The name of this place, in old records, is written Bereching,
Bereking, Berkyng, &c. now almost universally Barking.
Morant derives it from the Saxon words Beorce and ing, signifying
a meadow planted with birch-trees; but other antiquaries (fn. 1) are of
opinion, that it is to be derived from Burgh-ing—the fortification
in the meadow, some considerable entrenchments being still visible
not far from the town (fn. 2) .
Situation, boundaries, and extent.
Barking lies in the hundred of Becontree, at the distance of nearly
eight miles from London. The parish is about 30 miles in circumference (fn. 3) ; and is bounded by Eastham, Little Ilford, Wansted,
Woodford, Chigwell, and Dagenham in Essex, and by Woolwich in
Kent; a great part of the marsh-lands belonging to the last-mentioned
parish, lying on the Essex side of the river.
The parish of Barking contains about 7850 acres of cultivated
land; of which about 1980 are marsh-land; about 300 cropped with
potatoes (fn. 4) ; 100 with cabbages, &c.; 250 upland meadow; 50 wood;
the remainder, excepting a few small closes, arable. The soil is
various; clay, gravel, and loam.
A considerable part (viz. about 1500 acres) of Hainault Forest,
being parcel of the Forest of Waltham, is in this parish; within the
limits of which stands a remarkable tree, well known by the name
of Fairlop Oak. The stem, which is rough and sluted, measures, at
three feet from the ground, about thirty-six feet in girth. The
boughs extend about 300 feet in circumference. Under their shade
is held a fair on the first Friday in July. It is said to have originated
from a man of singular character going there annually to dine with
his friends. The tree is now fenced round with a close paling about
five feet high, and Mr. Forsyth's composition has been applied to its
decayed branches to preserve it as much as possible from future
injury. The Hainault Foresters, one of the societies formed a few
years ago for the purpose of enjoying the amusement of archery,
held their meetings near Fairlop Oak.
The parish of Barking is divided into four wards, each of which
has its separate officers. Barking-town ward has two churchwardens (one appointed by the vicar and the other by the parish)
and an overseer. Ilford ward has a churchwarden and overseer.
There is only one churchwarden for the wards of Ripple and Chadwell; but there is an overseer for each.
Barking-town ward pays the sum of 428l. to the land-tax.
|Great Ilford ward
The proportion in the pound is upon an average about 2s. 6d.; in
Barking-town ward it is rather more.
Market and fair.
Grants of the marketplace.
Barking had a weekly market on Saturdays, but it has long fallen
into disuse; there is an annual fair on St. Ethelburgh's day, the 22d
of October. In the year 1616, Samuel and John Jones had a grant
from the crown of the market-place at Barking, with the markethouse, built by Queen Elizabeth (fn. 5) . The same year, they conveyed
the premises to Thomas Fanshaw and others (fn. 6) . In 1679, Sir Thomas
Fanshaw gave the profits of the market and fair to the poor of this
parish. Since the decline of the market, it is become of little value,
the tolls of both being let for 10l. per annum.
The small river Roding, which rises in the north part of the
county near Elsenham, runs along the western boundary of this
parish, till it falls into the Thames. It is navigable as far as Ilford.
Ancient entrenchments at Uphall.
Antiquitiés found at Barking.
In the fields adjoining to a farm called Uphall, about a quarter of
a mile to the north of Barking-town, is a very remarkable ancient
entrenchment: its form is not regular, but tending to a square; the
circumference is 1792 yards, (i. e. one mile and 32 yards,) inclosing
an area of forty-eight acres, one rood, and thirty-four perches. On
the north, east, and south sides it is single trenched: on the north
and east sides the ground is dry and level, (being arable land,) and
the trench from frequent ploughing almost filled up: on the south
side is a deep morass: on the west side, which runs parallel with
the river Roding, and at a short distance from it, is a double trench
and bank: at the north west corner was an outlet to a very fine
spring of water, which was guarded by an inner work, and a high
keep or mound of earth. Mr. Lethieullier thinks that this entrenchment was too large for a camp: his opinion therefore is, that it was
the site of a Roman town. He confesses that no traces of buildings
have been found on that spot, which he accounts for on the supposition that the materials were used for building Barking Abbey, and
for repairing it after it was burnt by the Danes. As a confirmation
of this opinion, he relates, that upon viewing the ruins of the Abbeychurch in 1750, he found the foundations of one of the great pillars
composed in part of Roman bricks. A coin of Magnentius was
found also among the ruins (fn. 7) .
In the early part of this century, several Saxon coins were found
towards the south-east part of the town, among which was one of
Barking Abbey founded.
Anecdotes of its founder St. Erken wald.
Barking Abbey, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is said to have been
the first monastery for women established in this kingdom. It was
founded about the year 670, (in the reign of Sebbi and Sighere,
kings of the East Saxons,) by St. Erkenwald, Bishop of London, in
compliance with the earnest desire of his sister Ethelburgh, who was
appointed the first abbess. The founder was nearly allied to the
Saxon monarchs, being great grandson of Uffa the first king, and
second son of Anna the seventh king of the East Angles: he was
the first bishop who sat in the see of London after the building of St.
Paul's church by King Ethelbert. The monastic writers speak in
very high terms of his piety and zeal in the discharge of his episcopal
functions; and tell us that, when he was grown weak through age
and infirmities, he was carried about in a litter from place to place
throughout his diocese, constantly teaching and instructing the people
till his death, which happened about the year 685, whilst he was
on a visit to his sister Ethelburgh at Barking. After his death,
great disputes arose (as we are informed by the Monkish annalists)
between the nuns of Barking, the convent of Chertsey, of which he
was both founder and abbot, and the citizens of London, about the
interment of his body, each claiming an exclusive right to the bones
of the venerable prelate. Nor was the dispute determined without
the intervention of a miracle which declared in favour of the Londoners, who, having got possession of the body, bore it off in triumph;
on their road they were stopped at Ilford and Stratford by the
floods: upon this occasion the historians record another miracle, by
which a safe and easy passage was procured for the corpse of the holy
man and its attendants. It is almost needless to add, that the bishop
was canonized, and that frequent miracles were said to be wrought
at his tomb. A magnificent shrine was erected against the east wall
of St. Paul's cathedral in the reign of King Stephen, into which St.
Erkenwald's bones were translated with great solemnity, in the year
1148: vast sums of money were expended from time to time in
adorning it with gold, silver, and precious stones.
Endowment of the Abbey, and grants to it.
It is not known what was the original endowment of Barking
Abbey. The charter attributed to Erkenwald is not supposed to be
authentic. The charter of Hodelred, father of King Sebbi, coeval
with the foundation of the abbey, and undoubtedly genuine, is still
extant among the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum, and is
one of the most ancient records of that nature. The annexed copy,
which is a fac simile, was engraved at the expence of Mr. Lethieullier, and is now in the possession of Edward Hulse, Esq. of Portmansquare, to whom I am indebted for the use of it. Most of the places
named in this grant are now unknown, viz. Ricincahaam, Budenhaam, Angenlabeshaam, and Widmundesfelt (fn. 8) ; Deccanhaam is certainly Dagenham, though that place is not mentioned among the
possessions of Barking Abbey in the survey of Doomsday (fn. 9) . King
William the Conqueror confirmed the possessions of this convent, as
did his successors Henry the First and King Stephen. The latter
restored to the abbess and convent some woods which Henry had
taken into the forest; he gave them also the hundreds of Becontree
and Barnstaple, and granted them various privileges and immunities.
His last charter was executed at Barking, by the ceremony of laying
his knife upon the altar of the Virgin Mary and St. Ethelburgh (fn. 10) .
King Stephen confirmed also a grant of three hides of land in Ulfemeston, (Woolston in the parish of Chigwell,) given by Edward, a
servant of Queen Matilda. Henry the Second confirmed all former
grants. Richard I. anno 1198 released an annual rent of 60s. payable by the convent out of the hundred of Becontree. Most of the
succeeding monarchs till the reign of Henry VII. confirmed the
charters of their ancestors. Richard II. granted a return of writs
within the hundred of Becontree, together with the profits of all
waters, whether sea or river, that overflowed their lands. Henry IV.
added some new privileges. References to these, and various other
records relating to the abbey, will be found in the notes (fn. 11) , together
with a schedule of the estates which they held when the convent was
dissolved (fn. 12) ; at which time the whole of their possessions was valued
according to Dugdale at 862l. 12s. 5¾d. per annum; according to
Speed at 1084l. 6s. 2¾d.
Account of the convent, and its abbesses. St. Ethelburgh.
Abbesses of the Saxon blood Royal.
The monastery burnt by the Danes.
Rebuilt by King Edgar.
St. Wulshilda, the abbess.
King William the Conqueror at Barking in the time of Alfgiva the abbess.
I shall now give a brief history of this convent, with some particulars relating to the abbesses, most of whom were of high rank, and
several of them of the blood Royal. Ethelburgh the founder's sister
was, as has been before observed, the first abbess. The time of her
death is uncertain. She was buried at Barking, and received the
honour of canonization. Her successor was Hildelitha, who had
been sent for by the founder out of France to instruct his sister Ethelburgh in the duties of her new station. She also obtained a place
among the Romish saints. After her, several abbesses of the Royal
blood succeeded.—Oswyth, daughter of Edifrith, King of Northumberland; Queen Ethelburgh, wife to Ina, King of the West Saxons,
who was canonized; and Cuthburgh, (sister of King Ina,) who had
been a nun at Barking in the time of St. Hildelitha. She died about
the middle of the eighth century. Nothing more is known of this
monastery till the year 870, when it was burnt to the ground by the
Danes, and the nuns either slain or dispersed. It lay desolate about
100 years, being within the territories which were ceded by Alfred
to Gormund the Danish King. About the middle of the tenth
century, it was rebuilt by King Edgar, as an atonement for having
violated the chastity of Wulfhilda, a beautiful nun at Wilton, whom
he appointed abbess; restoring the monastery to its former splendour, and endowing it with large revenues. After Wulfhilda had
presided over the convent many years, some dissensions arose
between her and the priests of Barking, who referred their cause to
Elfrida, the widow of King Edgar and mother of Ethelred, whom
they requested to eject Wulfhilda, and to take the government of
the monastery upon herself, a proposal to which she readily assented.
Wulfhilda retired to a religious house which she had founded at
Horton in Dorsetshire. The Queen then put herself at the head
of the monastery, and continued to preside over it, as the historians
inform us, twenty years; at the end of which time a violent sickness seizing her at Barking, she repented of the injury she had done
to Wulfhilda, and reinstated her in her former situation. Wulfhilda having lived seven years after her restoration, died at London,
whither she had retired to avoid the Danish army then invading
England. After her death, she was enrolled among the Romish
saints, being the fifth abbess of this convent who had received the
honour of canonization. At the time of the Norman Conquest,
Alfgiva, a Saxon lady, who had been appointed by Edward the
Confessor, was abbefs. Some historians (fn. 13) relate, that William the
Conqueror, soon after his arrival in England, retired to Barking
Abbey, and there continued till the fortress he had begun in London
was completed. Hither, they say, whilst preparations were making
for his coronation, repaired to him Edwin Earl of Mercia, Morcar
Earl of Northumberland, and many others of the nobility and great
men of the land, who swore fealty to him, and were reinstated in
their possessions. Others (fn. 14) say, that Berkhampsted was the place
of the King's abode; but there are strong circumstances in favour
of the former opinion. As Berkhampsted castle was soon afterwards
built by Earl Morton, to whom the Conqueror had given the manor,
it is probable that there was then no mansion upon it fit for a Royal
residence; and, admitting that there might have been, the proximity of Barking to London rendered that place a more convenient
station for the new Monarch.
King Stephen and his court at Barking in the time of Adeliza the abbess.
Mary, sister of Thomas à Becket, abbess.
After the death of Alfgiva, Queen Maud, wife of Henry I. took
the government of the monastery into her own hands. It is not
improbable, that this connection with Barking induced her the more
readily to build the bridge at Bow, as mentioned in Vol. III. of this
work (fn. 15) . Maud, wife of King Stephen, followed the example of her
aunt on the death of Agnes, the abbess, in 1136; but she soon
resigned the government of the convent, to which Adeliza, sister of
Pain Fitz-john, (a baron of considerable note, who was slain in a
battle near Cardigan,) was appointed. During her government,
King Stephen, with his Queen and the whole court, were entertained
for several days at the abbey (fn. 16) . This abbess founded and endowed
the hospital at Ilford. To her succeeded Mary, sister to Thomas à
Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Her appointment is said to have
been intended by Henry II. as an atonement for the injustice he had
done her family, who were all banished the kingdom, as a punishment for the Prelate's insolence. The succeeding abbesses were as
Maud, (natural daughter of
Christina de Valoniis.
Sarah de Walebar, 1214.
Mabilia de Boseham, 1215.
Maud, (natural daughter of
King John,) 1247.
Christiana de Boseham, 1252.
Maud Loveland, 1259.
Alice de Merton, 1276.
Isabella de Basinges, 1291.
Matilda Grey, 1295.
Anna de Vere, 1295.
Eleanor de Weston, 1318.
Jolenta de Sutton, 1329.
Matilda de Montacute (fn. 17) , 1341.
Isabella de Montacute (fn. 17) , 1352.
Katherine Sutton, 1358.
Matilda de Montacute (fn. 18) , 1376.
Sibilla de Felton (fn. 19) , 1394.
Margaret Swinford (fn. 20) , 1419.
Catherine de la Pole (fn. 21) , 1433.
Elizabeth Laxham, 1473.
Elizabeth Shuldham, 1479.
Elizabeth Green, 1500.
Dorothy Barley, 1528.
An ancient writing, in the possession of the Rev. Peter Rashleigh,
vicar of Barking, describes the place of burial of most of the abbesses,
and others for whom anniversaries were kept (fn. 22) .
Terrible inundations of the abbey lands.
From the time of Mary à Becket, there are few remarkable
occurrences connected with the history of this abbey. The most
material, as it affected the interests of the convent, was a terrible
inundation, which happened about the year 1376, and broke down
the banks of the Thames at Dagenham. It is first mentioned in a
record of the ensuing year, when the convent petitioned that they
might be excused from contributing an aid to the King, at the time
of a threatened invasion, on account of the expences they had been
at in endeavouring to repair their damages. As there is no petition
of this kind, or any complaint of poverty of an earlier date, though
many occur afterwards, it is to be presumed that no inundation, at
least such as had injured the banks in any great degree, had happened
before. The plea was allowed, and the same reasons were generally
pleaded with success as an exemption from future contributions of a
like nature. In 1380 and 1382, the abbess and convent state that their
income was then diminished 400 marks per annum by inundations,
and that they had scarcely sufficient left to maintain them. In 1409,
they state that they had expended 2000l. to no purpose in endeavouring to repair their banks. The next year it was set forth, that the
revenues of the convent were sunk so low, that none of the ladies
had more than fourteen shillings per annum for clothes and necessaries. In consequence of these several petitions, they obtained
frequent exemptions from taxes and other burdens; writs to impress
labourers to work at the banks, and licence to appropriate certain
churches to the use of the convent (fn. 23) . It is well known, that a
breach equally destructive happened in the year 1707, which, through
the interference of parliament, was stopped by Capt. John Perry, at
the expence of 25,000l. after the land-owners had given up the
attempt as impracticable.
Death of Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester.
The sons of Catherine Tudor educated at Barking.
Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester retired to Barking-abbey after the
murder of her husband in 1397. She died there in 1399, having,
as some say, prosessed herself a nun. During the time of Catherine
de la Pole, Edmund and Jasper Tudor (fn. 24) , sons of Catherine, the Queen
Dowager by Owen Tudor, were sent to be educated at this abbey,
a certain salary being allowed the abbess for their maintenance (fn. 25) .
The above account of the convent of Barking and its abbesses is
abridged from Mr. Lethieullier's MSS. (fn. 26)
Order of the nuns, and rank of the abbess.
The nuns of Barking were of the Benedictine order. The abbess
was appointed by the King till about the year 1200; when, by the
interference of the Pope, the election was vested in the convent, and
confirmed by the royal authority. The abbess of Barking was one
of the four (fn. 27) who were baronesses in right of their station: for,
being possessed of thirteen knights' fees and a half, she held her lands
of the King by a barony; and though her sex prevented her from
having a seat in parliament or attending the King in the wars, yet
she always furnished her quota of men, and had precedency over
other abbesses. In her convent she always lived in great state; her
household consisted of "chaplains, an esquire, gentlemen, gentlewomen, yeomen, grooms, a clerk, a yeoman-cook, a groom-cook,
a pudding-wife, &c. (fn. 28) ."
Prioress and other officers of the convent.
Offices of the cellaress.
The second station in the convent was that of the prioress, under
whom were two sub-prioresses: there were also a chantress; a high
cellaress; an under-cellaress; a chamberlain; a kitchener; two
freytoresses (fn. 29) ; a pensioneress (fn. 30) ; a firmaress (fn. 31) ; a parlaress, and a
sacrist. The prioress's office was for life, and during the absence of
the abbess she had the sole management of the convent. The other
offices were annual. The prioress had a double portion of provisions,
and the cellaresses and the kitchener during their year of office.
There were certain lands also annexed to most of these offices. The
office of cellaress was a place of considerable power and profit, nearly
corresponding to that of bursar of a college. She was to receive
certain sums from the farmers and rent-gatherers of all the estates
belonging to the convent, to buy the provisions, and to distribute the
portions or "lyveries" to the several nuns. Among the Cottonian
MSS. in the British Museum (fn. 32) is one entitled "The charge
longynge to the office of cellaress of Barkyng;" in which is
stated fully the sums she was to collect, with the nature and quantity
of the provisions she was to lay in, and the manner and proportion
in which they were to be distributed. Among other things she was
to provide "russeaulx (fn. 33) in Lenton, and to bake with elys on SchereThursday (fn. 34) ; a pece of whete and three gallons of milk for frimete
on St Alburgh's day; three gallons of gude ale for besons;
marybones to make white wortys; cripsis and crum-kakes at
Shrostyde; conies for the convent at Shrostyde; twelve stubbeeles and nine schaft-eles to bake on Shere-Thursday; one potel
tyre for the abbess the same day, and two gallons of red wyne for
the convent; half a goose for each of the nuns on the feast of the
Assumption, and the same on St Alburgh's day; for every lady a
lyverey of sowse at Martinmas, a whole hog's sowse (fn. 35) to serve three
ladies. She was to pay to every lady in the convent 9d a year
for ruschew-silver (fn. 36) ; 2d for her cripsis and crumkakes at Shrovetide; 1½ a week for eysilver (fn. 37) from Michaelmas to Allhallows
day; from that day till Easter 1¾ a week, and from Easter to
"Michaelmas 1½." The whole is printed in Dugdale's Monasticon (fn. 39) .
Arms of the convent;
The arms of Barking Abbey were, Az. 3 roses, 2 and 1 in base Or;
in chief as many lilies Arg. stalked and leaved Vert; all within a
border G. charged with 8 plates.
The seal represents three niches, in which are St. Erkenwald the
founder between St. Ethelburgh, (commonly called St. Alburgh,) and
another female saint, probably St. Hildelitha; beneath is the figure
of a Lady Abbess, and over them the Virgin Mary as Regina Cœli,
with the infant Jesus in her arms; on one side of her is St. Peter,
and on the other St. Paul.
Surrender of the convent.
Barking Abbey was surrendered to King Henry VIII. on the 14th
of November 1539 (fn. 40) , when a pension of 200 marks per annum was
granted to Dorothy Barley the last abbess, and various pensions (some
as low as 2l. 13s. 4d.) to the nuns, who were then thirty in number.
The abbess was living, and received her pension in 1548 (fn. 41) .
Seal of Barking Abbey
Grants and descent of its site.
The site of the monastery with the conventual house and the
demesne lands, which had been leased by Henry VIII. to Sir Thomas Dennye, was granted by Edward VI. on the 16th of November 1551, to Edward Fynes, Lord Clinton (fn. 42) , who conveyed it the
next day to Sir Richard Sackville (fn. 43) . In the year 1565, this estate
appears to have been aliened by John Stonard to William Avery (fn. 44) ;
in 1585, by George Harvey to Peter Palmer (fn. 45) . It became vested in
the crown again before the year 1605, when it was granted by King
James to Augustin Steward (fn. 46) , who died seised of it in 1628, leaving
Martin his son and heir (fn. 47) . After this I have not been able to learn
any thing farther of it till the year 1747, when it was purchased of
Crispe Gascoyne, Alderman of London, by Joseph Keeling, Esq. (fn. 48) ,
whose widow is the present proprietor.
Present state of the site.
Ground-plan of the conventual church.
There is scarcely a vestige now remaining of the once magnisicent
abbey of Barking, nor have any of the buildings been standing within
the memory of man. Mr. Lethieullier, by employing persons to dig
among the ruins, procured a ground-plan of the conventual church,
which was built in the time of Mabilia de Boseham (fn. 49) . Its site may
be seen just without the north wall of the church-yard.
Ground plan of Barking Abbey
Antiquities found on the site.
In digging among the ruins of the abbey, a stone (measuring about
thirteen inches by nine) was found with this inscription: "THOMAS
BEWFORD DUX DE EƗR, ƘS, AN: ƙ MCCCCXXXX."
It seems to have been the key-stone of an arch. On the fragment of
another stone was MR HARRI BEWFORD - - - - - ȀHR.
It is probable that both the Duke of Exeter and his brother, Cardinal
Beaufort, (Bishop of Winchester,) were benefactors to the monastery.
An ancient sibula (fn. 50) was found there also; and a gold ring, on which
was engraven the salutation of the Virgin Mary and the letters
I. M. (fn. 51) It is probable that it belonged to Isabel Montague, one of
Chapel of "the Holy rood loste atte gate."
At the entrance of Barking church-yard stands an ancient gateway,
over which is "the chapel of the holy rood loste atte gate edified"
(as is expressed in an old record (fn. 52) ,) "to the honor of Almighty God
and of the holy rood, that is there of right great devocion, as it
sheweth by great indulgens graunted to the same chapel and place
by divers of our holy faders, Popes of Rome." The representation
of the holy rood or the crucifixion of our Saviour is still to be seen in
alto relievo against the wall in this chapel. Salmon says that this gateway was called in his time Fire-bell Gate. It is not improbable that
the bell mentioned in the note beneath was used as a curfew-bell.
Chapel of the Holy Rood at Barking
Conduit belonging to the convent.
The abbess and convent of Barking had formerly a conduit near
Cranbrook, from which pipes were laid (through lands belonging to
the lord of the manor of Cranbrook, the abbot and convent of
Stratford-Langthorn, and others) to Barking Abbey. In the year
1462, John Rigby, who had married Joan Malmeynes, whose family
were lords of Cranbrook, dug up and broke the pipes in several
places, so that no water could come to the convent, "to the right
"great hurt and unease of the abbess and nuns;" till they consented
to pay to the said Rigby, Joan his wife, and their heirs, an annual
rent of 24s. or eight yards of cloth of the same value. But
Catherine de la Pole then abbess, finding that this agreement did not
afford them sufficient security, caused a search to be made upon their
own estates for a new spring, which being found at a place called
Newberry, (being 1020 rods distant from the convent,) she had
all the pipes which led to the old conduit taken up, and with them
made a watercourse from the new spring to the monastery entirely
through her own lands, by way of Dunshall, Cricklewood, Loxford-Bridge, &c. Its course is very particularly described in the register
of Catherine de la Pole, whence it was copied by Mr. Lethieullier.
Manor of Barking.
The manor of Barking (fn. 52) , which is paramount over all the manors
in the hundred of Becontree, was the property of the abbess and
convent of St. Mary at this place long before the Norman Conquest,
and formed, it is probable, a part of its original endowment. After
the dissolution of religious houses (fn. 53) , it remained in the crown (fn. 54) till
the year 1628, when Charles I. fold it to Sir Thomas Fanshaw for
the sum of 2000l. reserving to the crown a see-farm rent of 160l. (fn. 55)
His descendant, Sir Thomas Fanshaw, who died in 1705, bequeathed
this manor to Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. of Parsloes; but his will
having been set aside for want of being executed in due form, it
came to Susanna, his only daughter and heir, who married the Hon.
Baptist Noel (son of Baptist Viscount Campden) (fn. 56) . Her daughter
Susan, who inherited this manor under her mother's will, sold it in
the year 1717 to Sir William Humsreys, Bart. (fn. 57) His son Sir
Orlando leaving no male issue, his estates descended to his daughters
Mary and Ellen Wintour. The manor of Barking was purchased,
in the year 1754, (of Thomas Gore, Esq. third husband of Mary
Humfreys, and Charles Gore, Esq. his nephew, husband of Ellen
Wintour,) by Smart Lethieullier, Esq. (fn. 58) It is now the property of
Edward Hulse, Esq. (eldest son of Sir Edward Hulse, Bart.) in right
of his wife Mary, only daughter and heir of Charles Lethieullier,
Esq. brother of Smart Lethieullier, who died without issue. The
fee-farm rent issuing out of this manor is now payable to the Earl of
Ancient services of the tenants.
In the Harleian Collection at the British Museum there is an
ancient survey of the manor of Barking (without date, and imperfect). In this survey, the services due from the inferior tenants
to the abbess and convent are stated at large. One of them (Robert
Gerard) was, among other services, to gather a full measure of nuts,
called a pybot, four of which should make a bushel; to go a long journey on foot once a year to Colchester, Chelmsford, Ely, or the like
distances, on the business of the convent, carrying a pack; and other
shorter journeys, such as to Brentford, &c. maintaining himself upon
the road. He was to pay a fine for the marriage of his daughter, if
she married beyond the limits of the manor, otherwise to make his
peace with the abbess as well as he could; if his daughter should have a
bastard child, he was to make the best terms that he could with the abbess for the fine called kyldwyte. It appears also that he could not sell
his ox, fed by himself, without the abbess's permission. Some of the
tenants were obliged to watch and guard thieves in the abbess's
Manor of Jenkins.
The manor of Jenkins, in the parishes of Barking and Dagenham,
was, in the reign of King John, the property of Ralph Fitzstephen (fn. 59) .
In 1496, it was held under the abbess of Barking by Sir Hugh Bryce
and Elizabeth his wife (fn. 60) . Their grandson Hugh left an only
daughter, married to Robert Amadas, who was in possession of this
manor in the year 1540 (fn. 61) . About the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, it was vested in Sir William Hewett, Lord Mayor of
London (fn. 62) , whose daughter and heir married Edward Osborne,
ancestor of the Duke of Leeds. Mr. Osborne sold it to Martin
Bowes, Esq. who, in the year 1567, conveyed it to Henry Fanshaw,
Esq. (fn. 63) It continued in the Fanshaw family till the sale of the principal manor, and has since that time passed through the same hands,
being now the property of Edward Hulse, Esq.
In the chapel of the old mansion belonging to this estate, (which
was considered during the time of the Fanshaws as the manor-house
of Barking,) there was in one of the windows the figure of an abbess
in stained glass (fn. 64) . The house was pulled down and rebuilt by Sir
William Humfreys soon after his purchase of the manor. This
house also has been taken down, and a farm-house built on the site
(which is moated) by Mr. Hulse.
Manor of Wangay.
The manor of Wangay, or Wangey, (parcel of the possessions of
Barking Abbey,) was on lease, when that monastery was dissolved, to
John Humphreys. King Edward VI. granted it, in 1551, to Edward
Lord Clinton (fn. 65) . It was sold by him the same year to Thomas Baron,
or Barnes (fn. 66) , who died seised of it in 1573 (fn. 67) . Soon afterwards it
reverted to the crown. Queen Elizabeth granted it, in 1601, to
Joseph Heynes (fn. 68) , whose son Simon sold it, anno 1623, to Francis
Fuller, Esq. (fn. 69) After his death, which happened in 1636, it was
inherited by his nephew, Francis Osbaldeston, or Osbaston, Esq. son
of his sister Barbara (fn. 70) . Francis Osbaston, nephew of the last-mentioned Francis, left two daughters coheirs, who, in the year 1694,
sold this manor to John Lethieullier, Esq. (fn. 71) , from whom it descended
to Mary, wife of Edward Hulse, Esq. the present proprietor. The
manor-house stands on the south side of Chadwell-heath, and is in
the occupation of Mr. Burley.
Manor of Fulkys.
The manor of Fulkys (parcel of the possessions of the dissolved
monastery of Barking) was granted, anno 1540, to Sir Thomas
Audley (fn. 72) , who sold it, in 1542, to William Severne (fn. 73) . In 1543,
Severne aliened a moiety of it to Stephen Close and Ralph Marshall (fn. 74) .
The whole came afterwards to Martin Bowes, and was sold by him
with the manor of Jenkins, in the year 1567, to Henry Fanshaw,
Esq. (fn. 75) It has since passed through the same hands as the manor of
Barking, being now the property of Edward Hulse, Esq. The
manor-house which stood in the town has been pulled down.
Manor of Loxford.
The manor or manor-farm of Loxford was granted, after the
dissolution of the monastery at Barking, to Thomas Powle (fn. 76) , who,
in 1562, aliened it to Thomas Pouncett (fn. 77) . Henry his son sold it to
Francis Fuller, Esq. (fn. 78) It has since passed through the same hands
as the manor of Wangey, and is now the property of Edward
The farm and capital messuage called Malmeynes, Molmans, or
Mammons, took its name from the family of Malmeynes, who were
lords of the manor of Cranbrook for several generations. This
estate was, in 1577, the property of Joanna Lady Laxton, who had
then lately purchased it of Thomas Barker, Esq. Her heir was
Nicholas Lodge, Esq. Sir Thomas Lodge died seised of it in
1583 (fn. 79) . It was purchased of that family, in the year 1625, by the
Fanshaws (fn. 80) , and has since had the same proprietors as the manor of
Manor of Eastbury.
The manor or manor-farm of Eastbury, with a portion of tithes,
(parcel of the possessions of the dissolved monastery of Barking,) was
granted, anno 1545, to Sir William Denham, whose daughter and
sole heir Margery married William Abbot. In 1557, John Keele
bought this estate of Abbot, and sold it the same year to Clement
Sisley. Thomas Sisley aliened it to Augustin Steward before the
year 1608. In 1628, Martin Steward, Esq. sold it to Jacob Price;
and George Price (anno 1646) to William Knightley, whose widow
conveyed it, in 1650, to Sir Thomas Vyner, Alderman of London.
In 1714, his representatives sold it to William Browne, whose nephew
William Sedgwick aliened it, in 1740, to John Weldale, Esq.; Mrs.
Anne Weldale, (sole surviving heir of the said John,) by her will,
bearing date 1773, devised it to Mary, wife of the Rev. Wasey
Sterry, with remainder to her issue. It is now the joint property
of Wasey Sterry, Esq. of Rumford, and his brothers, Messrs. Thomas
and Henry Sterry, sons of Mrs. Mary Sterry above mentioned (fn. 81) .
Eastbury-house, an ancient and very spacious brick edifice, of which
a view is annexed, stands about a mile west of the town, on the road
to Dagenham; and is now in the occupation of Mr. Brushfield.
There is a tradition relating to this house, either, as some say, that
the conspirators who concerted the gunpowder plot held their meetings there, or as others, that it was the residence of Lord Monteagle,
when he received the letter which led to its discovery; both, perhaps,
equally destitute of foundation (fn. 82) . It is probable that Sir Thomas
Vyner made this house his country residence, before he purchased the
old mansion near the church at Hackney. Some of the rooms at
Eastbury are painted in fresco; in one of them is a coat of arms (fn. 83) .
Manor of Westbury.
The manor or farm of Westbury, (with a portion of tithes,) parcel
also of the possessions of the dissolved monastery of Barking, was
granted to Sir William Denham in 1545 (fn. 84) . His son-in-law William Abbot sold it to Clement Sisley in 1557 (fn. 85) . Edward Breame, Esq.
died seised of it in 1560 (fn. 86) . His brother Arthur sold it, in 1574, to
Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. in whose family it continued many years (fn. 87) .
In the early part of this century it was the property of Blackbourne
Poulton, whose son of the same name died in 1749, having sold the
reversion of this estate, after the death of Poulton Allen, (who had a
life-interest in it under his father's will,) to Crisp Gascoyne, Alderman
of London; who, in 1747, (two years before the death of Blackbourne Poulton the younger,) sold his interest in the site of the
manor to Joseph Keeling, Esq. (fn. 88) , whose widow is the present
proprietor, and resides in the manor-house (a little to the east of
Manor of Withfield, or Wyfields.
The manor or farm of Withfield, or Wyfields, (parcel of the possessions of the dissolved monastery of Barking (fn. 89) ,) was granted, anno
1540, to Sir Thomas Audley (fn. 90) , who, in 1542, sold the demesne
lands to Robert Cowper (fn. 91) . In 1544, this manor was vested in
William Grey, who sold it to Richard Stansfield (fn. 92) . In 1552,
Edward Randall, Gent. purchased it of Stansfield Cooke and Edward
Cooke (fn. 93) . Vincent Randall, son of Edward, sold it, in 1598, to John
Tedcastle (fn. 94) , who, in 1604, conveyed it to John Aston (fn. 95) . The
latter conveyed it to Sir Nicholas Coote, whose widow was in
possession of it anno 1636 (fn. 96) . Before the year 1651, it was purchased by John Brewster, Esq. (fn. 97) whose descendant of the same
name sold it to John Bamber, M. D. The late Bamber Gascoyne,
Esq. (son of Sir Crisp Gascoyne by the daughter and heir of Dr.
Bamber,) sold it (pursuant to an act of parliament obtained for
that purpose) to Charles Raymond, Esq. (afterwards created a
baronet,) who aliened it to Andrew Moffat, Esq. It is now the
property of Andrew Moffat Mills, Esq. son of Sir Thomas Mills by
the eldest daughter of the said Andrew Moffat. The manor-house
stands about half a mile north of Ilford, and is in the occupation of
Uphall, a capital messuage and farm, (parcel of the possessions of
the dissolved monastery of Barking,) was granted, in the year
1541, (being then on lease to Milo Bowdish, at the rent of 7l. per
annum,) to Morgan Philips, alias Wolfe (fn. 99) . In the year 1596, it
was the property of Thomas Burre, who sold it to Wessel Weblinge.
His cousin and godson, of the same name, (to whom he had devised
it by will,) sold it, in 1633, to John Powell; who, the next year,
aliened it to Bernard Hyde, Esq. In 1657, Bernard Hyde, his son,
conveyed it to Edward Midwinter. Mr. Midwinter's widow, in
1676, sold it to William Billingsley; after whose death it was sold by
his coheirs to Thomas Seabroke, whose descendant of the same name
aliened it, in 1760, to Richard Eastland, Esq. It is now, under
the will of Mr. Eastland, the property of his great nephew John
Nixon, Esq. (fn. 100) The farm-house stands north of the church, a little
to the west of the road between Barking and Ilford. The entrenchment, described p. 57, is upon this estate.
The manor-farm of Newberry, lying between the London road
and Aldborough-hatch, was, at the dissolution of Barking Abbey,
(to which it had belonged,) on lease to Lawrence Grey, at the rent
of 61. per annum. It was granted by Henry VIII. to Sir Richard
Gresham (fn. 101) . Bartholomew Baron, or Barnes, died seised of it in
1548 (fn. 102) . Thomas Barnes, his son, sold it, in 1566, to Thomas Yale
and Joan his wife; who, surviving her husband, aliened it, in 1578,
to Joseph Heynes, Esq.; whose son and heir Simon conveyed it, in
1625, to Thomas Stych, Esq.; from him it descended to Sir
William Stych, Bart.; who mortgaged it, and having suffered a
foreclosure, his brother and heir Sir Richard sold it, under a decree
in chancery, (anno 1698,) to Thomas Webster of the Middle
Temple, Gent. (afterwards created a baronet); who, in 1747,
aliened it to the late Richard Benyon, Esq. Governor of Fort
St. George, in the East Indies: it is now the property of his son
Richard Benyon, Esq. M. P. (fn. 103)
Dunshall, a farm formerly belonging to the monastery of Barking,
appears to have been vested in the same proprietors as the last-mentioned estate till the death of Joseph Heynes in 1621 (fn. 104) . In 1668,
Dunshall was the property of John Hyde, Esq. of Sundridge; in
whose family it continued till 1730, when it was purchased by Mr.
John Dagge of Rotherhithe, whose niece and devisee Mary Cherinton
married Mr. Moore. It was sold by her son Dagge Moore, in the
year 1776, to the late Mr. Edmonds, an eminent gardener at Deptford, and is now (under his will) the property of his second son (fn. 105) .
Gaesham's, or Gayseham's-hall
Gayseham's-hall in the forest was, in the year 1360, the property
of Thomas de Sandwich, proveditor of the household to the Black
Prince, who held it under the abbess and convent of Barking,
together with about 160 acres of land (fn. 106) . In the reign of Edward
the Fourth, this estate appears to have been vested in the convent,
and the mansion to have been used as a country-house by the
abbess (fn. 107) . In 1545, being then on lease to Ralph Tracy, it was
granted, with the lands thereto belonging, and a portion of tithes,
to Sir William Denham (fn. 108) . His son-in-law William Abbot sold it,
anno 1557, to Clement Sisley (fn. 109) . In 1571, Arthur Breame (who is
supposed to have purchased it of Sisley about the year 1569) aliened
it to Vincent Randall (fn. 110) . Edward Randall died seised of it in
1577 (fn. 111) . In 1604, it was sold by the Randalls to Hugh Hare, Esq. (fn. 112) ,
who, in 1609, aliened it to Gabriel Wight, Esq. (fn. 113) From him it
descended to Henry Wight, Esq. who died without issue in 1793,
having devised a moiety of his estates in Essex and Surrey (after the
death of his sister Elizabeth, relict of Sir James Harrington, Bart.
and wife of the Rev. John Chaunler; and of Mrs. Elizabeth White,
widow; both now deceased;) to John Wight, Esq. of Brabeufhouse near Guildford, for life, with remainder to his right heirs; the
other moiety to William Martin the younger, son of William
Martin of Blacksmiths-hall, and the heirs of his body.
The old mansion, which was of timber, and very spacious, was
pulled down by Mr. Wight, grandson of Gabriel. There is now a
farm-house on the site.
Manor of Clayhall.
Chapel at Clayhall.
The manor of Clayhall was held under the abbess and convent of
Barking by a quit-rent of 15s. 3d. and the following services, viz.
that the tenant should come in person to the Abbey-church of
Barking, on the vigil of St. Ethelburgh the virgin, and there attend,
and guard the high altar from the first hour of vespers till nine
o'clock the next morning; and that he should be ready at all times,
with a horse and man, to attend the abbess and her steward, when
going upon the business of the convent, any where within the four
seas; and lastly, that the abbess should have, by way of heriot, upon
the death of every tenant, his best horse and accoutrements (fn. 114) .
Joan, relict of Thomas Colte, Esq. and wife of Sir William Parre, died
seised of the manor of Clayhall in 1475 (fn. 115) , when it descended to John
Colte, her son by her first husband. Sir Henry Colte, his descendant,
was in possession of it, anno 1623. In 1628, it came into the possession of James Cambell, Esq. (fn. 116) , in whose family it continued many
years. Sir Harry Cambell, Bart. who died in 1699, left one daughter
Anne married to Thomas Price, Esq. whose son Cambell Price sold
it, in 1742, to Peter Eaton, Esq. On Mr. Eaton's death, in 1769, it
descended to Mrs. Hannah Markland, who devised it, by will, to
John Monins, Esq. the present proprietor. The old mansion belonging to this manor stood about a mile from Woodford-bridge, and
about four miles to the north of Barking church. It had a chapel
built by Sir Christopher Hatton (fn. 117) , in 1616, and consecrated by
Thomas Morton, Bishop of Chester, by virtue of a commission
from John King, Bishop of London (fn. 118) . This mansion was pulled
down many years ago, and a farm-house built on the site.
Manor of Stonehall.
The manor of Stonehall, which was held under the abbess and
convent of Barking by a quit-rent of 1l. 18s. 6d. was given by Sir
John Raynsforth, in the year 1545, to Henry VIII. (fn. 119) The King
soon afterwards granted it to Sir William Denham (fn. 120) , who sold it
the same year to Richard Breame, Esq. (fn. 121) Arthur Breame sold it,
in 1578, to John Bales (fn. 122) , who, in 1579, conveyed it to Robert
Devereux, Earl of Essex (fn. 123) . It has since passed through the same
hands as the manor of Wansted (fn. 124) , and is now vested in Sir James
Tylney Long, Bart. (an infant).
Manor of Porters.
The manor or farm of Porters was held under the abbess and
convent of Barking by a quit-rent of 1l. 9s. 1½d. Richard Pygot
died seised of it in 1483 (fn. 125) ; John Lucas, Esq. in 1556; Sir Thomas Lucas, in 1611 (fn. 126) . In 1635, it was the property of Thomas
Fanshaw, Esq. From this period I have not been able to learn any
thing of its proprietors till 1701 (fn. 127) , when it was vested in Godfrey
Woodward, Esq. whose daughter Mary Anne married Walter Vane,
Esq. William Walter Vane, Esq. son of Godfrey Woodward Vane,
and grandson of Walter Vane above mentioned, sold it, anno 1790,
to Abraham Newman, Esq. the present proprietor.
Manor of Beringers.
The manor of Beringers belonged to the abbot and convent of
Stratford-Langthorne; since the dissolution of which monastery, it
has passed through the same hands as that of Ilford Parva (fn. 128) . This
manor is situated in and near the town of Barking (fn. 129) , where was
formerly a lane called Beringers Lane (fn. 130) .
Manor of Cranbrook.
The manor-farm and mansion-house of Cranbrook, lying on the
north side of the London road, about half a mile from Ilford, were
held, anno 1347, by John Malmeynes, of the abbess and convent of
Barking, by a quit-rent of 2 s. per annum (fn. 131) : his ancestors had lived in
the parish of Barking for several generations, and, it is probable, were
owners of this estate. Joan, daughter and heir of John Malmeynes,
brought it, in marriage, to John Rigby, in the reign of Henry VI. (fn. 132)
Sir Henry Palavicini died seised of it in 1615 (fn. 133) . His brother and
heir Sir Toby squandered away the whole of his inheritance, and was
obliged to sell all his estates (fn. 134) . It is probable that the purchaser of
this manor was Sir Charles Montagu, who died seised of it, 1625,
leaving three daughters, coheirs (fn. 135) . From this period I have not
been able to learn any thing relating to its proprietors till the year
1670, when it was vested in Thomas Young, whose widow Margaret married Sir William Boreman, and had a life interest in it.
The inheritance was sold by Mary, widow of Theobald Townson,
(daughter of Thomas Young, and his heir after the death of her brother James,) to John Lethieullier, Esq. in the year 1720. In 1757,
Smart Lethieullier, Esq. sold it to Charles Raymond, Esq. (afterwards a baronet,) who, in 1762, aliened it to Samuel Hough, Esq.
by whom it was conveyed, the next year, to Andrew Moffat, Esq.
It is now the property of Andrew Moffat Mills, Esq. son of Sir
Thomas Mills by the eldest daughter of Mr. Moffat (fn. 136) .
Manor of Ray-house.
The manor of Ray-house is described in ancient records as being
in the parish of Barking; but since the estate now so called lies
wholly in the parish of Woodford, it will be treated of hereafter.
Clayberry, a capital messuage, situated in the north-east side of
the parish, near Woodford-bridge, was (with certain lands adjoining) the property of Sir Ralph Warren, who died seised of it in
1553 (fn. 137) . His widow married Sir Thomas White, Alderman of
London, and founder of St. John's College in Oxford; in whose
occupation it was, anno 1560 (fn. 138) . Richard Warren, son of Sir
Ralph, had it afterwards (fn. 139) . In 1686, it was the property of John
Fowke, Esq. (the liberal benefactor to Christ's and Bethlem Hospitals,) whose trustees sold it, pursuant to his will, in 1693. The
purchaser was John Goodere, Esq. of Wansted, whose grandson of
the same name conveyed it to Eliab Harvey, Esq. Mr. Harvey's
daughter (who was eventually his sole heir) married Mountague
Burgoyne, Esq.; and jointly with her husband, sold this estate, in
1789, to James Hatch, Esq. the present proprietor (fn. 140) ; who resides
at Clayberry during the summer.
Aldbury, Aldborough, or Albro' Hatch, a capital mansion, (with
lands,) situated in the forest, about three miles north-east from the
church, was the property of Bartholomew Barons, or Barnes, who
died in 1548 (fn. 141) : his grandson Thomas died seised of it in 1626 (fn. 142) .
John Lockey, Esq. was the proprietor of this estate about the
beginning of the present century: he died in 1713; when a
moiety of the estate was sold to Richard Guise, Esq. (fn. 143) , and still
remains in his family. On this part of the estate is a good house,
now in the occupation of Richard Brome, Esq. The other moiety
came into the possession of Col. Jory, who died in 1725, and left
it to his niece Frances (fn. 144) ; who married Martin Bladen, Esq. one of
the Lords of Trade. Mr. Bladen (of whom some account has been
given in vol. iii. of this Work (fn. 145) ) built the present mansion, at the
expence of 14,000l. (fn. 146) His widow left it to her cousin Ann
Hodges; who, in 1737, had been married to her second husband
John Lambert Middleton, Esq. brother of Sir William Middleton,
Bart. (fn. 147) This house, which is still the property of the Middleton
family, was lately in the occupation of William Raikes, Esq. and
since of Robert Henshaw, Esq.
Chapel at Aldborough Hatch.
Mrs. Frances Bladen above mentioned, by her will, bearing date
1746, endowed the chapel in this house with 20l. per annum for
ever, charged upon the estate, and gave the sacramental plate (fn. 148) .
The present chaplain is the Rev. Herbert Jeffries, B. A.
Valentines, a large mansion in the forest, to the north of Ilford,
was built by James Chadwick, Esq. son-in-law of Archbishop Tillotson (fn. 149) , upon a spot where before stood a small cottage (fn. 150) . The
next possessor was George Finch, Esq. William Finch sold it to
Robert Surman, Esq.; who enlarged and improved the house and
gardens (fn. 151) . Of him it was purchased by Charles Raymond, Esq.
who was created a baronet in 1774. After the death of Sir Charles
Raymond, it was sold by his coheirs to Donald Cameron, Esq. the
Hogarth's Southwark Fair.
Tulip-tree of great height.
There are some valuable pictures at Valentines, particularly the
original of Hogarth's Southwark Fair; and some fine carving by
Gibbons. In the hot-house is a very remarkable vine-tree, of the
black Hamburgh sort, which was planted in April 1758: the
branches extend 200 feet, and the stem is about 14 inches in girth.
This vine never produces less than three hundred weight of fruit in
a year; and has been known to bear four hundred weight and a
quarter (fn. 152) . In the garden is a tulip-tree, four feet three inches in
girth, and 77 feet in height.
Antiquities found at Valentines.
A stone coffin, in which was a human skeleton, was found in the
fields behind Valentines, in 1724: it lay north and south, was
circular at the feet, and square at the head; but the same width
at both. In the same field was discovered, in 1746, an urn of coarse
earth, filled with burnt bones (fn. 153) .
Highlands, near Valentines, was built by Sir Charles Raymond,
whose heirs sold it to Earl Tylney. It is now the property of Sir
James Tylney Long, (an infant,) and in the occupation of Isaac
Currie, Esq. The mausoleum, (near Highlands,) which forms a
conspicuous object for some miles round, was built, in the year 1765,
by Sir Charles Raymond, who intended it as a burial-place for his
family; but it was never put to that use.
Fullwell Hatch, an old mansion which took its name from Adam
Fullwell, who was owner of it in the time of Dorothy Barley, the last
abbess of Barking, was, in 1617, the seat of Sir Edward Wilde (fn. 154) .
Great Geries, a house so called from a family of that name, who
held it under the abbess of Barking, is situated in the forest. In
1617, it was the seat of William Finch, Esq. (fn. 155) It was lately
inhabited by Mr. Ibbetson, and now by the proprietor Capt. Vandeburgh, who has pulled down a great part of it.
Beehive, now a farm-house in the forest, was for many years the
seat of the Fullers and Osbastons. Alice, widow of Francis Osbaston,
held it in jointure, and resided there with her second husband
the Hon. Robert Bertie. It was sold to John Lethieullier, Esq. with
the manors of Loxford and Wangay, in 1694 (fn. 156) .
Bifrons, the seat of the late Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. adjoins to the
town of Barking: it was built by Dr. Bamber, and was enlarged
and improved by his son-in-law Mr. Gascoyne. It is now the property of Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. late M. P. for Liverpool, and is in
the occupation of Samuel Ibbetson, Esq.
The parish-church, dedicated to St. Margaret, consists of a chancel,
nave, a south aisle, and two north aisles running parallel to each
other the whole length of the building. At the west end is a square
stone tower, embattled.
Monument of SirCharles Montagu.
On the north wall of the chancel is the monument of Francis
Fuller, Esq. (fn. 157) of Beehive, clerk of the estreats. He died in 1636,
and was buried in St. Dionis's church in London. On the south
wall is the monument of Sir Charles Montagu (fn. 158) , brother of the
first Earl of Manchester, who died at Cranbrook in 1625, aged 61.
A figure of the deceased is represented in basso relievo, sitting in a
tent; his elbow reclining upon a desk, on which are placed his
helmet and gauntlets: his sword and shield hang at the back of the
tent: two centinels guard the door, near which stands a page with
his horse; in the back ground are several other tents. On the same
wall are the monuments of Elizabeth, relict of M. Hobart, Esq. of
Norfolk, and wife of Stephen Powle, Esq. (fn. 159) 1590; Alice, daughter
of —Bernard, Esq. of Northamptonshire, and wife of the Hon.
Robert Bertie (fn. 160) , fifth son of Robert Earl of Lindsey, (by Elizabeth,
daughter of Edward Lord Montagu,) ob. 1677; and Robert Bertie,
her husband, who died in 1701, aged 84. On the east wall is that
of Elizabeth his second wife, daughter of Sir Thomas Bennet,
Bart. (fn. 161) , 1712. The last-mentioned monument was put up at the
expence of Catherine, daughter of Sir Harry Fetherston, Bart. (niece
of the deceased).
On the chancel-floor are the tombs of Elizabeth, daughter of
William Mey, LL. D. and wife of John Tedcastle, (by whom she had
nine sons and seven daughters,) ob. 1596. (This tomb has figures
in brass of the deceased and her husband.) Mary, daughter of Sir
William Dunche of Long Wittenham, and wife of Thomas Kirton
of Thorp Mandeville in Northamptonshire, 1638. Francis Osbaston, Esq. (fn. 162) , of Beehive, 1648; John Brewster, Esq. of Wyfields,
(fourth son of Francis Brewster, Esq. of Wrentham-hall, Suffolk,)
1677; Augustin Brewster, 1708; Abraham Wilmer, Gent. 1710;
Sarah, daughter of William Leigh, Esq. of Adlestrop (Glouc.), and
wife of Henry Wight, Esq. of Little Ilford, 1727; Henry Wight,
Esq. (no date); Henry Wight, Esq. (his son) of Gaeshams; Thomas
Wight, Esq. 1747; Thomas Beacon, Esq. 1737; John Noyes,
Gent. 1759; Elizabeth, wife of Christopher Hobson, Gent. of
Clifford's-Inn, 1780; and Christopher Musgrave, D. D. vicar, 1780.
In the chancel are also two figures (in brass) of priests; the inscriptions have been removed.
On a pillar at the north-east corner of the nave is a monument to
the memory of Robert Meadows of Westbury, 1679, and his daughter Sarah, wife of Mr. Thomas Fleming of Loxford (fn. 163) , 1715.
Mr. Fleming died in 1722. On the floor of the nave are the
tombs of Thomas Broke, 1493, and his wife Alice; Christopher
Merell, 1593, and his sister Anne Yardlye, widow, 1579; Thomas
Stych, Esq. of Newberry-house, 1656; Sarah, daughter of John
Hubbard, and wife of Capt. John Harward, 1735; John Hubbard,
Esq. 1738; and Mr. William Harris, 1742.
Monuments of Dr. Bamber, and Sir Crisp Gascoyne.
At the east end of the north aisle is a small chapel (with an ascent
of steps), under which is the vault of the Cambell family; near the
foot of the steps is a marble slab, (removed, it is probable, from the
conventual church,) with the following mutilated inscription: - - - - AURICH ȁ LUNDONENSIS ALFGIVE AȂ BE - - - Mr. Lethieullier supposes it to be the tomb of Mauritius, who
was made Bishop of London in the year 1087. It is certainly of
that age; and if the name of Mauritius alone was to be found
on it, there could be little doubt of its being that bishop's tomb: but
as Alsgiva the abbess is mentioned, is it not probable that the
inscription was "Orate pro animabus Mauricii Episcopi Londonensis,
"Alfgivæ Abbatissæ - - - - - - - (adding the name of the person
there interred)? Not far from this stone stands an altar tomb,
erected to the memory of William Pownset, Esq. who died in 1553.
It was repaired at the expence of All Souls College in Oxford, anno
1784 (fn. 164) . On the north wall of the aisle are monuments in memory
of Capt. John Bennet of Pool (fn. 165) , 1706; Capt. John Bennet, his
only son, 1716; Susanna, daughter of Capt. Jonathan Collett, and
wife of Edmund Pytts, Esq. 1742; Capt. Thomas Collett, 1743;
Capt. Jonathan Collett, 1746; Susanna, his wife, 1745; Susanna,
daughter of Thomas Collett, and wife of — Court, 1757;
Capt. John Pelly, 1762; Grisel, his wife, daughter of Thomas
Collett, 1750; John Bamber, M. D. (fn. 166) , 1753; Mary, his wife, 1736;
Sir Crisp Gascoyne (fn. 167) , 1761; and Anna Maria, wife of Thomas
Newte, Esq. and daughter of Sir Charles Raymond, Bart. (fn. 168) , 1783.
In the south-west corner of this aisle is the monument of Capt. John
Banaster, commander of the Charlotte yacht, 1738; on the floor
are the tombs of Paul Stevens, Gent. 1675; Judith, his wife, daughter of Bullen Reymes, Esq. 1697; Thomas Darling, Gent. 1679;
John, son of John Lockey, Esq. of Alborough Hatch, 1697; Margaret, wife of John, 1721; William Lockey, Esq. 1736; John
Neale, Esq. of Bedfordshire, 1698; Elizabeth, wife of John Upney,
1726; Susanna, wife of Mr. Peter Furzer, 1728; Mr. Charles
Rayment, 1729; Thomasine, wife of Robert Surman of Valentines,
1734; Thomasine, daughter of Robert Surman, and wife of the
Hon. John Boscawen, 1750; Robert Surman, Esq. 1759; Mrs.
Priscilla Vere, sister of Capt. John Banaster, 1748; Sarah Bullock,
aged 92, 1778, and Richard Holford, Esq. 1793.
Sir Charles Raymond's monument.
At the west end of the smaller north aisle, which is next to the
nave, are the monuments of Mr. George Eyres, 1755; Mrs. Sarah
Norton, widow, 1778; and Sir Charles Raymond, Bart. (son of
John Raymond, Esq. of Marpool in Devonshire,) 1788; Sarah, his
wife, daughter of Thomas Webster, Esq. of Bromley in Kent, died in
1778. Sir Charles Raymond's monument was put up at the expence
of his surviving daughters and coheirs, Sophia Lady Burrell and Mrs.
Juliana Boulton. Near it are the remains of what was, probably, a
large piscina, with a canopy of rich Gothic tracery. On the floor
of this aisle are the tombs of Capt. John Hubbard, 1669; Capt.
Nathaniel Hubbard, 1731; and Mr. Daniel Shirley, 1776.
Monument of Sir Orlando Humfreys.
On the east wall of the south aisle is the monument of John
Fanshaw, Esq. of Parsloes (fn. 169) , who died in 1699: he was son of John
Fanshaw of the same place, by Alice, daughter of Thomas Fanshaw,
Esq. of Jenkins, and grandson of Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. of Warepark. He married Mary, daughter of John Coke, Esq. of Derby,
by whom he had three sons and one daughter. On the south wall at
the west end is a monument, (with a bust of the deceased in white
marble,) to the memory of Sir Orlando Humsreys, Bart. (fn. 170) , who
died in 1737. He married Ellen, only child of Col. Robert Lanca
shire (fn. 171) . On the same wall is the monument of William Stephens,
LL. D. (fn. 172) , vicar of Barking, 1751; and Mary, his brother's wife,
daughter of ——Simpson of Ravensworth in Yorkshire. On the floor
are the tombs of John Fanshaw, Esq. 1689; Sir Timothy de Faria,
Knight of the order of Christ in Portugal, and servant to Catherine
Queen of England, 1715; (he married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Goddard, Gent.;) Frances Margaret, wife of John Browning,
Esq. of Somerset-house, 1750.
Weever mentions the tombs of Richard Cheyne, 1514; and John
Scot, 1519 (in Barking church). Those of the following persons,
(the memorials of whom have been either removed or covered by
pews,) are described in Mr. Lethieullier's MSS.—Bertrobe Lukin,
Gent. 1613; (he married Mary daughter of Nicholas Archbolde,
Gent.); Joseph Heynes, Esq. 1621; Richard Taylor, clerk, 1697;
Richard Taylor, Esq. 1704; Mr. John Taylor, 1707, and Mrs.
Christian Cogan, 1710.
Against the north wall of the church, on the outside, are the
monuments of Mr. William Casson, 1705; Ruth, his daughter,
wife of Henry Hinde of Westham, 1742; and Charlotte Anne,
wife of Walter Jones, Esq. 1760.
Tombs in the church-yard.
In the church-yard are the monuments of Nicholas Coulburn,
Gent. 1739; Elizabeth, wife of Robert Gayer, Esq. (son of Sir
Robert Gayer, Knt.), 1742; James Brittan, Esq. 1746; Mr. Ralph
Guise, 1750; Richard Guise, Esq. 1752; Richard Stone, Esq.
1763; John Cocking, surgeon, 1769; the Rev. Benjamin Symonds,
1781; Mrs. Rebecca Newman of Eastbury, aged 93, 1790; Richard
Tebb, Esq. 1792; Joseph Keeling, Esq. 1792; and Anne, wife of
Samuel Bray, surgeon, 1793.
The church of this parish (which is in the diocese of London,
and gives name to a deanery) was appropriated to the monastery
of Barking, to which the tithes of the whole parish belonged,
except those of certain lands with which the hospital at Ilford was
endowed. These were granted by Queen Elizabeth, with the site
of the hospital, to Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. (fn. 173) ; and still continue
annexed to it, except the tithes of Westbury, which were bequeathed by Sir Crisp Gascoyne to his younger son Joseph Gascoyne, Esq.
Grant to All Souls College.
The rectory of Barking, which had been leased to Mary Blackenhall for 10l. per annum, in 1541, and consisted of all such tithes
as had not been previously leased or granted to other persons (fn. 174) ,
was sold by the crown, (together with the advowson of the vicarage,) for the sum of 214l. 13s. 4d. to Robert Thomas, and
Andrew Salter: this grant bears date the 1st of March 1550: the
grantees, a few days afterwards, sold it to Thomas Baron, or Barnes.
In the year 1557, Sir William Petre, William Cook, and Edward
Napper, executors of the will of William Pownsett of Loxford,
(who had been steward to the last abbess of Barking,) being desirous
of bestowing the residue of his fortune (after discharging debts and
legacies) on charitable uses, purchased of Thomas Barnes the said
rectory and advowson; and by an indenture, bearing date that
year, granted them to the warden and fellows of All Souls College
in Oxford, on the following conditions: That they should suffer
the vicar, and his successors, (presented by them,) to enjoy all the
profits of the rectory and vicarage; the vicars to pray every Sunday
for the soul of William Pownsett, his parents and benefactors, and
all Christian souls; to keep a yearly obit on the 8th of March, when
they were to pray as above mentioned, and for the souls of Pown
sett's executors, distributing 6s. 8d. among the poor; and to
pay the sum of 61. 13s. 4d. yearly to the warden and fellows,
(5l. 8s. 8d. part of the said sum, being for the better support of
two poor scholars, who should say masses for the souls of the persons above mentioned). All these conditions were confirmed by
Bishop Bonner (fn. 176) .
The great tithes of this parish are now divided in certain
portions between the proprietors of Ilford Hospital (fn. 177) , Eastburyhouse, Newberry, Gaysehams-hall, and the vicar; who, under
Sir William Petre's grant, enjoys all the tithes that had not been
before separated from the rectory.
Agreement between Sir John Greening and the abbess of Barking.
Previously to the year 1328, there had been two vicarages in the
church of Barking, distinguished by the names of St. Margaret on
the North, and St. Margaret on the South: they were consolidated
before the year 1398 (fn. 178) . In the year 1452, after several disputes
between Catherine de la Pole, abbess of Barking, and Sir John
Greening, then vicar, an award was made to the following effect;
that instead of a hog, a goose, a cheese, and a lamb, which the
vicar had heretofore received of the lady abbess, he and his
successors should have three yards of good cloth, two ells broad,
provision every day in the convent for himself and his servant, so
long as he should not be of a litigious or contentious disposition,
he sitting at the chaplain's table, and his servant with the domestics of the convent; but if the said vicar should, without licence
from the lady abbess or her deputy, have any familiarity or discourse
with any one or two of the nuns, he should, for the first offence,
(after proper admonition,) lose his diet for a week; after a second
admonition, forfeit a month's diet; and if he should offend a third time,
he should be excluded the convent during life, unless restored by the
lady abbess's special grace and favour. In all other respects he was to be
satisfied with the profits of the vicarage (being valued at 27l. 5s. 2d.
per annum (fn. 179) ). It was not then endowed with any of the great tithes.
In the year 1536, an agreement took place between Dorothy
Barley the last abbess of Barking, and John Gregill then vicar,
by which a pension of 10l. per annum was allowed to the vicar
and his successors in lieu of diet. The agreement states that "the
vicar, beinge in execution of his office amonge his parishioners
accordinge to his bounden dutie in that behalfe, could not alwaies
repair to the monasterie at the tymes appointed for meales or
refections, by reason whereof he was often disappoynted of his
meales; and that it was tedious and sumptuous for the abbess
and convent to cause meates, drinks, and other sustenances to be
prepared, provided, and admynystered to the vicar and his servante,
at such extraordinarie tymes or seasons, as they should be dryven
of necessity to demand the same (fn. 180) ." The above-mentioned
pension of 10l. is now paid to the vicar out of the Exchequer.
Advowson of the vicarage.
The first vacancy that occurred, after the grant to All Souls College,
was in 1560, when, the Protestant religion having been re-established,
the Queen disputed the validity of the grant, on account of the superstitious conditions annexed. During the dispute, the living lapsed
to the crown, and Edward Edgworth was presented, who was ejected
for recusancy in 1587. The college, mean time, had established
their right by a suit at law against the crown; but, for the better
assurance of it, Sir John Petre, (heir of Sir William Petre, the surviving executor of Pownsett,) by a deed bearing date 1594, confirmed the
former grant, omitting the superstitious observances, and increasing
the sum payable by the vicar to the college from 6l. 13s. 4d. to 7l.
6s. 8d. besides 13s. 4d. to be distributed to the poor, annually, on
the 24th of December (fn. 181) .
Report of the commissioners in 1650.
The parish recommended to be divided.
A church built in the forest.
The report of the commissioners appointed to inquire into the state
of ecclesiastical benesices, anno 1650, states, that the vicarage of
Barking was then 100l. per annum; that William Amys, the vicar,
was an able, godly, preaching minister; that, about the year 1647,
the inhabitants of Great Ilford, by a petition to the committee of
plundered ministers, had obtained out of the sequestered tithes
between 40 and 50l. per annum, for an afternoon sermon at the
hospital: the jurors recommended, that Great Ilford should be made a
parish, and that a third parish should be formed in the forest, to the
intent that all the inhabitants might have the word of God preached
to them, of which great numbers could seldom partake, by reason of
their distance from the parish-church of Barking (fn. 182) . In the year 1653,
an acre of ground in the forest was assigned, by parliament, to the
inhabitants of Barking, that they might build a church there (fn. 183) .
The church was built accordingly, but was no sooner finished than
it began to fall to decay: for after the Restoration, a dispute arising
between the crown, the Bishop of London, and Sir Thomas
Fanshaw, lord of the manor, about the patronage; although the
church had been consecreated, no incumbent was ever presented (fn. 184) .
The evil complained of in the commissioners' report has been, in a
great measure, remedied by the endowment of a chapel at Alborough
Hatch. The vicarage of Barking is rated in the King's books at 19l.
Dr. Ralph Freeman, fellow of All Souls College, having bequeathed the sum of 2000l. for the purpose of repairing or rebuilding
the vicarage-house at this place, Dr. Musgrave, the late vicar,
expended a part of it in repairs; a part of the remainder was
employed in the purchase of a new site, pursuant to an act of parliament obtained for the purpose by the present vicar, Mr. Rashleigh,
by whom a new vicarage-house was built in the year 1794 (fn. 185) .
There were three chantries in the church of Barking; one at the
altar of the Resurrection, one at the altar of King Edward, and the
third at that of St. Ethelburgh or St. Alburgh. One of these chantries was founded for the soul of Adam de Blakeney; the other
two were consolidated: the sounders were John de Cambridge, and
Godwin Duck (fn. 186) .
St. Anne's Chapel.
There was a chapel in this parish, called St. Anne's chapel, which,
with Cockerell's Grove, was granted to Richard Robson in 1572 (fn. 187) .
Its site is not known.
Benjamin Way and Thomas Cartwright, vicars.
Benjamin Way, who had been instituted to this vicarage in 1654 (fn. 188) ,
was ejected by the Bartholomew act. His successor was Thomas
Cartwright, who was made Bishop of Chester in 1686, by James
the Second. He followed that monarch in his exile, and was translated by him, after his abdication, to the see of Salisbury (fn. 189) . Bishop
Cartwright died at Dublin in 1689. He published several single
sermons. In the parish register at Barking is a memorandum, that
Mr. Chisenhale was turned out of the curacy, June 17, 1688, by
Bishop Cartwright, and Mr. Hall appointed to succeed him. In the
February following appears this note, "Exit Mr. Hall, restaurato
The present vicar is Peter Rashleigh, M. A. who succeeded
Christopher Musgrave, D. D. in 1780.
There is a Quakers' meeting-house in the town of Barking, and
another belonging to the Methodists.
The parish register of baptisms, burials, and marriages, begins in
the year 1558.
Comparative state of population.
||Average of Baptisms.
||Average of Burials.
Present number of houses and inhabitants.
This parish has increased in population nearly two-thirds within
the last hundred years; the principal increase has been at Great
Ilford, where, in 1650, there were only 60 houses (fn. 190) . The return
of the King's surveyor of houses and windows, in 1762 (fn. 191) , states,
that there were then 563 houses in this parish, of which 283 were
mansions, and 280 cottages; there were then 36 alehouses. The
present number of houses in the parish of Barking (fn. 192) is 752; that
of inhabitants, as numbered in the month of February 1796,
4123 (fn. 193) .
Burials in the plagueyears.
In the year 1603, there were 381 burials at Barking; in 1625,
259; in 1665, 230; and in 1666, 239.
Extracts from the Parish Register.
"Sr Robert Knight, Clerk, of Ilford, buried July 22, 1573."
"William, son of William Dethicke, alias Yorke, one of the
Heraultes, buried March 28, 1582."
"Sr Ralph Bowerchyer, Knight, buried the 11th of June, and
his funeral kept the 6th of Julye 1598."
"Michael, son of Sr John Stanhope, Knt. buried Nov. 20,
"Robert, son of Sir Henry Gilforde, Knt. baptized Mar. 20, 1599–1600." Sir Henry Guilford was of Hempsted-place in Kent.
Family of Hatton.
"Elizabeth, daughter of Sr Christopher Hatton, baptized March
31, 1604; Christopher, July 11, 1605; Alice, Apl 26, 1606
(buried Apl 6, 1608); Jane, baptized June 22, 1609 (buried
March 5, 1613–4); John, baptized July 6, 1610; Robert,
baptized Aug. 12, 1612 (buried June 14, 1614); Thomas,
buried May 19, 1618." This Sir Christopher Hatton (who
married Alice, daughter of Thomas Fanshaw, Esq.) lived at Clayhall; he was cousin, and at length heir, to Sir Christopher Hatton,
Lord Keeper of the Great Seal to Queen Elizabeth. His son
Christopher, born at Clayhall, in 1605, was created Baron Hatton
by Charles I. in 1643. He was a great patron of Sir William
Dugdale; and was himself an author, having written a book called
Pious Meditations on the Psalms." He married Elizabeth, one
of the coheirs of Sir Charles Mountagu. Lord Hatton died in
1670, being then governor of Guernsey (fn. 194) . The title is extinct.
"William, son of Sir William Parker, Knt. Lord Monteagle (fn. 195) ,
baptized Dec. 3, 1607."
"Ursula, daughter of the right honourable Edmund Ld Sheffield, baptized Jany 3, 1608–9."
"Anne, daughter of Sr Francis Clarke, Knt. baptized July 2,
Family of Fytche.
"Anne, daughter of Sr William Fytche, Knt. baptized Dec. 26,
1612; Dorothy, Sep. 17, 1613; Frances, Mar. 7, 1616–7;
Elizabeth, baptized Dec. 10, 1620, buried Mar. 30, 1622; Anne,
buried June 11, 1626; Charles, baptized Oct. 3, 1626; William, Sep. 24, 1627."
"Anne, wife of Sr Charles Cornwallis (fn. 196) , Knt. buried March 30,
"Barbarie, daughter of Sr Henry Colt (fn. 197) , baptized Sep. 2, 1624,
buried Feb. 16, 1624–5; Margaret, his daughter, buried May 27,
Sr Nicholas Coote, Knt. buried Aug. 4, 1633."
"Frances, daughter of Dudley North (fn. 198) , Knt. buried Dec. 19,
Family of Fanshaw.
"The Lady Fanshaw (fn. 199) , buried Oct. 1, 1638; Margaret (fn. 200) ,
wife of Sr Thomas Fanshaw, Knt. buried Nov. 6, 1674; the
Honble Anne Fanshaw, May 15, 1714; the Honble Lady Elizabeth Fanshaw (fn. 201) , Dec. 29. 1729."
Family of Cambell.
Sir John Cambell, Bart. (fn. 202) , son of James Cambell of Woodford,
Esq. buried May 21, 1662; Harry, son of Sir Thomas Cambell,
Bart. (fn. 203) , born Nov. 14, 1663 (in the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn); Sir Thomas Cambell, buried Sept. 2, 1665; Jane, daughter
of Robert Sheffield (fn. 204) , Esq. and the Lady Cambell, baptized Mar.
17, 1669–70; Edmund, born July 25, 1676; Triphena, Feb. 24,
1679–80; the wife of Sir Harry Cambell, Bart, buried Jan. 21.
1691–2; a daughter of the Hon. Robert Sheffield, buried Feb. 21,
1694–5; the Hon. Lady Cambell, Dec. 1, 1701.
"The Honble Cordelia Harris of St Martin's in the Fields, buried
Dec. 7, 1678."
"William, son of Sr William Stych, buried Oct. 1. 1686; Elizabeth, his wife, Aug. 31, 1687."
"April 24, 1708, buried the Queen of the Gipsies."
"Frances Isabella, daughter of Capt. Edward Hawke (fn. 205) , buried
Septr 13, 1739; another daughter, April 3, 1740."
Three children at a birth.
Sarah, Elizabeth, and Anne, daughters of James and Sarah Cross,
born and baptized July 10, were buried July 13, 1760.
"The Honble Maj. Genl John Boscawen, buried June 5, 1767."
Uncle to the present Viscount Falmouth. He was Master of the
Horse, and one of the Grooms of the Bedchamber to the Duke of
Cumberland, and M. P. for Truro.
Instances of longevity.
"Elizabeth Marden, widow, aged 96, buried Jan. 17, 1739-40;
Ambrose Skinner, aged 90, Feb. 27, 1744–5,"
Sir James Cambell's school.
Sir James Cambell, who died in the year 1641, gave, by will,
the sum of 666l. 13s. 4d. towards sounding and maintaining a free
school in this parish, for teaching poor children reading, grammar,
&c. With this sum a school-house was provided, and an annual
rent-charge of 20l. on lands in Yorkshire procured for the master's
salary, but no provision made for repairs. Under the act of parliament for regulating the poor of Barking (fn. 206) , the school-house, which
was become ruinous, has been pulled down, and the site is now
occupied by a part of the workhouse. The said sum of 20l. per
annum is, by the above-mentioned act, vested in the directors of the
poor, and applied towards providing a schoolmaster and schoolmistress to teach the children of the poor, in apartments appropriated
to that purpose within the workhouse. There are now twenty
boys and twenty girls in the school.
In the year 1686, John Fowke, Esq. bequeathed certain estates
for the maintenance of eight boys in Christ's Hospital; two of them
to be of this parish.
Nature and present Value.
||Mrs. Alice Leonard.
||2l. per annum.
||Rent-charge of 6l. 13s. 4d. on the rectory of Ash in Kent.
||Rent-charge of 2l. per an. upon Uphall.
||Sir Thomas Cambell.
||Five acres of marsh in Westburylevel, now 11l. 11s. per an.
||Hon. Robert Bertie.
||3l. per annum.
||3l. per annum.
||To apprentice a child of Ilford ward.
||Sir Thomas Fanshaw.
||Rent of the market and fair, (subject to keeping the market-house in repair,) let at 10l. per annum.
||1l. per annum. 40l. per ann.; a reversionary
||Mrs. Anne Nepton.
||legacy which became dne to the parish, anno 1764.
||Interestof 100l. East In. stock.
||Tho. and John Collect.
||Six acres in Eastbury-level, now let at 14l.
Besides those already mentioned, some considerable benefactions
of a more temporary nature have been given to this parish (fn. 207) .
Act for regulating the government of the poor.
A very large and commodious workhouse was built at Barking
in the year 1787, under the powers of an act of parliament passed
the preceding year. This act vests the government of the poor in
certain persons, called Directors (fn. 208) ; under whom four guardians are
chosen annually, (one out of each ward,) from among such of the
inhabitants as are rated 30l. per annum to the relief of the poor.
The guardians have the immediate management (under the directors) of the poor of the workhouse, of which they are alternately
visitors. The directors have the disposal of all the money collected
upon rates, except such as is disbursed by the overseers of each ward
for casual relief: they have the disposal also of all donations now
payable, or which shall hereafter become payable, to the use of the
poor, except such as are appropriated to specific purposes. They
are invested also with various other powers, as is fully set forth in
the act, together with some regulations relating to the wharf at Barking creek. The river Roding was formerly navigable only to this
place, but, about the year 1730, was made navigable to Ilford, and
supplies the neighbourhood with coals, timber, &c. There is no
manufacture in this parish; the fishing trade, which is carried on
here to a very considerable extent, furnishes employment for many
of the inhabitants. Near the wharf (on the Roding) is a very large
flour-mill, the property of Edward Hulse, Esq. and in the occupation
of Messrs. William Smith and Co. This mill belonged to Barking
Abbey, and was valued, in the reign of Henry VIII. at 20l. per
annum. There was formerly a mill at Ilford.
The hamlet of Great Ilford is situated upon the high road leading
to Chelmsford, Colchester, &c. It contains 149 houses.
Foundation of the hospital, and its endowment.
Agreement between the convent of Barking and the hospital, in 1219.
Bishop Stratford's statutes.
The hospital at this place, dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St.
Thomas the Martyr, was founded by Adeliza, abbess of Barking, in
the reign of King Stephen, for a prior, a warden or master, two
priests, and thirteen poor infirm brethren or lepers. She endowed
it with 120 acres of assart land (fn. 209) in Estholt, two hides of land in
Upminster and Aveley, and some other lands; a mill at Ilford, half
the profits of the parish-church of Barking, the tithe of all her mills
in this parish, and some other tithes in Barking and Warley (fn. 210) .
This charter was confirmed by King Stephen, and by Maud, Adeliza's
successor. Maud's confirmation was on condition that the prior
and brethren should maintain a priest, and pay him 10s. per annum
for performing divine service in the chapel of the hospital, and
saying mass for the said Maud after her death. In 1219, certain
disputes having arisen relating to the endowment of the hospital, an
instrument was drawn up, wherein, among other things, it was
agreed, that the brethren of the hospital should receive 40s. per
annum of the vicar of Barking; that on the death of a prior the
brethren should elect three out of their body, one of whom the
abbess of Barking should nominate; he might be either a layman or
an ecclesiastic; that the lepers should be chosen out of houses belong
ing to the abbey (if such could be found); that they should swear
obedience to the abbess; that the hospital should nominate a priest
for the daily service of the chapel, and the abbess another to say mass
for the deceased. The tithes of Wyfields, Clayberry, Jenkins, and
some other lands, were granted to the brethren of the hospital by this
agreement, in addition to what they before enjoyed (fn. 211) . In 1346, a
set of statutes was drawn up for this hospital by Ralph Stratford,
Bishop of London. Among other things it was ordained, that the
original number of thirteen lepers should inviolably be kept up;
that upon vacancies the new brethren should be nominated alternately by the abbess of Barking and the master of the hospital (with
the abbess's consent); that they should be chosen out of the abbess's
demesnes, but, in default of proper objects there, elsewhere in the
parish of Barking, or from any other parish rather than that the
number should be diminished (fn. 212) ; that no married man should be
admitted into the hospital, unless his wife would vow perpetual
chastity; that no woman should enter the gates under any pretence,
excepting the abbess of Barking, and such nuns as should accompany
her; the near relations of the brethren or chaplains, (when sick,)
and the laundress; and these to go in and out in the open day, and
not to make such stay as to leave room for scandal: to take away all
excuse from the lepers for quitting the hospital on any occasion, (since
their mixing in society might be the means of spreading infection,)
the bishop invests the chaplains with power to confess and absolve,
even in such cases as were usually reserved for himself alone. Every
leper on his admission was obliged to take an oath of chastity, of
obedience to the abbess and convent of Barking, not to possess any
thing in propriety, (that is, to his own use,) and to observe all the
statutes of the hospital. It appears that at this time there were two
masters, the one elected from among the lepers, and called magister
leprosus, and the other magister secularis, a kind of steward to manage
the secular concerns of the hospital (fn. 213) . One of these, I suppose, was
originally called the Prior.
The patronage of the hospital at Ilford was confirmed to the
abbess of Barking by Richard II. and Henry IV. (fn. 214)
Rental of the hospital.
Grant and descent of the hospital estate.
In the year 1504, this hospital was possessed of the tithes of Eastbury, Westbury, and Loxford; a portion of the tithes of Warley;
a portion of the tithes of Jenkins, Clayberry, Wyfields, and some
other estates in Barking; besides lands, houses, and quit-rents to a
considerable amount principally in this parish (fn. 215) . At the dissolution
of religious houses its revenues were valued at 16l. 1s. 6½d. clear of
all deductions, after paying the pensions of the paupers, of whom
there were then only two. The hospital and its revenues having been
seized by the crown, Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1572, granted
the site, with the lands and tithes thereto belonging, to Thomas
Fanshaw, Esq. remembrancer of the Exchequer, his heirs and assigns,
on condition that they should appoint a master who should keep the
chapel in repair, together with apartments for six paupers, each
of whom should receive a pension of 2l. 5s. per annum; and
that he should nominate and maintain a chaplain to perform divine
service in the chapel. The hospital estate, thus charged, descended to
Thomas Fanshaw, Visc. Dromore, who, in 1668, granted a lease of
it for 1000 years to Thomas Allen, Gent. Mr. Allen bequeathed
this estate, anno 1676, to James Clement, who conveyed it, in
1690, to Francis Stone, Gent. William Stone, in 1700, aliened
it to William Riggs; from whom, in 1702, it passed to Terry
Sturgeon; from him to William Houghton; and from the latter, the
same year, to John Thrale, whose widow Margaret, in 1705, sold
it to her son-in-law Christopher Waldron. It was purchased of the
Waldrons, in 1739, by Crisp Gascoyne, Alderman of London,
grandfather of Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. the present proprietor (fn. 216) , and
master of the hospital.
Tithes belonging to the hospital.
It was determined by a decree of the court of Exchequer (anno
1711), that there were 1200 acres of land in Barking which should
pay tithe to the hospital; that there was a quit-rent of 1l. 13s. 4d.
due to it out of Clayberry, 2l. per annum out of Barking mills, and
2l. out of the vicarage (fn. 217) . Since this decree, the tithes of Westbury
have been separated from the hospital, having been left by Sir Crisp
Gascoyne to his younger son Joseph Gascoyne, Esq.
Description of the hospital.
The hospital stands on the north side of the road, in the town of
Ilford. It occupies three sides of a small quadrangle. On the east
and west sides are apartments for the pensioners, which are small
and neat. On the south side is the chapel, which (though it has
undergone many alterations and repairs) bears evident marks of
having been built as early as the 15th century. It is about 100
feet in length, and little more than 20 in width. In the east
window are several coats of arms, in stained glass (fn. 218) . On the floor,
near the east end, are the tombs of Mrs. Sarah Westcoat, 1717;
Sarah, her daughter, wife of the Rev. Thomas Shortland, 1718;
the Rev. Robert Addison, preacher at Ilford chapel, 1736; and the
Rev. George Downing, M. A. (the late chaplain), 1778.
The present chaplain is the Rev. Bennet Allen.
Register of the hospital.
In a register of baptisms, burials, and marriages, in Ilford chapel,
was the following entry (fn. 219) :
"Sr Ferdinando Fairfax, and Mrs. Mary Sheffield, daughter to
my Ld Sheffield, were married in this chapel, in Nov. 1608, by
Mr. Coke, Ld Sheffield's Chaplain; Mr. Crawshaw, his other
chaplain, preached; they had a licence from the Court of Faculties, subscribed by Dr Newman, to be married in this chapel,
without asking the banns."