Llanwnnen - Llanycil

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1849

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157-165

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'Llanwnnen - Llanycil', A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (1849), pp. 157-165. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=47863 Date accessed: 22 July 2014.


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Llanwnnen (Llan-Wnen)

LLANWNNEN (LLAN-WNEN), a parish, in the union of Lampeter, Upper division of the hundred of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Lampeter; containing 325 inhabitants. This parish is traversed by the turnpike-road from Lampeter to Cardigan, and bounded on the north-east by the parish of Lampeter, on the south by the river Teivy, which separates it from Carmarthenshire, and on the south-west by the parish of Llanwenog. It comprises by computation an area of 2000 acres, of which about one-half is arable, and onehalf pasture and meadow, with about twenty acres of woodland. The lands consist principally of pretty valleys, and hills of moderate elevation; and the surrounding scenery is interesting and picturesque, comprehending many pleasing views of the adjacent country. The soil on the hills is gravelly, and on the lower grounds, with the exception of a little moorland, a good loamy earth, suited to the ordinary kinds of grain, which, with cheese and butter, constitutes the chief produce. There is a stone-quarry, from which a superior material is obtained. About a mile from the turnpike-road, and in the vale of the Granell, is Llwyn-y-Groes, a spacious and handsome mansion, finely situated in the midst of flourishing plantations; the grounds comprehend much beautiful scenery. Castell Dû is another house in the parish, built on an eminence on the bank of the Granell, ornamented with fir plantations, and commanding extensive views. A fair is held on December 13th.

The living is a discharged vicarage, with which that of Silian is consolidated, rated in the king's books at £3. 4. 9½., and endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant; present net income, £102; patron, the Bishop of St. David's; impropriator, the Rev. D. H. T. G. Williams. The church, dedicated to St. Gwynin, is a small edifice, without either tower or spire, and possessing no architectural details of importance; it is thirty feet long and eighteen broad, and contains about seventy sittings, of which sixty are free. There is a place of worship for Unitarians. On the bank of the Granell, which flows into the Vale of Teivy to its confluence with the superior stream, is a moated mound named Castell Dû, which was probably crowned with a fort for defending the river and the pass of the vale; and there is also a small encampment on the hill. At Cevn Llew Trêv, some curious silver coins have been dug up.

Llanwnnog (Llan-Wynnog)

LLANWNNOG (LLAN-WYNNOG), a parish, in the union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Lower division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 6½ miles (W. by N.) from Newtown; containing 1716 inhabitants. Its name is derived from the dedication of its church to St. Gwynnog, an eminent member of the congregation of Catwg, who flourished about the middle of the sixth century, and was canonized after his decease. The parish is situated on the road from Machynlleth to Newtown, and on the bank of the river Severn, which separates it on the south-east from the parish of Llandinam; it is bounded on the north by the parish of Llanwyddelan, on the east by that of Aberhavesp, on the south by that of Trêveglwys, and on the west by that of Carno. It comprises by admeasurement 10,480 acres, of which 5826 are meadow and pasture, 1457 arable, and the rest woodland and common. The upper part of the parish is hilly, the lower part flat, and the surrounding country displays a variety of picturesque beauty and rich mountain scenery.

Among the loftiest of the hills within its limits are three fine lakes, called respectively Llyn Mawr, "the great lake;" Llyn Tarw, "the bull's lake;" and Llyn Dû, "the black lake." Llyn Mawr covers an area of twenty-five acres, exclusively of a large turbary on its margin, which, before the lake was dammed up to feed the Montgomeryshire canal, was also covered with water. The average depth of this lake, when dammed up, was twelve yards; but since the canal has been supplied with water from the river Severn, its depth has been reduced to eight yards. Both in the lake and the adjoining turbary are extensive remains of ancient forests; in the former they consist chiefly of oaks in a prostrate position, but on the present surface of the turbary they are principally of fir or pine, with scarcely any portion of oak. These remains afford conclusive evidence that the adjacent hills were covered with forest timber at a remote period. Peat is found in abundance in the neighbourhood of this and the other lakes; and the margins of all where it is procured have an elevation of 1500 feet above the level of the Vale of Caer-Sws. The Severn is joined about half a mile above Caer-Sws by the Trannon and Ceust streams, which descend into it through the Vale of Trêveglwys; and the Carno brook, running through the parish, falls into the Severn near Caer-Sws. The hill called Alltwnnog, which rises in the north-western portion of the parish, and is of considerable elevation, has been planted by Glynne Mytton, Esq., and contributes, with the lakes and numerous streams, greatly to beautify the scenery. The soil is tolerably fertile, and produces good wheat, barley, and oats. About sixteen of the inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of flannel, which is carried on in two small factories.

The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £4. 16. 5½., and in the gift of the Bishop of Bangor: the gross annual value of the vicarial tithes is about £200, being one-third of the whole tithes; the other two-thirds belong to the Dean and Chapter of Bangor: there is a glebe-house. The church, which measures eighty-one feet by twenty-four, is an ancient structure in the early style of English architecture: the screen and roodloft are exquisitely carved, and in a state of excellent preservation; the chancel window is embellished with stained glass, in which the patron saint is represented in episcopal vestments, with a mitre on his head and a crosier in his hand, and, underneath the figure, the inscription "Sanctus Gwynocus, cujus animæ propitietur Deus. Amen." In the churchyard are several venerable yew-trees of luxuriant growth. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists; a day school in connexion with the Church; and six Sunday schools, one of which is conducted on Church principles. Hugh Baxter, in 1687, bequeathed £50; and Richard Baxter, in 1690, gave £50, and subsequently £50 more; with which sums, a rent-charge on the Bwlch property was purchased in the parish of Llandinam, now yielding £8 per annum, apportioned in small sums among the poorest persons. Richard Gittins, in 1783, gave £10, the interest of which is annually distributed among the poor; and Anne Pritchard, in 1760, left £20, the interest to be given to decayed housekeepers. Two other charities, that produced £3. 12. per annum, have been lost.

The hamlet of Caer-Sws was the site of a Roman station, of which a description is given under its appropriate head. On the hills adjoining Llyn Mawr are numerous carneddau, supposed to be sepulchres of the aboriginal inhabitants, and one of the hills is known by the name of Carneddau. Scattered over the parish and its vicinity are also the remains of several ancient encampments, among which may be noticed those at Gwyn Vynydd, Rhôs-Ddiarbed, and Cevn Carnedd. At Park, the largest farm in the parish, Queen Elizabeth is said to have kept a stud of horses, to which circumstance is attributed the superior breed for which this part of the principality is distinguished.

Llanwnws (Llan-Wnws)

LLANWNWS (LLAN-WNWS), a parish, comprising the townships of Gwnnws Isâv, or Lower, and Gwnnws Uchâv, or Upper, in the union of Trêgaron, Upper division of the hundred of Ilar, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 12 miles (S. E. by S.) from Aberystwith, and 15 (N. N. E.) from Lampeter; containing 1115 inhabitants, of whom 627 are in the Higher division, which contains the church. This parish, which extends nearly fourteen miles in length, and, upon the average, three miles in breadth, comprises a wide tract nearly in the centre of the county, bounded on the north by the river Ystwith, and on the south by the Teivy. The surrounding scenery, though not generally rich, or distinguished by any prevailing character, is enlivened by some picturesque and romantic features, among which are several lakes on the hills. The most prominent object is the beautiful fall of Pwll Caradoc, supposed to have derived its designation from a chief named Caradoc, who is said to have met his death by rushing over the precipice, which is of very considerable height. The lands are ornamented in different parts with oak, ash, larch, and Scotch fir. In the upper portion of the parish they consist of mountain sheep-walks, and in the lower part, of arable and pasture, producing grass, barley, and oats, with a little wheat; the grounds are but very partially inclosed, a large proportion of this extensive parish being uncultivated. Two or three stonequarries are wrought; and in the Upper division are the mines Esgair Mŵn, of which a plan was made in 1758, by order of the Court of Exchequer: they are not at present worked. The parish contains two factories for carding and spinning wool, and two corn-mills. Fairs are held in the hamlet of Rhôs, in the parish, on the first Thursday after Whit-Sunday, on August 5th and 26th, and September 25th.

The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £1400 parliamentary grant; net income, £106; patron, T. P. B. Chichester, Esq. The church, dedicated to St. Gwnnws, is a small edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, built in 1829, and containing 595 sittings, all of which are free. In the churchyard is an ancient monumental stone, about three feet nine inches in height, having on the east front an embellished cross, and bearing an inscription so greatly mutilated as to be at present quite illegible: it is supposed by some antiquaries to commemorate the death of the above-mentioned unfortunate chieftain. On the sacramental cup is inscribed the date 1574. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists and Baptists. An endowment for a school was made by Mr. John Thomas, for 999 years, which was employed for that purpose by the late Rev. John Williams; but the present executor refuses to pay it. Four Sunday schools are held, two of them in connexion with the Established Church, one with the Calvinistic Methodists, and one with the Baptist denomination.

Llanwonno (Llan-Wynno)

LLANWONNO (LLAN-WYNNO), a parish, in the union of Merthyr-Tydvil, hundred of Miskin, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 12 miles (N. W. by N.) from Cardiff (to Newbridge, a town or large village partly within its limits); containing 1614 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the east by the river Tâf, is nearly equally divided between mountain and valley. Cwm Clydach, Cwm Rhondda, and Cwm Cynon, watered by their respective streams, are partly within it. The Aberdare canal passes down the last, and forms a junction with the Glamorganshire canal at Navigation House, in the parish of Llanvabon; and up Cwm Rhondda is a tramroad, communicating with the collieries worked there. This tramroad now forms a branch of the Tâf-Vale railway, which was opened through the parish for passengers and goods in 1841. Up Cwm Cynon runs the Aberdare railway, opened in 1846, and which forms a feeder of the Tâf-Vale line, as the Aberdare canal does of the Glamorganshire canal. The Rhondda falls into the river Tâf at the populous village of Newbridge, of which the part situated in this parish is the largest: here a weekly market for provisions is held, and a considerable quantity of corn is conveyed hence for the supply of Merthyr-Tydvil. The celebrated bridge of Ponty-Pridd crosses the Tâf at Newbridge, and is described in the account of that place. Between the years 1831 and 1841 the population increased from 1094 to 1614, a growth attributed to the opening of two new collieries. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1000 royal bounty, and £1600 parliamentary grant; net income, £95; patron, the Vicar of Llantrissent, who receives the vicarial tithes. The church, dedicated to St. Wonno, and distant three miles from Newbridge, is romantically situated on the rocky side of Cevngwingil mountain, at a considerable distance from any habitation. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; also three Sunday schools, two of them belonging to the Calvinistic body, and one to the Baptists. Edward Thomas, of LlanvihangelLlantarnam, Monmouthshire, bequeathed a rentcharge of £5, in 1678, on lands in this parish, to be distributed among ten of the most deserving poor here, not in the receipt of parochial relief; which is accordingly carried into effect on St. Thomas's day.

Llanwrda (Llan-Wrda)

LLANWRDA (LLAN-WRDA), a parish, comprising the Upper and Lower divisions, in the union of Llandovery, Higher division of the hundred of Cayo, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 3½ miles, by the suspension bridge over the river Towy, (W. by S.) from Llandovery; containing 553 inhabitants. It has been suggested that the name is derived from St. Cawrdav, but the more obvious meaning of the word is "the church of the holy man," without intending to describe any particular saint. The parish is intersected by the turnpikeroad from Llandilo to Llandovery and Lampeter, and is beautifully situated in a pleasing and retired vale, watered by a fine stream that joins the Towy immediately contiguous, and surrounded by lofty hills richly clothed with wood. It comprises 4441 acres of land, all inclosed. A small manufacture of coarse woollen cloth is carried on within its limits, and an annual fair is held in the village on the first Monday after the 12th of November. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Llansadwrn: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £210, one-fourth of which belongs to the vicar, who has also three acres of glebe-land, valued at £5. 12. per annum; the remainder is the property of Mr. Hughes. Besides the church, there is a place of worship for Independents.

Miss Letitia Cornwallis, one of the four coheiresses of the ancient family of Abermarlais, in the adjoining parish of Llansadwrn, by will dated 13th December, 1731, bequeathed £400 for the endowment of a free school, for children of both sexes of this place and Llansadwrn, the school-house to be built near the church of Llanwrda. This sum, now accumulated to £2226. 19. three per cent. consols., produces a yearly dividend of £66. 16.; the master is appointed by the inhabitants of the parish of Llansadwrn, and receives from the endowment a salary of £65, with more than £20 in school-pence. The same benefactress left £1000 for the endowment of an establishment for four maiden-gentlewomen of the county of Carmarthen; this sum has accumulated to £5428. 15. three per cent. consols., and the interest, amounting annually to £162. 17., is paid in equal portions to the gentlewomen, who are appointed by Mr. Hughes. The sum of £800, which also accumulated to a much larger sum, was left for the purchase of ground, and the erection of suitable buildings for the school and almshouses; also £200, now increased to £676. 4. three per cent. consols., the interest to be appropriated to the purchase of necessary furniture; and £200, amounting now to £717. 10. three per cent. consols., the interest to be applied to the repairs of the building, and the surplus, if any, to the purchase of shoes and stockings for the poor children attending the school. Two Sunday schools are held in the parish. Sir Thomas Powell, of the parish, in 1717 gave a silver chalice, and in 1719, a blue pulpit-cloth, still in good preservation. His father, Sir John Powell, Bart., presided as one of the judges on the trial of the seven bishops in the reign of James II., and so highly offended the crown for his opinion delivered on that occasion, that he was removed from his office: he was subsequently restored by King William.—See Llansadwrn.

Llanwrin (Llan-Wrin)

LLANWRIN (LLAN-WRIN), a parish, in the union and hundred of Machynlleth, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Machynlleth; containing 822 inhabitants. This parish lies in the western portion of the county, bordering upon Merionethshire, by which it is bounded on the north and west. It is pleasantly situated on the north bank of the river Dovey, and has the parishes of Machynlleth and Penegoes on the south, and those of Darowen and Cemmes on the east. It is intersected by the turnpike-road leading from Machynlleth to Dinas-Mowddwy, which runs through the village; and comprises by a recent survey 10,280a. 1r., whereof 1241 acres are arable, 4981 meadow and pasture, 2789 mountain sheepwalk, and the remainder woodland. The surface is greatly diversified, and is much indebted for its picturesque scenery to several narrow valleys bordered on each side with oak woods, and watered by pleasing rivulets. The prospects are varied, and from the higher grounds are seen some of the principal mountains in North Wales, with nearly the whole of the beautiful Vale of Dovey, along which that river pursues its winding course. The road from Machynlleth to Dôlgelley, through the Vale of Dulas, is remarkable for its views, the vale being characterised by strikingly romantic scenery. From the front of Vronvelen is a fine prospect, embracing on the left the small, richly wooded, and highly cultivated valley, watered by the little river Dulas, whilst on the right is an extensive range of bleak and sterile mountains, beyond which the rugged head of Cader Idris towers with sullen grandeur in the distance. The soil is various, and the chief produce wheat and oats, with a small portion of barley and rye. The mountainous districts contain slate, which has occasionally been worked, but has been neglected for some years on account of the expense.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £12. 16. 5½.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £364. 19. 10½.; and there is a glebe of about a quarter of an acre, with a house. The church, dedicated to St. Gwrin, is an ancient structure in the early style of English architecture, measuring within 163 feet in length and 24 in breadth, and containing 300 sittings, of which 200 are free; the chancel window is embellished with stained glass, and in its central compartment, which is the most perfect, is a representation of Christ upon the Cross. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists, to whom six Sunday schools appertain. Mrs. Anne Pugh bequeathed £50, an unknown benefactor £49, and John David Evan £10; these sums, together with several smaller benefactions, the whole amounting to £160, were lent to the trustees of the turnpike of Dovey bridge, and now yield an interest of £8 per annum, distributed among the poor.

On the bank of the river Dovey, in the parish, is Mathavarn, the ancient residence of Davydd Llwyd ab Llewelyn ab Grufydd, a celebrated bard and seer, who flourished in this part of Wales from 1470 to 1490. The Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., on his route from Milford to Bosworth Field, is said to have passed a night at this mansion, and, in his anxiety for the issue of his enterprise, to have privately requested the opinion of his host. Davydd cautiously replied, that a question of so much moment could not be immediately answered, and that he would give his opinion in the morning. His wife, seeing the perplexity in which the question had involved him, expressed her astonishment at his hesitation, and advised him to inform the earl that the issue of the enterprise would be successful and glorious; observing that, should this prediction be verified, he would receive honours and rewards, and if otherwise, there was little probability of the earl's ever returning to reproach him. During the civil war in the reign of Charles I., the parliamentary forces, having entered this part of the principality, which they reduced into subjection, burned the seat of Mathavarn, in 1644, and committed many ravages in the neighbourhood. The Rev. Isaac Bonsall, the present incumbent, has an extensive and valuable collection of Greek and Roman, and of ancient and modern British and Irish coins, of gold, silver, brass, and copper, and also a beautiful assortment of minerals: among the antiquities is the seal of StrataFlorida Abbey.

Llanwrthwl (Llan-Wrthwl)

LLANWRTHWL (LLAN-WRTHWL), a parish, composed of an Upper and a Lower division, in the union of Rhaiadr, hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Rhaiadr; containing 568 inhabitants, of whom 289 are in the Upper, and 279 in the Lower, division. This parish derives its name from the dedication of its church. It is situated at the northern extremity of the county, bordering upon Radnorshire, from which it is separated on the north-east by the river Wye, and on the west and north-west by the streams of the Claerwen and Elain, which fall into that river on the northern confines. The rivulets Runnant and Dulas are the principal of the streams that intersect the parish. It comprises about 12,000 acres of an extremely irregular surface, rising in some parts into lofty hills, alternated with large tracts of level ground, forming extensive commons and bogs: the soil on the higher grounds is rocky, and in the lower generally of a marshy nature; but on the banks of the Wye and Elain are some meadows of luxuriant fertility. The surrounding scenery is diversified, in many parts highly picturesque, and the distant views are even magnificent. Copper-ore has been found near the junction of the river Elain with the Wye, and the Runnant works were established to procure it, but they were not carried on with any degree of success.

The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with £200 royal bounty; net income, £85; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The church, dedicated to St. Wrthwl, or Morddal, is an ancient edifice, situated near the Wye, and at no great distance from the influx of the Elain. In the churchyard is a large stone, about six feet in height, of which the upper part appears to have been broken; from its situation, it may probably be the shaft of a cross, though by some it is supposed to be of Druidical origin. There is a place of worship for Independents, in which a Sunday school is also held. A sum of £16 is divided among the poor about January, arising from a bequest by Edward ab Evan in 1648, of the farm called Cae'r Llan, containing above ten acres and a half, now let at a rent of £8 per annum; from a charge of £3 on the property of Bronveddie, by Hugh Phillips; and the interest of a bequest of £100 by Margaret ap Owen. The parish is also entitled to participate in the Boughrood charity at Brecon for apprenticing children under the grant of Rice Powell: this charity is noticed in the article on the town of Brecknock, which see.

On the hills are several cairns, especially on the height named Drygarn, or Derwydd Garn, implying "the Druid's rock, or mount," part of which is in the adjoining parish of Llanvihangel-Abergwessin. There are also some cairns on an eminence of less elevation, designated Gemrhiw. On Rhôs-Siathmaen, or "the seven-stone common," which is partly in this parish, and partly in that of Llanavan, are some stones very irregularly placed; but whether they are military, or other, remains, cannot be precisely determined. Near this common is another, called Rhôs-y-Beddau, or "the common of the graves," the name of which would appear to commemorate some great battle that took place in the vicinity.

Llanwrtyd (Llan-Wrtyd)

LLANWRTYD (LLAN-WRTYD), a parish, in the union of Llandovery, hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 12 miles (N. E. by E.) from Llandovery; comprising the hamlets of Clawddmadoc and Llêchwether, and containing 638 inhabitants. The river Irvon runs through the centre of this parish, which is intersected by no less than four smaller streams, that discharge themselves into the principal river within its boundaries. These are the Cerdin, Cledan, Cledwiail, and Henog; and in their several courses to the Irvon, they add greatly to the beauty of the vale of the same name, which abounds with scenery of pleasing and diversified character, though other parts of the parish are barren and mountainous, especially the portion bordering on Carmarthenshire. The parish is distinguished for the efficacy of a mineral spring close to the river Irvon, discovered by the Rev. Theophilus Evans, vicar of Llangammarch, in 1732, since which time this has been a place of resort for respectable families, during the summer season. This spring, called Llanwrtyd Wells, and, from the fœtid odour of its waters, in Welsh "Fynnon Ddrewllyd," flows over a rich bed of sulphur, with which it is strongly impregnated; partaking also of a chalybeate nature, and containing a small portion of marine salt. The water is a specific remedy in all scorbutic and cutaneous diseases, relaxation of the fibres of the stomach, and in chronic distempers, and is considered by many skilful chemists who have analyzed it, to be inferior to none of the kind in Europe. Dôl-y-Coed, about one mile below Dinas, and formerly the seat of the family of Jones, a spacious and pleasantly situated mansion, is always open for the reception of families frequenting the wells; the grounds attached afford every opportunity of exercise, and the surrounding scenery is greatly admired for its romantic beauty. Considerable additions have been made to the house, and suitable accommodation provided for visiters, who are boarded on moderate terms. The village, on the banks of the Irvon, derives an air of cheerful activity from the resort of visitors, and has been greatly improved since the efficacy of its mineral water has been established. The manufacture of woollen cloth is carried on through all its processes, from the introduction of the raw material to its completion for the market, in a large factory that affords employment to some of the inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the road from Builth to Llandovery.

The living is annexed to the vicarage of Llangammarch: the church, dedicated to St. David, is not distinguished by any architectural features. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists. A parochial free school was founded by Mrs. Margaret Jones, of Great Queen-street, London, a native of the parish, who, in 1783, bequeathed £300 four per cents. for its endowment; the school is held in the vestry-room, and is under the superintendence of trustees, of whom the incumbent for the time being is always one. Of three Sunday schools in the parish, one is in connexion with the Established Church. Mrs. Jones bequeathed also the interest of £200, at four per cent., for clothing and feeding the poor; and £50, the interest to be spent in a feast on the 1st of November, for the trustees. Dinas, an ancient seat of the family of Lloyd, now in the occupation of a farmer, is situated at a short distance from the church, upon an eminence embracing an extensive and varied prospect. Immediately on the north, and almost adjoining the house, is a precipitous and beautiful knoll, completely clothed with wood, commanding a fine view of the Vale of Irvon, on each side of which the country for two or three miles is richly wooded. The proprietor of Dinas erected a handsome mansion in the parish of St. David's, Brecknock, to which he transferred the name of the original seat, and which was completed for his residence in 1826.

Llanwyddelan (Llan-Wyddelan)

LLANWYDDELAN (LLAN-WYDDELAN), a parish, in the union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Lower division of the hundred of Newtown, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Llanvair; containing 517 inhabitants. It is situated nearly in the centre of the county, and comprises about 5000 acres of arable and pasture land, for the most part in a good state of cultivation. The surface is boldly undulated, and the soil is various; peat, which forms the principal fuel, is procured in abundance. The manufacture of flannel is carried on to a small extent, affording employment to a portion of the inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £3. 8. 4.; present net income, £176, with a glebehouse; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The church, dedicated to St. Gwyddelan, is an ancient edifice, appropriately fitted up. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists. Rowland Evans bequeathed £15, the interest to be appropriated to the teaching of children; and Richard Pryce left £12, and the Rev. Mr. Jones £15, for the support of a charity school; the whole of which, amounting to £42, was lent to a person who failed: the parish still continued the payment of the interest, for a time, to a master, for instructing four children; but there does not appear to be any payment now made. A day school in connexion with the Church is held, partly supported by subscription, and partly by school-pence; and there are two Sunday schools, one of which is conducted on Church principles. Various small charitable donations have been made for the benefit of the poor, producing altogether £1 per annum, which is distributed on Easter Monday. The Roman road from Caer-Sws to Chester is supposed to have passed through the western part of the parish, entering by way of the pass of Bwlch Cae Haidd, and proceeding to the Vale of Mochnant, where Sir R. Colt Hoare has placed the Mediolanum of Richard's Itinerary. There are also some remains of ancient British fortifications, one called Pen-yGaer, surrounded with an intrenchment, and another on the other side of the Roman road, designated Lluest Cerig, or Carneddau; they appear to have been chosen as commanding the passes of Bwlch Haidd and Cevn Côch, both of which are within view.

Llanybyther (Llan-Y-Byddar)

LLANYBYTHER (LLAN-Y-BYDDAR), a parish, in the union of Lampeter, Higher division of the hundred of Cathinog, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 5½ miles (S. W.) from Lampeter; comprising the Northern and Southern divisions, and containing 1120 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from Lampeter to Carmarthen, and on the border of the county. It is bounded on the west and north by Cardiganshire, on the northeast by the parish of Pencarreg, on the south by that of Llanmihangel-Rhôsycorn, on the south-east by that of Llansawel, and on the south-west by that of Llanllwny. The parish is extensive, comprising above 10,000 acres, of which about 2000 are uninclosed, and containing a great variety of soil and surface, including a large portion of the country between the rivers Teivy and Cothy; the prevailing kinds of timber are fir and young oak, and the chief agricultural produce oats and barley. There is a ridge of high common ground crossing the parish in the centre from east to west, from which numerous streams descend towards the north into the Teivy, and southwards into the Cothy; the latter district exhibits many deep glens. A road from Llansawel to Llandyssul intersects this common, on which several carnau and monumental stones are visible. The village of Llanybyther stands on the banks of the river Teivy, which is here crossed by a bridge, and near the road leading from Lampeter to Carmarthen. The parish also contains the village of Glanduar, and that of Abergorlech, the latter situated on the southern confines of the parish, some miles distant from the village of Llanybyther, and near the junction of the river Gorlech with the Cothy, from which junction it derives its name. Fairs are held on June 21st, July 17th, and November 1st and 21st.

The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with £600 royal bounty and £400 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor; present net income, £117, with a glebe-house; impropriators, C. Longcroft and T. Lloyd, Esqrs. The tithes have been commuted for £230, of which £160 are payable to the impropriators, and £70 to the vicar, who has also a glebe of seven acres and a half, valued at £10 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, having undergone a thorough repair, is comfortably fitted up for the accommodation of the inhabitants; it is seventy feet long, including the chancel, which was rebuilt in 1804, and seventeen feet broad, and contains 162 sittings, nearly the whole free. There is also a chapel at Abergorlech, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1000 royal bounty, and in the gift of the Vicar; net income, £60. The parish has two places of worship for Independents, and one each for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists. A school in connexion with the Established Church is supported by Colonel Wood, and there are six Sunday schools, one of them conducted on Church principles, and the others belonging to the three denominations of dissenters above mentioned. Opposite the church, and at the distance of about half a mile from it, in a south-western direction, is an encampment, crowning a conical hill of considerable elevation; it is called the Gaer, and is supposed to be of Roman construction.

Llanycevn (Llan-Y-Cefn)

LLANYCEVN (LLAN-Y-CEFN), a parish, in the union of Narberth, hundred of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Narberth; containing 449 inhabitants. It is situated at the eastern extremity of the county, where it is bounded by Carmarthenshire, which here makes an irregular curve into this part of Pembroke. At the distance of about two miles from the parish, runs the high road from Tenby and Narberth to Cardigan. Llanycevn has the parishes of Llandilo and Llangolman on the north, those of Llandissilio and Bletherston on the south, and the parish of New Mote on the west; and is watered by the Eastern Cleddy, which, after traversing this and other districts in a southern course, joins the Western river of the same name, to form the great estuary of Milford Haven. The surface is hilly; the scenery is pleasingly varied, and enlivened by the winding of the Cleddy and some small streams which join that river within the limits of the parish. The lands are all inclosed, and in a good state of cultivation; the soil is fertile, producing barley, oats, potatoes, and a little wheat. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1000 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; present net income, £51; patron and impropriator, Lord Milford. The church, built in a mixed style of architecture, and repaired in 1841, measures fifty feet in length, including the chancel, and sixteen feet in breadth; and contains 128 sittings, all appropriated.

Llanychaer (Llanerch-Aur)

LLANYCHAER (LLANERCH-AUR), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 2 miles (S. E.) from Fishguard; containing 207 inhabitants. It is situated in the northern part of the county, upon the river Gwayn, which falls into the bay of Fishguard. The surface is varied, and in some parts has a very considerable elevation; about one-half of the lands is inclosed. The surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified, and from the higher grounds are some fine views over the adjacent country. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £3. 6. 8., and endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; patron, the Rev. James Williams James. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £75. The church, dedicated to St. David, is not distinguished by any architectural details of importance.

Llanychaëron (Llan-Uwch-Aëron)

LLANYCHAËRON (LLAN-UWCH-AËRON), a parish, in the union of Aberaëron, partly in the hundred of Moythen, and partly in that of Troedyraur, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 11 miles (N. W.) from Lampeter; containing 236 inhabitants, of whom 140 are in Moythen hundred. The name of this place, signifying "the church above the Aëron," is derived from its situation upon that river, which falls into Cardigan bay, a few miles west-north-westward, at Aberaëron. Its surface is richly wooded, forming an agreeable contrast to the rugged and barren hills of the surrounding district; and the scenery is finely diversified, comprising a pleasing variety of fertility and luxuriance. Llanychaëron House is an elegant modern mansion, delightfully situated in the Vale of Aëron, commanding a good view of the river, and embosomed in wellwooded grounds, skirted by a small park. The lands are in a high state of cultivation; the meadows afford rich pasturage; the cottages are neatly and substantially built; and the whole parish, enlivened by the windings of the river Aëron, has a prepossessing appearance, scarcely known in other parts of the county. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £600 royal bounty, and £1200 parliamentary grant; net income, £73; alternate patrons, the Earl of Lisburne and Major Lewis, the impropriators, whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £120. The impropriate rectory constituted a prebend in the ancient Collegiate Church of Llandewy-Brevi, rated in the king's books at £3. 1. 0½. The church, dedicated to Non, one of the most distinguished female saints of Wales, and mother of St. David, is a neat edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a tower, and is beautifully situated in a very picturesque spot. It was erected at the joint expense of the inhabitants and Major Lewis, the latter of whom also built a house for the minister, at his own cost, in a pleasant situation within a short distance of Llanychaëron House.

Llanychaiarn (Llan-Llwchaiarn)

LLANYCHAIARN (LLAN-LLWCHAIARN), a parish, in the union of Aberystwith, Lower division of the hundred of Ilar, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 1 mile (S.) from Aberystwith; containing 666 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the west by the bay of Cardigan, and on the north and east by the river Ystwith; and the road from Aberystwith to Cardigan passes through it from north to south, crossing the Ystwith by a romantic bridge, from which a fine view is obtained up the river-vale. There are some pleasing residences in the parish, the principal of which is Tan-y-Bwlch. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £600 royal bounty; net income, £97; patron and impropriator, J. P. B. Chichester, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £354. 5. The church, dedicated to St. Llwchaiarn, was erected as a chapel to the rectory of Llanbadarn-Vawr, of which parish this formed a portion, the inhabitants still contributing to the repair of part of the body of that church. It is an ancient structure, delightfully situated on the banks of the river Ystwith, and distinguished within by an air of neatness and comfort; the porch is a good specimen of early English architecture, and there are several interesting monuments, including a handsome one to the memory of General Davies, who greatly distinguished himself in the Peninsular war, particularly on the plains of Salamanca, and whose remains were deposited in a vault in the church. At Blaenplwyv, at the southern extremity of the parish, is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists. A school-house has been erected at a place called Chancery, at the cost of the inhabitants; and there are two or three Sunday schools in the parish. Llanychaiarn Castle, of which but few remains exist, stood on Tan-y-Castell Hill, on the southern side of the Ystwith, and is supposed by some to be the original Aberystwith Castle erected by Strongbow at the commencement of the twelfth century.

Llanychan (Llan-Hychan)

LLANYCHAN (LLAN-HYCHAN), a parish, in the union and hundred of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from the town of Ruthin; containing 111 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Hychan, who flourished in the fifth century, is pleasantly situated nearly in the centre of the picturesque Vale of Clwyd. It is of inconsiderable size, but for the beauty of its situation, and the richness and variety of the surrounding scenery, it is not inferior to any spot of the same extent in this part of the principality. The lands are all inclosed and in a state of cultivation, and the soil is tolerably fertile. The manor of Rhôs, within the parish, belongs to the Bishop of Bangor, whose steward holds for it a court leet and baron in the village at Easter. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 17. 6., and endowed with £200 royal bounty; patron, the Bishop of Bangor: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £195; there is a rectory-house, and the glebe consists of nearly nine acres, valued at £14. 14. per annum. The church is a small edifice, not distinguished by any architectural details of importance. A Sunday school is supported by the rector. The Rev. Maurice Jones, by will dated and proved in 1735, bequeathed £20 to be laid out at interest for the relief of the indigent poor, and if no such poor could be found, such interest to be applied towards apprenticing or teaching children; also £100, the interest to be applied either in apprenticing children, or relieving clergymen's widows, having always regard, in the first place, to the parish of Llanychan. This charity is called in Gilbert's Returns a rentcharge, and it is there stated to be vested in Mr. Yorke. It appears that £6 were paid regularly from the decease of the testator until about half a century ago, when Mr. Wynne Yorke, son of the Mr. Yorke mentioned in the returns, succeeded to his mother's property, and the payment was discontinued. It has always been supposed in the parish that it was a charge on a farm called Ponteillen, which belonged to the Yorkes; but the will shows it to have been a bequest of two sums of money. Sidney Jones, in 1746, left the poor a perpetual charity of 20s. a year, which is paid out of a tenement in Trê'r Parc Cyfeiliog, and distributed on Good Friday by the minister and churchwardens. Gilbert also mentions the charities of Reed William Lloyd, in 1757, of £10, and of Mrs. Austin of £5; but nothing is now known of either of these bequests.

Llanycil (Llan-Y-Cil)

LLANYCIL (LLAN-Y-CIL), a parish, comprising the market-town of Bala, in the union of Bala, hundred of Penllyn, county of Merioneth, North Wales; the church being situated 1 mile (S. W.) from Bala, on the road to Dôlgelley; and the parish containing, with that town, 2467 inhabitants, but exclusively of the town, 1210. The name of this place, signifying "the church in the retreat," is probably derived from its retired situation in a sequestered part of the county, embosomed in hills, and nearly surrounded by mountains. The parish extends in length nearly nine miles from Bala lake, in a north-western direction, and is about four miles in breadth, from north-east to south-west; comprising 12,115 acres. With the exception of that part adjacent to the lake, in which the town of Bala is situated, the surface is generally hilly, and the soil indifferent, consisting chiefly of clay and turbary. Below the town are some luxuriant meadows, forming a rich and pleasing vale watered by the river Dee, and its first tributary, the Treweryn, the former having its source immediately above the lake, through which it flows, and the latter issuing from a small pool of the same name in the upper part of the parish: the Treweryn, after pursuing a rapid though devious course through the vale, unites with the river Dee previously to its leaving the parish. The chief produce is oats and barley, with a little wheat; and the wood comprehends oak, ash, and sycamore, and some young plantations of fir. The two mountains called respectively Arenig Vawr and Arenig Vâch, at the bases of which are pools abounding with excellent trout, are within the limits of the parish; they exhibit some volcanic remains, and indications of lava are discernible in many parts of them. Peat, which constitutes the principal fuel, is procured in several places in the parish. A large part of the land belongs to Jesus' College, Oxford, and the remainder principally to Sir W. W. Wynn, who is lord of the manor. The village is beautifully situated on the north-western side of Bala lake, commanding a fine prospect over that extensive sheet of water, and some pleasing and highly picturesque views of the surrounding country, and of the lofty mountains in the distance. The knitting of stockings is carried on to a very considerable extent, affording employment to many of the inhabitants; and fairs are held in the village on June 3rd, September 11th, and October 2nd.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £9. 4. 4¼.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £319, and there is a glebe of five acres, valued at £7 per annum; also a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Beuno, an ancient structure in the early style of English architecture, underwent a thorough repair in 1828, when it was also enlarged by the erection of a gallery at the west end; it contains 250 sittings, and among several good monuments are some to the families of Lloyd and Anwyl, formerly rectors of the parish. In the churchyard are eight fine yew-trees of venerable growth. The Calvinistic Methodists, Independents, and Wesleyans have places of worship in the parish; and there are nine Sunday schools, all of them belonging to the dissenters, and most of them in connexion with the Calvinistic Methodists. Mrs. Margaret Price left £100, directing the interest to be applied to the clothing of five men and seven women; and William Price, in 1774, bequeathed £100 for clothing people of both sexes, and £100 for bread to the poor: about £7. 6. 8. in clothing, and £3. 18. in bread, the produce of these charities, are distributed among the poor every year; as are £3. 7. 6. the produce of Hugh Jones' charity, and £7 that of Evan Jones'. Elinor Williams, in the year 1752, gave £40, the interest to be divided annually among eight poor persons; and Edward Meyrick, in 1742, bequeathed a rent-charge of £15 for clothing thirty boys of North Wales, and a charge of the same amount, the use of a house, and three acres of land, to a schoolmaster at this place, for the gratuitous instruction of children. For an account of the scenery around Bala, and of the chapel of ease, theological academies, grammar school, &c., in that town, see the article Bala.