Manerdivy - Meivod

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1849

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Pages

186-196

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'Manerdivy - Meivod', A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (1849), pp. 186-196. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=47867 Date accessed: 24 October 2014.


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Manerdivy (Maenor-Deifi)

MANERDIVY (MAENOR-DEIFI), a parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kîlgerran, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 3 miles (S. E.) from Cardigan, and 6 (W. N. W.) from Newcastle-Emlyn; containing 963 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the east by Kenarth, south by Llanvihangel-Penbedw, west by Kîlgerran, and north by the river Teivy, being situated at the north-eastern extremity of the county, bordering upon Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire. It comprises a considerable tract of arable and pasture land, inclosed and in a good state of cultivation; the surface is finely undulated, and the scenery, which is enriched with thriving plantations, and enlivened by the course of the river, is generally pleasing, and in many parts picturesque. The Teivy abounds with salmon, in taking which many persons are employed; and trout, sewin, and other fresh-water fish, are also to be found in it. Some tin-works were formerly established here, and a canal connected them with the Teivy below Llêchrhŷd bridge, to which place that river is navigable for small craft; some excellent quarries, also, for flag-stones, have been opened, principally on the glebe land, but they are not now worked.

This vicinity is ornamented with several gentlemen's seats; the adjoining country is richly wooded, and affords some fine views of the Vales of Teivy and Cych, which here unite, abounding with features of romantic beauty. Pentre, formerly the seat of the family of Saunders, is now, by marriage of the heiress of that family with the father of the present owner, the property of D. Saunders Davies, Esq. It is a handsome and substantial modern edifice, erected on the site of the old mansion, and embosomed in flourishing plantations; the grounds, notwithstanding that they retain to a considerable degree the ancient style, are finely laid out, and from their elevated situation command some extensive prospects, embracing part of the Vale of Teivy, the town of Cardigan, and the Irish Sea in the distance. Fynnonau was once the property of the Morgans of Blaenbylan, who sold it to Captain Stephen Colby, R.N., uncle of the present proprietor, John Colby, Esq. It is an elegant modern house, erected from a design by Mr. Nash, and beautifully situated in groves and plantations; the grounds comprehend some romantic scenery. Clynview is also a handsome residence pleasingly situated, and embellished with scenery of interesting character.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £9, and in the patronage of the Crown. The tithes of the whole parish have been commuted for £345, of which a sum of £265 is payable to the rector, who has also a glebe of forty acres, valued at £50 per annum; and the remaining £80 to Miss Jones. The church, called St. David's, is a small edifice, situated near the river, and not remarkable for any architectural features; it has been partly rebuilt of late: the churchyard has been thickly planted with trees, principally by T. Lewis, Esq. There was a chapel of ease at Cîlvawr; but it has been in ruins for many years: the great and small tithes of this part of the parish belonged formerly to W. O. Brigstocke, Esq., of Blaenpant, but are now the property of Miss Jones, having been purchased by her late brother, Morgan Jones, Esq., of the former gentleman. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists; a day school in connexion with the Church, supported by the neighbouring landowners; and three Sunday schools, connected with the dissenters. The room in which the day school is held is licensed as a chapel of ease. Dr. Erasmus Saunders, rector of Moreton-in-the-Marsh, and author of "Short Illustrations of the Bible," and an excellent tract on the duties of families, was born at Pentre, in the parish.

Manerowen, or Manerawen (Maenor-Owain)

MANEROWEN, or MANERAWEN (MAENOR-OWAIN), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dewisland, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 2 miles (W. S. W.) from Fishguard; containing 194 inhabitants. This parish, which is of very limited extent, is situated in the northern part of the county. It is intersected by the road leading from Fishguard to St. David's, and watered by a rivulet that runs into Fishguard bay. The lands, with the exception of a small common, are in a good state of cultivation; and the soil, which is peculiarly favourable to the growth of barley, is in general fertile and productive: the surface is varied; and the surrounding scenery, though not distinguished by any striking features, is of a pleasing character. The ancient seat and residence of John Lewis, Esq., a magistrate of the county in the reign of James II., and equally distinguished for his learning and impartial administration of the law, is now deserted and in ruins: the estate is the property of his descendant, Richard Bowen, Esq., who has erected a handsome mansion a little higher up the hill, which forms an interesting object in the scenery of the place. John Lewis, Esq., was the intimate friend of Bishop Gibson, whom he materially assisted in editing Camden's "Britannia," more especially those parts of it that related to the principality, of which he was a native, and in the history and antiquities of which he was profoundly skilled. Slate of very good quality has been found in the parish, but the working of it has been discontinued: a small carding-mill, still in operation, affords employment to a few of the inhabitants. The living is a vicarage not in charge, endowed with £600 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; present net income, £86; patrons and appropriators, the Subchanter and Vicars-choral of St. David's, whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £80. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is not remarkable for its architecture.

Manlledd (Manleoedd)

MANLLEDD (MANLEOEDD), a township, in the parish of Llanidloes, union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Upper division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales: the population is included in the return for the parish. Three-fourths of the tithes belong to the Dean and Chapter of Bangor, and the remaining fourth to the vicar of Llanidloes.

Manor

MANOR, with Rake, a township, in the parish of Hawarden, union of Great Boughton, hundred of Mold, county of Flint, North Wales, 2 miles (E.) from Hawarden; containing 65 inhabitants.

Manorbeer (Maenor-Bŷr)

MANORBEER (MAENOR-BŶR), a parish, in the hundred of Castlemartin, union and county of Pembroke, South Wales, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Tenby; containing 691 inhabitants. The name of this place is of very doubtful etymology: Giraldus Cambrensis, who was born here, calls it, in his Itinerary, Maenor Pyrr, which he interprets "the mansion of Pyrrus," who, he says, also possessed the neighbouring island of Caldey. According to Sir Richard Colt Hoare, the name literally signifies "the manor of the lords," and appears to be derived from its occupation by the lords of Dyved, who were also proprietors of Caldey island. By whom the castle was originally built has not been ascertained with any degree of accuracy; it probably owed its foundation to William de Barri, one of the Norman lords that accompanied Arnulph de Montgomery into Britain, and who married the granddaughter of Rhys ab Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales. The castle and manor remained in the possession of that family till the 1st of Henry IV., when they were bestowed upon John de Windsor, but afterwards reverting to the crown, they were, in consideration of a large sum of money, granted by letters patent to Thomas ab Owain of Trellwyn, from whose family they passed by marriage into the family of Philipps, the present owners.

Giraldus, in his notices of this place, quaintly says, "Demetia is the most beautiful, as well as the most powerful, district in Wales; Pembroke, that is the present hundred of Castlemartin, the finest province in Demetia, and the place I have described (Maenorbeer) the most delightful part of Pembroke." The parish is situated on the small bay to which it gives name in the Bristol Channel, and within two miles to the south of the turnpike-road leading from Tenby to Pembroke; the sea bounds it on the south, and in other directions it is surrounded by the parishes of Penalley, St. Florence, and Hodgeston. It contains by admeasurement 3464 acres, of which 2855 are meadow and pasture, 450 arable, and the remainder common and waste. A great portion of the parish lies on the side of the hill along which the main road from Tenby to Pembroke winds, and being so immediately on the coast it is almost entirely destitute of timber; but the situation of the village is singularly picturesque, and in consequence of its contiguity to the sea and the ruins of the castle, it is much frequented by visitors. There are excellent limestone-quarries in Lydstep bay, where a very considerable number of hands are employed, the stone being shipped during the summer months in great quantities by vessels belonging to other parts of Wales, and to North Devon: vessels of 130 tons' burthen can ride in security at Lydstep. Some indications of coal have been observed, but the attempts to work it have not been attended with success. The sands on this part of the coast are fine, especially at Lydstep haven, where they are well adapted for sea-bathing; and the beauty of its situation, and its convenient distance from Tenby, render this a favourite excursion from that wateringplace. There are two small villages in the parish, called Jamestown and Manorbeer-Newton.

The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £8, endowed with £600 royal bounty and £1400 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Christ's College, Cambridge, who are proprietors of the great tithes. The church, dedicated to St. James, is an ancient structure in the Norman and early English styles of architecture, consisting of a nave and two aisles, with a lofty embattled tower. Some years ago, the accommodation was increased by the erection of a gallery, containing ninety sittings, the cost of which was in part defrayed by the Incorporated Society; the chancel, also, underwent considerable repair, at the expense of the patrons. In 1847, this gallery, which filled up the west end of the nave, was removed, and open seats of oak were substituted, at the expense of Mr. E. Wilson, of Lydstep House; who also provided means for the removal of a square sash-window at the west end, and the erection, instead, of a three-light early English window. On the south side of the church is a large edifice, which was in all probability connected with it, but its history is unknown; it may have been a chantry or grange, or even some distinct religious house. It has been converted into a convenient schoolroom, capable of containing from eighty to ninety children, having been presented for that purpose by the patrons; and the school is rapidly improving, chiefly through the exertions of the vicar, the Rev. Henry Hughes: it is both a day and Sunday school. There are places of worship for dissenters.

Manorbeer Castle, distinguished as the birthplace, and for some time the residence, of the celebrated Silvester Giraldus de Barri, better known as Giraldus Cambrensis, is still an object of great attraction. The remains occupy an elevated site above the small bay of Manorbeer, of which the castle had full command. They consist principally of portions of the state apartments, whose windows faced a spacious court, the whole being inclosed with lofty embattled walls, the platforms of which are in some places still entire; the grand entrance, through a gateway flanked with two bastions, of which that on the north side has fallen down; two portcullises; and the moat, which may be distinctly traced. This castle is perhaps the most perfect model of a Norman baron's residence now remaining in the principality, having never experienced the ravages of enemies, or suffered from modern innovations. On Oldcastle Point, to the east of Manorbeer bay, are the remains of an ancient encampment of small dimensions, probably of Danish origin.

Giraldus Cambrensis was born about the year 1146, and was educated under his uncle, then Bishop of St. David's, who sent him to France for the completion of his studies. On his return to England he embraced holy orders, and rose rapidly to distinction in the Church; he held successively the office of legate in Wales to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the office of Archdeacon of St. David's. He was afterwards chosen Bishop of St. David's; but the king, fearing to raise to that dignity a man of such talent and influence in the principality, and one so nearly allied to the native princes, his mother having been granddaughter of Rhŷs ab Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales, refused to confirm his election. He attended Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, on his mission to preach the crusades throughout Wales; and, during the absence of Richard I. in the Holy Land, was one of the members of the regency. Being again denied the bishopric of St. David's, to which he had been a second time elected, and in the hope of which he had successively refused various other sees, and the archbishopric of Cashel in Ireland, he retired from public office into Wales, where he spent the last seventeen years of his life, devoted entirely to literary pursuits. He died at St. David's, at the age of seventy-four, and was interred in the cathedral church of that place, where his monument still remains. His writings were numerous, and many of them are still extant; his Itinerary, by which he is best known, was reprinted in quarto by the late Sir, Richard Colt Hoare, with an elegant English version, accompanied by notes and a catalogue of his writings, with a reference to the several works in which they are preserved.

Marchaled

MARCHALED, a hamlet, forming that part of the parish of Llangerniew which is in the hundred of Isdulas, in the union of Llanrwst, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 12 miles (W.) from Denbigh: the population is included in the return for the parish. It is situated on the left bank of the river Elwy, in a very mountainous district. Hâvodunnos, an old mansion in the Elizabethan style, is said to have been once a religious establishment; and Pennant is another good antique family structure, still remaining here.

Marchwiel (Marchwiail)

MARCHWIEL (MARCHWIAIL), a parish, in the union of Wrexham, hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 2 miles (S. E.) from Wrexham; containing 553 inhabitants. This parish is situated in the eastern part of the county, and bounded by Iscoed in Malpas, by Wrexham, Ruabon, and Bangor. It is intersected by the road from Wrexham, which here branches off to Whitchurch and to Ellesmere; and consists of the townships of Marchwiel and Sontley, the former comprising 2691 acres, with a population of 466, and the latter, 585 acres, with a population of 87. The lands are inclosed and in a good state of cultivation, except about one-eighth part; the soil is partly gravel and partly clay, producing wheat, barley, and oats: the prevailing timber is oak. Marchwiel Hall, for many years the property and residence of the younger branch of the Broughton family of Broughton, forms an interesting feature in the scenery of the immediate neighbourhood.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £12. 16. 8.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £635. 13.; and there is a glebe of three acres, with four cottages, the whole valued at £50 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Marcellus, and in early times connected with the more ancient church of Bangor, was rebuilt in 1789, and enlarged and repaired in 1829, the expense of the enlargement being defrayed by the mortgage of a messuage called Tyddyn Daniel, left in 1626 for the profits to be appropriated to the repairing of the church. The structure is in the Grecian style of architecture, from a design by Wyatt. There is a National school, supported almost wholly by the rector. James ab Edward, in 1628, gave in trust to the churchwardens and their successors three pieces of land, comprising together twelve acres and two roods, the rental of which, now amounting to £14. 10., he directed to be annually distributed among the industrious poor not receiving parochial relief: it is accordingly so given away on Good Friday in blankets and bread to about sixteen or eighteen poor families. Lady Jeffreys, in 1730, bequeathed £20, but it has been either lost or misapplied, together with other sums of £5 each, left by five individuals at different periods. The farm of Tyddyn Daniel, containing about fourteen acres, and now yielding a rent of £17 per annum, was purchased in fee from the crown in 1626, by Sir E. Broughton, of Marchwiel Hall, Knt., and four others, for the purpose of applying the proceeds to the repairs of the church, on which they are expended after paying the interest of £200 appropriated to its enlargement in 1829.

Marcross (Mark-Cross, or Mary-Cross)

MARCROSS (MARK-CROSS, or MARYCROSS), a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Ogmore, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Cowbridge; containing 96 inhabitants. The name is said to be a corruption of Mêr Croes, "the cross on the sea-shore," the parish being situated on the coast of the Bristol Channel: on the other sides it is surrounded by the parishes of Monknash, LantwitMajor, and St. Donatt's. It contains by admeasurement 873 acres, of which 642 are arable, and 231 pasture and meadow. The surface presents a prevailing flatness, but with delightful views of the Channel, which is on the south; there is very little wood: the soil is of a clayey quality, producing chiefly wheat. On Nash point, here, are two very important lighthouses, erected by the Trinity House soon after the loss in 1831 of the Frolic steamer on the Nash sands, a dangerous ridge of some miles, off this coast. Marcross was formerly a place of considerable importance, distinguished by a castle, now demolished, and by a monastery, said to have been subordinate to that of Lantwit-Major, and probably destroyed about the same time in the ravages of the Danes and Saxons in this maritime district.

The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £9. 10. 10., and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Llandaf. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £151. 7., which with the value of the glebe-land makes a gross income of £216. 7.: a very good parsonage-house was built some years since with money borrowed from Queen Anne's Bounty, under Gilbert's act. The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is of a plain style of architecture, and was probably erected at a very early period; it measures, exclusively of the chancel, thirty-seven feet in length, by about sixteen in breadth, and contains nine inclosed seats, of which four or five may be considered free. A bequest of £5 for the benefit of the poor by an unknown donor is lost, no payment in regard of it having been made since 1788, when it was in the hands of the Rev. Edward Carn, at interest. Near the village are the remains of a cromlech, which tradition reports to have been an old church; it is not improbable that it was devoted to some superstitious purpose by the Druids. Here is a mineral spring, the water of which is stated to have been successfully applied, in a great variety of instances, to the cure of the king's evil.

Margam

MARGAM, a parish, in the union of Neath, hundred of Newcastle, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, bounded on the south by the Bristol Channel, and situated on the line of the great western road through the county, 9 miles (S. S. E.) from Neath; containing 3526 inhabitants, of whom 382 are in the hamlet of Margam. The early history of this place is involved in some obscurity: it was, at a very remote period, erected into a bishopric, which continued for five successions, and then merged in that of Llandaf. Some writers ascribe this to Morgan, or Morcant, son of the renowned King Arthur, who is said to have occasionally resided here; but the circumstance is doubtful. Its original name was Pen-dâr, "the oak summit," so called from a noble wood of oak that covers the breast of a mountain, upwards of 800 feet in height, forming a striking feature in the landscape, and deservedly admired for its boldness and grandeur, as well as for the beauty and variety of its outline. The present appellation is considered a corruption of Mawrgan, who was the son of Caradoc ab Iestyn, and a great benefactor to the celebrated abbey of Margan or Margam, if not its founder. Mr. Humphrey Llwyd, who is followed by several other respectable Welsh antiquaries, is of the latter opinion, and states that he had seen "Morgan ap Caradoc's original charter, with nine witnesses, all very antique British names." Dugdale, and the Annales de Margan printed in the second volume of Gale's Scriptores, both date the foundation in 1147, and attribute it to Robert, Earl of Gloucester, who, according to the latter, died in this year. Bishop Tanner, in comparing these authorities with Speed and some manuscript accounts, which differ a little in their dates, inserts a quære whether "Robert might not begin this house only, a little before his death, and William, his son and successor, finish it some time after?" The latter is by Camden considered to have been its founder.

Notwithstanding the uncertainty of its origin, there can be little doubt that it was endowed by Caradoc ab Iestyn, lord of the adjacent lordship of Avon, with extensive grants of lands, which were confirmed by a deed under the hands of Morgan, and his two brothers, Cadwallon and Meriedoc, whose descendants, for several generations, were munificent benefactors to the establishment. This appears from the charter of Thomas de Avene, dated February 10th, 1349 (as found by Dugdale, translated into English in the collection of Mr. Hugh Thomas, without mentioning where the latter obtained it), wherein Avene states, "after due consideration, I confirm unto the said monks all donations, grants, confirmations, and sales whatsoever, which they enjoy by the bounty of any of my predecessors, viz., whatsoever they may have by the gift of Morgan ab Caradoc; of Leison and Owen, the sons of the said Morgan; and all they have by gift of Morgan Cam and his heirs, of Morgan Vaughan and Sir Leison, the sons of the said Morgan Cam; likewise whatsoever they have by the gift of Sir Thomas de Avene, my father." A large collection of original charters belonging to this abbey is preserved with the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum; the earliest is a confirmatory bull of Pope Urban III., dated in 1186. It was a Cistercian abbey, dedicated to St. Mary, and is mentioned by earlier antiquaries as the first house of that kind in these parts: according to Leland it had the privilege of sanctuary. When King John exacted a levy from the Cistercian monasteries, the abbey of Margan or Margam was exempted, on account of the hospitality he had received here, on his way to Ireland.

At the Dissolution, its revenue was estimated at £188. 14., and the site and possessions, together with the royalty of Avon water, were purchased by Sir Rice Mansel, Knt., who, about the year 1552, built a mansion partly on the site of the abbey, which continued to be the principal seat of the family until the extinction of the male line in 1750. This edifice, which subsequently underwent considerable alterations and repairs, was built of the stone of the country, with Sutton-stone quoins and dressings taken from the ruins of the abbey; it presented a long front without any magnificence in the structure, and was taken down about the year 1782. The chapter-house, which is a portion of the ancient conventual buildings, is in the form of a regular duodecagon without, but within, an exact circle, 49 feet in diameter. Its roof was vaulted, and supported in the centre by a single clustered column branching off into twenty-four ribs; but this beautiful roof fell in the year 1799, in consequence of the outer walls having become defective, and not, as has been asserted by tourists, from the filtration of water through the joints of the stones; and the side walls of the chapter-house, with the spring of the arches, only, are now left standing.

A noble mansion, in the style of English architecture which prevailed in the reign of Henry VIII., has lately been erected, on a scale suited to the rank and fortune of the representative of this ancient family, Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot, Esq., MP., F.R.S., lord-lieutenant of the county. Its chief external features are two grand façades, broken by bays, and a tower: the interior is superbly furnished. In the midst of the pleasure-grounds is a splendid orangery, an unusual appendage to a private residence, but there is no document in existence that shows the period of its establishment. According to tradition, this celebrated collection of exotics was intended as a present from a Dutch merchant to Queen Mary, consort of William III.; but the vessel conveying it having been stranded on the coast here, the choice cargo was claimed as the property of the lord, and a house, 150 feet in length, was built for the reception of the plants. The late Mr. Talbot, in the year 1787, built a new green-house, 327 feet in length, with a handsome Palladian front, and a room at each end; and, in 1800, a conservatory, 150 feet long, with flues in the ground. There are about 110 trees in the greenhouse, all standards planted in square boxes, and many of them eighteen feet high; those in the conservatory, forty in number, are trained against a trellis framing. The collection includes pomegranate, lemon, citron, and shaddock trees, as well as orange-trees. The evergreens cultivated in the grounds surrounding the orangery are healthy and luxuriant: among these a bay-tree, supposed to be the largest in Britain, sprouting from the ground in several branches, is the most remarkable, being upwards of sixty feet in height, and forty-five in diameter; the arbutus, Portugal laurel, and holly flourish in an extraordinary manner, and present a rich appearance.

The parish is bounded on the west by the parishes of Aberavon and Michaelston-super-Avon, on the north and north-east by Llangonoyd, on the east and south-east by Tythegston, and on the south by Pyle and Kenvig. It contains 11,200 acres, of which 3200 are good and productive, 4800 poor and indifferent, and 3200 mountain and warren; every kind of corn is produced in the portion of good soil, and there is a large extent of pasture. A magnificent wood presents itself on the side of a mountain 820 feet high, in which oak most abounds, but all sorts of timber are found to thrive; the parish is watered by the Avon on the west, and the Kenvig on the east, and there are the Frydwyllt and other brooks falling into these rivers. A building in the form of a semilunar battery, upon the summit of the mountain, commands a view of the woody concave, singularly beautiful and striking; and from the same point is obtained a magnificent prospect of the sea, and the bay of Swansea, with the distant hills of the counties of Somerset and Devon. The South Wales railway runs through the parish.

Owing to the abundance of coal, there are some very large works carried on. The first was an ironforge established by Nathaniel Myers, Esq., of Cadoxton, on the site of the present tin-works of Messrs. Robert Smith and Co. Then followed the Tai-bâch copper-works of the English Copper Company, the oldest association of that kind in the kingdom, a charter having been granted in 1691, soon after copperore was discovered in Great Britain, to Sir Joseph Hume and other merchants of London, who were thereby incorporated under the title of "The Governor and Company of Copper-Mines in England." In the year 1800, was erected here the first steamengine used for the manufacture of copper in the principality. These works, now in the possession of other parties, usually afford employment to about 400 persons, and the quantity of copper annually exported amounts to 1400 tons. The charter now belongs to the owners of the great Cwmavon copper, tin, and iron works, partly in Margam parish, but chiefly in the parish of Michaelston-super-Avon: see Cwmavon. Messrs. Smith and Company's tin-works are situated not far from the town of Aberavon, or PortTalbot, and employ some hundred persons. A part of the hamlet of Hâvod-y-Porth, on the north-western confines of the parish, is included within the new boundaries of the contributory borough of Aberavon (which see); and the hamlet of Kenvig Higher, and part of that of Trissient, are comprised within the borough of Kenvig.

The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1600 parliamentary grant; net income, £121; patron and impropriator, C. R. M. Talbot, Esq. The church, which is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and will accommodate 550 persons, was chiefly erected in 1809, by the late Mr. Talbot, on the site of the nave of the abbey church, which had become ruinous: the west front was preserved, and is considered a fine specimen of the Norman style. In widening the north aisle to its original size, several interesting monuments were discovered; one without date, bearing a Latin inscription to the memory of an abbot, also the mutilated effigy of a crusader, in chain armour, which was placed within the entrance to the chapter-house. At the east ends of the aisles are monuments to several members of the family of Mansel, upon which are recumbent figures, the men being in armour, and the ladies in the dress of their times, with their children, in a kneeling posture, about the sides of the tombs, having the names inscribed over their heads. On a plate in one of the pillars is a Latin inscription in monkish rhyme, to the memory of a favourite huntsman, supposed to be by Dr. Friend, the eminent classical physician; it was translated into English verse by the late Very Rev. W. Bruce Knight, dean of Llandaf and incumbent of Margam. At Tai-bâch, about two miles from the church, at the western extremity of the parish, a chapel of ease was erected in 1827, to accommodate the increasing population; the principal contributors towards which were, C. R. M. Talbot, Esq., the English Copper Company, John Reynolds, Esq., and Robert Smith and Co., assisted by a grant of £400 from the Incorporated Society for building and enlarging churches and chapels. A gallery has since been erected at a cost of £100: the whole building contains between 600 and 700 sittings, of which upwards of 500 are free. There are places of worship in the parish for Calvinistic Methodists.

It contains the Margam Churchyard school, in the village; a Church school at the Tai-bâch copperworks; another at the tin-works, near Aberavon; the Bryndû works school, a mile distant from Pyle; and a school at the Oakwood portion of the Cwmavon works. Of these, the first is partly supported by subscription, and partly by school-pence; the others are supported by a stoppage on the workmen's wages. There are nine Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Church, two unconnected with any religious congregation, and six belonging to the Calvinistic body. John Brown, in the year 1682, bequeathed £100, due to him by bonds from his master, Sir Edward Mansel; the interest of which, £4.19. 8. charged on Margam Park, is distributed, according to the intentions of the donor, in twenty-three penny loaves of bread every Sunday after service, among the poor not having parochial relief. The poor also receive on the 24th of December, and have so received for the last seventy or eighty years, from the Talbot family, a distribution of meat and money, the former consisting of a fat bull of the value of £10 or £12, cut up into eighty pieces, and the latter of the corresponding value of twenty Winchester bushels of wheat, and the same quantity of barley, according to the average price of those articles in the preceding market at Neath. The money is divided among the same persons as the beef, and varies in sums of 1s. to 8s. to each. Mr. Talbot's agent, assisted by the minister, churchwardens, and overseers, attends at the distribution.

In the wood above the village of Margam, called Craig-y-Capel, stand the roofless walls of an old chapel; and upon the top of the mountain to the north-east, is (or until lately was) a monument inscribed Bodvacus hic jacet filius Catotis Irni pro nepos Æternali Domo. Among the curiosities preserved in Mr. Talbot's mansion, are some Roman antiquities found in the neighbourhood; and in the grounds is a very interesting collection of early monuments. On the road from Margam to Kenvig was a nunnery, part of which has been converted into a farmhouse. Near the chapter-house of Margam are two ancient British crosses, standing upright, supposed to be of the fifth and sixth centuries. There also vestiges of an intrenchment upon the hill of Pen-y-Castell.

Marlais (Marloes)

MARLAIS (MARLOES), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Rhôs, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 11 miles (W. S. W.) from Haverfordwest; containing 486 inhabitants. This place is situated on the southern shore of Muggleswick bay, a portion of St. Bride's bay; the western extremity of it forms a little promontory, and on the east the parish is partly bounded by a pill, or creek, of Milford Haven. It comprises a considerable tract of arable and pasture land, which, with the exception of a comparatively small portion, is inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The village is principally inhabited by fishermen, who obtain a livelihood in the lobster and crab fisheries that are carried on here, and by the sale of leeches, which are found in great numbers in a sheet of water covering from sixty to seventy acres, called Marlais Mere, which, during the summer months, when it is dry, affords excellent pasturage for cattle. More than one-half of the parish is encompassed by the sea, and the shore is in general bold and bordered with cliffs; the depth of water, within a short distance, varies from four to fourteen fathoms. There are a few unimportant islands, among which are Midland and Gateholm, situated close to the coast; the larger one of Skomer is attached to St. Martin's parish, Pembroke. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £5, endowed with £200 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor; present net income, £80. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, is a small edifice, not possessing any architectural details of importance. A former structure in honour of St. Mary, situated near the beach, was destroyed by an encroachment of the sea, that also laid waste the glebe land originally belonging to the living. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans, with a Sunday school held in it; and a Church day school here is endowed with £5 per annum, bequeathed by Margaret Allen, of the parish, in 1772.

Marros

MARROS, a parish, in the union of Narberth, Lower division of the hundred of Derllŷs, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Laugharne; containing 180 inhabitants. This parish is situated at the south-western extremity of the county, bordering on the county of Pembroke, and bounded on the south by the shore of Carmarthen bay. The surface is wild and broken, and considerable portions of the land are barren and uncultivated; Marros mountain comprises a large tract of stony sterile ground, and the whole district presents a rugged and dreary aspect. The total area of the parish is 2100 acres. Ironstone and coal are thought to abound here, but no works have been established for procuring these minerals, for the transport of which the situation of the place, on Carmarthen bay, affords every facility. The coast here is composed of a fine sandy beach, some miles in length, and well adapted for sea-bathing from the shallowness of the water for a considerable distance from the shore. There are several neat and respectable residences scattered over the lower part of the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £8 per annum by the Vicar of Laugharne, and £800 royal bounty; present net income, £65; patron, the Vicar of Laugharne. It was formerly annexed to the benefice of Laugharne, but is now held with that of Kifig, which was separated from Laugharne at the same time. The tithes have been commuted for £88. 10., of which £72. 10. are payable to the impropriators. The church, dedicated to St. Laurence, is not distinguished by any architectural details.

Martin's, St.

MARTIN'S, ST., a hamlet, in that part of the parish of St. Martin, Haverfordwest, which is in the hundred of Rhôs, county of Pembroke, in the union of Haverfordwest, South Wales, ½ a mile (N. W.) from Haverfordwest; containing 309 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the West Cleddy, on the north by a stream which flows into that river, and on the south by an extra-parochial common designated the Poorfield. Here is situated the county gaol.

Martletwy

MARTLETWY, a parish, in the union and hundred of Narberth, county of Pembroke, in South Wales, 6 miles (S.E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 846 inhabitants. This place is situated on the Eastern Cleddy, at its junction with the Western Cleddy, and at the termination of the noble harbour of Milford, which is formed by the union of those two rivers. Martletwy is bounded on the north and west by the Eastern Cleddy river, east by the parishes of Mynwere and Yerbeston, and south by those of Coedcanlais and Lawrenny; and contains about 2580 acres, of which 635 are arable, 1905 pasture, and 40 woodland, the prevailing timber being oak. The surface has rather a barren appearance, and the soil is cold and wet, and for the most part poor; the chief agricultural produce consists of oats, barley, and potatoes. Coal and culm are worked to a great extent upon the estate of Sir John Owen, Bart.; and the produce of the collieries, which employ more than 100 persons, is shipped for the supply of distant parts, from a place called Land-shipping, on the Eastern Cleddy, where an excellent quay has been constructed for the purpose. Here was the ancient seat of the Owens, who by marriage became proprietors of the noble estates originally belonging to the family of Wyrriot. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £4, endowed with £200 royal bounty and £400 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Hon. Capt. Greville, who is also owner of the great tithes: the tithes have been commuted for £180, of which £100 are payable to the impropriator, and £80 to the vicar, who has also a glebe of four acres, valued at £5 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Marcellus, is a plain old edifice, containing between 700 and 800 sittings, more than half free. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists, in each of which a Sunday school is also held.

Mary's, St., otherwise Maenclochog (Maen-Clochog)

MARY'S, ST., otherwise MAENCLOCHOG (MAEN-CLOCHOG), a parish, in the union of Narberth, comprising the townships of Maenclochog and Vorlan, the former in the hundred of Kemmes, and the latter in that of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales; containing 503 inhabitants, of which number 456 are in the township of St. Mary's, or Maenclochog, 12 miles (N. E.) from Haverfordwest. This place derived its name "Maenclochog" from a large stone, several tons in weight, so nicely poised upon three small upright stones, as to vibrate on the slightest touch, and, upon its being struck, to sound like a bell: this curious relic was destroyed by some of the inhabitants, who, induced by the vain expectation of finding some hidden treasure, blew it up with gunpowder. The parish, which is surrounded by the parishes of Nevern, Morvil, Henry's-Moat, and Llanycevn, is situated in a mountainous district, and comprises an area of about 1000 acres, whereof part is arable, part pasture, &c., and about two acres woodland; the chief agricultural produce being barley and oats. A large portion of the Percelly mountain, the highest in this part of Wales, is within its limits: the ancient Welsh name of this mountain is Preswylva, signifying "a place of residence," and is derived from its having been the resort of the natives, on account of its security, in the intestine wars by which this portion of the principality was agitated during the earlier periods of its history. It was well clothed with forest timber, affording shelter to such as took refuge in its recesses, but now presents a bare and sterile aspect, exhibiting some small vestiges of old encampments, probably constructed by the natives. The village, which occupies the summit of a bleak and barren eminence, is of considerable size, and the inhabitants, with the exception of such as are engaged in working a quarry of slate of good quality, are employed in agriculture. A fair is held on the 18th of September, for cattle, sheep, &c., which is in general well attended.

The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant; present net income, £70; patron, T. Bowen, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £150, of which £100 are payable to Mr. Bowen, and £50 to the vicar, who has also a glebe of two acres, valued at £2. 10. per annum. The chapels of Llandilo and Llangolman were formerly chapels of ease attached to the vicarage, but they have been endowed, and subsequently augmented with Queen Anne's Bounty, the two districts being erected into distinct parishes: they are now perpetual curacies, held as one incumbency. Maenclochog church, dedicated to St. Mary, is situated in the centre of the village. There are two places of worship for Independents, with a Sunday school held in each of them.

Marychurch (St.)

MARYCHURCH (ST.), a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Cowbridge, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 2½ miles (S. S. E.) from Cowbridge; containing 154 inhabitants. This parish, from the dedication of its church to St. Mary, is by the Welsh called EglwysVair. It is pleasantly situated in the south-eastern part of the county, on the right bank of the river Thaw, and comprehends a moderate extent of arable and pasture land, by far the greater portion inclosed and in a state of cultivation. The soil, of which the substratum is limestone, is in general fertile; and the inhabitants are principally employed in agriculture. The scenery is wooded and richly diversified, and the adjacent country presents many picturesque features. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Llandough, and rated in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.: the church is not remarkable for any architectural details. A day and Sunday school is held in connexion with the Established Church. William Howell, in 1802, invested £20 in the Cardiff district turnpike trust, for the benefit of the poor, the interest of which is annually distributed among them.

Mary (St.) Hill

MARY (ST.) HILL, a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Ogmore, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 4 miles (N. W.) from Cowbridge; containing 258 inhabitants. This parish, which lies in the south-eastern part of the county, and on the left bank of the river Ewenny, derives its name from the dedication and elevated site of the church. It is not of any great extent, but within its limits is comprised a portion of the lordship of Ruthin (locally in the hundred of Cowbridge), which constituted one of the numerous petty sovereignties with which the principality formerly abounded, all exercising jura regalia, until abolished in the reign of Henry VIII. The lands are principally inclosed and cultivated, the soil dry and in general fertile; the downs are celebrated as affording pasturage for sheep of a superior breed, whose wool is highly esteemed. The scenery is diversified; and the views from the higher grounds embrace many objects of interesting character, among which the downs, forming in several parts bold undulations, interspersed with immense masses of rock, have a very singular and striking appearance. The stones of these rocks are considered of great value for sharpening implements of husbandry, such as hooks and scythes, and when used are reduced to sand, which is thinly spread with lard over a wooden rib. A fair is held here on August 26th, upon a fine open heath. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £5. 11. 3., and endowed with £200 royal bounty; patron and impropriator, Sir T. D. Aubrey, Bart. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £70, and the impropriate for one of £60. 5.; the glebe comprises eight acres, valued at £8 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is situated on the brow of a lofty hill near the left bank of the river Ewenny; and from the churchyard, which is kept in excellent order, are some beautiful and richly varied prospects to the northeast. Mrs. Elizabeth Rees, in the year 1769, gave £13.10.; Miss Mary Gammage, in 1766, £20, secured on the Bridgend turnpike trust; Florence Rees, in 1781, £40; and her sister, Mrs. Martha Jones, in 1784, £10, for which the churchwardens hold a deed poll of the Cowbridge turnpike district. The produce of all these benefactions, £4. 3. 6., is distributed among the poor at Christmas.

Mathrey (Merthyr)

MATHREY (MERTHYR), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dewisland, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 8 miles (S. W. by W.) from Fishguard; containing 1012 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in the north-western part of the county, is bounded on the north by St. George's Channel, and intersected by the turnpikeroad leading from Fishguard to St. David's. In the northern part, bordering on the coast, which is for the most part bold and abrupt, the depth of water varying from seven to fourteen fathoms near the shore, are some considerable slate-quarries, affording employment to a portion of the population. The village, which is situated on the summit of a hill, was anciently a place of more importance than it is at present, and had a weekly market and an annual fair, granted by letters patent in the reign of Edward III.; the former has been long since discontinued, but the latter is still held on October 10th, and is numerously attended by the inhabitants of the surrounding district, for the purpose of hiring servants. Another fair takes place on November 22nd at Nevin, a village on the coast.

The living is a discharged vicarage, united, with that of St. Nicholas, to the discharged vicarage of Granston; it is rated in the king's books at £4. 7. 6., and endowed with £200 royal bounty: the rectory is rated in the books at £25. 14. 4½. The vicarial tithes of Mathrey have been commuted for £190, and the rectorial for £323. 3.; the vicarial glebe comprises ninety acres, valued at £50 per annum. The church, dedicated to the Holy Martyrs, and situated in the middle of the village, is an ancient structure, but not distinguished by any architectural details of importance. There is a place of worship for Independents, in which a Sunday school is also held. Tithes of the annual value of £4. 15. are stated to have been given by an unknown donor, for decayed farmers' widows of the parish; but nothing is now known of this charity. A perfect cromlech, consisting of a table stone seventeen feet in length, apparently resting upon six upright columns, but in fact only supported by four, is still preserved at Long House, in the village of Trêvin, or Trêvdyn, a manor belonging to the Bishop of St. David's, where was once an episcopal palace, said to have been erected by Bishop Martin, to which Long House was the grange. There is another cromlech at Glandwr. The ancient mansion of the Harries family, of Priskilly Forest, is now the property and residence of John Hill Harries, Esq. The whole coast exhibits vestiges of earthworks, evidently thrown up by the early piratical invaders who infested this part of the principality. Mr. Edward Llwyd communicated to the Royal Society of London an interesting account of an extraordinary swarm of locusts that visited this place in 1693, and of which the particulars are fully detailed in the second volume of the Philosophical Transactions.

Mawr (Higher)

MAWR (HIGHER), a township, in the parish and hundred of Llangyvelach, union of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 8 miles (N.) from the town of Swansea; containing, with Lower Mawr, 829 inhabitants. It forms the north-western part of the parish, where the ground is rugged and mountainous. Some traces of an ancient Roman road are still visible in this district, which abounds with coal.

Mawr (Lower)

MAWR (LOWER), a township, in the parish and hundred of Llangyvelach, union of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 6 miles (N.) from Swansea: the population is included in the return for Higher Mawr. Some respectable residences are scattered over the township.

Meistyrrhose Lowry (Maesdre-Rhôs-Loywddu)

MEISTYRRHOSE LOWRY (MAESDRE-RHÔS-LOYWDDU), a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llandewi-Ystradenny which is in the hundred of Kevenlleece, in the union of Knighton, county of Radnor, South Wales, 1 mile (N. E.) from Pen-y-Bont; containing 337 inhabitants. It occupies the lower part of the parish, where the Cymaron stream falls into the Ithon, which is here crossed by a bridge. The name denotes the fenny nature of the ground, a large common, now much reduced by inclosures, having formerly existed near the junction of those rivers.

Meivod

MEIVOD, a parish, in the union of Llanvyllin, partly in the Lower division of the hundred of Llanvyllin, partly in the Upper division of that of Deythur, and partly in the hundred of Pool, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Llanvair; containing 1974 inhabitants. The name of this very extensive parish, implying a "lowland champaign dwelling," is obviously derived from its situation in a vast tract of fine open country, in the north-eastern part of the county. Though evidently of great antiquity, and forming a portion of Powys Wenwynwyn, or the moiety allotted by Meredydd ab Bleddyn to his grandson, Owain Cyveiliog, it appears to have been remarkable only as the place of sepulture of several of the Princes of Powys; and, until of late years, the village consisted only of a few thatched cottages, thinly scattered, and of very mean appearance. By some historians the place has been identified with the Roman "Mediolanum," but the difficulty of ascertaining the exact site of that station is in no degree diminished by fixing it here, and the hypothesis has accordingly been abandoned by the most distinguished antiquaries.

The parish extends for nine miles in length and four in breadth, and is situated on the river Vyrnwy. This stream is formed by the junction here of the Banwy and Avon Llanwddyn, and, on the junction, first begins to expand its waters, which, previously to their entering the Vale of Meivod, were confined by the depths of the banks and the rapidity of the current: from this circumstance it derived its original name Evyrnwy, or "the spreading river," now written Vyrnwy. Two other streams intersect the parish, the Brogan and the Colwyn, and finally join that river. The lands were partially inclosed under the provisions of an act of parliament obtained in 1787, and portions of several townships have been subsequently inclosed by the unanimous consent of the different proprietors. The scenery is pleasingly varied, three parts being bounded by low hills well wooded, whilst at the other end the views extend over a tract of level country distinguished chiefly for its rural beauty, which is terminated by the Breiddyn hills. The soil, though various, is generally fertile, especially on the banks of the Vyrnwy. Lead-ore was thought to exist in the parish, and some attempts were made to procure it, by sinking shafts and driving levels, in the township of Main; but the undertaking was not attended with success, and the works were consequently abandoned. Some fine veins of potter's earth have been discovered, and the rocks abound with barytes and other minerals.

The village, which is situated on the turnpike-road leading from Aberystwith, by Cann-Office and Llanvair, to Oswestry, has of late years become a place of some little importance, and may be regarded as one of the handsomest of the smaller towns in the principality. The houses are of stone, roofed with slate, and neatly and well built; and the place has a highly interesting and prepossessing appearance. It enjoys considerable traffic from its being on the great thoroughfare by which the western parts of the country are supplied with lime and coal. A postoffice, subordinate to that of Oswestry, has been some time established; and fairs are held in the village on the first Friday in February, the last Tuesday in April, the first Tuesday in August, and on September 21st. Courts leet also occur in the spring.

This parish is said to have formerly composed the archdeaconry of Powysland. The living is a vicarage, rated in the king's books at £15. 14. 2., and in the patronage of the Bishop of St. Asaph. The rectorial tithes, which anciently belonged to the abbey of Strata Marcella, or Ystrad Marchell, near Welshpool, are appropriated to the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church, Oxford. For the whole tithes of the parish a commutation has been entered into amounting to £1110. 15. 11., of which £551. 17. 8. are payable to the Dean and Chapter, and £558 to the vicar, who has also a glebe of four acres, valued at £11 per annum, and a glebe-house. The history of the church is involved in considerable perplexity. According to some accounts, it would appear that, exclusively of the present edifice, there were two others, the ruins of which Mr. Pryce, of Llanvyllin, in a letter to Mr. Babington, dated April 12th, 1701, acknowledges to have seen; but, from their contiguous situation, an opinion has been entertained that they were probably only different portions, or a subsequent enlargement, of the original building, dedicated respectively to their several founders, and forming distinct chapels in the same church. The first church was in honour of St. Gwyddvarch, an anchorite who lived on the brow of a hill in the parish, still called Gallt yr Ancr, and from whose warning voice, directing the workmen where to build the sacred edifice, for which they had chosen an improper site, said to have been repeatedly heard in the valley at midnight, uttering the words "Yma i vod," some etymologists have derived the name of the parish. The second, which was contiguous to the first, was dedicated to Tysilio, an eminent saint, who flourished towards the middle of the seventh century, and is said to have been the second son of Brochwell Ysgythrog, whose palace was at Shrewsbury. The exact time when, and the person by whom, this church was built, are not known; but from the chronicles of Caradoc of Llancarvan it appears, that Madoc ab Meredydd, Prince of Powys, was interred "yn Eglwys Tysilio yn Meivod," in the year 1159; and subsequent writers state that Grufydd Maelor, eldest son of Madoc, and lord of the lower moiety of Powys, was also buried here, in 1190. St. Mary's church, the only one now remaining, is supposed to have been founded by Madoc ab Meredydd, against which opinion it is objected that he was buried in the church of St. Tysilio, four years after the consecration of this, which ceremony took place in the year 1155; but that may be easily accounted for, as the church of Tysilio had been the general place of sepulture not only of his ancestors, but also of most of the princes of the races of Mervyn and Convyn.

The present edifice is of spacious dimensions, in the Norman style of architecture, comprising a double-roofed nave, and an aisle on the north side, with a low square tower. It seems to have been once much larger than it now is; on the north side are evident traces of the foundations of a transept, which may have been the church of Tysilio, or the portion of the original building in honour of that saint. Near the font is an old tombstone without any inscription, rudely adorned with sculpture, in basso-relievo, of a Catherine wheel, surmounted by a sword, and embellished with knots and other rude ornaments. In the chancel window, until of late years, was a legend in ancient characters, commemorating the two saints of the churches that have disappeared, and perhaps preserved out of their ruins, and, with other portions of stained glass, inserted in this window by John Roger, rector of the parish at a period unknown. There are places of worship for Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A National school is partly supported by an endowment of £12 per annum; another school, open to children of all denominations, is held in the Meivod place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists; and there is a school at Main, partly supported by an endowment of £7. 15. a year, being the rents of certain dwellings devised in trust, for the education of twenty children, under the will of John Griffiths, of Keel, who died in 1843. Each of these schools is aided by school-pence; the National school, by subscription also; and the school held in the meetinghouse, by a contribution of £10 per annum from the congregation. Of eleven Sunday schools, ten belong to the dissenters.

There are four almshouses in Pentre Parroc, in the parish, the inmates of which, though they have no exclusive endowment, partake of certain benefactions, the produce of which is annually distributed among the poor. The principal of these is a bequest by the Rev. Richard Derwas, in 1722, of a tenement and eighteen acres of land, four acres of which are plantation, the whole now let at £20 per annum, besides the interest of a fund raised from the sale of timber: the interest is paid to the master of the National school, making, with a sum from other charities, the endowment of £12 above mentioned; the rental of the land is applied partly in providing clothing for two aged men and two women, the residue being distributed in money and flannel during the winter. Disposed of in nearly a similar manner are the following rent-charges and bequests; a charge of £9 by William Pugh, in 1714; another of £5 by Bridget Mytton, in 1722; one of 15s. by Thomas Jones, to the poor of the township of Keel; one of £5. 4. by Magdalen Cade, in 1669; one of £1. 6. by Edward Lloyd; (the two last to be distributed in bread on Sundays;) and a bequest of £100 by William Wynn, in 1789, the interest to be divided among poor housekeepers in small sums.

On the summit of Gallt yr Ancr, or "the anchorite's hill," on the brow of which St. Gwyddvarch had his cell, are some traces of a British fortification, the history of which is not known; and on the side of the same hill is Bedd y Cawr, or "the grave of the giant." A dyke, which in some places was double, formerly extended from Gallt-y-Main to Ceunant Mawr, in the parish, for the defence of the pass into the Vale of Llanvyllin, by Bwlch-y-Cibau. Some vestiges of British fortifications and encampments may be seen on Hên Allt, in Trêv-Nannau, at a place named the Gaer, and near Clawdd Llesg. There are several springs in the parish, some of which are impregnated with medicinal properties. In the township of Teirtrêv is Fynnon Darogan, or "the well of divination," protected by a cupola, which has stood for many years; the water, though very salubrious, has no medicinal qualities. In the same township is Fynnon y Groftydd, the water of which is strongly sulphureous, and has been found highly efficacious in the cure of cutaneous diseases. In the township of Trêvedryd is Fynnon y Clawdd Llesg, consisting of two springs close to each other, of which one is slightly impregnated with hepatic air, and the other has no appearance of any mineral property whatever; it has been much resorted to in the spring by persons afflicted with scrofula, who have found relief by exposing the affected part to the action of the water on its issuing from the rock. Till of late years, it was customary for the young people of the parish to assemble at this place, on the eighth Sunday after Easter, to drink the water, and afterwards to retire to some green spot, and spend the remainder of the day in dancing. A similar practice prevailed near a fountain of clear rock-water on Gallt-y-Main, at the other extremity of the parish, whence, after drinking the water, the company retired to a fine green fenced on four sides like a Roman camp, and called Bryny-Bowliau, where they spent the rest of the day in athletic exercises. The origin of these customs is altogether unknown, and the practice has for some time been totally discontinued. Cynddelw, a poet laureate of the twelfth century, and a native of the parish, in a poem in honour of St. Tysilio, published in the Archæologia, notices the church of this place, which he describes as situated adjoining to that of St. Gwyddvarch; he eulogizes Caradoc, whom he calls archdeacon of the church, as a munificent patron, and celebrates the churchyard as the cemetery of princes.



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