Appendix
Charters (Henry I to Henry III)

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Centre for Metropolitan History

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Author

John Noorthouck

Year published

1773

Pages

779-784

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'Appendix: Charters (Henry I to Henry III)', A New History of London: Including Westminster and Southwark (1773), pp. 779-784. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46782 Date accessed: 18 September 2014.


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No. XII. First Charter of Henry III. [See p. 43.]

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitain, earl of Anjou; to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sherifts, rulers, and to all his faithful subjects, greeting.

For election of sheriffs.

Know ye, that we have granted, and by these presents do grant and confirm, unto the citizens of London, the sheriffwick of London and Middlesex, with all the customs and things to the same sheriffwick belonging, within the city and without, by land and by water, to have and to hold, to them and to their heirs, of us and our heirs, paying therefore yearly to us and our heirs, three hundred pounds of blank money sterling, at two times of the year; that is to say, at the Easter exchequer, one hundred and fifty pounds; and at Michaelmas exchequer, one hundred and fifty pounds; saving to the citizens of London all their liberties and free customs: And further, we have granted to the citizens of London, that they may among themselves make sheriffs whom they will, and may amove them when they will; and those whom they make sheriffs, they shall present to our justices, who may answer to us and our justices in our exchequer, of those things which to the sheriffwick appertain, whereof they ought to answer us; and unless they shall well answer and satisfy us, the citizens of London shall answer and satisfy the amerciaments and the farm; saving to the same citizens their liberties as is aforesaid, and saving to the sheriffs the same liberties which other citizens have; so that, if they which shall be appointed sheriffs for the time being, commit any thing, whereby they ought to incur any amerciament in money, they shall not be condemned for any more than to the amerciament of twenty pounds, and this without damage of other citizens, if the sheriffs be not sufficient for the payment of their amerciament: But, if they do any offence, whereby they ought to incur the loss of their lives or members, they shall be judged as they ought to be adjudged, according to the law of the city: But of these things which to the sheriffs belong, the sheriffs shall answer before the justices of the exchequer; saving to the sheriffs the liberties which other citizens have: Also this grant and confirmation we have made to our citizens of London for the amendment of the said city, and because it was antiently to be at the farm of three hundred pounds: Therefore we will, and streightly command, that the citizens of London and their heirs aforesaid may have and hold the sheriffwick of London and Middlesex, with all that to the said sheriffwick belongeth, of us and our heirs, hereditarily, freely and quietly, honourably and wholly, by the farm of three hundred pounds per annum, as the charter of lord John our father, famous king of England, which we have seen, doth witness; and we forbid, that no person do presume to do any hurt, impediment or diminution of our said citizens, of things which to the said sheriffwick belong, or were accustomed to appertain: Also, we do will and command, that if we or our heirs, or any of our justices, shall give or grant to any person any thing which to the farm of the said sheriffwick appertain, the same shall be accounted to the citizens of London, in the acquittal of the said farm in the exchequer yearly, as the charter of king John our father, which they have, concerning the same, doth reasonably testify.

Witness Lord Eustace of London, &c. Given by the hands of the reverend Ralph bishop of Chichester, the eighteenth day of February, in the eleventh year of our reign.

No. XIII. Second Charter of Henry III. [See p. 43.]

For election of a mayor.

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy, Aquitain, earl of Anjou; to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, rulers, bailiffs, and his faithful subjects, greeting. Know ye, that we have granted, and by this present charter confirmed, to our barons in our city of London, that they may chuse to themselves a mayor of themselves, every year, who may be to us faithful, discreet, and fit for the government of the city, so as, when he is chosen, he may be presented unto us, or our justices, if we be not present, and shall swear to be faithful to us: And that it shall be lawful for them in the end of the year to amove him, and to substitute, or, if they will, to retain him still, so as always that he be presented to us, or to our justices, if we be not present.

Also we have granted to the said barons, and by this present charter confirmed, that they may have well, and in peace, freely, quietly and wholly, all their liberties, which hitherto they used, as well in the city of London as without, and as well on the water as on the land, and in all other places; saving to us our chamberlainship: Wherefore we will and streightly command, that our barons of our said city of London may chuse to themselves a mayor of themselves every year in manner aforesaid; and that they have all their liberties well and in peace, wholly and fully, with all that to the said liberties belongeth, as the charter of the excellent lord John king of England, which we have seen, doth reasonably testify.

Witness the lord Eustace of London, &c. Given by the hands of the reverend father Ralph bishop of Chichester, the eighteenth day of February, in the eleventh year of our reign.

No. XIV. Third Charter of Henry III. [See p. 43.]

Concerning wears in the Thames and Medway.

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy, Aquitain, earl of Anjou; to the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, stewards, castle-keepers, constables, bailiffs, ministers, and all his faithful subjects; greeting. Ye shall know, that we, for our soul's health, and for the soul's health of king John our father, and for the soul's health of all our ancestors, and also for the commonweal of our city of London, and of all our realm, have granted and strictly commanded, that all the wares which are in the Thames or in Medway shall be amoved; and that no wares from henceforth be put anywhere in the Thames, or Medway, upon forfeiture of ten pounds sterling. We have also quit-claimed all that which the keepers of our Tower of London were wont yearly to receive of the aforesaid wares: Wherefore we will and stedfastly command, that no Keeper of the said Tower, at any time hereafter, exact any thing from any, or bring any demand, burden or trouble to any person, by reason of the aforesaid wares; for it fully appears to us, and it is sufficiently given us to understand by the right reverend father Hubert archbishop of Canterbury, and by others our faithful subjects, that very great hurt and discommodity hath grown to the aforesaid city, and also to our said whole realm, by occasion of the aforesaid wares; which thing that it may continue firm and stable for ever, we have fortified the same by the inscription of the page, and putting to our seal, as that charter of the lord king John our father, which the barons of London have, from thence doth reasonably testify.

Witness the lord Eustace of London, &c. Given by the hands of the reverend father Ralph bishop of Chichester, our chancellor, at Westminster, the eighteenth day of February, in the eleventh year of our reign.

No. XV. Fourth Charter of Henry III. [See p. 43.]

None to plead out of the city; Free from toll in all the king's dominions; How to re-recover debts; Right of hunting; Quit of certain old impositions.

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitain, earl of Anjou; to all archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons, justices, ministers, and all our faithful subjects, French and English, greeting. Know ye, that we have granted to our citizens of London, that none of them shall plead without the walls of the city of London, saving the pleas of foreign tenures, (our moneyers and ministers excepted:) And we have granted to them acquittal of all murther within the city and portsoken, and that none of them shall wage battle; and that they may discharge themselves of the pleas belonging to the crown, according to the ancient custom of the city; and that, within the walls of the city and portsoken, no man may take any lodging by force, or by delivery of the marshal: This also we have granted to them, that all the citizens of London be quit of toll and lastage, and of all other customs throughout all our lands, on this side, or beyond the seas: And that none be condemned of any amerciaments of money, but according to the law of the city, which they had in the time of king Henry, grandfather to king Henry our grandfather; and that no miskenning be in any pleading in the city; and that the hustings be kept only once a week; and that they may justly have all their lands and promises, and debts, whosoever owe them to them; and that right be holden to them of all their lands and tenures, which be in the city, according to the custom of the city; and that pleas be there holden of all debts which be lent at London, of all promises there made; and that, if any shall take any toll or any other custom of our men of London, in any our lands on this side, or beyond the seas, or in the ports of the seas on this side, or beyond the seas, after he shall fail of right, the sheriffs of London may take goods for the same: Also we do grant to them, that they may have hunting, wheresoever they had in the time of king Henry, grandfather to king Henry our grandfather: Furthermore also, for the amendment of the said city, we have granted to them, that they be all quit from bridtoll, childwite, jeresgive, and of all scotale, so that our sheriff of London, or any other bailiff, shall not make any scotale. These customs aforesaid we do grant to them, and all other liberties and free customs which they had in the time of king Henry, grandfather to king Henry our grandfather, when as they had the same better and more freely, as the charter of the Lord John our father, which they have, of the same doth reasonably testify: Wherefore we will and stedfastly command, that they and their heirs may have and hold all these things aforesaid hereditarily of us and our heirs.

These being witness, the lord Eustace of London, &c. Given by the hands of the reverend father in God Ralph, bishop of Chichester, our chancellor, at Westminster, the sixteenth day of March, in the eleventh year of our reign.

No. XVI. Fifth Charter of Henry III. [See p. 43.]

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitain, earl of Anjou; to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, rulers, ministers, foresters, and all bailiffs, and faithful subjects, greeting.

To have liberty in the warren of a Staines.

Know ye, that we have granted, and by this present charter confirmed, for us and our heirs, unto our archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons, knights, freeholders, and to all of the county of Middlesex, that all the warren of Staines, with the appurtenances, be unwarrened and disforested for ever, so that all they aforesaid, and their heirs and successors, may have all liberties and benefit of warren and forest, in the aforesaid warren, wherein they may till or plough all their lands, and cut all their woods, and dispose of the same at their will, without the view or contradiction of our warreners or foresters, and all their ministers, and within the which no warrener or forester, or justice of our forest, shall or may any thing meddle with their lands or woods; neither with their herbage, or hunting, or corn; neither, by any summons or distress, shall cause them, their heirs or successors to come before our justices of the forest, or warreners, by occasion of the lands and tenements situate in those parts, where the said warren was wont to be; but that they, and their heirs and successors, and their lands and tenements contained in the parts, be quit and free from all exactions, occasions, demands and attachments, and of all things which belong to warrens or forests: Wherefore we will and stedfastly command, that all they aforesaid, holding lands and tenements within the said parts, and their heirs and successors for ever, have the aforesaid liberties and freedoms; and that their lands and tenements aforesaid be unwarrened and disforested for ever, and quit from all things, which either to warren or forest, warreners or foresters, pertain, as is aforesaid.

These being witness, Hubert de Burgo, &c. Given by the hand of the reverend father Richard, bishop of Chichester, our chancellor, at Woodstock, the eighteenth day of August, in the eleventh year of our reign.

No. XVII. Charter of Henry III. confirming the Fee Farm of Queenhithe to the Corporation of London. [See p. 46.]

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy, and Aquitain, and earl of Anjou; to all archbishops, bishops, priors, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, rulers, ministers, and all bailiffs, and his faithful subjects, greeting.

Know ye, that we have seen a covenant made between Richard earl of Cornwall, our brother, on the one part, and the mayor and commonalty of the city of London, on the other part, in these words: in the thirtieth year of the reign of Henry, the son of king John, in the day of the translation of saint Edward, this covenant was made at Westminster, between the right honourable man, Richard earl of Cornwall, on the one part, and John Gisors, then mayor of the city of London, and the commonalty of the same city of London, on the other part, for and concerning certain exactions and demands belonging to Queenhithe, of the city of London; that is to say, that the said earl hath granted for him and his heirs, that the said mayor, and all the mayors after him, and all the commonalty of the said city, may have and hold the said Queenhithe, with all their liberties, customs, and other things to the same belonging, in fee-farm, paying therefore yearly to the said earl, his heirs and assigns, fifty pounds, at two terms in the year, at Clerkenwell; that is to say, at the close of Easter twenty-five pounds; and in Octavis of saint Michael twenty-five pounds; and for the more surety thereof, to the part of the chirography remaining with the mayor and commonalty of London, the said earl hath put his seal; and to the writing thereof remaining with the said earl, the foresaid mayor and commonalty have set their common seal. We therefore, allowing and approving the said covenant, do, for us and our heirs, grant and confirm the same: these same being witnesses, Ralph, son of Nicholas, Richard de Grey, John and William his brothers, Paul Paiur, Ralph de Waunty, and John Guband.

Given by our hand at Windsor, the twenty sixth day of February, in the twenty first year of our reign.

No. XVIII. Sixth Charter of Henry III. [See p. 48.]

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy, and Aquitain, and earl of Anjou; to his archbishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, rulers, ministers, and all his bailiffs, and faithful people, greeting.

Know ye, that we have granted, for us and our heirs, and confirmed it by this our present charter, that our mayor and citizens of London may have and hold all their liberties and free customs, which they had in the time of king Henry our grandfather, and which they had by charters of our ancestors, kings of England, as they more freely and better had the same, and they most freely and fully have and use the same for ever.

Mayor to be presented to the barons of the exchequer. 7l. to be paid yearly to the sheriffs at the exchequer. Acquitted from a l toll and custom.

Also we have granted to the said citizens, that every mayor, whom they shall chuse in our city of London, (we being not at Westminster) they may yearly present to the barons of our exchequer, that he may be admitted by them as mayor; so notwithstanding, at the next coming of us or our heirs to Westminster or London, he be presented to us or our heirs, and so admitted mayor. And we will and command, for us and our heirs, that, out of the farm of our city of London, there be allowed to our sheriff of the said city yearly, in his said account, seven pounds, at our exchequer, for the liberty of St. Paul's, London: and that our said citizens throughout all our dominions, as well on this side the sea as beyond, be quit of all toll and custom for ever, as in the charters of the aforesaid kings is granted. And we forbid, upon our forfeiture, that none presume henceforth to vex or disquiet the said citizens, contrary to this liberty, and our grant.

These being witnesses, the reverend father P. bishop of Hereford: Richard, earl of Cornwall, our brother, Peter de Salund; John Mansel, provost of Beverley; Mr. William Kelken, archif. Coventry; Bartino d'Cryel; John d'Lassington; John d'Grey; Henry d'Wingham; Robert Walreand, William d'Grey; Nicholas d' St. Mauro; William Gerumne, and others. Given by our hand at Windsor, the twelfth day of June, in the thirty-seventh year of our reign.

No. XIX. Charter of Remission granted to the Citizens by Henry III. [See p. 55.]

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Guienne; to all men, greeting.

Know ye, that in consideration of twenty-thousand marks, paid to us by our citizens of London, as an atonement for their great crimes and misdemeanours committed against us, our royal consort, our royal brother Richard, king of the Romans, and our dear son Edward: that we have and do by these presents remit, forgive; and acquit, for us and our heirs, the citizens of London, and their heirs, of all crimes and trespasses whatsoever; and that the said citizens, as formerly, shall enjoy all their rights and liberties; and that from Christmas last they shall and may receive the rents and profits of all their lands and tenements whatsoever: and also, that the said citizens shall have all the goods and chattels of such criminals, as have or shall be indicted on account of the late rebellion; except the goods and chattels of the persons already mentioned, which we have given to our son Edward; and also, all the lands and tenements that shall escheat to us, by reason of the foresaid rebellion. And we likewise grant, that all the citizens confined in our several prisons shall be discharged; except those given as pledges to our son Edward for his prisoners, and those for citizens that are fled. In witness whereof we have made these letters patents.

Witness myself at Northampton, the tenth day of January, in the fiftieth year of our reign.

No. XX. Eighth Charter of Henry III. [See p. 56.]

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitain; to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons, sheriffs, justices, rulers, ministers, and all bailiffs, and his faithful subjects, greeting.

None compelled to plead out of the city; Law merchant.

Know ye; that we have granted to our citizens of London, for us and our heirs, whom of late we have received again into our grace and favour, after divers trespasses and forfeitures of them and their commonalty to us made, for the which, both for life and member, and all other things belonging to the said city, they have submitted themselves to our will; that none of them be compelled to plead out of the walls of the said city, for any thing except foreign tenures, and except our moneyers and officers, and except those things which shall happen to be done against our peace, which according to the common law of our realm, are wont to be determined in the parts where those trespasses were done; 2nd except pleas concerning merchandizes, which are wont to be determined according to the law-merchant in Boroughs and fairs, so yet notwithstanding that those plaints be determined in the boroughs and fairs, by four or five of the said citizens of London, who shall be there present; saving to us the amerciaments in any wise coming, which they shall faithfully answer us and our heirs, upon pain of grievous forfeitures.

Acquittal of murder, &c; Graves of the dead.

We have also granted to our same citizens acquital of murder in the said city and in porsoken; and that none of the said citizens may wage battle; and that for the pleas belonging to the crown, chiefly those which may chance within the said city and suburbs thereof, they may discharge themselves according to the antient custom of the said city; this notwithstanding except, that upon the graves of the dead, for that which they should have said, if they had lived, it shall not be lawful precisely to swear; but instead and place of those deceased, which before their deaths, to discharge those which for concerning the things belonging to the crown, were called and received, there may other free and lawful men be chosen, which may do and accomplish that without delay, which by the deceased should have been done, if they had lived; and that within the walls of the city and in portsoken none may take lodgings by force, or delivery of the marshal.

Free of toll and lastage, &c.; What is due to the king.

We have also granted to our said citizens throughout all our dominions, wheresoever they come to dwell with their merchandizes and things, and also throughout all the sea-ports, as well on this side as beyond the seas, they shall be free of all toll and lastage, and of all customs, except every where our due and antient custom and prices of wines; that is to say, one tun before the mast, and of one other behind the mast, at twenty shillings the tun, to be paid in such form as we and our ancestors have been accustomed to have the said prices; and if any in any of our lands, on this side or beyond the seas, or in the ports of the said sea, on this side or beyond the seas, shall take of the men of London toll, or any custom, contrary to this our grant, (except the aforesaid prices) after he shall fail of right, the sheriff may take goods therefore at London.

Husting once a week.

We have also granted to them, that the hustings might be kept in every week once the week, and that only by one day; or as notwithstanding that those things within the same day cannot be determined, may continue till next morning, and no longer; and that right be holden to them for their lands and tenures within the same city, according to the custom of the said city; so as nevertheless, that as well foreigners as others may make their attorneys, as well in pleading as defending, as elsewhere in our courts; and they may not be questioned as miskenning in any their pleas; that is to say, if they have not declared altogether well; and of all their debts which were lent at London, and promises there made, pleas be there holden, according to the just and antient custom.

Acquittal of childwite, jeresgive, and scotale; Against forestalling; Custom to be paid; Goods to be weighed at the king's beem.

Furthermore, we do also grant, toward the amendment of the aforesaid city, that all be quit of childwite and jeresgive, and from scotale; so that our sheriffs of London, nor any other bailiff, shall not make any scotale: and also, that the said citizens may justly have and hold their lands, tenures premises; and also their debts, whosoever do owe them; and that no merchant or other do meet with any merchant coming by land or by water, with their merchandizes or victuals, towards the city, to buy or sell again, till they come to the said city, and there have put the same to sale, upon the forfeiture of the things brought, and pain of imprisonment; from whence he shall not escape without great punishment: and that none shew out their wares to sell, who owe any custom, 'till the custom thereof be levied, without great punishment, and upon pain of forfeiture of all that commodity, of him that happens to do otherwise: and that no merchant, stranger, or other, may buy or sell any wares, which ought to be weighed or troned, unless by our beams or trone, upon forfeiture of the said wares.

Debts to be enrolled in the exchequer; A penny to be paid for enrolment.

Moreover, those debts, which of their contracts or loans shall be due unto them, may cause to be enrolled in our exchequer, for the more surety of them, upon the recognizence of those who shall stand bound unto them in the said debts; so as nevertheless, that no debts be enrolled upon the recognizance of any person who is not there known; or unless it be manifested concerning his person by the testimony of six or four lawful men, who be sufficient to answer as well for the debt as for the damages, which any may have of such recognizances, if the same happen to be falsly done under their names: and for every pound to be enrolled in the exchequer, one penny to be paid to our use, for the charge of sustentation of those which must attend to such enrolling: These liberties and free customs we grant to them, to hold to them and their heirs, so long as they shall well and faithfully behave themselves to us and our heirs, together with all their just and reasonable customs, which in time of us and our predecessors heretosore they have had, as well for manner of pleading of their tenures, debts, and promises, as for all other causes whatsoever, concerning both them and the same city: so long as the customs be not contrary to right, law and justice; saving in all things the liberty of the church of Westminster to the abbots and monks of the same place, to them granted by the charters of us and our predecessors. kings of England: but, as touching our Jews and merchant strangers, and other things out of our foresaid grant touching us or our said city, we and our heirs shall provide as to us shall seem expedient.

These being witnesses; Richard king of Almain, our brother; Edward our first son; Roger of Mortimer; Roger de Clifford; Roger Leybourn; Robert Watrand; Robert Aquiln. Mi. Godfrey; Gifford our chancellor; Walter de Merton; John Cheshil, archdeacon of London; John de la Lind; William de Aette, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster, the twentysixth day of March, in the two and fiftieth year of our reign.