior quality, the ground being mostly wet, and resting upon a tilly subsoil. On the south-west, a tract of moss about a mile in length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth, has been converted into very superior meadowland. A large part of the parish was formerly under wood, the whole of which, excepting that on the estate of Amisfield, was cut down by the last Duke of Queensberry: the soil is most suited to oak and ash. About 1647 acres have never been cultivated; 350 are meadow, and 119 still under wood: the rest are in tillage. All kinds of produce are raised, and the husbandry of this district is, perhaps, equal to any in Scotland: the parish is for the most part portioned out into fields, and well inclosed, but the state of the farm-buildings, with some exceptions, is very indifferent. The common breed of cattle is the black Galloway, to the improvement of which great attention is paid; but the Ayrshire breed has for some years been introduced, and is gradually gaining ground. Among the recent improvements the chief is the cultivation of the high grounds by the use of bone-dust, guano, and sometimes rape-dust, manure, in consequence of which the finest crops of turnips and other produce are raised upon the sides, and even tops, of hills which before were waste. The range of hills commencing in this parish, and extending to the south, consists entirely of greywacke and greywacke-slate; peat-moss exists in considerable quantities, but is of trifling depth, except upon the eastern boundary of the parish. The rateable annual value of Tinwald and Trailflat is £5671. There are three mansion-houses, viz.: Glenae; Tinwald, belonging to the Marquess of Queensberry; and Amisfield, of modern architecture, till 1832 the seat of the Charteris family. Their original seat was a quadrangular building, with a high tower, standing a little westward of the new mansion; the tower is in good preservation, and is said to be the most perfect of the kind now existing in the kingdom. Here are also three villages, all unimportant, and each consisting only of a few thatched houses, falling into decay: Amisfield was erected into a burgh of barony by Charles I., with the privilege of weekly markets and annual fairs. In the district of Trailflat, one of the most extensive bleachfields in Scotland is carried on. Peat, obtained from Lochar Moss, which is mostly in the parish of Dumfries, is the ordinary fuel; but English coal is coming gradually into use. About four miles of the turnpike-road between Dumfries and Edinburgh lie within the parish; a mail-coach passes and repasses daily. Both the roads and the bridges in the parish are in excellent repair.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Marquess of Queensberry and the Crown alternately. The stipend of the minister is £158, of which £8. 12. are received from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £26. 10. The church is inconveniently situated nearly upon the western extremity of the parish, and is a long narrow rectangular building without aisle or gallery, containing 400 sittings: it was built in 1763. The churchyard is surrounded by some fine old sycamore-trees, which give it a very picturesque appearance, and are seen at a great distance. There are two parochial schools, at each of which the ordinary branches of education are taught: the salaries of the masters together are £51. 6. 7., and the fees £30: the principal master has a commodious dwelling, and separate schoolroom; the other, a small house of one apartment, built by the farmers. The poor have the interest of several small sums, among which is a bequest of £100 left by Robert Mundell, Esq., of London, a native of the parish. A branch of the Roman road from Burnswark runs through the parishes of Drysdale and Lochmaben, enters the old parish of Trailflat, and passes by Amisfield House, where there are distinct traces of a castellum. Vestiges of a British fort are to be seen on the top of Barshell hill, about a mile from the church; and various antiquities, consisting of anchors, oars, &c., are frequently dug up from Lochar Moss, a circumstance which is considered a demonstration of its having formerly been a navigable estuary. The celebrated Paterson, who was the author of the Darien scheme, and founder of the Bank of England, was born in 1660, in the parish of Trailflat; and in the same house was born Dr. James Mounsey, his grand-nephew, and first physician for many years to the Empress of Russia.

Tiree and Coll

TIREE and COLL, a parish, in the division of Mull, county of Argyll, the one district 30 miles (W.) and the other 20 (W. by N.) from Tobermory; containing 5833 inhabitants, of whom 1442 are in the island of Coll. Tiree is supposed to have derived its name, signifying in the Gaelic language "the Country of Iona," from its having formed part of the possessions of that church in the time of St. Columba. It was granted by the Macdonalds, lords of the Isles, to the clan Mc Lean, who retained possession of it till the year 1674, when it became the property of the Argyll family, whose descendant, the Duke of Argyll, is now the sole owner. The island of Coll, of which the name is of unknown derivation, was given in the reign of James II. to John Garve, first laird of Coll, and ancestor of the present family, who still retain the central portion of the isle: the extremities, having been acquired in 1674 by the Argyll family, were lately sold by the duke to two different families, and the island consequently now belongs to three several proprietors. During the minority of a young laird of Coll, long ago, the chief of the clan Mc Lean sent an armed force to take possession of the island, which he designed to annex to his own territories; but in these views he was opposed by Neil Mor, uncle and guardian to the laird; and a sanguinary battle took place near a small rivulet called Sruthan-nan-Ceann, in which the forces of Mc Lean were routed with great slaughter. In resentment of his defeat and disappointment, Mc Lean some time afterwards dispatched a party of his retainers to Mull, the residence of Neil Mor; and that disinterested chieftain, who had merely defended the property of his nephew from all attempts to wrest it from the rightful owner, was treacherously surprised and slain.

The islands of Tiree and Coll are situated to the west of the Isle of Mull, from which they are separated by the channel of the Little Minch; and are divided from each other by a narrow sound, in which lies the small island of Gunna, forming also part of the parish. Tiree is about thirteen miles in extreme length, varying from three to six miles in breadth, and comprises nearly 18,000 acres; Coll is about fourteen miles in length, and three in extreme breadth, making the whole parish, including the sound, about twenty-nine miles long. Gunna is of very inconsiderable extent, uninhabited, and affording only pasture for a few cattle. The surface of Tiree is generally low and level, rising little above the high-water mark; but towards the west and south-west are some conspicuous hills, of which the highest, Bein-Heinish, has an elevation of 500 feet above the level of the sea; and Ceann-a-Mhara, about half that height, and forming the western headland, is perforated with numerous fissures, the resort of multitudes of aquatic fowl. The surface of Coll is rugged and uneven, and diversified with numerous hills. Few of these attain more than 300 feet above the sea; but though so low, the views obtained from the island are extensive and interesting, comprising, to the north and north-west, the isles of Skye, Uist, and Barra; to the south, the isles of Jura and Islay; and to the east, the mountains of Ardnamurchan, Sunart, Appin, and Lorn. In both the islands are many small fresh-water lakes, none of which, however, either for their extent or the peculiarity of their features, are entitled to particular description; they abound with eels of small size, and in some few are found trout of inferior quality, which are taken with the rod, more for amusement than for profit. There are several perennial springs, some of which are chalybeate; and also some small streams, but none deserving the appellation of rivers.

The coasts of Tiree are chiefly flat and sandy; those of Coll, more rocky and precipitous; and both are indented with bays. That of Kirkapol, near the eastern extremity of Tiree, is about two miles in width, and penetrates for nearly the same distance into the land; it is of considerable depth, and the bottom affords safe anchorage-ground for vessels of the largest burthen. The bay of Heinish, partly inclosed by the headland of that name, to the west of Kirkapol, is spacious and easily accessible, but from its exposure to the south-east winds, is insecure as a shelter for vessels in stormy weather. A pier was constructed here by the Commissioners of Northern Lights, to facilitate the landing of materials for the erection of the lighthouse on SceirMhor. The bay of Loch Breacacha, on the south shore of Coll, extends for nearly a mile into the land, and has good anchorage for vessels during the summer months. To the west of it is the bay of Crosspol, which is about two miles in width, and bounded on the north by a sandy beach more than a mile in length; but from the number of sunken rocks with which it abounds, it affords but very insecure accommodation, and is scarcely ever frequented as a harbour. Near the bay of Kirkapol, and forming part of its eastern shore, is the small island of Soay, separated from the main land by a narrow channel which is passable at half-tide; it was formerly valuable for its quantity of kelp, and is covered with verdure affording good pasturage. Not far from the north-eastern extremity of Coll is the island Eilean-Mhor, uninhabited, like those of Gunna and Soay, but affording pasturage for a few sheep. The fish taken off the coasts are, cod, ling, skate, lythe, gurnet, saith, and occasionally turbot: of these, the cod and ling are cured, and sent to the different markets; the others are merely for home consumption. There are ninety-four skiffs in the parish, though seldom more than ten are regularly engaged in the fisheries. Herrings are frequently seen in shoals, but no vessels are employed in the herring-fishery. Various kinds of shell-fish are found on the shores, of which the principal are, lobsters, crabs, cockles, lampets, muscles, and razor-fish; large quantities are taken by the inhabitants, and, especially during seasons of scarcity, they contribute greatly to the sustenance of the poorer classes.

The soil in both islands is various; for the greater part, light and sandy; in some places, a tenacious clay resting on a substratum of whinstone; in others, a deep rich loam alternated with moss and gravel. In the island of Coll, the larger portion is moorland and moss; nearly in the centre of that of Tiree is a plain more than 1500 acres in extent, affording rich and luxuriant pasture. About 6000 acres of the whole land are arable, 11,000 moorland pasture and waste, and more than 750 under water; the crops are, oats and barley, potatoes, of which great quantities are raised, and flax, with the usual grasses. The system of husbandry is adapted to the nature of the lands, and was once confined to the spade; the farm-buildings are in general of a very indifferent order; and though the lands have been partially drained and inclosed, the state of agriculture is far from being perfect. The cattle are of the native black-breed: from the want of winter pasture, those in Tiree are greatly inferior, both in size and quality, to those of Coll, and are subject to certain diseases that render them less hardy, and less capable of being driven to distant markets, than the latter, which fetch a much higher price. The sheep in both islands are of the black-faced and Cheviot breeds; but they are only of recent introduction, and it has not been yet ascertained whether the rearing of them is attended with profit. Great numbers of pigs, which have been found a remunerating stock, are reared, and sent to Glasgow and to Greenock, where they obtain a ready sale.

There are no plantations, though, from the discovery of trunks and roots of trees in the mosses, the islands appear to have been anciently well wooded. The rocks are generally composed of whinstone and granite, and the principal substratum is primitive limestone. Marble of a variegated colour is found, and was quarried by the Tiree Marble Company for a few years; some large blocks are still lying near the quarry, but the works have been altogether discontinued. In the west of the island of Coll, a vein of lead-ore has been discovered, but it has not been brought into operation; and near the manse of Tiree, and in various other places, are indications of iron-ore, but there are no mines of any kind in the parish. The rateable annual value of Tiree and Coll is £4473. The only gentleman's seat is Coll House, the residence of Hugh Mc Lean, Esq., erected towards the middle of the last century. The parish contains no villages of any importance. There are, however, one good inn at Tiree, and one in Coll; and fairs, chiefly for black-cattle, are annually held in the parish, on the Tuesday before the Mull fair in May, the Monday before Mull fair in August, and the Wednesday preceding the Mull fair in October. Post-offices, under the office of Tobermory, have been established at Tiree and Coll; but for some years no regular packet has been stationed here, and during the interval from the end of November till the beginning of April, nearly all intercourse with other places is suspended, unless when a day of fair weather may warrant the launching of a skiff. The internal communication is also rather defective, from the want of good roads; and with the exception of some of the sandy beaches, which are firm enough to allow the passage of a horse and cart, there is little opportunity of passing from one part of the parish to another. The ferry between the two islands, which is about two miles in width, and sometimes dangerous from the rapidity of the tides, is frequently impassable; the shore on each side is mostly covered with surf, and near Gunna are some sand-banks under water, which shift their position in tempestuous weather, and add greatly to the difficulty of the passage.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Mull and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £346. 18. 7., subject to the payment of £22. 4. 5., tithe due to the synod, and of £60 or £65, a stipend to an assistant minister; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £4. 10. per annum: patron, the Duke of Argyll. The old church of Tiree was built in 1776, and enlarged in 1786; it was a plain structure containing 500 sittings. In lieu of it, two new churches have been built in Tiree, of late years. The church of Coll was erected in 1802, chiefly by the proprietor of Coll, who keeps it in repair; it is a plain edifice containing 300 sittings. The assistant minister officiates in this church. A catechist in connexion with the Established Church has a small salary from the funds of the synod; and there are places of worship in Tiree for members of the Free Church, Baptists, Independents, and members of the United Secession. There are also two parochial schools in Tiree, affording instruction to nearly 200 children; the masters have each a salary of £22. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average from £4 to £5 each. In Coll is a school supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, who pay the master a salary of £10, to which £5 are added by the proprietor, with a dwelling-house, and grass for a cow. Two schools, one in Tiree and one in Coll, are maintained by the education committee of the General Assembly, who pay the masters each a salary of £25. There are likewise a school supported by the Gaelic Society, who allow the master £20; one by the Glasgow Auxiliary Society, with a salary of £12; and various others, of which the masters receive salaries varying from £10 to £18 from private individuals. Among the relics of antiquity are numerous remains of Danish forts, near the coast; and in a lake about the centre of the island, are the remains of an ancient castle, supposed to have been the residence of the original proprietor of Tiree. There are also perceptible the foundations of some religious houses: two crosses near their site are still almost entire. Several rudely-formed coffins of stone have been discovered at various times, containing human bones in a greatly decayed state; and coins, chiefly of copper, and a small silver coin of the reign of Malcolm Canmore, were found some years since. About the commencement of the present century, an armlet of gold, about five inches in diameter and one inch in breadth, was found in a stony knoll, and near it were human bones scattered among the earth and stones; the bracelet was sent to Glasgow, and sold for a small sum. On a farm in the west of Coll are two obelisks of stone, about six feet high, and fifteen yards asunder, and which, according to tradition, point out the grave of some Fingalian hero; and the ancient castle of Breacacha, the baronial residence of the lords of the Isles, is still tolerably entire. The Duke of Argyll takes his inferior title of Baron of Tiree from this parish.

Tobermory

TOBERMORY, a sea-port town, and also a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Kilninian and Kilmore, district of Mull, county of Argyll, 30 miles (N. W. by W.) from Oban, and 171 (W. N. W.) from Edinburgh; containing 1390 inhabitants. This place derives its name, signifying in the Gaelic language the "Well of Mary," from a well near the town, which in ancient times was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, to whom, also, was dedicated an old chapel, of which there are still some remains on the west side of the town. In 1588, the Florida, one of the ships belonging to the Spanish Armada, retreating towards the north, was blown up in the harbour of this town by, as some say, Maclean, of Dowart, at that time proprietor of this portion of the Isle of Mull, and was entirely destroyed. An attempt to raise the hull of the vessel was made in 1740, by Sir Archibald Grant and Captain Roe, but without any other success than the recovery of several of her guns; part of her timbers, however, were subsequently found, and some of the wood was presented by Sir Walter Scott to George IV., on His Majesty's visit to Edinburgh in 1822. In the reign of James II. of England, Archibald, the ninth earl of Argyll, having joined in the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth, landed with his followers in the bay, or, according to some authorities, in Cantyre, to assist in what proved an unsuccessful project for the invasion of Scotland: being afterwards made prisoner, he was sent to Edinburgh, where he was publicly executed. The town, which is finely situated on the north-western shore of the bay, was commenced in 1788, by the British Society for Promoting the Fisheries and Improving the Coasts of the Kingdom, who, as an inducement to settlers, granted parcels of land for building on very favourable leases. The houses along the shore are well built, and of neat appearance; and on a rising ground immediately behind, are numerous cottages of an inferior description. A public news-room, well supplied with journals and periodical publications, was lately supported by subscription. The original purpose for which the town was designed, seems not to have been carried into full effect; no fisheries of any importance appear to have been established. The site of the town, and the adjacent lands, have been recently purchased from the society, and are at present the property of Mr. Nairne, formerly of Forfarshire, but now of Aros.

From its advantageous situation, and its excellent harbour, which is one of the best in the Western Isles, the town has become a thriving sea-port, and is frequented by numerous steamers, and by most of the vessels trading from the western ports of Britain to the north of Europe. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the coasting-trade, and in the handicrafts connected with the shipping, and requisite for the wants of the surrounding district; there are a few resident merchants, a distillery, and many shops, amply stored with various kinds of goods. The herring-fishery is followed by a few of the inhabitants; and there are several boat-builders, coopers, and other artificers connected with ship-building. The harbour is capacious, easy of access, and protected from the sound of Mull by the Calve island, which extends nearly across its mouth, leaving at the north-western extremity ample facility of entrance for vessels of the largest size, but at the south-eastern only space for small craft. Two commodious quays have been constructed, of which one, erected by the late Colonel Campbell in 1835, is accessible at low-water to vessels not drawing more than four feet depth; the other is of older date, and accessible only to vessels requiring no more than half that depth. A customhouse for the district has been established here, and also a branch of the Western Bank of Scotland, and some insurance agencies; the post-office has three deliveries weekly, and there are several good inns for the accommodation of those whom the facility of conveyance by steamers may induce to visit the place. The sheriff-substitute holds a court weekly in the town, which is also the polling-place for the electors of Tiree and Coll, the Isle of Ulva, and others of the Western Isles; and there is a lock-up house for the confinement of malefactors, but so little needed, that the upper story of it was some time ago used as a schoolroom.

The district is bounded on the north by Loch Sunart, and on the east by the sound of Mull; it is about six miles in length, and nearly two miles in breadth, comprising more than 7000 acres, of which a very considerable portion is arable, producing good crops of oats and potatoes. The surface is varied with hills, some of them finely wooded; and the general scenery is pleasingly diversified, and enriched with plantations. Near the town is St. Mary's lake, a beautiful sheet of water, on the shore of which an elegant mansion called Drumfin was lately erected by Hugh Mc Lean, Esq., of Coll: the hills between which this lake is situated are precipitous. There are some thriving plantations on the lands of Mishnish, in the neighbourhood of the town. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Mull and synod of Argyll. The church, erected by parliament in 1828, stands on the hill behind the town, overlooking the bay: the minister has a stipend of £120, paid from the exchequer; with a manse and a small glebe: patron, the Crown. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. A school, attended during the winter by about 100 children, is supported by government; and there is also in the town a school of industry, maintained by the Queen Dowager, in which are ninety girls.