Hay - Herbrandston

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1849

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Pages

411-418

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'Hay - Herbrandston', A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (1849), pp. 411-418. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=47833 Date accessed: 02 October 2014.


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Hay

HAY, a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Tàlgarth, county of Brecknock, South Wales; containing 2160 inhabitants, of whom 1455 are in the town of Hay, 15 miles (N. E. by E.) from Brecknock, and 154 (W. by N.) from London, on the road through Hereford to Brecknock, Carmarthen, and Pembroke-Dock. The Welsh name of this town is Tregelli, variously rendered Hazelton, "the town in the hazel grove," or simply "the town in the forest," and probably derived from its proximity to the extensive forest of Travele, Traneley, or Traneleia, so frequently mentioned in ancient grants, though no longer in existence. Its present legal name is supposed to be a modernised Norman translation of the Welsh appellation, having been derived from the Norman word haier, to inclose, and anciently written Haia. Leland and Camden are both of opinion that the town was occupied by the Romans; and the former writer states that Roman coins, which the country people called Jews' money, and also the foundations of ancient buildings, had been discovered here. These relics, however, have long since disappeared, not even the memory of them being now preserved on the spot; and modern writers commonly ascribe to the town a Norman origin.

On the conquest of Brecknock by Bernard Newmarch, that powerful leader, in his division of the newly-acquired territory, granted the manor of Hay to Sir Philip Walwyn, who, in the opinion of some writers, erected here a castle for his own residence and the security of his domains. He does not appear, however, to have long remained in possession; for, by a grant made by William Revel, to the Benedictine priory at Brecknock, of the church of St. Mary "at the Hay," it is said to be given with the consent of his lord, Bernard Newmarch, who was present at the dedication, and to whom the entire domain seems to have belonged. The manor of Hay henceforward descended with the other possessions of this nobleman; and all accounts concur in stating that the castle was at last re-erected by his great-grandson on the female side, William de Breos; some even considering him its sole founder, while, according to the vulgar tradition of the place, its erection was effected in one night by the prodigious strength of his wife, Maud de St. Valeri, more familiarly known among the Welsh peasantry by the name of "Moll Walbee." Many other marvellous tales are related of the exploits of this lady, whom authentic history proves to have been a woman of masculine courage and understanding.

Upon the attainder of William de Breos, the manor of Hay, with the other possessions of that nobleman, was forfeited to the crown; but it was shortly restored, with the rest, to his son Giles, Bishop of Hereford. The prelate was succeeded in these possessions by his younger brother Reginald, who had married a daughter of Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, and, with his father-inlaw, joined the confederacy of the English barons against King John, who, highly incensed, advanced at the head of an army into this part of the Marches in 1215, laid waste the country, and plundered Hay Castle. The fortress was afterwards entirely demolished by the Welsh, but, in 1231, was rebuilt by Henry III., who, having no other immediate object to accomplish, employed upon this work the army which he then commanded in person in the Marches. In 1233, it was taken by Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales, together with all the other castles belonging to the English in the ancient territory of Brycheiniog, except that of the borough of Brecknock. In 1263 it was taken by Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I., who being himself taken prisoner with his royal father, in the following year, the confederate forces of Llewelyn ab Grufydd and the English barons, under Simon de Montfort, regained possession of it, and set it on fire. The decay and ruin which characterised the place in the reign of Henry VIII., when visited by Leland, and even down to a much later period, are ascribed to the frequent irruptions made by Owain Glyndwr into the Marches; and from an instrument dated at Devynock, in September 1403, it appears that many of the inhabitants of this lordship were suspected of favouring the cause of the Welsh chieftain.

After the death of the last Duke of Buckingham of the Stafford family, Hay Castle was restored to his son, the Lord Stafford. It afterwards, by some irregular means, became the property of James Boyle, as part of the possessions of the priory at Hereford, to which it had never belonged; and, in the reign of James I., descended to Howel Gwyn of Trêcastle, by marriage with Mary, grand-daughter of Boyle. This gentleman, it is supposed, erected on part of the castle site a mansion still standing, which appears, from the style of its architecture, to have been built in the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, or in that of James I. On the death of Mrs. Gwyn, in 1702, it was let in apartments to different families; but it is now occupied as a gentleman's residence.

The town is pleasantly situated on the southern bank of the river Wye, which here separates the counties of Brecknock and Radnor, but immediately below enters that of Hereford; and is bounded on the east by the small river Dulas, which falls into the Wye at this place, after dividing for some distance the counties of Brecknock and Hereford. It consists of one principal thoroughfare, extending nearly parallel with the Wye, and of several other streets diverging from the main line in different directions; one of these leads north-westward to the church, another south-eastward round the castle, a third due east to the market-place, and a fourth northward to the same point. Within the present century its improvement has been very great, and steadily progressive. The streets have been paved, and in many places considerably widened; various unsightly obstructions have been removed, old houses modernised, and several new ones of a highly respectable appearance built, among the latter of which is an excellent hotel and posting-house, called the Swan. A spacious new church has been erected, and two new market-houses; the streets are lighted with gas, and by the spirited exertions of a few individuals, a small police force has been established. At the extremity of one of the streets is a bridge over the Wye, partly of stone and partly of wood, replacing a handsome stone bridge of seven arches, destroyed by a flood in 1795, and some remains of which form part of the present structure. Toll is taken on this bridge under the authority of an act of parliament obtained in the 29th of George II., granting that privilege for a term of ninety-eight years, from the first day of August 1763, at the expiration of which the bridge is to be toll-free. The air is remarkably salubrious; the environs comprehend much of the fine scenery that adorns the banks of the Wye, and from the higher grounds in the parish are some charming views over the adjacent country, which abounds with objects of interest and with features of pastoral beauty. A woollen manufactory affords employment to between seventy and eighty persons, chiefly in making fine Welsh flannels, and flannel shirting for the colliers and miners in the more southern manufacturing districts.

The situation of the place, in the centre of a large and fertile agricultural district, on the confines of three counties, is highly favourable for trade, although but little use has hitherto been made of its natural advantages. The Wye, however, is only navigable to its vicinity after excessive floods, and then merely for flat-bottomed barges, which are occasionally used for the conveyance of timber hence to Chepstow, when the annual fall in this part is greater than the consumption. The town and its neighbourhood enjoy the advantage of obtaining coal and lime from the confines of the counties of Brecknock, Glamorgan, and Monmouth, by means of the Hay tramroad, the wagons on which return laden with agricultural produce to the southern mining districts. This line of communication was constructed early in the present century, extending from the head of the Brecknockshire canal, at Brecknock, to Eardisley and Kington in the county of Hereford. The market, which is abundantly supplied with grain, and with provisions of every kind, is on Thursday; and fairs, which are well attended, for the sale of cattle, pigs, hardware, &c., are held annually on May 17th, the second Monday in June, on August 12th, and October 10th. In the reign of James I., a market, in addition to the present, was held weekly on Monday, but it has been discontinued.

Hay was anciently a borough by prescription, and a bailiff is still appointed, but he does not exercise magisterial authority: the town is wholly under the jurisdiction of the county magistrates; and the borough court for the recovery of debts has long been disused. The lord of the manor holds a court leet and court baron annually, at the former of which the bailiff is elected, whose duties are now confined to billeting soldiers, and receiving the tolls of the market and fairs. These tolls, being formerly uncertain, and exacted at the will of the lord in an arbitrary manner, gave rise, in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., to frequent disputes, which in several instances were not terminated without loss of life. After various complaints, the attorney-general, at Michaelmas term in the 6th of James I., filed an information against Howel Gwyn, then lord of the manor, to show by what right he exercised such arbitrary authority. This cause having been settled by the payment of a sum of money, a new grant was made to the lord, in which his brother-in-law, James Tomkins, was included; but a second information was filed in Hilary term, in the 4th of Charles I., in which they are charged with imprisoning several persons, and extorting large sums, by way of toll, from those who frequented the market and fairs. The tolls are now fixed and certain. The powers of the county debt-court of Hay, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Hay.

The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £7. 0. 5., endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £400 royal bounty, and in the patronage of J. Bailey, Esq.; present net income, £140; impropriator, Thomas A. Williams, Esq. The ancient parochial church, dedicated to St. John, and situated in the centre of the town, was, in 1684, in sufficient repair to be used as a school-house, though it had long ceased to be appropriated to the performance of divine service. In 1700, part of this building fell down, since which time the whole has been removed, and the site is now occupied by a small prison, or lock-up house. The next church was dedicated to St. Mary, and situated at the western extremity of the town, overlooking the Wye. It was a small structure, in the early style of English architecture, with a square tower at the west end; and comprised a nave and chancel, containing 400 sittings, of which forty were free: the pointed arch over the principal entrance, and that separating the nave from the chancel, were enriched with numerous mouldings, and with the toothed ornament. The edifice was rebuilt in 1833-4, in a neat substantial manner, and now contains 720 sittings, of which more than 300 are free and unappropriated. The sacramental chalice, which is of silver, bears the inscription "Our Lady Paris of the Haia," and is apparently of great antiquity. In the churchyard, which is of very small extent, and commands a fine view over part of the Vale of Wye, is an effigy of stone, much defaced, generally supposed to represent some female, and, according to the common tradition of the people, placed there in memory of their celebrated townswoman, Maud de St. Valeri, or Waleri, wife of William de Breos; according to Mr. Jones, however, it was more probably designed to commemorate one of the monks of Brecknock, to whose monastery the church and its dependencies were attached. Between the churchyard and the town is a deep moat communicating with the Wye, which river flows under the northern side of the cemetery. An ancient chapel, noticed by Leland as being situated in the environs of the town, has long since wholly disappeared. There are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyan Methodists, Independents, and Welsh Calvinistic Methodists. In the year 1827, National schools were established for children of both sexes, and rooms erected at an expense of £527, of which £213 were raised by voluntary subscription, and £150 were granted by the parent society in London, the deficiency being supplied by the Rev. Humphrey Allen. These schools were re-established on a superior plan, but still in connexion with the National Society, in 1845, through the laudable exertions of the vicar, the Rev. William L. Bevan. They are each supported by subscriptions and schoolpence; the boys' school is aided also with £14 per annum, paid by the Governors of Christ's Hospital, London, under the will of William Pennoyre, Esq., who in 1670 left £12 per annum to a master for instructing twelve boys of the parish, together with £2 for the purchase of books, charged on his estate called Upper Vaunces, situate at Pulham St. Mary's, Norfolk. Another school, established in the year 1846, and held in the Baptist meeting-house, is supported by the charity of Edward Goff, Esq., administered by the trustees under his will; the master's salary is £50 per annum. There are also several Sunday schools in the town.

An almshouse for six aged persons was founded by Mrs. Elizabeth Gwyn (daughter and coheiress of Thomas Gwyn, of Hay Castle, Esq.), who died in 1702, bequeathing a house lately built by her, without the Water-gate of the town, for the residence of six of the most poor and helpless inhabitants of the town and parish, to be appointed by the lord of the manor, the churchwardens, and the overseers. This house Mrs. Gwyn endowed with a tenement and lands called Pen-y-Wern, in the parish of Disserth, in the county of Radnor, comprising above fiftyeight acres, and producing a rent of £20 per annum; also with £100 to be invested in purchasing other land, which was accordingly very profitably laid out in the purchase of a tenement called Bry;nrhŷd, consisting of nearly seventy acres, paying a rent of similar amount, and adjoining that of Pen-y-Wern. The rents of both, amounting to £40, are appropriated to the maintenance of the almspeople; as also is the interest of £300, vested in three per cent. stock, the amount of a single sale of timber cut from the Pen-y-Wern estate; and the interest of a further sum of £670, arising from a second sale of timber, on the Brynrhŷd property. This latter sum was recovered for the parish by Mr. James Spencer, solicitor, of the town, in whose hands it still remains, at an annual interest of five per cent. The present trustees of Mrs. Gwyn's charity are, six of the principal inhabitants of the town, with the churchwardens and overseers for the time being: the inmates of the almshouses are usually females. The parish participates to a small extent in the benefit of the charities of the Rev. Rice Powell, vicar of Boughrood, which are described fully in the article on the town of Brecknock. Several other bequests, made to the poor of the parish, have been lost, viz., £2. 10. per annum, charged on the estate of Lord Hereford; ten shillings per annum, charged by William Watkins, of Pen-yrWrlodd, on his estate; and thirteen shillings and fourpence, charged on a tenement in the borough of Brecknock, by James Watkins; with other small donations. Near the western entrance into the town are two remarkably neat stone buildings in the Elizabethan style of architecture, comprising, the one six, and the other twelve, small cottages of two rooms each, lately erected at the expense of Miss Martha Harley, of Bayswater, in the county of Middlesex, who has endowed them as almshouses. The poor-law union of which this town is the head, was formed Sept. 26th, 1836, and comprises the following twenty-five parishes and townships; namely, Hay, Aberllyvni, Bronllŷs, Glynvâch, Llanelieu, Llanigon, Llyswen, Pipton, Tàlgarth and its hamlets, and Velindre with Trêgoed, in the county of Brecknock; Bredwardine, Clifford, Cusop, Dorstone, and Witney, in the county of Hereford; and Boughrood, Bry;n-Gwyn, Bettws-Clyro, Clyro, Glâsbury, Llanbedr-Painscastle, Llanddewi-Vâch, LlandeiloGraban, Llanstephan, and Llowes, in the county of Radnor. It is under the superintendence of twentyseven guardians, and contains a total population of 11,330.

The town was anciently surrounded by a wall; and, when visited by Leland, three of its gates and a postern were still standing. Near the church is a mound, noticed by the same antiquary as having probably been thrown up for some "fortres of bataille," and which was once, perhaps, the site of a prison for the lordship of Hay. There are likewise some remains of the castle, consisting chiefly of a fine old gateway, beautifully mantled with ivy, affording evidence of the ancient grandeur and importance of this fortress, together with some walls, which are supposed to be portions of the castle raised by Henry III., and are now incorporated with the more modern edifice, erected on part of the site in the reign of Elizabeth or James I. In the reign of Henry VIII., some ruins of a gentleman's house in the town were pointed out to Leland as the remains of the mansion which had been the residence of Sir Elias Walwyn, who, in the year 1282, conducted the English army across the river Wye, near Builth, in pursuit of Llewelyn ab Grufydd, the last Prince of Wales of native British blood, whose melancholy death immediately ensued. At a short distance from the town, within the limits of the parish, stands Oakfield, a substantial modern mansion.

Hayscastle (Hays-Castle)

HAYSCASTLE (HAYS-CASTLE), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dewisland, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 7½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Haverfordwest; containing 366 inhabitants. This parish, which is of considerable extent, is for the greater part inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The living is a discharged vicarage, consolidated with that of Brawdy: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £150, and the vicarial tithes for £30. The church is dedicated to St. Mary; and at the small village of Ford, in the parish, is a chapel of ease. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists; and two or three Sunday schools supported by the dissenters. Several tumuli were formerly discernible, but they have been nearly levelled.

Hendredenny (Hendre-Denni)

HENDREDENNY (HENDRE-DENNI), a hamlet, in the parish of Eglwysilan, union of Cardiff, hundred of Caerphilly, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 5½ miles (E. S. E.) from Newbridge; containing 472 inhabitants. It is situated on the south-eastern declivity of a lofty hill, called Mynydd Moylo, and on the right bank of a stream, which separates it from the hamlet of Energlyn. On the banks of this stream are some iron-works, with a few pleasing residences and well-wooded inclosures.

Hêndrevorvydd (Hêndre-Forfudd)

HÊNDREVORVYDD (HÊNDRE-FORFUDD), with Penallt, a parcel, in the parish of Llangattock, union and hundred of Crickhowel, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 2 miles (N. W.) from Crickhowel: the population is returned with the parish. This parcel comprises the northern portion of the parish, and the Brecknock canal passes through the lower part of it, nearly parallel with the river Usk.

Hêndrevygillt (Hêndre-Figyll)

HÊNDREVYGILLT (HÊNDRE-FIGYLL), a hamlet, in the parish of Halkin, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales, 4 miles (S.) from Holywell; containing 548 inhabitants. It is situated close to the road between Northop and Holywell, and the inhabitants are principally employed at the lead-mines in the district. There is a pleasing prospect of the estuary of the Dee, and the county of Chester, on the approach to this place from Flint.

Hêneglwys (Hên-Eglwys)

HÊNEGLWYS (HÊN-EGLWYS), a parish, in the hundred of Malltraeth, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 2 miles (W.) from Llangevni, and on the Holyhead road; containing 466 inhabitants. This parish, the name of which signifies "the old church," comprises by computation about 2000 acres; upwards of half the surface is arable, and the remainder pasture, with about 50 acres of waste land. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Bodwrog, on the east by that of Llangevni, on the south by that of Llangrystyolys, and on the west by that of Trêvwalchmai. The surface exhibits no distinguishing features except towards the south, where it becomes uneven and rocky, and is well adapted for planting; the soil is for the most part thin and wet, with a gravelly substratum, and the chief produce is oats. A brook flows through the east end of Hêneglwys, close by the only hamlet in it, named Bodfordd: on the south-west side of the parish is Tre'rgov, a gentleman's seat. The situation of the parish, about half-way between Bangor and Holyhead, on the new line of road, has rendered it a place of some traffic; and the Mona Inn, a spacious and commodious hotel and posting-house, has been erected in this vicinity for the accommodation of travellers; but the situation is bleak and exposed, and the immediate neighbourhood uninviting, consisting chiefly of swampy flats and rocky promontories.

The living is a discharged rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Trêvwalchmai annexed, rated in the king's books at £9. 3. 4.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for a rent-charge of £250, and the glebe consists of nineteen acres, valued at £20 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Llwydian, was entirely demolished and rebuilt in the year 1845, being in so ruinous a condition as to be no longer safe for the performance of divine service. It was an edifice of the end of the fourteenth century, and perhaps occupied the site of a still older building; the occurrence of some rude sculpture, and of stones bearing zigzag mouldings, as well as the font itself, pointing to the apparent date of the first edifice, namely, antecedent to the fourteenth century, and dating probably from the eleventh. In rebuilding the church in 1845, care was taken to preserve the same site, with the same plan and the same style as marked the former structure. The old materials were employed over again; a new east window, a facsimile of the previous one, but rather more lofty, inserted; the pitch of the gable heightened, buttresses added at the angles, and the font, with whatever remains of ancient times occurred, preserved and replaced. An inscription, not hitherto deciphered, was found in taking down the church, and was carefully placed in the new edifice. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; also two Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Church, and the other with the Calvinistic body.

William Bold, in the year 1688, bequeathed a tenement and some land in the parish, containing about thirty-four acres, called Tyddyn-y-Tylodion, and now yielding a rent of £27. 6. per annum, to the poor of Hêneglwys and Trêvwalchmai. To this property an allotment of nearly four acres and three-quarters was adjudged on a subsequent inclosure of the common land; the allotment is now let at £2 per annum, and the amount of both rents is equally divided, and distributed among the poor of the respective parishes. The Rev. Hugh Hughes, a late rector, also devised two farms containing about forty-seven acres, and producing a rent of £30, directing that £2 should be annually applied to apprenticing a boy of the parish, 10s. to the poor, 10s. to the church, and similar sums to the two last items to the parish of Trêvwalchmai, the residue to be retained by the rector of this parish. With the portion applicable to apprenticing a poor boy a fund has been formed, and one is so placed out every three years, who is clothed at the expense of the parish.

Hêngoed

HÊNGOED, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Llanelly, hundred of Carnawllon, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 2 miles (N.) from Llanelly; containing 1513 inhabitants, some of whom are employed in the coal trade and in manufactures. The name refers to an ancient wood by which this district was formerly covered. The tramroad from Llanelly to Mynydd Mawr passes through the hamlet of Hêngoed.

Hêngoed

HÊNGOED, a hamlet, in the parish of Gellygaer, union of Merthyr-Tydvil, hundred of Caerphilly, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 10 miles (S. E.) from Merthyr-Tydvil; containing 519 inhabitants. It forms the south-eastern portion of the parish, and was formerly covered with wood, as the name implies. The river Romney, which is here crossed by two bridges, separates it from Monmouthshire on the east; and part of the inhabitants consist of respectable families, whose residences are scattered on the banks of this river and the streams falling into it.

Hênllan (Hên-Llan)

HÊNLLAN (HÊN-LLAN), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, Upper division of the hundred of Troedyraur, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 3½ miles (E.) from Newcastle-Emlyn, on the turnpike-road to Carmarthen; containing 127 inhabitants. It is beautifully situated on the river Teivy, over which here is an ancient bridge of three arches, with projecting angular piers. The area of the parish is 270 acres, of which 35 are common or waste. The scenery on the banks of the Teivy, at this place, is strikingly beautiful; the channel of the stream is contracted by huge masses of projecting rock, over which the river rushes with great impetuosity, and the banks on both sides are ornamented with extensive and luxuriant groves. In the parish are some interesting cascades, formed by the Teivy, a little above the bridge; these are called Frwdiau Hênllan, or the "Hênllan falls," and are the most picturesque in this part of the Vale of Teivy. Hênllan is within the lordship of Dyfryn Teivy and Atpar, belonging to the Bishop of St. David's, and comprising the entire parishes of Bangor and Hênllan, with part of that of Llandyvrîog, and two farms in that of Llandysilio-Gogo: courts for the lordship are held at Trebedw, in this parish. The living is a rectory not in charge, annexed to the discharged rectory of Bangor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £25. 18.; and there is a glebe of four acres, valued at £7 per annum. The church is a very small edifice, not characterized by any remarkable architectural feature, but interesting from its secluded and picturesque situation. There are two Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other belonging to the Calvinistic Methodists, who have a place of worship in the parish.

Hênllan (Hên-Llan)

HÊNLLAN (HÊN-LLAN), a parish, in the union of St. Asaph, hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 2 miles (N. W.) from Denbigh; containing 2601 inhabitants. This parish is fifteen miles in length, and in some places more than seven in breadth, though averaging about four miles. It extends from St. Asaph, on the north-east, to the source of the river Aled, near Llanrwst, on the south-west; embracing a large tract of country, parts of it richly wooded; and abounding with gentlemen's seats, in the grounds belonging to several of which are some of the most majestic oaks in the principality. The scenery is finely diversified, and from some of the higher grounds are obtained extensive and delightful views of the surrounding country, which is in many places characterized by features of great interest and beauty. About 6000 acres of waste land in the parish, together with the adjacent 2000 acres forming the tract called Denbigh Green, were inclosed under the authority of an act of parliament obtained in 1802; these lands are chiefly on the Hiraethog hills, and some portions of them have a sound soil upon limestone, while others are heathy and peaty: in making the inclosure, fifteen miles of new roads were formed. There are several isolated limestone rocks, containing lead-ore. The village is partly within the limits of the borough of Denbigh, in returning a member for which place, the inhabitants of the portion so included are entitled to vote: in the township of Bannister Uchâv is even included a considerable part of two streets of the town of Denbigh.

The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £165, with a glebe-house; patron, the Dean of St. Asaph. The church, dedicated to St. Sadwrn, was taken down, and rebuilt upon an enlarged scale, in 1806: the new edifice, which is a neat plain structure, occupies the site of the ancient church, and is situated on a declivity; the tower, a massive square pile, presenting each of its angles towards one of the cardinal points, and which was always detached, stands on the summit of a rock adjoining the road, and at a distance of fifty-five feet to the east of the church. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, and for Independents. A National school, containing separate rooms for boys and girls, was erected in 1829, by subscription, aided by a grant from the parent society, and in this establishment about a hundred children receive gratuitous instruction; it is supported by subscription, aided by an endowment of £3. 10. per annum. In another part of the parish, on the confines of two other parishes, is the Bynamlwg school, also in connexion with the Church, and supported by subscription, but held in a mere cottage rented for the purpose. Five Sunday schools are held, four of them belonging to the dissenters.

Of the several charities in the parish, the most considerable is the income arising from the BerthenGron farm, in the parish of Llanvwrog, which comprises twenty acres, including a small portion gained under the Llanvwrog inclosure act, and now produces £31 per annum. The estate was purchased in 1721, for £190, principally arising from a bequest of £100 by Mrs. Slater in 1712, another of £20 by William Vaughan, and other parish funds. Of the rent, a sum of £6. 15. is appropriated among six poor men and six women, to fulfil the object of Mrs. Slater's benefaction. Timber on two occasions was cut on the farm, which produced above £200 to the parish. Some other bequests, principally one of £182 by Lady Shelburne in 1782, were expended in 1814, to the amount of £450, in erecting ten cottages, comprising twenty-three apartments, for as many poor persons, on a piece of waste land in the village; in the centre was a schoolroom, but on the erection of the National schools by subscription, this portion was converted into other dwellings. Exclusively of the charities appropriated to the above purposes, are some rent-charges, the amount of which is generally distributed on St. Thomas's day, among the poor: one is a sum of £2 given by Robert Williams in 1730, derived from a messuage called Brook house; and there is a sum of £1. 15., charged on Glythe in 1727, including a small quarry allotted to the parish under the Hênllan inclosure act, about 1802. About five other charities have been lost.

At the bottom of Vale-street, Denbigh, but within the township of Bannister-Uchâv, formerly stood a Carmelite priory, founded, according to some accounts, by John Salusbury, of Lleweny or Lleweni, before the year 1289, in which he died; but according to others, by John Sunimore, in 1399. It flourished, and formed the mausoleum of the Salusbury family, until the Dissolution, when its revenue was granted to Richard Andrews and William L'Isle. The ruins of the priory church have been converted into a malthouse, but the window-frames, richly ornamented, still remain; and on the site of this ancient establishment, now called the Abbey, a genteel mansion has been erected. Lleweny, in the parish, was the residence of Prince Davydd, brother of Llewelyn ab Grufydd, and who was cruelly put to death at Shrewsbury by Edward I. The old mansion of Foxhall, now in ruins, was the residence of the celebrated antiquary, Humphrey Llwyd, who died there, and was buried at Whitchurch, near Denbigh, where a mural monument was erected to his memory, on which is his effigy, in a Spanish dress, kneeling at an altar. In Gwaynynog park, in the parish, is a monumental urn to the memory of Dr. Johnson.— See the article on Denbigh.

Hênllan (Hên-Llan)

HÊNLLAN (HÊN-LLAN), a hamlet, forming that part of the parish of Llandewi-Velvrey which is in the hundred of Dungleddy, in the union of Narberth, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 2 miles (N. E.) from Narberth, and containing 43 inhabitants. It appears to have taken its name, signifying "the old church," from a chapel of ease which, according to tradition, originally existed here. A considerable portion of the land is called "the Bishop's," and it is not improbable that, being in a detached portion of the hundred of Dungleddy, entirely surrounded by that of Narberth, Hênllan was originally wholly held under the see, and that the occupiers of it did service at Lawhaden, the principal residence of the bishops of St. David's. A seat bearing the same name as the hamlet is pleasantly situated on an eminence within its limits. No remains exist of the ancient chapel; but there is a place of worship for Baptists. In this part of the parish are two old British encampments, one called Cyra, probably a corruption of Caerau, the other Pen-y-Gaer; but no particulars of their origin have been recorded. A pot of silver coins was dug up on a farm in the hamlet, but, being sold immediately on their discovery, no account of the coins has been preserved. The inhabitants are assessed for the repair of their own roads, but do not separately support their poor.

Hênllan-Amgoed (Hên-Llan-Amgoed)

HÊNLLAN-AMGOED (HÊN-LLAN-AMGOED), a parish, in the union of Narberth, Lower division of the hundred of Derllŷs, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from St. Clear's, and on the old road from Llanboidy to Narberth; containing, with the chapelry of Eglwys Vair y Chyrig, which supports its own poor, 438 inhabitants, of whom 150 are in the township of Hênllan-Amgoed. This parish, which is situated on the river Tâf, is more than three miles in length, and two in breadth, and is for the most part inclosed and cultivated. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6. 10. 5., with the chapelry annexed; present net income, £86: the patronage belongs to the landed proprietors of the parish. There is a place of worship for Independents, from which five other places of worship in the neighbourhood have originated. In a field in the parish, near a place called Cevn Varchen, is a Roman monumental stone, on which is inscribed, in rude characters, Caii Menvendani filii Barcuni; and in the vicinity are several remains of Roman and British antiquity. The late Rev. Nathaniel Rowlands, son of the well-known Daniel Rowlands of Llangeitho, was buried at this place; he was chaplain to the Duke of Gordon, and to Lady Huntingdon, and was one of the most popular preachers of his time.

Hênllŷs

HÊNLLŶS, a township, in the parish of Llanvihangel-Geneu'r-Glyn, union of Aberystwith, Upper division of the hundred of Geneu'r-Glyn, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Aberystwith; containing 482 inhabitants.

Henry's-Moat

HENRY'S-MOAT, a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 10½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Haverfordwest; containing 338 inhabitants. This place derives its name from an ancient tumulus in the form of a truncated cone, surrounded by a moat, and in all probability formerly surmounted by a military work, called by the Welsh Castell Hêndrêv, or "the castle of the old town." The parish comprises 3166 acres. It is for the greater part inclosed, and in a good state of cultivation; the portions of uninclosed land, consisting chiefly of heath and turbaries, afford pasturage for sheep, and supply the principal fuel of the inhabitants. The soil is various, being rich and fertile in the lower and cultivated grounds, but in other parts poor and unproductive. The scenery, though not distinguished by any striking peculiarity of feature, is generally pleasing; the views over the adjacent country are interesting, and in some instances extensive. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £5. 6. 8., and endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £200 royal bounty; patron, W. H. Scourfield, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £145; and there is a glebe of about 5¼ acres, valued at £5 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Bernard, presents no architectural details of importance. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents, with a Sunday school held in each of them; also a Sunday school held by the Calvinistic Methodists, in a dwelling-house. St. Mary's Well, about three miles from the church, and within three-quarters of a mile of St. Mary's church, but in this parish, is stated to afford relief to such as are afflicted with rheumatism.

Hênvynyw (Hên-Fynyw)

HÊNVYNYW (HÊN-FYNYW), a parish, in the union of Aberaëron, Lower division of the hundred of Ilar, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 14 miles (N. W. by W.) from Lampeter; containing 859 inhabitants, of whom 266 are in that part of the town of Aberaëron which is in this parish. The name of the place signifies literally "Old Menevia," and there is a tradition that the cathedral of St. David's was originally designed to be erected here, which receives considerable support from the name of a spring near the church, still called Fynnon Ddewi, or "St. David's well," this locality having been the nursery of that saint in his infancy. The parish is washed on one side by the waves of the fine bay of Cardigan in St. George's Channel, and is separated from the parish of Llandewy-Aberarth by the powerful stream of the Aëron. It contains about 2000 acres of land; the soil is various, being in some places argillaceous and wet, and in others of a good quality for producing corn. It is intersected by the turnpike-road from Cardigan to Aberystwith, and the neighbourhood is characterized by that varied and striking scenery which prevails on this part of the Welsh coast; the surface is boldly undulated, and from the higher grounds are obtained some interesting views of the bay of Cardigan, and some extensive prospects over the adjacent country. The parish contains part of the small but flourishing seaport town of Aberaëron, which, within the last few years, has attained a considerable degree of commercial importance, and of which a separate account is given. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £1000 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral Church of St. David's, who receive the tithes, and pay the incumbent an annual stipend of £8; total net income, £109. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £190. 10. The church, dedicated to St. David, is a neat plain edifice consisting only of a nave and chancel, situated in a remarkably large cemetery. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists; and several Sunday schools chiefly connected with the dissenters. Close to the sea-shore, and not far from the boundary line between this parish and that of Llandewy-Aberarth, are the remains of an ancient encampment.

Herbrandston

HERBRANDSTON, a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Rhôs, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Milford; containing 249 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from one of the Norman or Flemish settlers in Pembrokeshire, named Herbrand, who, soon after the Conquest, fixed his residence here. It is situated on the eastern side of a bay in Milford Haven, and is of small extent; the land is very fertile, and in a high state of cultivation. A fair is held annually in the village on the 12th of August, chiefly for hiring farm-servants. The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the tithes have been commuted for £222, with a house, and a glebe of about one acre. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a plain structure, with a low massive tower.



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