Penalley - Penmaen

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis

Year published

1849

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299-308

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'Penalley - Penmaen', A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (1849), pp. 299-308. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=47876 Date accessed: 30 July 2014.


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Penalley (Pen-Aley)

PENALLEY (PEN-ALEY), a parish, in the hundred of Castlemartin, union and county of Pembroke, South Wales, 1½ mile (S. W. by W.) from Tenby; containing 346 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated at the south-eastern extremity of the county, and on the shore of the Bristol Channel, comprises a moderate portion of arable and pasture land, the whole, with the exception only of a very small tract of common, inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. It formerly belonged to the family of De Barri, of Manorbeer Castle, and, in the 1st year of Henry IV., was bestowed upon John de Windesor; but soon after reverting to the crown, it was granted by letters patent to Thomas ab Owain, of Trellwyn, in the parish, from whose family, on the death of his descendant, Thomas Bowen, Esq., it passed by marriage to the family of Philipps, of Picton. Trellwyn, the ancient seat of the ab Owens, or Bowens, was garrisoned for the king, during the parliamentary war, by Lord Carberry; but being besieged by the parliamentary forces, after an obstinate resistance, it was finally surrendered on honourable terms. The village of Penalley is exceedingly pretty. The parish abounds with limestone, which is quarried upon an extensive scale, part being exported to the coast of Devonshire, and part burnt into lime for manure, for the supply of the neighbourhood. Some fine specimens of madripore are found here.

The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £4. 17. 11., and endowed with £200 royal bounty; net income, £77, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of St. David's; impropriator, Lord Milford. The church is an ancient cruciform structure, of late years repaired, and enlarged by the erection of a gallery containing sixty sittings; on an altar-tomb are two heads in relief, with an imperfect inscription, "Wm. de Raynoor et Isemay sa femme, virgo beata Maria ayt Merci, Amen." In the churchyard is an old circular cross of small dimensions, without any legible inscription, the shaft of which is elaborately ornamented with rich tracery; and portions of two other crosses are also preserved in the church or churchyard. The vicarage-house is an elegant building, surrounded with beautiful gardens, and commanding some fine marine views; it was erected by the incumbent, in 1822, under the provisions of Gilbert's Act. A neat and commodious school-house has been built also by the vicar, in which a day and Sunday school is held. Caldey Island is within the limits of the parish, for all ecclesiastical purposes.

Penallt (Pen-Allt)

PENALLT (PEN-ALLT), with Hêndrevorvydd, a parcel, in the parish of Llangattock, union and hundred of Crickhowel, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 2¾ miles (W. by N.) from Crickhowel; containing 637 inhabitants. Penallt occupies, as the name implies, the summit of an elevated hill, at the eastern base of which passes the Brecknock canal. The lower part, on the right bank of the river Usk, is well wooded, especially Glanusk Park, where the proprietor has erected a handsome mansion. Glanusk Villa, another pleasing mansion on the bank of the Usk, was built under the direction of Mr. Nash, for the late Admiral Gell.

Penarth (Pen-Arth)

PENARTH (PEN-ARTH), a parish, in the union of Cardiff, hundred of Dinas-Powys, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, on the shore of the Bristol Channel, 6 miles (S.) from Cardiff; containing 110 inhabitants. It is situated on the western side of the harbour or roadstead of Cardiff, formed by the junction of the rivers Ely and Tâf, near their influx into the sea; the shore is pebbly, and the cliffs contain various strata of alabaster. Penarth Roads form an excellent haven during the prevalence of westerly winds, and 500 sail may ride here in safety. A neat inn has been erected on the shore, for the convenience of mariners, or persons desirous of the sea air. The living is a discharged rectory, with the living of Lavernock annexed, endowed with a rent-charge of £50 by Thomas Lewis, in 1716, and in the patronage of the representative of the late Earl of Plymouth; present net income, £136. The church, dedicated to St. Augustine, stands upon a rocky promontory at the mouth of the harbour, and serves as a landmark to vessels. In the parish is a ruin, now converted into a barn, which was formerly a chantry chapel, probably connected with, or served by the monks of, the monastery of Llandough super Ely.

Penbedw

PENBEDW, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Nannerch which is in the hundred of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, in North Wales, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Holywell; containing 47 inhabitants. This hamlet is situated in the southwestern and more mountainous part of the parish, on the turnpike-road from Denbigh to Mold, and is separated from the parish of Kîlken by a small water-course, which also forms a boundary between the counties of Denbigh and Flint. The manor, which was granted by Henry VIII. to Peter Mostyn, Esq., in 1544, is now the property of Major Molyneux Williams, whose residence of Penbedw Hall is a handsome mansion, erected in 1775, and occupies an eminence, commanding an extensive and interesting prospect over the picturesque and fertile Vale of Nannerch. This portion of the parish is rich in mineral treasure. Near the mansion of Penbedw is a valuable mine of iron-ore, of such purity as to yield fifteen cwt. of iron from every ton of ore: this mine produced 1800 tons of ore in the year 1826, since which time the working of it has been discontinued. Lead-ore is found in abundance throughout the eastern portion of the hamlet, and though the mines have been worked for centuries, they are still productive. The fine park of Penbedw is not very extensive, but contains some interesting relics of antiquity. In front of the house are the remains of a Druidical circle, one hundred yards in circumference, which appears to have originally consisted of eleven stones: of these, only five are at present remaining; the sites of the others, which have been removed, being occupied by thriving oak-trees, planted with a view to preserve the original form of this ancient monument. About 200 yards to the west of the circle is a large upright stone, near which are two tumuli, in a perfect state. On one of the Clwydian mountains, above Penbedw Hall, are the remains of a strong British camp, called Moel Arthur, defended by fosses and ramparts, and having on one side of it a smooth terrace of considerable extent; it formed one of a numerous chain of British posts on this range of mountains, and also communicated with Moel-y-Gaer, in Northop parish. A sum of £2 is annually distributed among the poor by Major Williams; half of that amount having been paid for many years by the owners of the Penbedw estate, under a bequest of £20 by Dorothy Hughes, in 1691.

Penboyr (Pen-Boyr)

PENBOYR (PEN-BOYR), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, Higher division of the hundred of Elvet, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 4 miles (S. E.) from Newcastle-Emlyn; containing 1376 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in the north-western part of the county, is surrounded by the parishes of Kîlrhedyn, Kenarth, Convil, and Llangeler, and intersected by the turnpike-road from Carmarthen to Newcastle-Emlyn. It contains a large tract of arable and pasture land, inclosed and cultivated, comprising about 5600 acres, of which 3000 are arable, 2000 meadow or pasture, and 600 wood. There are also 1200 acres of common or waste. The surface is hilly, in some parts mountainous, and in others picturesque. The soil on the lower grounds is tolerably fertile; on the upper, lighter, and less productive: the crops chiefly consist of wheat, barley, and oats; and the prevailing timber is oak and ash. The river Teivy bounds the parish to the north, and that of Bargod intersects a portion of it; within its limits are also the Molvrey hill, and the village of Velindre. Dôlhaidd is the name of the principal house.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £9. 9. 4½.; present net income, £325, with a glebe-house; patron, Earl Cawdor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £310, and there is a glebe of 162a. 1r. 25p., valued at £105 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Llawddog, a very ancient building in a dilapidated state, was taken down and rebuilt from the ground, in 1809, at the sole expense of the then incumbent, the Rev. Thomas Beynon, archdeacon of Cardigan, who also inclosed the churchyard with a wall seven feet high. The present edifice, appropriately fitted up, is seventy feet long by about thirty broad, and contains 300 sittings, nearly all free. There is a chapel of ease called Trinity Chapel, in which service is performed for the accommodation of such of the parishioners as reside in that part of the parish, so distant from the mother church. The Calvinistic Methodists and the Independents have each a place of worship, in which a Sunday school is also held; the school of the former body is attended by about twenty-five, and that of the latter by about forty scholars. The churchyard is supposed to occupy part of the site of a Roman camp; a pot of Roman coins was found in the neighbourhood, not many years ago, and part of an ancient road and other traces of Roman occupation have been discovered in the parish. There are several tumuli in various parts of it; and one of larger dimensions is situated near the turnpike-road leading over the mountain, from Carmarthen to Newcastle-Emlyn.

Penbrey, otherwise Pembrey (Penbre)

PENBREY, otherwise PEMBREY (PENBRE), a parish, formerly in the hundred of Kidwelly, but now annexed to Carnawllon, in the union of Llanelly, county of Carmarthen, in South Wales, 5 miles (W.) from Llanelly; containing 2850 inhabitants. The name of this place, signifying literally the head of a hill or promontory, is derived from its situation at the extremity of a mountainous ridge. The parish is bounded on the east by Llanelly, on the north by Llangendeirn, on the north-west by Kidwelly, and on the south by the river Burry and a wide tract of sands, dividing it from Gower in Glamorganshire. It comprises an area of 14,705 acres. The surface presents rather a barren appearance, with a few fertile spots interspersed, partly arable and partly pasture; the soil is of a clayey and a sandy quality, producing chiefly wheat and barley. There is a small portion of woodland, the prevailing timber consisting of elm and oak. Very little picturesque beauty is displayed, but the views that some parts command of sea and land are extensive and delightful; Tenby, and Lundy and Caldey islands, being discernible on a tolerably clear day. The parish is intersected by the Achddu stream, and separated from Kidwelly by the Gwendraeth Vawr. On the south is the very extensive sandy common already mentioned; it is overflowed occasionally by the tide, but affords good grazing land to numerous flocks of sheep, which the tenants of several farms in this and the adjoining parishes have the right of pasturing.

Penbrey contains some mineral wealth, and is thought to be rich in bituminous and hard coal, both being wrought in three collieries. The quality of the soft coal is peculiarly adapted to the production of gas, and other purposes; vast quantities of both sorts were formerly exported to various parts of the kingdom, and of late years it has been discovered that the hard coal can be used, as well as the bituminous, in the smelting of iron-ore. To facilitate the conveyance of the mineral produce of the district, a capacious harbour was constructed, in 1819, by the Penbrey Harbour Company, formed for the purpose, with a pier extending to a distance of 400 yards from the shore; but this harbour fell into disuse, being private property, and was superseded by another constructed to the north-east of it, under the provisions of an act of parliament, obtained in 1825, by a new company. A canal was also formed, connecting the port with the Kidwelly and Llanelly canal, and pursuing hence a northern course; the line of the South Wales railway passes through the parish, and in consequence of these and other advantages, Penbrey promises to become a place of great trade. In the year 1846, 1758 tons of pig-iron were shipped here, from the iron-works lately established in the Gwendraeth and other vales in this part of the county of Carmarthen. The harbour is sometimes called Burry Port, being near the entrance of Burry River; it is capable of holding eighty sail of large coasters, and possesses an excellent depth of water. This part of the coast, however, is of difficult navigation, and, to mariners unacquainted with it, the most fatal on the shores of the Bristol Channel. In November 1828, a French West Indiaman from Martinique was wrecked off Penbrey, and nearly all the crew and passengers perished, among the latter of whom were Colonel Coquelin and his daughter Adeline, niece of Josephine, ci-devant empress of France, who, with the other unfortunate sufferers, were buried in the churchyard of Penbrey, where a very handsome slab was erected to their memory, at the suggestion and under the auspices of John Hughes Rees, Esq.

The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with £600 royal bounty, and £1400 parliamentary grant; present net income, £69, with a glebe-house; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Ashburnham, whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £700. The church, dedicated to St. Illtyd, is a spacious and handsome edifice in the later English style, containing sixty pews, all appropriated, with a small gallery, the seats in which are free: the register bears date 1725, and the sacramental cup 1574. At Llandury, a hamlet in the parish, is a commodious chapel of ease, where divine service is performed regularly on Sunday afternoon; and in the hamlet of Pendryn, or more properly, Penrhyn, was a chapel, called Cynnor, which is now in ruins, and the site used as a coal-yard. There are places of worship for Independents, Baptists, Calvinistic Methodists, and Wesleyans. A day school was endowed with £5 per annum, and a house and garden for the master, given by the late Rev. Mr. Pemberton, but the endowment has been withdrawn; a school, however, is supported, principally by Messrs. Norton, Upperton, and Stone, of the Trim Saron iron-works. Nine Sunday schools are also held. A rent-charge of £1, by Hector Morris, in 1775, is distributed on Good Friday among the poor, but a similar sum bequeathed by Hugh Thomas, in 1726, has been discontinued since 1816. A peculiar custom prevails among many in the parish, of not allowing females to enter their houses on New Year's day.

Penbryn (Pen-Bryn)

PENBRYN (PEN-BRYN), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, Lower division of the hundred of Troedyraur, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 5 miles (N. by W.) from NewcastleEmlyn, and 8 (E. N. E.) from Cardigan; containing 1630 inhabitants. This place derives its name, signifying "the head of the hill," from the situation of its church on the summit of an abrupt eminence near the sea; and is sometimes also called Llanvihangel-Pen-y-Bryn, from the dedication of the church to St. Michael. The vicinity appears to have been distinguished as the scene of some of those sanguinary conflicts which occurred during the fierce struggles for empire among the rival chieftains of the principality, and the continued efforts of the confederate natives to repel the usurpation of their territories by foreign invaders. The names of several places within the limits of the parish are by some thought to bear testimony to the carnage which ensued upon those occasions: among these, Maes Glâs, Pwll Glâs, and Clôs Glâs (Glâs being considered, though somewhat fancifully, to be a contraction of Galanas), are reputed to signify respectively the plain, the pit, and the inclosure of slaughter; Fynnon Waedog, "the bloody well;" and Llêch yr Ochain, "the stone of lamentation." One of those places Mr. Evans supposes to be the spot where the forces of Arthur were slain, through the treachery of his kinsman Mordred. Llambroth, another place in the parish, is by some considered to be that celebrated by Llywarch Hên, as the field where Geraint ab Erbin, a prince of Devon, was slain, with a vast number of his followers; and Geraint is stated to have been interred on a farm in the parish, still called Perth Geraint. But others think that the spot mentioned in the aged poet's elegy on the fall of the prince was in Devonshire or Cornwall; and Dr. Owen Pughe, in his notes to the translation of that composition, conjectures that it might be Portsmouth.

Penbryn is situated on the bay of Cardigan, and intersected by the turnpike-road leading from the town of that name to Aberystwith. It comprises by computation about 8500 acres, principally arable, some of the lands producing excellent barley, the chief crop; the surface is exceedingly hilly, but the greater part is under cultivation. A portion of the shore, designated Traeth Saith, is supposed to be the most favourite place for sea-bathing on this part of the coast. On the beach is a flat rock, termed Carreg Morwynion, or "the maidens' rock," from the circumstance of several females having been drowned while bathing there. The surrounding scenery is in general dreary, and contains few features of rural beauty; but the views over the bay are enlivened by the passing and repassing of vessels. A stream called the Cerri rises in the north-eastern part of the parish, and after passing along the Vale of Troedyraur and the very picturesque dells of Cwmdû, empties itself into the Teivy near Newcastle-Emlyn. In the parish is a small hamlet, or village, named Sarnau, from the remains of several paved roads across a bog in the immediate vicinity of it. Llanborth was formerly an ancient mansion belonging to the family of Rhŷs ab Rhydderch, lord of Tywyn; in default of heirs it was taken possession of by Sir Herbert Lloyd, of Peterwell, the lord of the manor, and was afterwards sold.

The living is a vicarage, with the perpetual curacies of Bettws-Ieuvan and Brongwyn annexed, rated in the king's books at £15; patron, the Bishop of St. David's: the tithes of the parish have been commuted for £700, of which a sum of £320 is payable to the vicar. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, and situated on the summit of an eminence overlooking the bay of Cardigan, is an ancient structure, in the early style of English architecture, consisting of a nave and chancel, separated by a finely pointed arch; the font is an ancient square basin. In the churchyard are the stone steps of a cross, supposed to have been destroyed about the period of the Reformation. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists, and three Sunday schools.

The parish abounds with relics of antiquity, principally of British origin; and almost every spot of elevated ground seems to have been occupied as a military post. Castell Nadolig, an extensive British encampment, strongly defended by a double intrenchment, is situated on a farm of the same name, near the high road; and the course of a paved road leading thence northward might some time ago be traced for more than a mile. In a field not far from the church is an erect stone, about five feet high, with an inscription that was read by Mr. Llwyd as cor balenci iacit ordovs: under the heap of stones near which it then stood, some silver coins, and an urn containing ashes, were found. Bishop Gibson also notices a gold coin, about the weight of a guinea, supposed to be of British antiquity, and of a period prior to the Roman invasion, as having been discovered in the parish. Several tumuli and carneddau are to be seen, and the vestiges of numerous fortifications are still discernible. On the farm of Cevn Lletre is a lofty mound of earth encircled by three ramparts, called Castell, originally a place of great strength, but the fortifications are at present nearly demolished; within a short distance is a tumulus designated Castell Pridd. At Blaenhonant, another farm, is a large carnedd; and there are two others in the immediate neighbourhood. In 1841, a gold coin of Titus Vespasian, about the weight of a sovereign, was found on the farm of Blaen Cerri, in a state of perfect preservation: on the obverse, surrounding the head, are the words "Imp Vesp I Caesar;" on the reverse, which represents a fulllength figure with emblems, are "Pontif I R P. O I."

Penbyallt (Pen-Buellt)

PENBYALLT (PEN-BUELLT), a township, in the parish of Llangammarch, union and hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 8 miles (S. W. by W.) from Builth; containing 568 inhabitants. This township, which contains the church, is situated on the road from Builth to Llandovery, and at the junction of the Cammarch with the Irvon, over each of which rivers is a bridge maintained by the hundred. Many respectable residences are scattered along the banks of the Irvon, and in the neighbourhood of Maes-y-Gevnfordd, where the petty-sessions for the hundred are occasionally held: near the church is a celebrated inn, called Tavern-y-Pridd. The vales in the township are luxuriant and well wooded, especially on the banks of the Irvon, and near the fall of the Dulas, contiguous to Maes-y-Gevnfordd; the northern declivity of the Eppynt hills here, is in most places extremely steep, and sometimes even precipitous. The tithes have been commuted for £114 payable to the Bishop of St. David's, and £57 to the vicar of Llangammarch.

Pencader

PENCADER, a chapelry, in the parish of Llanvihangel-ar-Arth, union of NewcastleEmlyn, Upper division of the hundred of Cathinog, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 10¼ miles (N. by E.) from Carmarthen: the population is included in the return for the parish. This chapelry, the name of which signifies "the head chair," is situated in a vale, on the banks of the Tâfwili stream, which falls into the river Teivy; and the road from Carmarthen to Lampeter passes through the village. It was here that Henry II. arrived with his army, in 1163, to punish Rhŷs ab Grufydd, Prince of South Wales, for some inroads he had made into the territories of the vassals of that monarch, while engaged in Normandy; but a compromise taking place between them, Henry returned to England, with the nephews of Rhŷs, as hostages. The murder of these persons afterwards by the Earl of Gloucester, to whose custody they were committed, induced Rhŷs to make dreadful ravages in Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire. The chapel has been in ruins for upwards of a century, but the cemetery attached to it is still preserved from desecration. A Roman road from Carmarthen to Lampeter passed through the chapelry.

Pencarreg (Pen-Careg)

PENCARREG (PEN-CAREG), a parish, in the union of Lampeter, Higher division of the hundred of Cathinog, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 4 miles (S. W.) from Lampeter; containing 1188 inhabitants. It includes a pleasing and wellwooded tract on the Teivy, and is intersected by the road from Lampeter to Carmarthen; a lofty mountain, called Pencarreg, extends across it on the south. The total area is 10,392 acres, of which 3001 are common or waste land. The village is situated upon the left bank of the river; a fair is held in it on October 11th. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £4, and endowed with £200 royal bounty, and £1200 parliamentary grant; patron, Pryse Pryse, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £330, of which onethird belongs to the vicar, and two-thirds to the impropriators, Edmund H. Stacey, Esq., and the Rev. B. Williams. The church, dedicated to St. Patrick, is a small structure of no architectural pretensions. There are places of worship for Independents and Baptists, and three Sunday schools. In the parish is an ancient British fortification, of which no particulars are recorded. About thirty-six silver coins were lately found in a peat bog at Pencarreg.

Pencelly (Pen-Celli)

PENCELLY (PEN-CELLI), a hamlet, in the parish of Llanvigan, hundred of Pencelly, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 3¾ miles (S. E.) from Brecknock; containing 374 inhabitants. It is situated on the western bank of the Usk, where it is joined by the Mehascyn brook, on which are several mills. The manor of Pencelly anciently formed one great lordship, and in the 28th of Edward I. was the property of Roger Mortimer, who was summoned to parliament that year by the title of Baron Mortimer, of Pencelly. In the reign of Edward II. it was divided into English and Welsh Pencelly, and was subsequently converted into five minor lordships, namely, those of the Castle and the Manor, Pencelly English, Cwm Orgwym, Wenallt, and Welsh Pencelly; to which was afterwards added the adjoining lordship of Scethrog. Of the ancient castle of Pencelly, which stood in the village, about a quarter of a mile east of the parish church, scarcely a vestige is discernible, a mansion of the Herberts having been erected on its site, with a part of its materials; and even of the latter building there now remain only a few rooms and ruined walls, which have been converted into a farmhouse. A chapel, dedicated to St. Leonard, stood within the precincts of the castle, but that also has been demolished; it was endowed with a portion of the great tithes, now the property of the lord of the manor. The hamlet is in general well wooded and picturesque; and there are some agreeable residences overlooking the Usk. It forms the lower division of the parish, contains the parish church, and gives name to the hundred. The Brecknock canal passes through it, on the banks of which are wharfs for landing coal and limestone.

Pencoed (Pen-Coed)

PENCOED (PEN-COED), a township, in the parish of Coychurch, union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Newcastle, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 4 miles (E. by N.) from Bridgend; containing 421 inhabitants. This place, the name of which signifies "the head of the wood," is situated near the South Wales railway, and on the road from Bridgend to Llantrissent, at a short distance from the right bank of the Ewenny river. It comprises 2045 acres, of which 481 are common or waste land. A cottage has been built for the poor, at the expense of £32, out of a sum of £47 left by two individuals; and a trifling sum is annually distributed among the poor, arising from a bequest by two other persons. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists.

Penderin, otherwise Pen-Y-Daren (Pen-Deryn)

PENDERIN, otherwise PEN-Y-DAREN (PEN-DERYN), a parish, comprising the Upper and Lower divisions, in the union of MerthyrTydvil, hundred of Devynock, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 7 miles distant (W. N. W.) from Merthyr-Tydvil; containing 1488 inhabitants, of whom 189 are in the Upper, and 1299 in the Lower, division. The name of this place, signifying literally "the head of the rock," is descriptive of its situation at the head of a rock of excellent limestone, from which the large iron-works in the neighbourhood are supplied. The parish comprises part of the extensive common of Hîrwaun Wrgan, on which was fought the memorable battle between the forces of Iestyn ab Gwrgan, aided by some Norman auxiliaries, and the army of Rhŷs ab Tewdwr, in which the former obtained a signal and decisive victory. Rhŷs, after the defeat of his army, fleeing from the field of battle, is, according to some historians, said to have reached Glyn Rhonddû, about twelve miles distant, where he was overtaken by the victor and beheaded. According to others, it would appear that he was slain during the conflict; and others again affirm that, having effected his escape into the territories of his kinsman, Bleddyn ab Maenarch, he was afterwards killed in the engagement which decided the fate of that chieftain, in the neighbourhood of Caer-Bannau. The remembrance of this battle is still preserved in the names of several places in the parish: among these are, Bôdwigad, corrupted from Bôdwaun-y-Gâd, implying "the mansion on the field of battle;" and Cadlan, a term of nearly the same import, used to designate the valley that intersects the parish. Of the numerous carneddau in Penderin, two of the larger are regarded by Mr. Jones, the historian of Brecknockshire, as military memorials, probably connected with the conflict: one of them is twenty yards in circumference; the other is fourteen, and is surrounded by a trench.

The parish is situated at the southern extremity of the county, bordering upon Glamorganshire, from which it is separated on the south-east by the Tâf Vawr river. On the west it is bounded by the river Hepstè; this stream pursues a very romantic course, and falls into the Melltè, by which the boundary is continued between Penderin and Ystradvelltey. The area is 12,765 acres, whereof 3355 are common or waste land. The entire district abounds with mineral treasures, the principal of which are iron, limestone, a kind of coal of a quality between the bituminous and the stone coal, a bed of excellent fire-clay, marble, and some lead; the last, however, is not found in sufficient quantity to repay the expense of working it. On Hîrwaun common are the Penderin iron-works, forming part of the very extensive establishment of Messrs. Crawshay, of Cyvarthva, near Merthyr-Tydvil. These works comprise four blast furnaces for smelting the ore, worked by a steamengine and a water-wheel; two fineries; twelve refining furnaces for converting the pig-iron into castings, and two pairs of rollers for making malleable bars. The quantity of iron manufactured during the year 1831 was 9035 tons, long weight; of refined bars, 5260½ tons; and of ore raised, 28,413 tons, in the manufacturing of which 55,713 tons of coal were consumed. The number of men employed in the works and in the collieries, during the same year, was 895, of whom 607 were engaged in the collieries and ironstone mines. Though the furnaces are in the parish of Penderin, many of the workmen's cottages are within the limits of the Glamorganshire parish of Aberdare. Considerable quantities of limestone are burned for the use of the surrounding country, chiefly as manure. Facilities are afforded for the supply of the works, and for the conveyance of their produce, by tramroads from the lime-rocks near the church to the Hîrwaun iron-works, and thence down the Vale of Cynon to Aberdare, where they communicate with the Aberdare branch canal and branch railway, which, joining the Glamorganshire canal and the Tâf-Vale railway respectively at the Navigation House, in the Vale of Tâf, afford a direct intercourse with Cardiff. Additional means of conveyance will shortly be afforded by the Vale of Neath railway, which will join the South Wales railway at the port of Neath: acts authorizing the construction of the line were passed in 1846 and 1847. The road from Brecknock to Neath passes through the parish.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £9. 3. 11½.; patron, William Winter, Esq., M.D.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £305, and there is a glebe of four acres and a quarter, valued at £5. 6. 3. per annum; also a glebehouse. The church, dedicated to St. Cynog, is an ancient edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a massive tower at the west end; it is situated on the summit of the rocky eminence which gives name to the parish. There are two places of worship for Baptists; and two Sunday schools are held, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other with the Baptist denomination. David Walter or Gwalter, of Maesgwalter, in the parish of Devynock, in 1723, bequeathed £5 per annum, payable out of the rents of two tenements named Tyle and Heolvawr, in Ystradvelltey, for the instruction of five children, and the apprenticing of one child. Edward Price, of Ewyas Harold, in the county of Hereford, in the year 1797, charged a tenement called Melin Rhydian with the annual payment of £6 to the poor.

Craig-y-Dinas, an ancient stronghold, is so termed from its inaccessible situation on an abrupt, rugged, and precipitous rock of limestone, the base of which is washed on one side by the united streams of the Hepstè and Melltè, and on the other by the brook Sychryd, which forms the boundary between the counties of Brecknock and Glamorgan. Prior to the formation of the present turnpike-road from Neath to Merthyr-Tydvil, the main road between these towns led directly up the steepest part of this rock, and through a natural chasm near the summit, altogether impassable for carriages, and even on horseback, except with the greatest danger. This road, which is much shorter than the turnpike-road from Penderin to the village of Pont-Neath-Vaughan, is still in use. Near the spot are the fine vein of fire-clay, and the lead-ore, above noticed.

In the parish is the remarkable waterfall called Eiro Hepstè, formed by the Hepstè river, which here precipitates itself from a height of nearly fifty feet, over an abrupt rocky precipice, sometimes, according to the fulness of the stream, in one torrent, and at others in three distinct torrents; the river is sixteen yards in breadth, and forms in its descent, from the scarcely perceptible projection of the ledge of rock, a single arch, or a series of three parallel arches, under which is a passage between the base of the rock and the descending water. Around this spot the scenery is strikingly romantic. The common, over which is the road from Penderin to the waterfall, is of the most dreary character, diversified only by huge masses of limestone rock of fantastic form; and broken fragments, that lie scattered around the bases of the rocks, contribute to diminish the scanty pasturage which this desolate tract affords to a few mountain sheep and ponies. On reaching the margin of the river Hepstè, however, the scenery becomes suddenly changed; the steep banks of this impetuous stream are richly clothed with wood to the water's edge, and the river, concealed in its course by the impending foliage, is only heard to murmur as it rushes along its rocky channel, till, emerging from a thick grove, it forms the cascade above noticed, with some other falls lower down. At about a quarter of a mile from the great fall, the Hepstè unites with the Melltè; and between these rivers is a well-wooded promontory, from which is a good view of the courses of the streams to their confluence, and of the fall of the Hepstè, the roaring of which is distinctly heard. The beautiful Vale of Neath, with the plantations of Gnoll above the town of Neath, and the mansions and grounds of Aberpergwm and Rheola, may be seen from various parts of the parish, together with part of the Bristol Channel.

Penderwi (Pen-Deri), Higher

PENDERWI (PEN-DERI), HIGHER, a hamlet, in the parish and hundred of Llangyvelach, union of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 7½ miles (N. by W.) from Swansea; containing, with Lower Penderwi, 1203 inhabitants. —See Llangyvelach.

Penderwi (Pen-Deri), Lower

PENDERWI (PEN-DERI), LOWER, a hamlet, in the parish and hundred of Llangyvelach, union of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 5½ miles (N. N. W.) from Swansea: the population is included with the return for Higher Penderwi.—See Llangyvelach.

Pendine (a contraction of Pen-Tywyn)

PENDINE (a contraction of PEN-TYWYN), a parish, in the union of Narberth, Higher division of the hundred of Derllŷs, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 5½ miles (W. by S.) from Laugharne; containing 204 inhabitants. This parish is beautifully situated on the shore of Carmarthen bay, by which it is bounded on the south, and over which it commands a fine prospect. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Eglwys-Cummin, on the east by that of Laugharne, and on the west by that of Marros; and comprises 963 acres, the whole, with the exception of a common of 100 acres affording good pasturage, inclosed and in a state of cultivation. The soil is of a clayey and sandy quality, producing wheat and barley; the surface is rocky and hilly. On the beach, which is well adapted for the purpose of sea-bathing, and affords a pleasing walk, is a natural cavern, whence issues a small rivulet running into the bay. The living is a rectory not in charge, annexed to the living of Llandawke: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £67. The church, which is pleasantly situated, is a plain structure, erected about forty years since, and measuring thirty-four feet long by sixteen broad; the sittings are all free, except about six pews, that are attached to the farms of the parish. There is a place of worship for dissenters, in which a Sunday school is likewise held.

Pendoylan (Pen-Deulwyn)

PENDOYLAN (PEN-DEULWYN), a parish, in the poor-law union of Cardiff, hundred of Cowbridge, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from the town of Cowbridge; containing 401 inhabitants. The name of this place, signifying literally "the head of the two groves," was probably derived from the appearance of the neighbourhood, which, like many other parts of the county, was once richly wooded. The parish is pleasantly situated on the river Ely, and comprises a moderate extent of arable and pasture land, inclosed, and in a good state of cultivation; the surrounding scenery is varied. Within its limits is Hensol, the ancient seat of the family of Jenkins, under whose auspices an annual assembly of the bards was for many years held in the adjoining parish of YstradOwen, till the death of Richard Jenkins, Esq., who was a warm admirer of Welsh poetry and music, and a good performer on the harp. After this event, in 1721, the estate was conveyed by marriage with his niece to Lord Chancellor Talbot, who was elevated to the peerage by the title of Baron Talbot, of Hensol, and whose son added two wings to the mansion, and greatly improved the estate. Subsequently it became, by purchase, the property of the Richardsons, next of William Crawshay, Esq., and it now belongs to Rowland Fothergill, Esq., who purchased it from the last-named gentleman. The present house is spacious and handsome, and is beautifully situated in very extensive grounds, laid out with great taste, and comprehending some highly picturesque scenery. The parish abounds with limestone, which in general forms the substratum of the soil.

The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £8. 13. 4.; present net income, £112; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Llandaf. The church, dedicated to St. Cadog, presents no architectural details of importance. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists; and two Sunday schools are held, one of them in connexion with the Church, and the other with the Calvinistic body. A sum of £5 per annum, the interest arising from £100, of which £50 were bequeathed by Lord Chancellor Talbot, is annually distributed among the poor out of the rates; the amount, with £30 belonging to the parish, having been spent in 1817, in the erection of six cottages, one of which is used as a vestry-room, and the others with gardens attached, are occupied by paupers, put in by the officers. In the parish are several springs to whose waters are ascribed medicinal properties, and great efficacy in the cure of diseases, especially those of the eye, and in erysipelas. The names of some farms appear to indicate the past existence of ancient encampments; but nothing is recorded of their history, nor are there any vestiges of them remaining. The title of Baron Talbot, of Hensol, is still enjoyed by the noble family of Talbot.

Penegoes, or Penegwest

PENEGOES, or PENEGWEST, a parish, in the union and hundred of Machynlleth, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 1½ mile (E.) from Machynlleth; containing 772 inhabitants. This parish is said to derive its name from one of the petty sovereigns of Wales, named Egwest, who was beheaded near the church. It is situated in a very mountainous district in the western part of the county, and is intersected by the river Dovey, which flows within little more than half a mile of the church, and by the turnpike-road from Welshpool to Machynlleth, which passes through the village. The area of the parish is 8085 acres, whereof 3962 are common or waste. The mountains afford pasturage to numerous flocks of sheep, and in the lower grounds the soil is favourable for the growth of corn. The manufacture of flannel is carried on, giving employment to a portion of the inhabitants; and in the mountains of Dylivau and Esgair-Galed lead-ore is found, of a good quality. The scenery, though rather dreary, is of a bold and striking character; and the adjacent country, though not greatly diversified, is still in some points interesting and romantic.

The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 19. 7.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £250, and there is a glebe of eighteen acres, valued at £36 per annum; also a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Cadvarch, is an ancient edifice, in the early style of English architecture; a considerable portion of it is overspread with ivy, which in some parts has found its way into the interior. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists; a Church day school, almost wholly supported by the parents of the children; and five Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, two with the Independents, and one each with the Baptists and the Calvinistic body. In a field near the church is a spring whose waters are esteemed efficacious in rheumatic complaints. It was formerly covered over by a building, part of the walls of which still remain: the well has been formed into a bath, about seven yards in length and three in breadth, divided in the middle by steps leading down into each part; the average depth is about four feet. Dôl Guog, an ancient residence in the parish, is said to have been the resort of the celebrated Llywarch Hên, who retired to this place in order to soothe with his harp the griefs occasioned by the misfortunes with which the Saxon invaders had overwhelmed his country and his family. Richard Wilson, the landscape painter, was born in the parish, in the year 1714, his father being then rector here; and Mrs. Hughes, sister of Mrs. Hemans, distinguished for her musical skill, and for having set to music some of the compositions of the poetess, was wife to the late incumbent.

Pengwern, or Pengwyrn

PENGWERN, or PENGWYRN, a township, in the parish and union of St. Asaph, hundred of Rhuddlan, county of Flint, North Wales; containing 273 inhabitants. This township comprises 1470 acres, of which 800 are common or waste land. The tithes have been commuted for £238. 2. 10.

Peniarth

PENIARTH, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanegrin, union of Dôlgelley, hundred of Tàlybont, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Towyn; containing 244 inhabitants. Its name signifies "the head of the Garth," Garth meaning such a mountain ridge as forms a bend or cove, and is derived from its surface being elevated and rugged, forming a part of the Cader Idris chain. It occupies the north-eastern portion of the parish, and on the south-east is bounded by the river Dysynni, on which is a weir, and which up to this point is navigable for small craft.

Penley

PENLEY, a chapelry, in the union of Ellesmere, in that part of the parish of Ellesmere which is in the hundred of Maelor, county of Flint, North Wales, 4¼ miles (N. by E.) from the town of Ellesmere; containing 478 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Overton to Hanmer: the remainder of the parish is included in the hundred of Pimhill, county of Salop. There are several respectable residences in the chapelry. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with the produce of £400, and a rent-charge of £30 per annum, both the gift of Lord Kenyon; net income, £143; patron, the Vicar of Ellesmere. The tithes have been commuted for £260, of which a sum of £235 is payable to an impropriator, and £25 to the vicar. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary. A parsonage-house has been erected, the late Countess of Bridgewater, in whom the patronage of the living of the parish was vested, and Lord Kenyon, who is the principal landowner here, having contributed £100 each, and the Bounty Board and other subscribers various sums, towards the expense. There is a National day and Sunday school, supported by his lordship.

Penllêch (Pen-Llêch)

PENLLÊCH (PEN-LLÊCH), a parish, in the union of Pwllheli, hundred of Commitmaen, Lleyn division of the county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 10 miles (W.) from Pwllheli; containing 261 inhabitants. This place derives its name, signifying "the head of the rock," from its situation at the extremity of some rocks on the coast of St. George's Channel. It consists of a comparatively small portion of arable and pasture land, inclosed and in a good state of cultivation; and the inhabitants are principally employed in agricultural pursuits, except during the season of the herring-fishery, which is carried on to a considerable extent. Of the great quantity of herrings taken on this coast, part is salted and sent coastwise for the supply of distant markets. The living is annexed to the rectory of Llaniestyn; the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £190. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is not distinguished for any architectural details of importance. Two benefactions in money, amounting to £12. 10., are lost to the poor, having been lent to a farmer who became insolvent some time since. Cevnamwlch, the birthplace of Bishop Griffith, is in the parish. On Mynydd Cevn Amwlch is a cromlech, an interesting relic, called Coiten Arthur, or "Arthur's quoit," from a tradition that Arthur Gawr, or "Arthur the giant," cast the covering stone from Carn Madryn, a mountain a few miles off, and that his wife brought the three supporting stones of the cromlech in her apron, and placed them under the coiten so thrown.

Penllyne (Pen-Llyn)

PENLLYNE (PEN-LLYN), a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Ogmore, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Cowbridge; containing 320 inhabitants. This place was distinguished for a castle, the founder of which and the time of its erection are both unknown. The construction of its walls plainly indicate a very early origin; and from its situation on the summit of a lofty eminence near the village, commanding the surrounding country, it was no doubt a post of some importance. In Leland's time, the castle, with its dependencies, was the property of the Turberville family, from whom it passed to the Stradlings of St. Donatt's, and from them, in default of heirs male, to the Mansel family of Margam, together with part of their other estates. The property was subsequently devised by the late Lady Vernon, daughter of Lord Mansel, to Miss Gwynnette, who erected on part of the castle site an elegant mansion, in which some remains of the ancient edifice were incorporated. This lady bequeathed it to the late Earl of Clarendon for life, with reversion to Capt. Sir George Tyler, R.N. From the eminence on which the mansion is built is an extensive view of the adjacent country, abounding with highly picturesque and beautifully diversified scenery, in some parts enriched with woods, and in others enlivened with pleasing villages and numerous gentlemen's seats. Penllyne Court, formerly the seat of Major Dacre, is a handsome house, situated in the centre of a thriving plantation, and commanding some fine prospects.

The parish is surrounded by the parishes of Llansannor, Colwinstone, and Llanblethian, and contains by computation 1258 acres, of which 958 are in pasture, 200 arable, and 100 woodland. Its surface is elevated and hilly, and in many parts covered with wood, the prevailing timber consisting of ash; the soil is of various qualities, producing good crops of wheat, barley, and oats. The village is small, and pleasantly situated; and the turnpike-road from Cardiff to Swansea passes through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £4. 15. 2½., and endowed with £600 royal bounty; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Dunraven: the tithes have been commuted for £161. 19., of which £100 are payable to the impropriator, and £61. 19. to the vicar, who has likewise a glebe of a quarter of an acre. The church, dedicated to St. Brynach, and hence commonly called Llanvrynach, is an ancient and venerable structure, in the early style of English architecture, situated on the south side of the turnpike-road, about a mile from the village. It is sixty-two feet long by forty-one broad. For many years, only burials and christenings, with occasional divine service, were performed here; the regular service being celebrated every Sunday at a chapel of ease in the village, more convenient for the parishioners. But the edifice having been partially restored, it was re-opened for divine worship on August 27th, 1848. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists. A school on the National system has been established in connexion with the central society in London, from which the parish received a grant of £28 towards the erection of a building for the purpose; it is supported chiefly by W. Salmon, Esq., of Penllyne Court. There are also two Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other with the Calvinistic body. The produce of three charities, received down to 1786, has been since lost to the poor; one a bequest of £56 by Charles Price, in 1703, and the other two, sums of £10 and £7, given by unknown donors. The largest sum is said to have been expended in purchasing barley for the poor in a time of scarcity, and interest continued to be paid for it out of the parish rates until 1806; the other amounts were lent on insufficient securities to parties who became insolvent.

Penmachno (Pen-Machno)

PENMACHNO (PEN-MACHNO), a parish, in the union of Llanrwst, hundred of Nantconway, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 9 miles (S.) from Llanrwst; containing 1274 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation near the source of the river Machno, which rises to the south-west of it, and, flowing through the parish in a north-eastern direction, falls into the Conway. The latter river, also, has its source in a fine lake within the limits of Penmachno, and forms a boundary on the east and north, separating the parish from the county of Denbigh. The surface is mountainous, and the district abounds with mineral wealth; the soil in the valleys is fertile, and the lower lands, which are watered by the Machno and other streams descending from the hills, are productive, and in a good state of cultivation. The area of the parish is 13,000 acres. It is distinguished for some fine mountain scenery, and the views from the higher grounds extend over a tract of country abounding with picturesque beauty. Copper and lead are supposed to be contained in the mountainous parts of the parish; and, in 1784, a lease of the minerals within the common called Llêchwedd Oernant was granted by the crown to Mrs. Anne Robinson, for thirty-one years, at a rent of £1. 6. 8., and 15s. per ton for lead-ore, 8s. per ton for calamine, and onetenth part of the copper and other minerals. Many of the inhabitants are quarrymen. Fairs are held on April 17th, August 18th, and October 20th.

The living is a perpetual curacy, rated in the king's books at £9. 10., and endowed with £200 private benefaction, £600 royal bounty, and £1400 parliamentary grant; present net income, £92; patron and impropriator, Sir R. W. Vaughan, Bart. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £153. The church, dedicated to St. Tyddud, is not distinguished by any architectural details of importance. In the parish are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. There is a Church day school, endowed with £10 per annum, as mentioned below; also a day school unconnected with any particular religious body; and four Sunday schools, connected with the dissenters. Richard Anwyll, in 1681, bequeathed £200 for the use of the poor; Maurice Hughes, in 1723, devised £70 for the same purpose; and David Price, in 1728, charged his estate with a rent-charge of 20s. for their benefit. But the principal benefactor of the parish was Roderick Lloyd, of Middlesex, Esq., who, in 1729, left £10 per annum chargeable on the tithes, for the minister for the time being, in consideration of his teaching the children of the poor gratis to read and write English: this sum is paid to the master of the above Church school, the pupils of which pay certain fees. He further devised some lands and tenements situate in the parish of Llanycil, amounting to 135 acres, and now yielding a rent of £60, for the erection and endowment of an almshouse for five aged men and the same number of women. The almshouse is situated about a quarter of a mile from the church, and is a substantial building of ten apartments, with a piece of ground behind for the general use of the inmates, who receive 10s. a month each. The same benevolent individual devised £100, to be laid out in the purchase of land, the rent to be appropriated to supplying a certain quantity of bread to the poor every Sunday, and meat on Christmas-eve; and with this sum, and the proceeds of Anwyll's and Hughes' bequests, other premises and lands were bought at Llanycil, now worth £40 per annum, which is partly distributed in bread every Sunday, in flannel and linen occasionally, and in small amounts at Christmas and Easter. From the same fund another small purchase was made of two houses and a few acres of ground; one of the tenements is occupied by a pauper put in by the parish, and the rent of the remainder is given to the deserving poor.

Penmaen (Pen-Maen)

PENMAEN (PEN-MAEN), a parish, in the union and hundred of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 9 miles (W. S. W.) from Swansea; containing 149 inhabitants. The name of this place, signifying literally "the head of the rock," is derived from its situation at the extremity of a ridge of rocks forming the eastern side of Oxwich bay in the Bristol Channel. The parish comprises but a small tract of land, of which little more than half is inclosed and cultivated, The rocks on the coast below the church rise with majestic grandeur from the shore, and have a strikingly imposing appearance; one of them, called the Tor, after attaining a considerable elevation, terminates nearly in a point. Another remarkable rock, the "Three Cliffs," situated about a quarter of a mile east of the Great Tor, extends 300 or 400 yards from east to west, and in the centre is a large perforation, designated the "Arch," through which at low water people occasionally pass on horseback, but through which at floodtide the sea rushes with great violence. Over the arch the rock is divided into three distinct points, similar to the Needles in the Isle of Wight; and altogether this work of nature forms an interesting object when passing from Penmaen church towards Penrice Castle. The smooth and firm sands, likewise, present an opportunity for a most pleasing ride of three miles in front of the sea, from the Great Tor to the village of Oxwich. About six miles west of the church is the small hamlet of Paviland, belonging to this parish, from which place one of the churchwardens is invariably chosen. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £4. 10., endowed with £200 private benefaction and £200 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Crown; present net income, £210, with a glebe-house. In the hamlet of Paviland is a small meeting-house. A Sunday school is held in the church.

Penmaen

PENMAEN, a township, in the parish of Llanvawr, poor-law union of Bala, hundred of Penllyn, county of Merioneth, North Wales; containing 265 inhabitants.