PAIGNTON, in the hundred of Haytor and in the deanery of Ipplepen,
lies on the Torbay coast, about four miles from Totnes.
A weekly market at Paignton, and a fair for three days, at the festival
of the Holy Trinity, were granted to the Bishop of Exeter in 1294. (fn. 28)
There is now a holiday-fair on the Tuesday in Whitsun-week.
The villages of Preston, Godrington, or Goodrington, Blagdon, and
Collaton Kirkham, are in this parish.
Paignton was, from ancient times, parcel of the demesnes of the see
of Exeter. The bishops had a palace here, a small remain of which is
still to be seen. The manor was alienated from the see by Bishop Veysey,
who conveyed it by royal requisition to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. Philip Earl of Pembroke sold it, in the year 1644, to Sir Henry
Cary, of Cockington, who, having been ruined by the civil war, was
obliged to dispose of it in 1654, and it was purchased the same year of
the persons to whom he had conveyed it, by Samuel Kelland, Esq. The
manor and borough of Paignton, including the manors of Goodrington
and Westerland, after the death of Charles Kelland Courtenay, Esq.,
passed to his co-heiresses, married to the Earl of Cork, and Mr. Poyntz,
of whose representatives the estate was purchased at several times by the
Templer family, and the above-mentioned manors are now vested in
George Templer, Esq., of Stover, and the Rev. John Templer, of Lindridge. The lords of this manor had formerly the power of inflicting
capital punishment. (fn. 29)
The manor of Collaton Kirkham, and the barton of Blagdon, belonged
to the ancient family of Dacus, or Le Deneis. Sir Robert Le Deneis, in
the reign of Edward I., bequeathed them to Sir Nicholas Kirkham, who had
married one of his sisters. The heiress of Kirkham brought these estates to
Sir George Blount, Bart., of Sodington, of whose representatives they
were purchased by M. Parker, Esq., the present proprietor.
The manor of Preston belongs to the precentor of Exeter cathedral,
to whom the great tithes of the parish belong, having been appropriated,
by Bishop Quivil, in the reign of Edward I. (fn. 30)
Primley, in this parish, is the property and residence of the Rev. Finney
Belfield, by inheritance from Finney.
In the parish-church are some ancient monuments of the Kirkham
family; an escutcheon inscribed, "Here lyeth the heart and bowels of
the Right Honourable, most worthy, and highly esteemed John Snellen,
Rear Admiral of Holland, 1691;" and memorials for Matthew Finney,
Esq., 1731; Protodorus Finney, Esq., of Blagdon, 1734; Allan Belfield,
Esq., 1800; and Thomas Willes, M.D., 1809. Sir Stafford Northcote, Bart.,
George Templer, Esq., and the Rev. John Templer, are patrons of the
vicarage, having each a presentation in turn. Sir Henry Northcote purchased one-third of the advowson of Kelland Courtenay, Esq., in 1735:
the remainder was purchased with the manor, &c.
John Kelland, Esq., in 1692, gave the sum of 100l. for instructing poor
children of this parish in reading: this money having been laid out in
land, is said to produce now only 4l. per annum. Mr. Allan Belfield
above mentioned gave 1000l., 3 per cents., for the endowment of a school
for 20 children, to be taught reading, writing, and arithmetic.
William Adams, a native of this parish, buried at Paignton in 1687,
was one of the five persons whose extraordinary escape from slavery at
Algiers, and wonderful preservation in an open boat, in their passage to
the coast of Spain, are related in Wanley's Wonders of the little
PANCRAS WEEK, in the hundred of Black Torrington and in the deanery
of Holsworthy, lies on the borders of Cornwall, about three miles and a
half from Holsworthy. The small villages of Kingford, Dunsdon, and
Dexbeer, are in this parish.
The manor belonged, in the reign of William the Conqueror, to
William Brewer; it was afterwards in the family of Dennis, who had a
seat here in the reign of Henry II., and continued to possess the manor
for several descents. From them it passed, by successive female heirs, to
Ferrers, Poinings, Bonville, and Copleston. The Peryams having purchased it of Copleston, this manor fell to the lot of the two younger
daughters of Sir William Peryam, married to Dockwra and Williams. It
is now the property of the Rev. Thomas Hooper Morrison, who inherits
it from the Orchards. This manor is held under the duchy of Lancaster.
The church of Pancras Week was given by William Lord Brewer to Tor
Abbey, to which the great tithes were appropriated. They are now vested
in the Rev. Roger Kingdon. Pancras Week is a daughter-church to
Bradworthy: it was originally only a chapel.
There was, in ancient times, a chapel on an estate called Lana, in
Pancras Week. The Tamer pursues its course through this parish for
about two miles.
PARKHAM, in the hundred of Shebbear and in the deanery of Hertland,
lies about six miles from Bideford. The villages of Horn's Cross, Calbacot,
East Goldsworthy, Broad Parkham, Holywell, Buckish Mills, and Ash,
are in this parish.
The manor was anciently in the family of Belston, whose co-heiresses
brought it in shares to Speccot, Fulford, and Chamberlain. Two parts,
which became vested in Speccot, were sold to Sir John Beaumont in 1373:
having descended by a female heir to Basset, these parts were sold to the
Rolle family, and are now vested in the Right Honourable Lord Rolle.
The other third continued in the Fulfords in Sir William Pole's time. It
is probable that this formed a manor which was some time in the Molesworth family, and has been sold in parcels.
The barton of Halsbury gave name to a family whose heiress, in the
reign of Edward I., brought it to the Giffards. It was purchased of that
family by the Davies of Orleigh, and of them by the late Edward Lee,
Esq.: under his bequest it is now the property of William Lee Hanning,
Esq. who is to take the name of Lee.
Bableigh, in this parish, was the ancient residence of the Risdons, who
possessed it till after the middle of the last century: it was sold in 1760,
under a decree in Chancery, relating to the property of Mr. Giles Risdon,
deceased, to Mr. Hiern, of whom it was purchased by the late John
Trehawke, Esq., and is now the property of his devisee and heir-at-law,
Samuel Kekewich, Esq., of Peamore. The manor of Goldsworthy, which
had been for many descents the property and residence of the family of
Gay, was conveyed by them to the Coffins before Risdon wrote his survey,
and is now the property of Richard Pine Coffin, Esq.
In the parish-church are memorials of the families of Fortescue (fn. 1) ,
Cholwill (fn. 2) , Risdon (fn. 3) , and Berry (fn. 4) ; A. Gifford, Esq., 1595, and Thomas
Saltren, Esq., 1753. The Rev. Richard Walter is patron and incumbent
of the rectory.
PARRACOMBE, in the hundred and deanery of Sherwell, lies about six
miles from Comb Martin, and 11 from Barnstaple. Parracombe Mill, Heal,
and Rowley, are villages in this parish.
Parracombe belonged anciently to the barons of Barnstaple, under whom
it was held by the St. Albyns in the reign of Edward I. This ancient
family had then, and for some centuries, a seat at Parracombe, which still
belongs to the family, being now the property of Lawrence St. Albyn, Esq.,
of Alfoxton, in Somersetshire, who is also patron of the rectory.
The manor of Rowley, which had been a considerable time in the
family of Lock, now belongs to its heiress Mrs. Roach. The manor of
Medland, or Middleton, belonged successively to the families of Bernefield and Weston; afterwards to the Courtenays, earls of Devon. It is
now the property of Mr. William Dovell. On an estate called Holywell,
now belonging to George A. Barbor, Esq., is a circular mound called the
In the parish-church are some memorials of the family of Lock. (fn. 5)
Peahembury, or Peyhembury
PEAHEMBURY, or PEYHEMBURY, in the hundred of Hayridge and in the
deanery of Plymtree, lies about six miles from Honiton. The villages of
Cheriton, Upton, Tale, and part of Colstocks, are in this parish.
The manor of Peahembury belonged, in the reign of Henry III., to the
family of Gifford, from whom it passed, by female heirs, to those of Stanton
and Crewkerne. It was afterwards in the family of Prous. The manor,
or reputed manor, now belongs to John Venn, Esq. The manor of Upton
Prudhome, in this parish, belonged anciently to the family of Prudhome,
one of whose co-heiresses, in the reign of Edward II., brought it to the
Whitings, and a co-heiress of Whiting to Ashford. The chief part of
this estate belonged, in 1773, to the Venns: John Venn, Esq., is now
considered as lord of the manor.
The manor of Cokesputt, now Coxpitt, which had belonged to the
nuns of Polesloe, was granted by King Henry VIII. to Thomas Goodwin,
whose daughter brought it to Stump. This manor and Morden were afterwards, for several generations, in the family of Wright. They are now the
property of Sir John Kennaway, Bart., who possesses also the manor of
Tale, which had belonged to Ford Abbey, having been given to that
monastery by Joscelyn de Pomeray. After the dissolution, it was successively in the families of Goodwin, Sanders, Pyne, Wyndham, and Bampfylde, before it was purchased by the Kennaway family.
Leyhill, the seat of a branch of the Willoughby family, passed by
marriage to Trevelyan. Having been purchased of Sir John Trevelyan,
Bart., by Francis Rose Drewe, Esq., it is now the property of William
Drewe, Esq. The mansion at Leyhill, with the chapel, was built by
the Willoughbys: it was occasionally inhabited by the Trevelyans, and is
now fitted up as a farm-house. The manor of Long Rewe is the property
also of William Drewe, Esq.
In the parish-church, a handsome Gothic structure, with an elegant
screen, is the monument of Mrs. Dorothy Goswell, 1745. The church of
Peahembury was appropriated to the abbey of Ford. (fn. 6) The great tithes,
except a portion with which the vicarage is endowed, are now vested in
Wadham Wyndham, Esq., M.P. The Rev. Timothy Terry Jackson is
patron and incumbent of the vicarage.
The ancient entrenchment, called Hembury Fort, is in this parish. A
mansion near this spot, and bearing the same name, was built by the late
Admiral Samuel Graves, a distinguished officer, inventor of the life-boat (fn. 7) ,
who resided and died there in 1787. It is now the property of Admiral
Richard Graves, but at present unoccupied.
Petersmarland, or Petermerland
PETERSMARLAND, or PETERMERLAND, in the hundred of Shebbear and
in the deanery of Torrington, lies about five miles from Torrington.
The manor was, at an early period, in the family of Marshall, from
which it passed successively to Northcote and Cervington. The only
manor now known in the parish is called Twigbear, and is vested in the
executors of the late Joseph Oldham, Esq. In the parish-church are
memorials of the family of Stevens of Winscot. (fn. 8) Thomas Stevens, Esq.,
is impropriator of the tithes, which belonged formerly to the priory of
Frithelstock, and patron of the curacy.
NORTH PETHERWYN, in the hundred of Black Torrington and in the
deanery of Trigg Major (being within the archdeaconry of Cornwall),
lies surrounded by Cornwall on the west side of the Tamar, about five
miles from Launceston. Holscot, Brassacot, and Maxworthy, are villages
in this parish.
This parish lies within the manor of Werrington, belonging to the Duke
of Northumberland. The barton of North Petherwin belonged to the Yeos,
who resided there for many generations. The heiress of Leonard Yeo, Esq.,
who died in 1741, brought this estate to the family of Herring. It is now
the property and residence of Dennis Kingdon, Esq., major of the 80th
regiment of foot, who possesses it in right of his wife, only daughter and
heir of Leonard Herring, Esq., who died in 1798.
In the parish-church are memorials of the family of Yeo (fn. 9) ; and a tablet
for Grace, wife of Arthur Secomb, of Widworthy, Gent., (daughter of
Bligh of Carnadon,) 1619: his second wife was daughter of Pomeroy of
Ingsdon, by one of the co-heiresses of Hengescott. The Duke of Bedford
is patron of the vicarage, and impropriator of the great tithes.
Petrockstow, or Stow St. Petrock
PETROCKSTOW, or STOW ST. PETROCK, in the hundred of Shebbear and
in the deanery of Torrington, lies about five miles from Hatherleigh, and
about seven from Torrington.
The manor of Petrockstow is recorded among the possessions of the
abbot and convent of Buckfast, in the Domesday survey. They possessed
it also in the reign of Edward I., when it is upon record, that, as lords of
the manor, they had the power of inflicting capital punishment (fn. 10) : but I
cannot find that there is now any manor of Petrockstow so called.
The manor of Heanton Sachville, in this parish, belonged to the ancient
family of Sachville, from the reign of Richard I. to that of Henry III.:
afterwards to the Killegrews; by an alliance with which family it came to
the Yeos, in the beginning of the reign of Edward III. The heiress of
Yeo brought this estate to a younger son of the Rolles of Stevenstone,
the heiress of which branch was married, in 1724, to Robert Walpole, the
second Earl of Orford. After the death of George, Earl of Orford, in
1791, Heanton Sachville passed, with the barony of Clinton and Say, to
George William Trefusis, Esq., and is now the property of his son, the
present Lord Clinton, who possesses also the manor of Hall, in this parish.
Heanton Sachville, which was some time a seat of the Rolles, and afterwards of the Earls of Orford, was burnt down several years ago: a farm-house
has been fitted up out of the ruins. The deer-park is still kept up. Merland,
in this parish, belonged, in the reign of Henry III., to the family of Zoch;
from whom it passed, by marriage, to the Fitzwarrens. The heiress of
Aylmer Fitzwarren, who lived in the reign of Henry V., married William
Davailes, or Davells, of Badeston, which family, in consequence, removed
their residence to Merland. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the heiress
of Davells brought this estate to the Harrisses. It is now the property and
residence of Mr. James Bonifant.
In the parish-church are memorials of the Rolle family (fn. 11) ; Richard Eveleigh, rector of Peter Tavy and Bratton, 1637; and Catherine, wife of
John Mallet, 1810. The advowson of the rectory, called in ecclesiastical
records, Stow St. Petrock, alias Petrockstow, alias Heanton, has passed
with the manor.
PILTON, in the hundred of Braunton and in the deanery of Barnstaple,
adjoins the town of Barnstaple. The village of Bradiford is in this parish.
In the year 1345, a market on Tuesday, at Pilton, and a fair for two
days at the festival of St. Matthew, was granted to the prior of Pilton. (fn. 12)
The manor of Pilton belonged to a priory of Benedictines at this place,
which was a cell to Malmesbury Abbey. It is enumerated among the possessions of that monastery in Pope Innocent's confirmation, A.D. 1248. (fn. 13)
The priory of Pilton had only three monks in it, besides the prior, at the
time of the dissolution, when its revenues were estimated at 56l. 12s. 8¼d.
per annum. The site of the priory and the manor were granted to the Chichester family, who continued to possess it for several generations: this
estate was afterwards in the Sydenhams, whose heiress brought it to Northmore. Of late years it was in the Incledon family. The site of the priory
is now, by purchase from Robert Newton Incledon, Esq., the property of
John Whyte, Esq., who resides here in a modern-built mansion.
Joel, son of Alured, Earl of Britanny, gave the manor of Pulchress, and
the barton of Bradiford, to the priory of Barnstaple. This estate is now the
property of Lord Rolle. Ralegh, in this parish, gave name to, and was the
original seat of the ancient family of Ralegh. After eight descents, the
heiress of the elder branch brought the manor of Ralegh to the Chichesters. From them it passed, by successive sales, to Champneys and Hooper.
The heiress of the latter married Basset, of whose descendant it was purchased by Robert Newton Incledon, Esq., the present proprietor. Ralegh
House is, or was lately, occupied as a woollen manufactory, for flannel,
worsted stockings, &c. Little Ralegh belongs to George Acland Barbor,
Esq., of Fremington.
Pilland, in this parish, belonged, in the reign of Henry II., to the Clavells;
afterwards to a family who took their name from this, the place of their residence. The heiress of Pilland, after a few descents, brought it to Brett. Sir
Alexander Brett sold it to John Woolton, who was made Bishop of Exeter in
1579: his son, Dr. Woolton, resided at Pilland. It is now the property of
Thomas Wrey Harding, Esq., of Upcott. Westaway, in this parish, was
for a considerable time the property and residence of the Lethbridge family.
It was sold in 1817, by Sir T. B. Lethbridge, Bart., to John Whyte, Esq.,
the present proprietor.
In the parish-church are monuments, or other memorials, of the families
of Chichester (fn. 14) , Rogers (fn. 15) , Lethbridge (fn. 16) , and Incledon (fn. 17) ; Alexander Brett,
Esq., 1536; John Downe, Gent., 1627; George Hume, fifty years a schoolmaster, said to have sent 500 young men to the University, ob. 1693; William
Powell Matthews, Esq., 1795; Robert Harding, Esq., 1804; and Josiah
Crane, Esq., 1813. The tithes, which had been appropriated to the priory,
passed with the priory estate: they have been, for the most part, sold to
the land proprietors; Mr. Incledon having reserved those of his own estate,
with the patronage of the curacy.
There was formerly a chantry chapel at Ralegh, founded by the Chichesters, which had an endowment of 4l. 12s. 4d. per annum. (fn. 18) An ancient
hermitage, at Pilton, is mentioned in Mr. Oliver's History of Exeter.
The hospital of St. Margaret, at Pilton, which was founded for lepers, of
both sexes, before the year 1191, still exists, although the benevolent purpose for which it was founded is happily become in a manner obsolete.
This hospital having been too insignificant to attract particular notice at
the Reformation, was disposed of as part of the possessions of the priory of
Pilton; and having passed through various hands, is now vested in the
parish feoffees. It has always been kept up as an hospital; the members
are appointed by the name of prior, brethren, and sisters; they act as a corporate body, and grant leases of their little possessions, under their old seal,
receiving the fines and conventionary rents, which amount to about 3l. per
annum, to their own use. (fn. 19) The chapel of St. Margaret, which belonged to
this hospital, has been converted into a dwelling-house.
There is no endowment in this parish for a school, except the small sum
of 13s. per annum; but about eighty children are instructed by subscription, on Dr. Bell's system.
PINHOE, in the hundred of Wonford and in the deanery of Aylesbeare,
lies about two miles from Exeter. The villages of Monkton, or Monkerton, Pinpound, Langaton, Herrington, and Wotton, are in this parish.
A great battle was fought at Pinhoe, in the year 1001, in which King
Ethelred's army was defeated with great slaughter; the Danes burnt Pinhoe,
Broad Clist, and other neighbouring villages. (fn. 20)
The manor of Pinhoe, which had been part of the royal demesne, belonged,
in the reign of Henry III., to Robert de Vallibus, or De Vaux, whose
heiress brought it to Sir Robert Multon. The heiress of Sir John Multon,
a younger son of this family, brought Pinhoe to Sir John Strech, from whose
heirs it passed, by successive marriages, to Cheney and Walgrave. Sir
William Pole speaks of the manor as having been in his time lately sold
piecemeal. The manor-house was a seat successively of the families of
Strech and Cheney. In 1655, the barton belonged to William Kirkham,
Esq. (fn. 21) It was afterwards a seat of the Elwills, baronets, and is now the
property of Mrs. Freemantle, daughter of the last baronet of that family.
In the church-yard is the tomb of the Rev. James Coneybeare, vicar,
1706. The vicarage-house commands a rich and extensive prospect over
Exeter, with a distant sea-view. The great tithes of this parish are appropriated to the dean and chapter of Exeter. The bishop is patron of the
John Reynolds, a learned divine, and a successful writer against the
Roman Catholics, was born at Pinhoe, about the year 1546. He was some
time President of Corpus Christi College, in Oxford.
Sir Edmund Elwill, who died in 1740, gave 2l. per annum rent-charge,
for teaching poor children; and John Sanders, in 1750, 1l. per annum,
for the same purpose.
PLYMOUTH, a large sea-port borough and market-town, in the hundred
of Roborough and deanery of Plympton, is situated at the extreme southwest corner of the county, between the estuaries of the Tamar and the
Plym, (from which it takes its name,) forty-three miles from Exeter, and
two hundred and sixteen from London.
The old name of this town was Sutton, (i.e. the South-town,) and it was
divided into the town of Sutton Prior, part of the hamlet of Sutton Valletort, and the tithing of Sutton Ralph. It had been occasionally called
Plymouth, as early as the year 1383, as appears by a record of that date.
The petition to parliament, of 1411, speaks of the town of Sutton as otherwise called Plymouth; and the subsequent act, of 1439, declares that the
town, tithing, and part of the hamlet above mentioned, should constitute the
borough of Plymouth.
Leland, who had the authority probably of some monastic record, says
that, in the reign of Henry II., this town was "a mene thing as an inhabitation for fischars." Before the year 1253 it had grown to be of so
much importance, that a market was established in it. The petition of
1411 describes Plymouth as a great port for the harbour of vessels, and
speaks of the town as defenceless, and adds, that it had been frequently
destroyed by the enemy in time of war. We have it on record that, in
1338, the French attacked Plymouth, and attempted to burn it, but that
it was relieved, and the enemy put to flight with great loss, by Hugh
Courtenay, Earl of Devon. In 1350 the French, after burning Teignmouth, attempted Plymouth, but finding it then well defended they
destroyed "the farms and fair places" in the neighbourhood. (fn. 22) In 1377 the
town was burnt by the French, plundered in 1400, and again plundered
and burnt in 1403, when six hundred houses are said to have been destroyed. (fn. 23) After an interval of nearly 30 years, the petition of the townsmen was granted, and among other privileges they had the grant of a toll
on all merchandize, to enable them to build walls and towers, and to
fortify the town.
In 1512 an act of parliament passed for fortifying Plymouth, and other
sea-port towns in the west. In 1520 Bishop Lacey granted an indulgence
to all such persons as should contribute to the fortifications at Plymouth. (fn. 24)
Leland, who visited it in the reign of Henry VIII., says, "the mouth of
the gulph, where the shippes of Plymmouth lyith, is waullid on eche side
and chained over in tyme of necessitie; on the south-west side of the
mouth is a block-house, and on a rocky hill hard by it is a strong castle
quadrate, having on eche corner a great round tower. It seemeth to be
no very old peace of worke." It is probable that it was first built soon
after the act of 1439, but additional security having been deemed necessary, it appears that it was resolved to fortify the little adjoining island,
and to convert an ancient chapel thereon into a bulwark. Camden calls
this island St. Michael's; indeed it appears that although, in ancient
histories, it is described as the island of St. Nicholas, yet the chapel
was dedicated to St. Michael. It is stated in the proceedings of the privy
council, that on the 28th of March, 1548, a letter was written to the
mayor of Plymouth and his brethren, "mervelinge of their unwillingness
to proceede in the fortifyinge of St. Michaelles chappelle to be made a
bulwarke, and when they allege the pluckinge down of that chappelle to
the foundacion, they were answered, the same beinge made upp againe
with a wall of turfe, should neither be of less efecte or strength, nor yet
of such great coste as they intended, and therefore eftsones the lordes
desired them like good subjectes to goe in hande with that worke accordinglie, as they might therby be esteemed that they tender the Kinges
Maties. pleasure, and their owne sureties and defence chiefeste." (fn. 25) Westcote
says that the island of St. Nicholas was a place of refuge to divers gentlemen in the insurrection of 1549, when it seems that the insurgents
plundered and set fire to Plymouth; for he observes that the evidences of
the borough were burnt. (fn. 26)
The present citadel at Plymouth was built on the site of the old fort, at
the east end of the Hoe, after the Restoration, by King Charles II., who went
to see it in 1670. It consists of three regular and two irregular bastions,
with ravelins and hornworks, and is inhabited by the Lieutenant-Governor
and other officers, and a garrison of invalids. There are several block-houses
and batteries in the neighbourhood of Plymouth; but the chief security of
the harbour consists in the fortifications on the island of St. Nicholas.
The Spanish Armada appeared off Plymouth in 1588, when Don Medina,
the Spanish Admiral, in the confidence of conquest, is said to have
selected Mount Edgecumbe for his future residence. The port of Plymouth equipped seven ships against this formidable fleet and one flyboat, being a greater number than was furnished by any port except London. (fn. 27)
Plymouth was the grand rendezvous of the fleet, previously to the successful expedition to Cadiz in 1596, when 150 sail assembled in this port;
the land-forces being mustered and trained every day by their officers.
The Earl of Essex and the Earl of Nottingham were in joint command of
this expedition. Lord Thomas Howard was Vice-Admiral of the fleet, and
Sir Walter Ralegh Rear-Admiral. (fn. 28) The Earl of Essex also sailed from hence
on the unfortunate Irish expedition, which caused his disgrace and death.
During the whole of the civil war, Plymouth was in the hands of the
parliament, who retained it even at a time when all the west was in the
possession of the royal forces. Soon after the commencement of the war,
the Earl of Ruthen was appointed governor, and Sir Alexander Carew had
the command of the fort and the island of St. Nicholas. Various attempts
were made by the royalists to gain possession of this important post.
Sir Ralph Hopton appeared before it in the month of December, 1642, but
was driven from his quarters by the Earl of Stamford. (fn. 29) It having been
discovered in the September following, that Sir Alexander Carew was on
the point of betraying his trust, he was sent a prisoner to London, and
suffered death on Tower-hill.
About the beginning of September, 1643, Colonel Digby was sent with
a considerable force of horse and foot to blockade Plymouth, and took up
his quarters at Plymstock. The blockading army had batteries at Oreston
and Mount Batten, and a guard at Hoo. (fn. 30) Early in October they
planned an attack on Mount Stamford, a fort so called after the parliamentary General, the Earl of Stamford. Their guard at Hoo was defeated with
much loss by a party from the garrison on the 8th (fn. 31) ; about which time
Prince Maurice, having captured Dartmouth, advanced with his whole
army to besiege Plymouth. The Prince's head-quarters were at Widey
House, and his army was stationed at Plympton, Plymstock, Causand,
Egg Buckland, Tamerton (fn. 32) , &c. On the fifth of November Mount
Stamford was taken by the besiegers, and the fort at Lipson attempted,
but not with equal success. On this occasion it appears that Colonel James
Wardlaw, then governor of Plymouth, took possession of the fort and island
of St. Nicholas, with the castle and magazine, then under the charge of the
mayor, and intrusted them to approved parliamentary officers. All the inhabitants of the town were then required to take a vow and protestation to defend
the towns of Plymouth and Stonehouse, the fort and island to the uttermost,
and this protestation was sent up and registered in parliament. (fn. 33) On the
3d of December the royalists took a fort at Lory Point, but were repulsed
afterwards by the garrison in a sally, and the fort was retaken. (fn. 34) On the 18th
of the same month an attempt was made to storm the town, but the besiegers
appear to have been repulsed with great loss, and the siege was raised
on the 25th. (fn. 35) The town and garrison had a day of fasting and humiliation on the taking of Mount Stamford; a thanksgiving after the affair of
Lory Point, and another after the siege was raised. Among the Devonshire officers engaged in the siege, were the Earl of Marlborough, Sir
Thomas Hele, Sir Edmund Fortescue, and Sir P. Courtenay. (fn. 36) About
the middle of April, 1644, Sir Richard Grenville advanced with his forces
towards Plymouth, when Colonel Martin, then governor of the town,
marched out with the greater part of the garrison, defeated him at
St. Budeaux (fn. 37) , and took two companies prisoners: about three days after,
Sir Richard advanced again, but as it appears with no better success. (fn. 38)
He was again repulsed before Plymouth in the month of July. (fn. 39) Colonel
Kerr was made governor of Plymouth in that month. (fn. 40) About this time
Prince Maurice again attempted the capture of Plymouth, but not succeeding in his intention, left Sir Richard Grenville with his forces to
blockade the town. (fn. 41) About the last day of this month, the Earl of Essex
approaching Plymouth with his army, Sir Richard Grenville abandoned
the blockade, and Mount Stamford, which had been occupied by the
royalists since its capture in the preceding November, fell into the Earl's
hands. (fn. 42) After the surrender of Essex's army in Cornwall, the King came
before Plymouth in person, on the 9th of September, 1644, attended by
Prince Maurice; the King's quarters were near Magdalen fort (fn. 43) ; he
himself occupied Widey House; Prince Maurice's quarters were near
Lipson (fn. 44) works. The town, of which Lord Roberts was then governor,
was summoned on the 11th, but refusing to surrender, it was determined,
at a council of war, not to undertake an assault or close siege; and the
blockade was again entrusted to Sir Richard Grenville. The King, with
his army, left the quarters before Plymouth on the 14th. (fn. 45) About the
10th of January, 1645, an assault was made on the town by Sir Richard
Grenville, who is said to have had, at that time, a force of 6000 men.
After having so far succeeded as to have gained possession of the four
great outworks, the garrison rallied; they were repulsed with great loss,
and the outworks retaken. (fn. 46) Mount Stamford, having been again fortified
by the royalists, was taken on the 18th of February (fn. 47) , with 300 stand of
arms, &c. Grenville was again defeated by the garrison on the 24th. In
the month of May the town of Plymouth petitioned parliament to have
Lord Roberts continued their governor. The petition was refused, and it
was ordered that five of the principal persons of the town and neighbourhood should have the government, and that Colonel Kerr should be the
military governor. (fn. 48) In the month of June the command of the blockade
of Plymouth was taken from Sir Richard Grenville, and entrusted to Sir
John Berkeley. (fn. 49) In September it was again given to General Digby. (fn. 50)
Colonel Welden was made governor of Plymouth in October. (fn. 51) On the
first or second of January, 1646, Canterbury fort (fn. 52) , near Plymouth, is
said to have been taken by the garrison (fn. 53) ; on the 10th of that month the
blockade of Plymouth was finally abandoned. (fn. 54)
When the combined fleet was in the Channel, in 1779, and the prisonships were crowded with French and Spanish prisoners, great apprehensions
having been entertained for the safety of the place, a corps of volunteers
was raised with great promptitude by William Bastard, Esq., then one of
the county members (fn. 55) , and under their escort the prisoners were marched
to Exeter. During the alarms of invasion, in 1798, 1803, &c., great
exertions were made for the defence of Plymouth town and dock, but they
were not attempted by the enemy.
The market at Plymouth was first granted in or about 1253, to be held
on Thursday, with a fair for three days at the festival of St. John the
Baptist. (fn. 56) In or about 1257 Baldwin de L'Isle had a grant for a market
on Wednesday at Sutton, and a fair for three days at the festival of the
Ascension. (fn. 57) In Westcote's time there were two market-days, Monday and
Friday: there are now three, Monday and Thursday for corn, &c. &c., and
Saturday for butchers' meat and other provisions. There are cattle-fairs
on the first Monday in April, and the first Monday in November (fn. 58) , and
a great market on the second Thursday in every month.
Mr. William Cookworthy, of Plymouth, was the first person who found
out the materials for manufacturing porcelain, as now practised at Worcester: his original experiments were made at Plymouth, where a manufacture was for a while established, but it was not at first successful (fn. 59) , and
it was not till after repeated trials at Plymouth and Bristol, nor till after
its removal to Worcester, that it was brought to its present state of perfection. The principal manufactures now at Plymouth are those of sailcloth, soap, and Roman cement; the latter is of recent establishment.
Plymouth (by the name of Sutton) sent members to parliament in the
reign of Edward I., but there was an intermission from the reign of
Edward II. to that of Henry VI. The right of election is in the
freemen, the present number of whom is supposed to be about 220. In
1570 the two celebrated naval officers and navigators, Sir Humphrey
Gilbert and Sir John Hawkins, were returned as burgesses in parliament
for this borough. Sir John, who was a native of Plymouth, being son of
Captain William Hawkins, himself a very gallant naval officer (fn. 60) , was returned
again the next year. Sir Francis Drake, who had been bred up under his
patronage, and whose name became so distinguished, that the circumstance of his having sailed from this port, on his voyage round the world,
is always spoken of as one of its claims to celebrity, was elected one of its
burgesses in parliament in 1592. Sir Richard Hawkins (fn. 61) , son of Sir John,
who was also an eminent naval officer, and navigator to the South Seas,
was returned one of the members for Plymouth, his native place, in
1603. Sergeant Maynard was one of the representatives for Plymouth
during the whole of the reign of Charles II.
Plymouth was incorporated by the act of parliament of 1439. The
corporation consists of a mayor, 12 aldermen, and 24 common-council-men,
a recorder, town-clerk, &c. The mayor, his predecessor in office, and
the two senior aldermen, are justices of the peace. By the above-mentioned act, the manor of Sutton Prior, which had belonged to the prior
and convent of Plympton, by the gift probably of Walter de Valletort,
(who bestowed on them the island of St. Nicholas,) was settled on the
corporation with all its rights and jurisdictions, markets, &c. &c., subject
to a payment of 40l. per annum to the convent, and 10 marks per annum
to the prior and convent of Bath, pursuant to an arrangement made
between them and the abbot and convent of Buckland, as lords of the
hundred of Roborough. (fn. 62)
Plymouth has a large coasting trade, but no commercial concerns with
foreign countries (fn. 63) ; the chief imports are coals, timber, wines, spirits, Irish
provisions, grocery, corn, fruit, culme, tar, iron, glass, and earthen-ware;
the exports consist of native produce, as lime, marble, granite, silver,
copper, tin, and lead ores, slate, antimony, manganese, &c. Pilchards
also, although there is no fishery at this town, are exported in great
numbers, many of the inhabitants being concerned in the fisheries at Cawsand, Bigbury bay, and Port Wrinkle, a small fishing village in Whitsand bay.
Plymouth appears to have been a very populous town in the reign of
Edward III. The Subsidy Roll of 1377, which was shortly after a great
pestilence, records 4837 persons, of fourteen years or upwards, as having
been then rated to a poll-tax, from which only mendicants and clergy were
exempted. (fn. 64) It may fairly be supposed, therefore, that previously to the
year of pestilence, Plymouth contained not less than 10,000 inhabitants.
It could not have been so populous in 1547, when, as it appears by the
Chantry Roll, there were only 2000 houseleyng inhabitants, that is capable
of communicating, which, according to the usage of the church, they
were supposed to be at fourteen years of age. The total number of
inhabitants in the two parishes of Plymouth, in 1801, was 16,040; in 1811,
20,803 (fn. 65) ; and in 1821, 21,570.
As a sea-port Plymouth has, from an early period, been one of the
principal places of rendezvous of the British navy. From this port
Edward the Black Prince, after having been detained at Sutton by contrary winds 40 days, sailed, in 1355, on the successful expedition to France,
which was crowned with the glorious battle of Poictiers; and here he
landed on the first of May, 1357, with the French king, and his son, the
Dauphin, as prisoners in his train. (fn. 66) Here landed, in 1470, the Earl of
Warwick, with the Duke of Clarence, and the Earls of Pembroke and
Oxford, to excite the revolt which caused the temporary restoration of
King Henry VI. (fn. 67) The ill-fated Catherine of Arragon landed here in
1501; and from this port were fitted out the vessels of the Earl of Cumberland, Drake, Gilbert, Hawkins, Carlisle, Grenville, and Cavendish,
when they set sail on their respective voyages of discovery. The celebrated
Sir Martin Frobisher, who sailed also from this port, is said to have died
and to have been buried at Plymouth, in 1594. (fn. 68) The much-injured Sir
Walter Ralegh is said by some writers to have been arrested by Sir Lewis
Stucly, the Vice-Admiral of Devon, on his landing at Plymouth, previously
to the enforcing of the fatal but suspended sentence in 1618.
In the reign of Henry VIII. the inhabitants of Plymouth, Dartmouth,
and other sea-ports in Cornwall and Devonshire, represented to parliament that their harbours were utterly ruined by the stream-works of the
tinners, in consequence of immense quantities of rubbish having been
carried down by the rivers on whose banks the said works were situated;
that the mouths of the rivers were choked up, so that whereas formerly
ships of 800 tons could enter the harbour at low water, ships of 100 tons
could then scarcely enter. In consequence of this representation an act
of parliament passed, in 1531, imposing heavy penalties on tinners who
should carry on their works in the neighbourhood of any river communicating with the aforesaid sea-ports, without taking certain precautions for
preventing the injury complained of. This act appears not to have been
effective; for we find that in consequence of the harbour being still
choked up with sand, &c., from the tin-mines, and on account of the
great scarcity of fresh water at Plymouth, an act of parliament was obtained, in 1584, for making a canal from the river Meavy, for the purpose
of cleansing the channel of the haven, and for a copious supply of fresh
water, both for the use of the town and of the ships frequenting the
harbour. The act is said to have been obtained by the influence and at
the expense of Sir Francis Drake. (fn. 69) This canal, or as it is called leat of
water, is vested in the corporation.
The famous harbour for the British navy is at Plymouth Dock, and is
known by the name of Hamoaze. This harbour is four miles in length,
and its depth, at low water, fifteen fathoms. Here is stationed the PortAdmiral's ship. In time of war, Hamoaze is the station of numerous hospital and prison ships; in time of peace, it is one of the principal depôts in
which ships are laid up in ordinary. There are moorings in this harbour for
ninety-two line of battle ships. At Plymouth are two harbours for merchant
ships, called Catwater and Sutton Pool; and there is another at Stonehouse, called Stonehouse Pool. Catwater is at the confluence of the Plym,
or rather the Plym passes through it to the sea; it is a large harbour, capable of receiving 1000 sail of ships; and in time of war is frequently filled
with transports, captured vessels, and merchantmen detained by contrary
winds, or waiting for convoy. The corporations of Plymouth and Saltash
exercise jurisdiction in this harbour. A few years ago mooring chains were
laid down by Lord Boringdon, now Earl of Morley, in this harbour, of which
he is proprietor. His Lordship has also a wet dock, for the reception of
ships of large burden, when requiring repair. Ships of war have occasionally been built there by the lessee. Sutton Pool harbour, which is nearly
surrounded by the town of Plymouth, belongs to the duchy of Cornwall.
The entrance to it from Catwater is between two large piers, erected
between 1790 and 1800, ninety feet apart. This harbour is in the hands of
lessees. On its side are several public and private quays. The fishing
trawlers, upwards of forty in number, usually anchor in this harbour. These
trawlers supply Plymouth with fish, great quantities of which are conveyed to
the Bath market. Westcote speaks of the fishing-trade as having been carried
on to a great extent in his time: he says that very often 100 sail of fishing
vessels, and sometimes double that number, were to be seen in the harbour. (fn. 70)
The great national work of the Breakwater, for the protection of the
British navy in Plymouth Sound, was begun is 1812, under the direction of
Mr. Joseph Whidbey, who, in 1799, had projected a similar undertaking at
Torbay. The first stone was laid on the 12th of August, 1812, since which
period, to the month of July, 1821, there have been used in the work
1,930,000 tons of rock, procured from the neighbouring quarries at Oreston.
The Breakwater is to extend 1000 yards in a straight line, with a kant at
each end, of 350 yards in length, each taking an inclination from the
straight line to the northward, or in-shore, of 10° of the great circle. The
base will be about 290 feet, the breadth at the top 48 feet, and the length
at the top 1700 yards. The whole is expected to be finished by the end
The average depth of water, on the line where the Breakwater is placed,
is 36 feet, at low water spring-tides: it is carried 20 feet in height
above that, which is something higher than the general rise of spring tides.
The Breakwater has a slope to seawards, of 22° from the horizontal line,
and one of 33° towards the land. It is situated seaward, from the citadel of
Plymouth, 1850 fathoms, with a good channel to sea at either end for the
largest ships at any time of tide, and when completed, will make a good
harbour for forty sail of the line, besides many smaller ships.
On the east side of the bay, at Staddon Point, there is erecting a pier, for
the purpose of watering ships of war; and about 1200 yards inland (fn. 71) is
a reservoir, containing 12,000 tons of water, which is carried in pipes to
the pier, and from thence conveyed to the ships at anchor in the Sound. (fn. 72)
Plymouth gave the title of Earl to Charles Fitz Charles, a natural son of
King Charles II., who died without issue in 1680. In 1682, the title was bestowed on Henry, Lord Windsor, ancestor of the present Earl of Plymouth.
There were convents both of White and Grey Friers at Plymouth, of
which scarcely any thing is known, but their existence. The site of the
Grey Friers, of which a very small part remains, was in Woolster-street;
that of the White Friers was at the east end of the town, where some remains of the buildings are to be seen.
The community of poor Clares, established at Aire in 1629, who fled
from France, in the year 1799, have been settled at Plymouth ever since
the year 1813.
Plymouth was divided into two parishes, by virtue of an act of parliament passed in 1640. The new parish has since acquired the name of
Charles. Its church, which was built after the Restoration, having been
so called in honour of King Charles I.
In the old church of St. Andrew, are monuments of Jonathan Sparke,
Esq., 1640; Jane, daughter of Sir Anthony Barker, of Sunning, Berks,
wife of Edmund Fowell, Esq., 1640; Sir John Skelton, Lieut.-Governor of
Plymouth, 1672; Captain Edmund Lechmere (fn. 73) , 1703; James Yonge (fn. 74) ,
M. D. F. R. S., 1721; Captain Philip de Saumarez (fn. 75) , 1747; John Morshed,
Esq., 1771; Digory Tonkin, Esq., 1788; Samuel Northcote, Esq., (father of
the eminent artist of that name, who is a native of Plymouth,) 1791; John
Mudge, M.D., 1793; Frances, daughter of Captain Thomas Troubridge,
(afterwards Sir Thomas Troubridge, Bart.,) 1798; &c. &c. There is a
memorial also for James Vernon, Esq., (only son of Admiral Vernon,) who
died in 1753. The tower of this church was built by Thomas Yogge, merchant, in 1440.
Plymouth, or rather Sutton, was anciently a prebend in the collegiate
church of Plympton. After that church was converted into a priory, the
church of Sutton was appropriated to it. Since the Reformation, the impropriate tithes, together with the advowson of the vicarage, have been vested
in the corporation. Zachary Mudge, vicar of St. Andrew's, who died in
1769, was author of a volume of sermons much admired; and an essay
towards a new version of the Psalms; his son, Dr. John Mudge, who died
in 1793, was for many years an eminent physician at Plymouth (fn. 76) ; he distinguished himself as well for his skill in mathematics as in medicine; he
improved the construction of the reflecting telescope, and published
treatises on the inoculated small pox, and on catarrhous coughs. His son,
the late Major-General William Mudge, of the royal artillery, was a native
of this place: inheriting the mathematical talents of his family, he had an
opportunity of displaying them most conspicuously whilst conducting the
great trigonometrical survey of the kingdom, under the auspices of government. General Mudge contributed several valuable scientific papers to
the Philosophical Transactions; and to him, as Lieut.-Governor of the
Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, the public are indebted for the
excellent regulations by which that establishment is conducted.
A lecturer at St. Andrew's church is chosen by the corporation every
three years: he has a salary of 70l. per annum, which is augmented by a
A new church was begun to be built at Plymouth on the eve of the
civil war, pursuant to an act of parliament passed in 1640. The building
was suspended during the time of the troubles: on its completion, after the
Restoration, it was dedicated to the memory of King Charles. The spire
was added in 1765. A new parish was constituted by the above-mentioned
act, comprising a considerable part of the town, the village of Lipson, and
the tithing of Compton Giffard, so called from the ancient family of Giffard,
to whom the manor belonged in the thirteenth century: it was afterwards in
the Whitleghs of Efford. In 1770, it belonged to Mrs. Mary Coxe, of
Peamore, by inheritance, probably, from the families of Northleigh and
Tothill: it is now the property of the Earl of Morley.
In the year 1715, the Presbyterians, Independents, and Baptists, had
each a meeting-house at Plymouth; and there was a French church. (fn. 77) I
find it extremely difficult, generally speaking, to give any thing like a correct account of the dissenting congregations of the present day; the dissenters, themselves, being by no means agreed as to the denominations of
the several sects; it is by all allowed, however, that those of Presbyterians
and Independents are grown obsolete, together with the circumstances which
gave rise to them. I have, nevertheless, in most instances, been under the
necessity of retaining them, from not knowing what names to substitute:
indeed some very respectable persons among the dissenters approve of
retaining the old names. Most of the Presbyterian congregations are
become Unitarians, and some of the Independents; others, abandoning the
name of Independents, call themselves moderate Calvinists; whilst many of
the people who were called Methodists, not liking that appellation, and not
belonging to any of the leading connections of the people so called, denominate themselves Independent Calvinists: of the latter description, there
are several congregations at Plymouth Dock. I am indebted to the Rev.
Mr. Worsley, the Unitarian minister, for being enabled to speak with accuracy of the several congregations of dissenters at Plymouth and the
adjoining towns. One of the Presbyterian congregations now consists of
Unitarians; the other of moderate Calvinists: the Baptists are divided into
two congregations, Particular and Calvinistic. The Quakers have a meeting-house here, and the Wesleyan Methodists: the congregations of the
old and new Tabernacle call themselves Independent Calvinists: the former was, originally, in Whitfield's connection, and the latter has generally
been supplied by ministers from Lady Huntingdon's, and since, from Lady
Erskine's College. Besides the above mentioned, there are meeting-houses
of the Bryanites (fn. 78) , and Baringites (fn. 79) , and a Jews' synagogue.
Besides the eminent natives of Plymouth already mentioned, may be
enumerated Sir Thomas Edmondes, the ambassador and political writer;
John Glanville, author of the well-known "Treatise on Witchcraft," and
various philosophical and other works; John Quick, an eminent non-conformist divine, author of a "History of the Reformation in France," and
other works; Mrs. Parsons, author of above sixty volumes of novels,
some of which were well received; the Rev. John Bidlake, D.D., master
of the grammar-school, and the author of a volume of poems, and several
volumes of sermons; and the learned Jacob Bryant, the mythologist.
Camden speaks of Ealphegus, a learned priest, who flourished at Plymouth
in the reign of William II.
There was an ancient hospital at Plymouth, dedicated to the Holy Trinity
and St. Mary Magdalen, of which nothing is now known, but that it existed in 1374. (fn. 80) Leland says that it stood on the north side of the church.
The Chantry Roll, of 1547, describes an almshouse in Plymouth, called
God's House, the founder unknown, endowed with lands given by divers
persons, the rent of which then amounted to 14l. 7s. per annum. This
was, most probably, the church almshouse, in St. Andrew's parish, for
twelve widows and a nurse, the income of which now consists of rents of
about 25l. per annum, besides 3l. per annum given by Captain Rawlins, in
1626, for butter on fish-days. The widows' incomes are augmented by the
corporation. In a court at the back of this is another almshouse for twelve
poor single women, who are placed in it by the corporation; but it does not
appear that it has any endowment. There were three set of almshouses,
which have been pulled down, founded by Ann Prynne-Fownes, and
Alice Miller; the two former had no endowment; the latter was, in 1660,
endowed with a rent-charge of 10l. per annum, for twenty poor people.
There was also an hospital, called the Hospital of the Poor's Portion,
founded by John Gayer, Abraham Colmer, and Edmund Fowell, in 1630,
to which John Lanyon gave 2000l., in 1674, laid out in houses, now producing 229l. 10s. per annum. (fn. 81) This is applied to the maintenance and
education of children. The hospital of the Poor's Portion has, under an
act of parliament, passed in 1708, been converted into a workhouse. This
workhouse, under the act of Queen Anne, is governed by a corporation of
fifty-two guardians, including a governor, deputy-governor, and ten assistants, a treasurer and receiver; which officers are elective. The building is
spacious, containing wards for men, women, and infant children; the
women's division containing separate wards for reputable women, disorderly,
or disreputable, and lying-in women; there are, also, a dispensary, a workshop, cells for disorderly persons, commodious places of confinement for
insane persons, school-rooms, and apartments for the boys belonging to
Hele's and Lanyon's charities. The whole appears to be under excellent
regulations. Two other acts of parliament relating to it were passed in
1754 and in 1786.
The grammar-school at Plymouth was established in the reign of
Henry VII. by the corporation, who allowed the master a salary of 10l.
per annum, and apartments over the ancient chapel. The master has now
a salary of 70l. per annum, besides a house, garden, &c., allowed him by
the corporation, who claim the privilege of sending to the school the sons
of poor freemen, to be instructed gratuitously. When Mr. Carlisle published his account of grammar-schools, in 1818, there were but two of this
description. The late Dr. Bidlake, Bampton lecturer at Oxford, was master
of this school. Dr. Nathaniel Forster was educated there. Mr. Henry
Kelway, of Plymouth, having bequeathed, in 1732, all his freehold and
personal estates for charitable uses, they were sold and converted into
bank stock, amounting to 4860l. 17s. 3d. The income was directed to be
applied to the maintenance, clothing, and education, of boys in Plymouth
grammar-school; to be elected by the master of the school and the lecturer of St. Andrew's, who have given the preference to those related to
the founder; some of whom, as the funds have been found sufficient, have
been sent to the University, and educated for holy orders.
Thomas and Nicholas Sherwell, in 1617, gave land on which to build an
hospital for orphans, to contain not more than forty, and not less than three
boys natives of Plymouth. The said Thomas Sherwell, in 1629, gave a rentcharge of 8l. per annum towards the endowment. Some persons, now unknown, gave 13l. 7s. per annum, in conventionary rents. Sir John Gayer,
in 1626, gave land now producing 55l. per annum, on condition that his
heirs, if resident in Plymouth, should always recommend one boy. John
Fownes, in 1628, gave 100l., with which was purchased a rent-charge of
8l. 6s. 8d. Twelve boys are now clothed, maintained, and educated, by this
charity. The annual average revenue for the last twenty years, has been
Mr. Elize Hele, who died in 1635, having bequeathed the whole of his
estates to charitable uses, Sir John Maynard and Mr. Elize Stert, his
trustees, gave certain lands to the town of Plymouth, to be thus appropriated: one half to the governors and guardians of the poor, for the benefit
of the poor, at their discretion; the other half to such charitable purposes
as the heirs of Sir John Maynard should appoint. The rents of this estate
vary according to the dropping in of lives. In 1786, it was estimated at
168l. 11s. per annum, and now at 340l.
An uncertain number of the most deserving boys (fn. 82) , to be preferred
from the workhouse, or hospital of the Poor's Portion, are maintained,
clothed, and educated, out of the funds of this charity, and being dressed
in red, are called red boys; others are selected in the same manner, and
maintained, clothed, and educated, by the benefaction of John Lanyon,
before mentioned, and being dressed in blue, are called blue boys. Part of
Hele's fund arises from an annuity of 30l. on the market, purchased of the
corporation, out of the savings of the Hele estate.
Dame Hannah Rogers gave by will, in 1764, 10,000l., which being laid
out in the funds, and the savings having been also funded, now produces
an income of 806l. 12s. 6d. per annum, for the maintenance and education
of poor children of Devon and Cornwall, or other charitable uses. The
whole of this is applied to the clothing, maintaining, and educating thirty
poor girls of Plymouth.
There is a large school at Plymouth, on the Madras system, in which,
in the month of December, 1820, there were 350 boys, and 90 girls.
Colonel Joseph Jory, in 1703, gave certain houses, which now produce, on
an average, a rent of about 250l. per annum, to twelve poor widows of the
parish of Charles.
In this parish is a school for the clothing and educating of poor boys and
girls, founded in the year 1713. The present amount of subscriptions to
this school is 100l. per annum; the funded property consists of 2506l.
O.S.S., and 1140l. three per cents. (fn. 83) , besides about 522l. O.S.S., and 200l.
three per cents., for apprenticing children. There are now 100 boys in this
school, and sixty girls: twenty-five of the boys, and twenty of the girls, are
clothed. This is called the Grey and Yellow School. The Dissenters
have a school in the parish of St. Andrew.
The chapelry, or tithing, of Weston Peverell, or Pennycross, is in the
parish of St. Andrew, Plymouth. The manor was the ancient inheritance
of the Peverells; whose heiress brought it to Sir Nicholas Carew, of Carew
Castle, the first of the family who resided in Devonshire, and father of Sir
John Carew, who married the heiress of Mohun. Having become vested
in the crown, it was granted by Edward VI. to Richard Reynell, Esq., for
his services in the western rebellion. Some years ago, it belonged to the
family of Hewer; from whom it passed to Hall, and is now vested, together
with Manadon, which is the seat of the Hewers, in the co-heiresses of the
late Humphrey Hall, Esq. Manadon was lately occupied by the widow of
Colonel Waldron, one of the above-mentioned co-heiresses, recently married
to Sir William Elford, Bart.
Burrington, in this chapelry, belonged to the family of Weare, or Were,
and is now, by inheritance, the property of Richard Hall Clarke, Esq., of
Bridwell: it is the residence of his son, John Were Clarke, Esq. Ham was,
for nearly two centuries, the seat of a branch of the Trelawneys; now of
George Collins, Esq., who married the heiress of that branch.
The beauty of the situation and views has been the occasion of
the building numerous villas in this parish, the principal of which are,
Prospect, Mrs. Hotchkys's; Boxhill, William Delacour, Esq.; Bellair,
Captain Elphinstone; Torr, the Rev. J. Strode Foot; Manhelian, George
Herbert, Esq.; Burleigh, George Hunt, Esq.; Meetley, Mrs. Mangles;
and Pounds, Mrs. Carswell.
The chapel of Weston Peverell, or St. Pancras, corruptly called Pennycross chapel, is annexed to the church of St. Budeaux, which is a
daughter-church to St. Andrew, Plymouth. Divine service is performed
in this chapel once a fortnight in the afternoon, and four times in the year
in the morning, by the minister of St. Budeaux. This chapelry maintains
its own poor, and pays all its assessments separately: it is not esteemed a
separate parish, but a tithing in the parish of St. Andrew: it is about
three miles from Plymouth.
Nearly fourteen miles (fn. 84) S. W. of Plymouth Sound are the Edystone rocks,
which had proved so fatal to mariners before the construction of a lighthouse
to warn them of their danger. This important work was first undertaken
by the celebrated mechanic Mr. Henry Winstanley, of Littlebury, in Essex,
in the year 1696: it had scarcely been completed three years, when it
was destroyed by the storm of 1703, the most tremendous which had ever
been experienced in England, and its ingenious architect, who was then
superintending some repairs, perished in its ruins. The building was thought
to have been too much ornamented; but it is said that Mr. Winstanley was
so well assured of its strength, that he declared he should wish to be in it
during the greatest storm that ever blew under the face of the heavens,
that he might see what effect it would have upon the structure. Soon
after the demolition of the lighthouse, a vessel was wrecked on the
Edystone rocks, and the whole of the crew perished. In 1706 a new
lighthouse was begun by Mr. John Rudyerd, a simple structure of a
conical form; the whole building was 92 feet in height; the lantern was
an octagon of 10 feet 6 inches diameter. This lighthouse, after resisting
the fury of the waves for 46 years, was destroyed by fire on the 22d of
August, 1755; one of the light-keepers, Henry Hall, an old man 94
years of age, lost his life in consequence of melted lead falling down his
throat whilst endeavouring to extinguish the flames, as was apparent by
dissection after his death; he survived the accident 12 days. Until the
circumstance had been proved, it was thought incredible that the lead had
been received into his stomach. An account of this extraordinary case
was sent, by the attending surgeon, to the Royal Society. The present
lighthouse was constructed, upon an improved plan, by the celebrated
Mr. Smeaton; the first stone was laid on the 12th of June, 1757, and it
was completed August 24. 1759. The outside and basement are of granite;
the interior of Portland stone. The height of the main column is 70