Appendix
Charters (Henry VII to Elizabeth)

Sponsor

Centre for Metropolitan History

Publication

Author

John Noorthouck

Year published

1773

Pages

799-811

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'Appendix: Charters (Henry VII to Elizabeth)', A New History of London: Including Westminster and Southwark (1773), pp. 799-811. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46784 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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No. XXXVI. Regulations concerning Strangers buying and selling within the City; from Henry VIIth's Charter. [See p. III.]

—Of all time, of which the memory of man is not to the contrary, for the commonweal of the realm and city aforesaid, it hath been used, and by authority of parliament approved and confirmed, that no stranger from the liberty of the city may buy or sell, from any stranger from the liberties of the same city, any merchandize or wares within the liberties of the same city, upon forfeiture of the same. The said mayor, and commonalty, and citizens, and their predecessors by all the time aforesaid, have had and received, and have been accustomed to receive, perceive, and have, to the use of the said mayor, commonalty, and citizens, all and all manner of merchandizes and wares bought and sold within the liberties of the same city as aforesaid, and forfeitures of the same merchandizes and wares, until of late past time they were troubled or molested.

Strangers not to buy and fell to other strangers within the city; Forfeitures, &c. to the use of the city.

The same lord Henry the seventh, by his letters patents as aforesaid, for pacifying and taking away from henceforth controversies and ambiguities in that behalf, and to fortify and by express words to explain and declare the liberty and custom aforesaid to them the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their heirs and successors, and willing the said liberties to be peaceably and quietly had, possessed, and enjoyed to the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, with the forfeitures aforesaid, against the said late lord king Henry, his heirs and successors granted, and by his said charter confirmed to the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, that no stranger from the liberties of the same city may buy or sell, from any other stranger to the liberty of the same city, any merchandizes or wares within the liberties of the same city; and if any stranger to the liberty of the same city shall sell or buy any merchandizes or wares within the liberty of the same city of any other stranger to the liberty of the same city, that the same mayor, commonalty and citizens, and their successors, may have, hold, and receive all and all manner of such-like merchandizes and wares, so bought and to be bought, sold or to be sold, within the liberty of the said city, between whatsoever strangers to the liberty of the same city, as forfeited; and all the forfeitures of the same, and also the penalties, fines, and redemptions whatsoever any ways forfeited, lost or to be lost, or to be forfeited or due thereon, to the use and profit of the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens, and their heirs and successors, without hindrance of the same late king, his heirs or successors, and without any account, or any other thing to be rendered or paid thereof to the late king, his heirs and successors, any statute, act, or ordinance of us or our progenitors made to the contrary notwithstanding; although the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city, or their predecessors, have before that time used, abused, or not used those customs and liberties: Saving always, that the great men, lords and nobles, and other English and strangers, of what condition they shall be, may freely buy whatsoever merchandizes in gross for their families and proper uses within the liberties of the said city, without any forfeiture, loss or hindrance whatsoever, so that they do not sell again the said merchandizes to any other.

Office of Gauger.

And further, the same late king, of his ample grace, by his said letters patents, amongst other things, did give and grant to the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of the same city of London, and their successors, the office of gauger within the said city, and the disposing, ordering, surveying, and correcting of the same, to have, hold, exercise, and occupy the said office, and other premises, with all fees, profits, and emoluments to the said office in any manner belonging or appertaining, to the same mayor and commonalty, and citizens, by themselves, or by their sufficient deputy or deputies, from the 22d day of August, in the first year of his reign, for ever, without any account to be made thereof, or any other thing rendering or paying to the said lord Henry the seventh, his heirs or successors, as by the said letters patents doth more plainly appear.

No. XXXVII. Charter of Henry VIII. for removing the Sessions from the Monastery of St. Martin's le Grand, to Guildhall. [See p. 115.]

Henry, by the grace of God, king of England and France, and lord of Ireland, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting.

Whereas Edward the third, sometime king of England, our progenitor, by his letters patents, amongst other things, has granted to the citizens of the city of London, that all inquisitions from hence, to be taken by the justices, and other the ministers of the men of the said city, should be taken at Great St. Martin's in London, and not elsewhere, except inquisitions to be taken in circuits in the Tower of London, and for the gaol-delivery of Newgate.

Knowye, that we, for some urgent causes reasonable us moving, at the petition of the mayor and commonalty aforesaid, and of the citizens of the same city, have, of our special grace, and from our certain knowledge and mere motion, granted, and by these presents do, for us and our heirs (as much as in us is) grant to the said mayor and commonalty, and unto their successors, and unto the same citizens of the same city, that all inquisitions by the justices, or other our ministers, or of our heirs, to be from henceforth taken of the men of our city aforesaid, shall be taken at the Guildhall, within the city aforesaid, or at any other place within the same city, where it shall from time to time be thought to our justices for the time being, before whom those inquisitions ought hereafter to be taken, most expedient and most convenient, and not elsewhere, except inquisitions be taken at the circuits of the Tower of London, and for the gaol-delivery of Newgate.

In witness whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patents: witness myself at Westminster, the sixteenth day of June, in the tenth year of our reigh.

No. XXXVIII. The Charter of King Henry VIII. restoring the Office of Keeper of the great Beam or common Balance of Weight, to the Corporation of London. [See p. 117.]

Henry the eighth, by the grace of God, king of England and France, defender of the faith, and lord of Ireland, to all to whom these present letters shall come, greeting.

Right of weighing at the beam.

Whereas we by our letters patents, the date whereof is the eighteenth day of June, in the thirteenth year of our reign, have, of our special grace, and from our certain knowledge and mere motion, given and granted for us and our heirs, forasmuch as in us then was, to Sir William Sidney, knight, the office of keeper of the great beam and common balance or weight within our city of London, for weighing all merchandizes of averdupoize, and also all weights whatsoever within the same city; which office one William Stafford, deceased, lately exercised and occupied, by what name soever the same office was named or known; and have ordained, made, and constituted the said Sir William Sidney keeper of the great beam, balance and weight, and of all other weights whatsoever; and also of the weights of all spices, wares, commodities, merchandizes and things in the city aforesaid, there to be weighed and accustomed, and used to be bought and sold by weight.

And have granted also, by our said letters patents, to the said Sir William, authority and power to make, name and assign, from time to time, all manner of clerks, porters, servants and ministers of the great beam and balance, and of the iron beam, and of the beam of the Stillyard, and of the weights aforesaid; and also all other clerks, porters, servants and ministers to the same office belonging; and also to remove the same or any of them, and other or others to make, put and constitute in his or their place, as often as to him shall seem expedient, to have; occupy and exercise the office and offices aforesaid, together with the authority aforesaid, to the said Sir William Sidney, by himself, or by his deputy or deputies, during our pleasure, to his proper use and behoof, with all and singular commodities, houses, advantages, profits, fees and emoluments to the said office in our time, or in the times of any of our progenitors, kings of England, due and accustomed, pertaining or belonging, in as ample manner and form as any person, having or occupying such office before this time, had, received or enjoyed the same: and have given and granted the same commodities, houses, advantages, profits, fees and emoluments, and all and singular the premises, for the exercise and occupation of the office aforesaid, in manner and form aforesaid, to the said Sir William, during our pleasure, to the use and behoof of the said Sir William, without account, or any other thing to us or our heirs, in this behalf, for the premises to be made, given or paid; although express mention be not made of the true yearly value, or of any certainty of the premises, or any grant or grants by us or any of our progenitors to the said Sir William before this time made, contained in the said letters patents above specified, or any statute, act, ordinance, restraint or provision before this time made or provided to the contrary, or any other thing, cause or matter whatsoever in any thing notwithstanding, as by our letters patents fully appeareth; which our pleasure in that behalf we will by these shall be determined; and which letters patents the same Sir William Sidney hath surrendered into our chancery to be cancelled, to the intent we would vouchsafe to grant our letters patents to the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of our city of London.

And because now of late we understand of the grievous complaint of our well-beloved the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of our said city of London, that the said lord Edward, some time king of England, the second, our progenitor, by his charter, dated the 18th day of June, in the 12th year of his reign, amongst other things, granted to the then citizens of our said city, predecessors to the now mayor, commonalty, and citizens aforesaid, that the weights and beams for the weighing of merchandizes between merchants and merchants, of which the profits growing and knowledge of the same pertain to the commonalty of the said city, should remain to be kept, at the will of the said commonalty, in the custody of two sufficient men of the same city, expert in that office, to be thereunto chosen by the commonalty of the same city; and that they should in no wise be committed to any others, than to such as should be so chosen, as by the same his letters patents, which we have seen, more fully appeareth.

And because also the lord Henry, some time king of England, the fourth, our progenitor, by his letters patents dated the 25th day of May, in the first year of his reign, of his favourable grace, amongst other things, granted to the said citizens of the said city tronage; that is to say, the weighing of lead, wax, pepper, alum, madder, and all other such wares within the said city for ever: which letters patents we, of our special grace, by our charter dated the 12th day of July, in the first year of our reign, ratified and confirmed to the same then citizens, and to their successors, as by the same our letters patents more fully appeareth: by which letters patents; and by the continual keeping of the office of beam, balance, weights, and of other the premises time out of mind, by the said citizens and their predecessors, and by the exercise and occupation of the same within the said city, without any challenging, it is manifest, and without any difficulty evident and apparent unto us, that the said office of the great beam and common balance ordained for weighing between merchants and merchants, and the office of keeping of the great balance or weight within our city of London, for the weighing of all merchandizes of averdupoize, and also of all weights whatsoever, within the said city; and also of all spices, wares, merchandizes, and things in the city aforesaid, there to be weighed; and also the authority and power to make, name, and assign all and all manner of clerks, porters, servants, and ministers of the said great beam and balance, and of the iron beam, and of the beam of the Stillyard; and also all other clerks, porters, servants, and ministers to the said office pertaining, and the issues and revenues thereof coming, and all and singular the premises pertaining and of antient right belonging to the mayor, commonalty and citizens, we will in no wise be wronged.

And to the end that from henceforth all ambiguities in such case might be taken away, and that the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, may not in time to come be impeached, impleaded, or grieved, by us, our heirs or successors, or any of our justices or ministers, of or for the premises, or any of them, we will and grant to the now mayor, commonalty, and citizens, and to their successors, that the weights and beams for weighing of merchandizes between merchant and merchant, whereof the profits growing, and the knowledge of them, to pertain to the commonalty of the city aforesaid, shall remain at the will of the commonalty of the same city, to be kept in the custody of good sufficient men of the same city, expert in that office, and to be thereunto chosen by the commonalty aforesaid, and that to others than so to be chosen in no wise they be committed; and that they shall have tronage; that is to say, the weighing of wax, lead, pepper, alum, madder, and all other such-like wares within the said city for ever.

Willing also to do the said mayor and commonalty a more ample pleasure in this behalf, we have, of our favourable grace, and from our certain knowledge and mere motion, given and granted, and by these presents do give and grant to the same mayor, commonalty, and citizens of the city of London, the aforesaid office of keeper of the great beam and common balance, ordained for weighing between merchant and merchant; and also the office of the great beam and weights within the said city, for weighing of merchandizes of averdupoize; and also of all weights whatsoever within our said city, and of all spices, wares, merchandizes, and things in our said city, there to be weighed, by whatsoever name the said office is named or known; and do by these presents make, ordain, and constitute the same mayor, commonalty and citizens, and their successors, keepers of the great beam, balance, and weights aforesaid, and other weights whatsoever; and also the weighing of all spices, wares, merchandizes, and things in the city aforesaid, there to be weighed, and accustomed to be bought and sold by weight within our said city.

And also we do give and grant to the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of our city aforesaid, authority and power to make, name, and assign from time to time all and all manner of clerks, porters, servants, and ministers of the great beam and balance, and of the iron beam, and of the beam of the Stillyard, and weights aforesaid; and also all other clerks, servants, and ministers to the same office pertaining; and also to remove them or any of them, and to make, constitute, and place other in his or their place, as often as to them shall seem expedient, to have, occupy, and exercise the office aforesaid, together with the authority and power aforesaid, to the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, by themselves, their deputy or deputies for ever, to their own proper use and behoof, together with all and singular commodities, houses, advantages, profits, wages, fees, and emoluments in our time, or in the times of any of our progenitors kings of England, due and accustomed, pertaining or belonging to the same office, in as ample manner and form as the same citizens and their predecessors, or any other person or persons having or occupying the same office before this time, had and received, or enjoyed the same.

And also we give and grant by these presents to the said mayor, commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, the commodities, houses, advantages, profits, fees, and emoluments, and all and singular the premises, for the exercise and occupation of the said office, to the proper use and behoof of the said mayor, commonalty, and citizens, and their successors, without account, or any other thing to us or our heirs to be delivered, made, given, or paid in this behalf for the premises, or any of them, in these letters patents specified and contained; although express mention be not in these presents made of the true value or certainty of the premises, or of their gifts or grants by us to the said mayor, commonalty, and citizens of the said city before this time made, or any statute, act, ordinance, provision, or restraint thereof made, ordained, or provided to the contrary, or any other thing, cause, or matter whatsoever in any wise notwithstanding.

In witness whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patents: witness myself at Westminster, the 13th day of April, in the twenty-second year of our reign.

No. XXXIX. Act of Common-Council in 1538, to enforce the Statute 27 Hen. VIII. c. 18. for preserving the Navigation of the River Thames. (See p. 118.)

Whereas, by a statute made in the 27th year of the reign of our sovereign lord king Henry the eighth, for reformation of the river of Thames, among other abuses, by casting in dung and other filth, many great shelves, and other risings, have of late grown and been made within the said river; by reason whereof many great breaches have ensued by occasion thereof, which of like shall be the occasion of the utter destruction of the said river, unless that the same law be put in due execution, according to the true intent and meaning thereof.

Wherefore, for a future reformation of the same, and to the intent that the said good and wholesome statute may be put in more execution, and better knowledge of the people,

It is enacted, by the authority of this common-council, that proclamation may be made within this city, and the same to be put in writing, and tables thereof made, and set up in divers places of this city, that it shall be lawful to every person or persons, to dig, carry away, and take away sand, gravel, or any rubbish, earth, or any thing lying and being in any shelf or shelves, within the said river of Thames, without lett or interruption of any person or persons, and without any thing paying for the same; and after that to sell the same away, or otherwise occupy or dispose of the said gravel, sand, or other thing, at their free liberty and pleasure.

And that all paviours, bricklayers, tilers, masons, and all others that occupy sand or gravel, shall endeavour themselves, with all diligence, to occupy the said sand or gravel, and none other, paying for the same reasonably, as they should or ought to pay for other sand or gravel digged out of other men's grounds about the said city, which after is filled again with much filthy things, to the great infection of the inhabitants of the said city, and all others repairing unto the same: and that further humble suit be made to the king's highness, that all persons, having lands or tenements along the said river side, upon certain pain, by his highness, and the lords of his honourable council, to be limited, shall well and sufficiently repair and maintain all the walls and banks adjoining unto their said lands, that so the water may not, nor shall break in upon the same; and the same to be continued till the time the said noble river be brought again to its old course and former state.

And that strong grates of iron, along the said water-side, and also by the street-side, where any water-course is had into the said Thames, be made by the inhabitants of every ward, so along the said water, as of old times has been accustomed; and that every grate be in height twenty-four inches at the least, as the place shall need; and, in breadth, one from another one inch; and the same to be done with all expedition and speed.

And, if the occupiers of the said lands and tenements make default contrary to the ordinance aforesaid, or else if any person or persons in great rains, or other times, sweep their soilage or filth off their houses into the channel, and the same afterwards is conveyed into the Thames, every person so offending shall forfeit for every such default one shilling and eight pence; and that upon complaint to be made to any constable next adjoining to the said place where any such default shall be found, it shall be lawful for the said constable, or his sufficient deputy, for the time being, from time to time, to distrain for the said offence, and to retain the same irreplagiable. And a like law to be observed and kept, and like penalty to be paid, by every person that burns rushes and straw in their houses, or wash in the common streets or lanes, and to be recovered as aforesaid; and the one moiety thereof to be to the mayor and commonalty, and the other moiety to be divided betwixt the said constable that taketh pain, and the party finder of the said default. And if the constable, or his deputy, refuse to do his duty, according to the true meaning of this act, that then the constable, or his deputy, which shall so refuse to do his duty, as aforesaid, shall forfeit and pay for every time so offending three shillings and four pence; and the same penalty of the constable, to be recovered and obtained by distress irreplagiable, to be taken by any of the officers of the chamber of London, to the use of the mayor and commonalty of London. And further, that no person or persons, having any wharf or house by the water-side, make not their lay-stalls where the common rakers of this city use to repose and lay all their soilage, to be carried away by them with their dung boats; and that the said rakers shall lay their said dung, carried in their said dung-boats, to such convenient place or places, as shall be appointed by the lord-mayor of London, for the time being, with the advice of his brethren, the aldermen of the same, and to no other place or places, upon pain to forfeit for every such default five pounds, to be recovered in any of the king's courts within the city of London, by bill, plaint, moiety of debt, or information, by any person that will or shall sue for the same; the one moiety thereof to be unto the mayor and commonalty of London, and the other moiety to him or them that will or shall sue for the same; in which actions or suits, no wager of law nor essoign sholl be allowed.

No. XL. Charter of King Edward VI. granting the Manor of Southwark to the City of London. [See p. 125.]

Edward the sixth, by the grace of God, king of England, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, and on earth supreme head of the church of England and Ireland; to all to whom these present letters shall come, greeting.

Certain parcels of land, &c. in Southwark and Surrey granted.

Know ye, that for the sum of six hundred and forty-seven pounds, two shillings and a penny, of lawful money of England, paid to the hands of the treasurer of our court of augmentation and revenues of our crown, to our use, by our well-beloved the mayor and commonalty and citizens of the city of London, whereof we acknowledge us to be fully satisfied and paid, and the mayor and commonalty and citizens and their successors to be thereof acquitted and discharged by these presents; and for other causes and considerations, us thereunto especially moving; have of our special grace, and from our certain knowledge and mere motion, and also with the advice of our council, given and granted, and by these presents do give and grant, to the said mayor and commonalty and citizens of the city of London, all that our messuage or tenement, with the appurtenances, now or late in the tenure of Simon Sebatson, situate and being next our mansion late Charles, late duke of Suffolk's, in Southwark, in the county of Surrey; and all that our messuage or tenement, with the appurtenances, next the broad gate of the same our mansion in Southwark aforesaid; and all that our close of ground called Moulter's Close, containing by estimation fifteen acres, lying in Newington, in our said county of Surrey; and all that our close of ground, containing by estimation two acres, now or late in the tenure of John Parrow, lying and being in St. George's dunghill, in the parish of St. George, in Southwark aforesaid; and also all that one close of ground, late in the tenure of John Billington, lying in Lambeth marsh, in the parish of Lambeth, in the said county of Surrey; and also all those our thirty-nine acres and three rods of meadow, with the appurtenances, now or late in the tenure of William Basely, lying and being in divers parcels in the field called St. George's field, in the parish of St. George in Southwark, in our said county of Surrey; and one messuage or tenement of ours, situate near Broad Gates, in Southwark aforesaid; and all those our two messuages or tenements, and one chamber, and three stables, and one garden of ours, with all their appurtenances, situate and being in Southwark aforesaid; all and singular which premises were some time parcel of the possessions and hereditaments of Charles duke of Suffolk; and all other the messuages, lands, tenements, rents, reversions, and hereditaments whatsoever, with their appurtenances, in Southwark, in the said county of Surrey, which were the aforesaid Charles duke of Suffolk's, and which were late purchased by our dear father Henry the eighth, late king of England, of the same Charles late duke of Suffolk; except nevertheless always to us and our heirs and successors, all that our capital messuage and mansion-house called Southwark Place, in Southwark aforesaid, late the said duke of Suffolk's, and all gardens and grounds to the same adjoining or appertaining; and all our park in Southwark aforesaid, and all the messuages, and all the buildings and grounds called the Antelope there.

And the lordship and manor of Southwark.

Furthermore, we give, and for the consideration aforesaid, with the advice aforesaid, do by these presents grant to the aforesaid mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, all that our lordship and manor of Southwark, with their rights, members and appurtenances in the said county of Surrey, late pertaining to the late monastery of Bermondsey in the said county; and all messuages, houses, buildings, barns, stables, dove-houses, ponds, pools, springs, orchards, gardens, lands, tenements, meadows, feedings, pastures, commons, waste-street, void ground-rents, reversions, services, court-leet, view of frankpledge, chattels, waifs, strays, free warren, and all other rights, profits, commodities, emoluments, and hereditaments whatsoever in Southwark aforesaid, to the said lordship and manor of Southwark by any means belonging, or being before this time accounted, known, or taken as member or parcel of the said lordship and manor, except before excepted.

And certain yearly rents, services, &c.

Furthermore, we give, and for the consideration aforesaid, and with the assent aforesaid, by these presents do grant unto the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, all our manor and borough of Southwark, with all their rights, members, and appurtenances, in the said county of Surrey, late parcel of the possessions of the archbishop and archbishopric of Canterbury, and all our annual rent of three shillings and twopence halfpenny, and the services going out of the lands and tenements some time of John Burcetor, knight, and now or late in the tenure of William Glassock, Esq; in Southwark aforesaid; and all that our yearly rent of three shillings, and service going out of the house or tenement called the Swan, in Southwark aforesaid; and all that our yearly rent of four shillings and ten pence, and the service going out of the messuage or tenement called the Mermaid, in Southwark aforesaid; and all that the yearly rent of twenty pence a quarter, and the service going out of the messuage or tenement called the Helmet, in the borough of Southwark aforesaid; and all that our annual rent of sixteen shillings, and the services going out of the messuage or tenement called Horsehead in the borough of Southwark aforesaid; and also all that our annual rent of six shillings and four pence, and the service going out of the messuage or tenement called the Gleyne, in Southwark aforesaid; and all that our annual rent of two shillings a quarter, and the services going out of the messuage or tenement called the Rose; and one acre of ground lying in the Lock in Southwark; and all that our annual rent of twenty pence a quarter, and the service going out of one messuage or tenement called the Lamb in Southwark aforesaid, pertaining to the company of fishmongers of London; and also that our annual rent of twenty pence a quarter, and the service going out of one messuage or tenement pertaining to the said society of fishmongers in London, called the Bale in Southwark aforesaid; and all that annual rent of twenty pence a quarter, going out of one messuage or tenement pertaining to the said society of fishmongers, commonly called the Flower de Luce in Southwark aforesaid; and also that our annual rent of four shillings, and the service going out of the twelve acres of land lying at the Lock of Southwark aforesaid, some time the lord Wilford's, and now or late pertaining to the said society of fishmongers; and all that our annual rent of eight pence, and the service going out of two acres of land of Giles Athorn, called Tipping in the Hole, in Southwark aforesaid; and also that our annual rent of three shillings, and the service going out of one messuage or tenement, late Thomas lord Poyning's, in Southwark aforesaid; and all that our annual rent of twelve pence halfpenny, and the service going out of the messuage or tenement now or late of William Malton, in Southwark aforesaid; and all that our annual rent of twenty pence halfpenny, and the service going out of the messuage or tenement called the White Hart, in Southwark aforesaid; and also all that our annual rent of seven shillings and four pence, and the service going out of a messuage or tenement called the Crown, in Southwark aforesaid, now or late of the masters of the bridge-house, London; and also all that our annual rent of two shillings, and the service going out of the messuage or tenement of the same masters of the bridge-house called the Christopher, in Southwark aforesaid; and all that our annual rent of twelve pence, and the service going out of the lands and meadows of the masters of the Bridge-house of London, lying and being at the Lock, called Carpenter's-hall in Southwark aforesaid; and all that our annual rent of ten pence halfpenny, and the service going out of the messuage or tenement called the Blue Mead, in Southwark aforesaid; and all that our annual rent of two shillings, and the service going out of one messuage or tenement now or late of William Salisbury, in Southwark aforesaid; and also all that our annual rent of sixteen pence, and the service going out of a certain field of ground of four acres of land, now or late the heirs of Robert Linled, lying and being in the Lock, and abutting upon the lands of the late duke of Suffolk, in Southwark aforesaid, and in Newington, or in either of them, in the said county of Surrey; and all our annual rent of two shillings, and the service going out of a certain field of ground, some time John Solas's field, and now or late the heirs of Robert Linled, in Southwark and Newington aforesaid, or either of them; and all our annual rent of twenty pence, and the services going out of five acres of ground, now or late Stephen Middleton's, lying and being at the Lock of Southwark and Newington aforesaid, or in either of them; and all that our annual rent of four pence, and the service going out of four acres of land, now or late William Champion's, lying and being in Southmead in Walworth's field, in the parish of Newington, in our said county of Surrey; and all that our annual rent of twenty pence farthing, and the service going out of the messuage or tenement called Circot, in Southwark and Newington aforesaid, and either of them; and all other our messuages, lands, tenements, rents, reversions, services, and hereditaments whatsoever, which were parcel of the possessions, rents, and revenues of the archbishopric and bishopric of Canterbury, in Southwark in the said county of Surrey.

And all woods, underwoods, &c.

We furthermore give, and for the considerations aforesaid, and with the advice aforesaid, do grant by these presents to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the city of London, all and all manner of woods, underwoods, and trees whatsoever, growing and being of, in, and upon all and singular the premises, and the soil and ground of the same; and also whatsoever reversions of all and singular the premises, and every part thereof, and all the rents and yearly profits whatsoever, reserved upon whatsoever demises and grants made of the premises, or any part thereof, by any means.

We also give, and by these presents grant to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the city of London, all and singular the premises, with the appurtenances, as fully, and in as ample manner and form, as the said Charles late duke of Suffolk, or any other abbot of the late monastery of Bermondsey, or any archbishop of Canterbury, or any of them, or others before this time, having or possessing the said manors and other premises, or any parcel thereof, or being thereof seized, ever had, held, or enjoyed, or ought to have or enjoy the same, or any parcel thereof, and as fully, freely and wholly, and in as large manner and form, as all and singular the same came or ought to have come to our hands, or to the hands of our most dear father Henry the eighth, late king of England, by reason or pretence of any charter, gift, grant, or confirmation, or by reason or pretence of the dissolution of the said late monastery, or by any other means or right they came or ought to have come, or as the same now be, or ought to be in our hands.

And all waifs and estrays, treasure found, deodands, &c. in the borough of Southwark, parishes of St. Saviour, St. Olave, St. George, St. Thomas's hospital, &c. and in Kentstreet, Blackman-street, and Newington.

Know ye moreover, that we, as well of our grace, knowledge, and motion aforesaid, and with the advice aforesaid, as for the sum of five hundred marks of lawful money of England, paid into the hands of our treasurer of our court aforesaid, to our use, by the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, whereof we confess us to be fully satisfied, and the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, thereof to be acquitted and discharged by these presents; have given and granted, and by these presents do give and grant, for us and our heirs, to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the city aforesaid, and to their successors, in and through all the borough and town of Southwark aforesaid, and in and through all the parishes of St. Saviour's, St. Olave's, and St. George's in Southwark, and in the parish, and through all the parishes late called St. Thomas's hospital, and now called the king's hospital, in Southwark aforesaid, and elsewhere soever in the said town and borough of Southwark aforesaid, and in Kentishstreet, and in Blackman-street aforesaid, and the parish of Newington, and elsewhere in the said town and borough of Southwark, all goods and chattels waifed, estrays, and all treasure found in the town and precinct aforesaid, and all manner of handywork, goods and chattels of all manner of traitors, felons, fugitive, outlawed, condemned, convicted, and of felons defamed and put in exigent, felons of themselves, and deodands, and denying the law of our land, wheresoever or before whomsoever justice ought to be done of them, and all goods disclaimed, found, and being within the borough, town, parishes, and precincts aforesaid, and also all manner of escheats and forfeitures to us and our heirs may there pertain, as fully and wholly as we should have them, if the said town and borough were in the hands of us, or of our heirs; and that it shall be lawful to the same mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, by their deputy or ministers of the same town and borough, to put themselves in seizin of and in all the handyworks and chattels of all manner of traitors, felons, fugitives, outlawed, condemned, convicted, and of felons defamed, and denying our law of the land, and of other premises; and also of and in all goods disclaimed, found or being within the same borough, town, parishes or precincts aforesaid; and also of and in all escheats and forfeitures to us and our heirs there pertaining.

The assize of bread, wine, &c. in the said places; Execution of writs; A fair and pye-powder in September.

And that the same mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, by themselves, or their deputy, or minister or ministers, shall have in the borough, town, parishes and precincts aforesaid, the assize and essay of bread, wine, beer, and ale, and of all other victuals and things whatsoever set to sale in the town aforesaid; and also all and whatsoever doth or may pertain to the clerk of the market of our house, or of the house of our heirs, together with the correction and punishment of all persons selling wine, bread, beer, ale, and other victuals there to be sold, and of others there dwelling, or exercising arts howsoever, and with all manner of forfeitures, fines and amerciaments to be forfeited, with all other things which therefore do or may there pertain to us, our heirs or successors in time to come; and that they shall have there the execution of all manner of writs of ours, or of our heirs and successors, and of all other writs, commands, extracts and warrants, with the returns of the same, by such their ministers and deputies, whom they shall thereunto choose; and that the same mayor commonalty and citizens, and their successors, shall every year have there, and through all the town, borough, parishes and precincts aforesaid, one fair or mart, to endure three days; that is to say, the seventh, eighth, and ninth days of the month of September, to be holden together with a court of pye-powder, and with all liberties and free customs to such fair pertaining; and that they may have and hold therein, and at the said court, before their minister or deputy, through the said three days, from day to day, and hour to hour, and from time to time, all the actions, plaints and pleas of the said court of pye-powder, together with all summons, attachments, arrests, issues, fines, redemptions and commodities, and other rights whatsoever to the same court of pye-powder by any means belonging, without any impediment, let or disturbance of us, our heirs or successors, or of other our officers or ministers whatsoever; and also that they may have in and through all the precinct aforesaid, view of frankpledge, together with all summons, attachments, arrests, issues and amerciaments, fines, redemptions, profits, commodities, and other things whatsoever, which therefore may or ought there to pertain to us, our heirs and successors, by any means.

The arrest of felons, &c. to be brought to Newgate.

And further, that the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, may, by themselves, or by their minister or deputy, in the borough, town, parishes or precincts aforesaid constitute and to be constituted, take and arrest all manner of felons, thieves and other malefactors found within the borough, town, parishes and precincts aforesaid, and may bring them to our gaol of Newgate, there to be safely kept, until by due process of law they may be delivered.

All and all manner of royal liberties, &c.

And furthermore, that the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, may have in the borough, town, parishes and precincts aforesaid for ever, all and all manner of liberties, privileges, franchises, acquittals, customs and rights, which we or our heirs should or might there have, if the same borough or town were or remained in the hands of us or our heirs.

Trials at Guildhall for debts.

And further, we have, of our grace, knowledge and motion aforesaid, and by the advice aforesaid, granted, and by these presents do grant, for us, our heirs and successors, to the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, that the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, from henceforth for ever, shall and may hold all and all manner of contracts and demands whatsoever, within the town, borough, parishes and precincts aforesaid, chancing, happening and growing, before the mayor and aldermen, and sheriffs of the said city, and the sheriffs of the said city for the time being, or any of them, in the Guildhall of the chamber of the Guildhall and hustings of the said city, or any of them, to be holden by like actions, bills, plaints, process, arrests, judgments, executions, and other things whatsoever, and at the same days and times, and in such-like manner and form, as such happening in the said city have, time out of mind, been taken, held, levied, prosecuted and executed in the court before the mayor and aldermen, and sheriffs of the said city, or in any of them.

Serjeants at mace to serve processes.

And that the serjeants at mace of the city of London, for the time being, which have used to execute and serve any process, or any other things in the said city, may hereafter make, do and execute any manner of process, and do whatsoever things in the said borough, town, parishes and precincts concerning all and singular things arising and happening about such pleas and executions of the same within the precincts aforesaid, as by all the time aforesaid it hath been used in the said city of London.

In all pleas to observe the city forms; To fine defaulters on juries.

And that the inhabitants of the town and borough, parishes and precincts aforesaid, as concerning the causes and matters there arising, may be impleaded and plead in the same city in form aforesaid, and in the courts aforesaid. And, if the men impannelled and summoned in juries for trials of such issues, have not appeared before the said mayor, aldermen and sheriffs in the said courts of the said city, that then such men impannelled and summoned as aforesaid, making default, shall be amerced by the said mayor or sheriffs, and shall forfeit such issues upon them returned and to be returned, after the same, or in like manner and form, as the men impannelled and summoned in the said city for the like issues in the courts of the said city to be tried, have before this time forfeited, and have accustomed to forfeit; and also that such amerciaments and issues forfeited should be levied by the ministers of the said city, to the use of the mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, for ever.

To chuse two coroners. Their power; Lord mayor to be escheater. His power in this office.

And also, that the same mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, shall and may, from henceforth, ever have cognizance of all manner of pleas, actions, plaints, and suits personal, happening or growing out of any court of ours, or of our heirs, before us or our heirs, or before any of the justices, for or concerning any thing, cause or matter within the town, borough, parishes and precincts aforesaid, before the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs, or any of them, in the said courts of the said city, or any of them; and that the issues happening upon the said pleas and suits shall be tried in the same courts, before the mayor and aldermen and sheriffs, or any of them, by the men of the same borough or town, in such fort as issues in the same city are tried; and that the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, may for ever chuse, according to the form of law, and may constitute every year, or as often as, and in what times soever shall seem to them expedient, two coroners in the borough or town aforesaid; and that the said coroners, or either of them, being duly elected and constituted, may and shall have full power and authority to do and execute in the said borough, town, parishes and precincts aforesaid, all and singular things, which to the office of coroner in any county of our realm of England do, or ought to pertain to be done and executed; and that none other coroners of us, our heirs or successors, shall enter into any thing, which to the office of such coroner pertaineth to be done within the said borough, parishes or precincts, neither shall at all intermeddle about any thing belonging to the office of coroner, happening within the borough, town, parishes and precincts abovesaid; and that the mayor of the said city for the time being shall be our escheator, and escheators of our heirs, in the borough, parishes and precincts aforesaid; and that he shall have full power and authority to make his precept and commandment to the sheriff of the county of Surrey for the time being, and do execute and finish there all and singular things which appertain to the office of escheator in any county of our realm; and that none other escheator of ours, or of our heirs, shall enter there into any thing, which to the office of escheator appertaineth to be done, neither shall at all intermeddle with any thing to the office of escheator there belonging.

And clerk of the market.

And that the mayor of the said city for the time being shall be clerk of the market, and of the market of our heirs, within the borough, town, parishes and precincts aforesaid, and shall do and excute therein all such things which to the clerk of the market appertain; and that the clerk of the market of our houses or of the house of our heirs, or any other clerk of the market, intermeddle not there.

To have tolls, stallage, &c.

And that the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, shall and may, from henceforth for ever, have, hold, enjoy and use, as well within the said manor, as in the town, borough, parishes and precincts aforesaid, as well all and singular liberties and franchises aforesaid, as tolls, stallages, pickages, and other our jurisdictions, liberties, franchises and privileges whatsoever, which any archbishop of Canterbury, and which the said Charles late duke of Suffolk, or any master, brethren or sisters of the late hospital of St. Thomas in Southwark aforesaid, or any abbot of the said late monastery of St. Saviour's, St. Bermondsey next Southwark aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, or any prior and convent of the late priory of St. Mary Overy in the said county of Surrey, or any of them, ever had, held or enjoyed in the said manors, lands, tenements, and other the premises or places aforesaid, or any of them, or which we have, hold or enjoy by any ways or means whatsoever, as fully, freely, and in as ample manner, as we, or our most dear father Henry the eighth, late king of England, had, held and enjoyed, or ought to have, hold and enjoy the same; and that none of our sheriffs, or any other officer or minister of ours, or of our heirs or successors, shall any way intermeddle in the town, borough-town, parishes and precincts aforesaid, or in any of them, contrary to this our grant.

That the inhabitants of the town, borough, parishes, &c. aforesaid, shall be subject to the city laws.

And we, with the advice aforesaid, do further, by these presents, grant to the said mayor, commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and to their successors, that all and singular persons, from time to time inhabiting or resident within the town, borough, parishes and places aforesaid, shall from henceforth be in the order, government and correction of the mayor and officers of the city of London, and their deputies, for the time being, as the citizens and inhabitants of the said city of London be and ought to be, by virtue of the charters before this time by any means made, granted and confirmed by any of our progenitors to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city; and their successors shall and may, from henceforth, have, hold, and enjoy so many, so great, the same, such and the like rights, jurisdictions, liberties, franchises and privileges whatsoever, in the towns, parishes and places aforesaid, and in every parcel thereof, as fully, freely and wholly, as the said mayor and commonalty and citizens of the said city enjoy and use, or may have, enjoy and use in the said city, by virtue of any of the charters and grants made, granted and confirmed by any of our progenitors kings of England, to any mayor, commonalty and citizens of the said city.

City justices to act in the places aforesaid.

And that the mayor of the same city for the time being, and the recorder thereof for the time being, after the said aldermen have exercised and borne the charge of mayor of the said city, shall be justices of our peace, and of our heirs, in the town, borough, parishes and limits aforesaid, so long as the same aldermen shall be and remain aldermen of the said city; and every of them shall there do and execute all and singular things, which other justices of our peace, and our heirs, may do and execute within the said county of Surrey, according to the laws and statutes of our realm of England.

A market on Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday. What parts are excepted.

And that the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, shall have, in every week, on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday, within the borough and town aforesaid, one market or markets to be there holden, and all things which to a market do appertain, or may appertain, for ever; except always, and reserved to us, our heirs and successors, out of these our letters patents, all and all manner of rights, jurisdictions, liberties and franchises whatsoever, within the walk, circuit and precinct over the capital messuage, gardens and park in Southwark aforesaid, and in all gardens, curtilages and lands, to the same mansion, gardens and park appertaining; and except and always reserved the house, messuage or lodging there, called the King's-bench, and the garden or gardens to the same pertaining, with the appurtenances, so long as it shall be used for a prison for the imprisoned, as it now is; and except the messuage and lodging there, called the Marshalsea, and the gardens to the same belonging, with the appurtenances, so long as it shall be used for a prison, as now it is.

Proviso for the lord marshal; And Sir John Gate.

Provided also, that these our letters patents, nor any thing therein contained, shall extend to the prejudice of the officers of the great master, steward, and marshall of our house, or of the house of our heirs and successors, to be exercised within the town, borough, parishes and limits aforesaid, be within the verge; nor of Sir John Gate, knight, one of the gentlemen of our privy chamber, of or for lands, tenements, offices, franchises, or liberties, by us or our father to the said John Gate granted during his life; which manors, lands, tenements, rents, privileges, and all other the premises, are now extended to the yearly value of thirty-five pounds fourteen shillings and four pence, to have, hold and enjoy the said manors, messuages, lands, tenements, meadows, feedings, pastures, commons, woods, underwoods, rents, services, reversions, court-leets, views of frankpledge, chattels waifed, strays, free-warrens, and all and singular the said premises, with the appurtenances (except as before excepted) to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, and to their successors, for ever, to be holden of us, and our heirs and successors, as of our manor of East Greenwich in our county of Kent, by fealty only, in free soccage, and not in chief, for all services and demands whatsoever.

We give also, and for the consideration aforesaid, do, by these presents, grant to the said mayor and commonalty, and citizens of the said city of London, all the issues, rents, revenues and profits of the said manors, messuages, lands, tenements, and all other the premises, with their appurtenances, coming and growing from the feast of St. Michael the archangel last past hitherto, to have the same to the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, of our gift, without account, or any other thing to us, our heirs or successors, by any means, therefore to be given, paid or made.

Citizens saved harmless in the premises; Saving what is herein reserved; Saving also 10 l. per ann. for the town of Southwark, antientrent. This charter only to be given in evidence for the proof of the premises.

And furthermore, of our ample grace, we will, and for us, our heirs and successors, do, by these presents, grant to the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, that we, our heirs and successors, will yearly, for ever, discharge, acquit and save harmless, as well the said mayor and commonalty and citizens, and their successors, as the said manors, messuages, lands, tenements, and all other the premises, with their appurtenances, and every part thereof, against us, our heirs and successors, and against whatsoever persons, concerning all and all manner of corodies, rents, fees, annuities, sums of money and charges whatsoever, by any means, going out, or to be paid out of the premises, or to be charged thereupon; saving the services above by these presents reserved, and the demises and grants by any means made for terms of life, or years of the premises, or any parcel, whereupon the old rent and more is reserved, and shall be due yearly, during the terms aforesaid, and besides the covenants in those demises and grants being; and saving ten pounds by the year, of the antient farm, for the town of Southwark aforesaid, by the mayor and commonalty and citizens due, in our exchequer yearly to be paid and payable; willing, and by these presents, by streight injunction, commanding, as well our chancellor and general overseers, and council of our said court of augmentations and revenues of our crown, and all receivers, auditors, and other our officers of ours, or of our heirs, whatsoever, for the time being, that they and every of them, upon the only shewing of these our letters patents, or of the inrolments of the same, without any other writ or warrant from us or our heirs by any means to be obtained and prosecuted, shall make and cause to be made unto the said mayor and commonalty and citizens of the said city of London, and their successors, full power and due allowance, and manifest discharge of all such corodies, rents, fees, annuities and sums of money whatsoever, going out, or to be paid out of the premises, or thereupon charged or to be charged, except as before excepted; and these our letters patents, and the inrolment of the same, shall be yearly, and from time to time, a sufficient warrant and discharge, as well to the said chancellor and general overseers, and to our council of our said court of augmentations and revenues of our crown, as to all receivers, auditors, and other officers and ministers of ours, our heirs and successors whatsoever, for the time being, in this behalf.

To be sealed without fee or fine.

We will also, and by these presents, do grant to the said mayor and commonalty and citizens of the said city of London, that they may and shall have these our letters patents in due manner made and sealed under our great seal of England, without fine or fee, great or small, to us, in our hamper, or elsewhere to our use, to be by any means given, paid or made, although express mention be not made in these presents of the true yearly value, or of the certainty of the premises, or of other gifts or grants of us, or by any of our progenitors, to the said mayor and commonalty and citizens before this time made; any statute, act, ordinance, provision or restraint thereof made, ordained or provided to the contrary, or any thing, cause or matter whatsoever in any thing notwithstanding.

In witness whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patents: Witness myself at Westminster, the twenty-third day of April, in the fourth year of our reign.

No. XLI. Queen Elizabeth's Proclamation against new Buildings in and about London. [See p. 136.]

The Queenes Majestie perceiving the state of the citie of London (being aunciently termed her chambre) and the suburbes and confines thereof to increase dayly, by accesse of people to inhabite in the same, in such ample sort, as thereby many inconveniencies are seene already, but many greater of necessity like to followe, being such as her majestie cannot neglect to remedie, having the principal care, under Almightie God, to foresee aforehand, to have her people in such a citie and confines not onlie well-governed by ordinarie justice, to serve God and obey her majestie, (which, by reason of such multitudes lately increased, can hardly be done without devise of more new jurisdictions and officers for that purpose) but to be also provided of sustentation of victual, foode, and other like necessaries for man's life, upon reasonable prices, without which no citie can long continue.

And finally, to the preservation of her people in health, which may seem impossible to continue, though presently, by God's goodness, the same is perceived to be in better estate universally, than hath been in man's memorie; yet where there are such great multitudes of people brought to inhabite in small roomes, whereof a great part are seene very poore, yea, such as must live of begging, or by worse means, and they heaped up together, and in a sort smothered with many families of children and servantes in one house or small tenement; it must needes followe, if any plague or popular sicknes should, by God's permission, enter amongst those multitudes, that the same would not only spread itself, and invade the whole citie and confines, but that a great mortalitie would ensue the same, where her majesties personal presence is many times required: besides the great confluence of people from all partes of the realme, by reason of the ordinary termes of justice there holden, the infection would be also dispersed through all other partes of the realme, to the manifest danger of the whole body thereof; out of the which neither her majesties owne person can be (but by God's special ordinance) exempted, nor any other, whatsoever they be.

For remedie whereof, as time may now serve, until by some further good order, be had in parliament or otherwise, the same may be remedied; her majestie, by good and deliberate advise of her counsell, and being also thereto moved by the considerate opinions of the lorde-mayor, aldermen, and other the grave wise men in and about the citie, doth charge and straightly command all manner of persons, of what qualitie soever they be, to desist and forbeare from any new buildings of any house or tenement within three miles from any of the gates of the said citie of London, to serve for habitation or lodging for any person, where no former house hath bene knowen to have been in the memorie of such as are now living; and also to forbeare from letting or setting, or suffering any more families then one onely to be placed or to inhabite from henceforth in any one house that heretofore hath bene inhabited.

And to the intent this her majesties royal commandment and necessary provision may take place, and be duely observed, for so universal a benefite to the whole body of the realme, for whose respects all particular persons are bound, by God's lawe and man's to forbear from their particular and extraordinarie lucre; her majestie straightly chargeth the lorde-mayor of the citie of London, and all other officers having authoritie in the same, and also all justices of peace, lordes and bailifes of liberties not being within the jurisdiction of the said lorde-mayor of London, to foresee, that no person do begin to prepare any foundation for any new house, tenement, or building, to serve to receive or hold any inhabitants to dwell or lodge, or to use any victualling therein, where no former habitation hath bene in the memorie of such as now do live; but that they be prohibited and restrained so to do. And both the persons that shall so attempt to the contrary, and all manner of workmen that shall (after warning given) continue in any such work tending to such newe buildings, to be committed to close prison, and there to remain without baile, until they find good sureties, with bonds for reasonable sums of money (to be forfeitable and recoverable at her majesties suite, for the use of the hospitals in and about the said city) that they will not at any time hereafter attempt the like.

And further the said officers shall seaze all manner of stuff, so (after warning given) brought to the place where such newe buildings shall be intended, and the same cause to be converted and employed in any publick use for the city or parish where the same shall be attempted.

And for the avoyding of the multitudes of families heaped up in one dwelling-house, or for the converting of any one house into a multitude of such tenements for dwelling or victualling-places, the said lord-mayor, and all other officers, in their several liberties within the limites of three miles, as above mentioned, shall commit any person giving cause of offence, from the day of the publication of this present proclamation, to close prison, as is afore limited.

And also for the offences in this part of increase of many indwellers, or, as they be commonly termed, inmates or undersitters, which have been suffered within these seven years, contrary to the good auncient laws or customes of the city, or of the boroughes and parishes within the foresaid limit of three miles afore-mentioned, the said lorde-mayor, and the other officers above-mentioned, shall speedily cause to be redressed in their ordinarie courtes and law dayes, betwixt this and the feast of All-Saintes next coming; within which times such undersitters or inmates may provide themselves other places abroade in the realme, where many houses rest uninhabited, to the decay of divers auncient boroughes and townes. And, because her majestie intendeth to have this ordinance duely executed, her pleasure is, that the said lorde-mayor of London, and other the officers, having jurisdiction within the said space of three miles above-mentioned, shall, after the proclamation hereof, as speedily as they may, meete in some convenient place near to the said city, and there (after conference had) accord among themselves how to proceed to the execution hereof; and, if any cause shall so require, to imparte to her majesties privy counsell, any let or impediment that may arise, to the intent that remedy be given to any such impediment, according to her majesties pleasure heretofore expressed.

Given at Nonesuch, the seventh day of July, 1580, in the two-and-twentieth year of her majesties reign.