Independent Sub-departments
Robes 1660-1837

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

R.O. Bucholz

Year published

2006

Supporting documents

Pages

135-141

Citation Show another format:

'Independent Sub-departments: Robes 1660-1837', Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 11 (revised): Court Officers, 1660-1837 (2006), pp. 135-141. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43795 Date accessed: 02 September 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Robes 1660–1837

The duty of the office of the robes was to `order all his majesty's Robes; as those of his Coronation, of St. George's Feast, and parliament also, of all his majesty's wearing Apparel, of his Collar of SS's, George and Garter, beset with Diamonds and Pearls.' The office accounted separately to the Treasury. (fn. 1)

At the beginning of the period the salaried officers of the robes consisted of a master, a clerk of the robes and wardrobes, a yeoman, three grooms, a page, a brusher, and a taylor in addition to about twenty tradesmen paid via bills for goods and services. The office of master, or gentleman and master, was in the gift of the Crown. The master was admitted in pursuance of a warrant issued for that purpose. In 1662 this warrant was directed to the groom of the stole; subsequent warrants were directed to the lord chamberlain until 1830 when Seymour was appointed directly by royal warrant. (fn. 2) Until 1809, except for those made during the reign of Anne, appointments were embodied in letters patent under the great seal which granted the office for life until 1679 and during pleasure thereafter. The salary was originally £500. During the reign of Anne it was increased to £600. In 1716 it was £1,240. From 1727 it was fixed at £800. (fn. 3)

The yeoman was appointed by lord chamberlain's warrant. Under George I his salary was £380; by 1761 it had fallen to £255. Early in the period he was also entitled to fees of honour worth about £15 under George I. The office was abolished in 1782. (fn. 4) The grooms were appointed in the same manner. They numbered three except during the reigns of James II and Anne when they were reduced to one. Three served from 1715 to 1783–4 when they were again reduced to one. In 1761 the first and second grooms received £80 and the third £60 a year. Under William III the page of the robes made £20. This rose to £58 by 1782. Early in the period, the yeoman, grooms and page all received riding wages and livery worth £40 per annum apiece. The yeoman and grooms were also entitled to fees of honour, which averaged about £16 a year under Queen Anne. (fn. 5) The brusher of the robes made £40 plus livery money of £20 per annum. By 1782 his total emoluments had risen to £80 per annum. Early in the period, the tailor of the robes was the only paid tradesman: he made £83 5s in livery money under William III. This payment appears to have been abolished by 1714. However, by 1763 the furrier was paid £20 per annum. By 1782 the waiters made £90 and £50 respectively. (fn. 6)

All subordinate trades positions were appointed by the master, who requested the lord chamberlain to order that the gentleman usher, daily waiter swear them in. At the accession of Queen Anne her mistress of the robes, Sarah, Countess of Marlborough, refused to designate any tradesmen in ordinary in an attempt to leave the Crown free to contract on an individual basis with the least expensive supplier. (fn. 7)

Master 1660–1837

1660 5 June Mansfield, Viscount
1662 9 May Hyde, Hon. L.
1678 26 July Godolphin, S.
1679 4 June Sydney, Hon. H.
1685 30 May Herbert, A.
1687 11 Mar. Howard, Lord T.
1690 20 Mar. Nassau de Zuylestein, W.H.
1695 4 May Keppel, A.J.
1701 8 May Nassau, C.
1702 19 June Marlborough, Countess of
1711 24 Jan. Somerset, Duchess of
1714 12 Oct. Cadogan, W.
1727 16 May Malpas, Lord
1727 26 Sept. Schutz, A.
1757 9 June Finch, Hon. E.
1760 4 Dec. Brudenell, Hon. J.
1791 10 June Peachey, Sir J.
1808 19 Nov. Harcourt, Hon. W.
1809 1 June Sedley, Hon. H.
1812 10 Mar. Thomas, C.N.
1820 4 Apr. Conyngham, Lord F.N.
1830 24 July Pole, Sir C. M.
1830 7 Sept. Seymour, G.F.

Yeoman 1660–1782

1660 5 June Rustat, T.
1685 21 July Thomlinson, J.
1689 14 Mar. Watson, E.
1690 21 May van Boursenburg, J.
1699 22 Dec. Williams, W.
1702 12 Dec. Thomas, R.
1715 23 Sept. Hodges, C.
1719 13 Mar. Highmore, J.
1722 25 Jan. Hancock, J.
1732 10 Apr. Madan, J.

Grooms 1660–1837

1660 18 June Purcell, T.
1660 19 June Ferine, P.
1660 20 June Duncombe, J.
1660 30 June Watson, J.
1673 17 June De Henin, A.
1679 8 Apr. Rustat, R.
1680 26 June Spencer, G.
1681 27 Dec. Graham, D.
1682 13 Jan. Purcell, F.
1685 17 June Roudle, J.
1689 18 Mar. Drake, B.
1689 18 Mar. Spencer, G.
1689 18 Mar. Fremin, P.
1695 6 May Williams, W.
1697 21 Apr. Tozer, P.
1702 12 Dec. Hodges, C.
1715 21 Sept. Macret, D.
1715 23 Sept. Collop, H.
1715 23 Sept. Pitt, S.
1722 20 Oct. Waller, R.
1724 22 Sept. Ryley, A.
1729 4 Nov. Lawman, A.W.
1743 10 June Jones, F.
1750 8 Nov. Elliot, R.
1752 29 Sept. Malliet, J.
1754 18 Nov. Charles, A.
1764 Baglin, E.
1770 Minet, F.
1781 14 Feb. Yvounet, J.
1786 Rowland, H.
1812 11 Mar. Brent, T.
1830 27 July FitzClarence, A.
1833 5 Jan. Seymour, F.H.

Supernumerary Groom 1660–?

1660 17 Aug. Watson, J.
1662 7 Mar. Kirke, H.

Groom in Reversion 1675–1679

1675 22 Nov. Rustat, R.

Page 1663–1685; 1689–1702; 1714–1782

1661 21 Aug. Dancer, J.
1663 12 Feb. Carr, H.
1666 7 Aug. Lambert, A.
1667 15 Sept. Rustat, R.
1679 5 Feb. Ward, J., jun.
1681 22 July Bland, C.
1685 Office vacant
1689 16 Mar. Bland, E.
1700 13 May Bland, C.
1702 Office vacant
1714 18 Oct. Smith, W.
1735 13 Dec. Tyrrell, D.
1757 9 Nov. Major, T.
By 1772 Hope, H.
1775 25 Nov. Peck, W.

Waiters 1702–c. 1790

1702 12 Dec. Forster, W.
1702 12 Dec. Curtis, G.
1711 12 Feb. Pigott, H.
1711 12 Feb. Felton, J.
1714 30 Apr. Bridgewater, N.
1715 23 Sept. Curtis, G., jun.
1715 23 Sept. Smith, J.
1723 26 Feb. Welstead, L.
1723 28 Nov. Smelt, W.
1728 23 May Towers, S.
1729 4 Nov. Smith, J.
1740 25 Feb. Willoughby, R.
1756 4 May Teede, J.
By 1765 Taylor, T.
1781 24 Apr. Turner, C.

Brusher 1660–1782

[1660] Alexander, J.
1660 16 Dec. Hodges, L.
1663 3 Oct. Hodges, T.
1682 24 Oct. Hodges, B.
1683 4 Sept. Pitt, J.
1685 17 June Chanvoys, W.
1689 10 May Williams, P.
1714 18 Oct. Foulkes, D.
1719 3 Apr. Geree, J.
1745 28 Jan. Malliet, J.
1752 29 Apr. Yvounet, J.
1781 11 Feb. Mathias, G.

Tailor 1660–1702; 1723; c. 1738–1764; c. 1769–?1805

1660 25 June Bocock, T.
1681 28 Sept. Hayes, J.
c. 1714 Fox, F.
1723 16 Dec. Richardson, A.
By 1738 Haines, W.
By 1748 Restell, G.
By 1769 Gueneau, M.
By 1771 Lockwood, M.
1779 24 Nov. Darwell, T.
1785 Feb. Morse, W.

Furrier 1670–?1685; 1727–c. 1822

1670 24 Dec. Adey, N.
c. 1714 Rymers, J.
1727 18 Oct. Gittins, J.
1748 27 Nov. Norris, R
1759 24 Feb. Kleinert, T.
1785 4 Sept. Kleinert, S. G.
1809 28 Mar. Schnieder, J. N.

Messenger by 1707–c. 1832

By 1707 Jones, D.
By 1716 Tyson, H.
1730 1 Dec. Hobbs, J.
By 1768 Bishop. J.
1812 11 Mar. Burton, J.
1813 1 Feb. Ward, E.

Footnotes

1 Chamberlayne [1707] II, p. 175; PSBC, p. 30; LC 3/24, f. 21. See also Beattie, pp. 63–5, 134–5.
2 Chamberlayne [1669.2], p. 263; CSPD 1661–2, p. 367; CSPD 1678, p. 319; HO 38/28, pp. 283
3 LC 3/24, f. 21; Bucholz, p. 317 n. 90; CTB XXV, 186–7; ibid. XXX, 342; SP 44/362, p. 64.
4 Beattie, p. 210; T 52/51, p. 434; LS 13/117, pp. 72, 73.
5 RK (1784), p. 89; ibid. (1785), p. 89; T 52/51, p. 75. Calculation of fees of honour explained in Bucholz, pp. 318–19 n. 102.
6 LC 3/3, f. 3 (however, cf. Miege [1691] I, 162 for a different figure); Shelburne MSS. 125, p. 231; LC 3/4, p. 17; LC 3/7, f. 17; CCR [1763], p. 77.
7 LC 3/30, f. 9v; PSBC, p. 30; LC 3/63, pp. 9–10; LC 3/67, p. 177; LC 3/64 p. 124; Bucholz, pp. 49–50.