ST. GENNYS, in the hundred of Lesnewth and in the deanery of Trigg-Major,
lies about eight miles and a half north of Camelford, which is the post-office
town, and about the same distance south-west of Stratton. The principal villages
in this parish are Crackington or Cracketton, Penkuke, and Roskear.
The manor of St. Gennys belonged to the family of Treise, and was the property of the late Sir John Morshead, Bart., who married the sister and coheiress of the last heir-male of that family.
The manor of Crackhampton, commonly called Crackington or Cracketton,
was part of the great possessions of the Botterell or Bottreaux family, from whom
it passed by heirs-female to the families of Hungerford and Hastings. It is now
the property of Lord Rolle, in whose family it has been for several generations.
The manor of Treworgye, which had belonged to the prior and convent of
Launceston was annexed by King Henry VIII., in 1540, to the duchy of Cornwall, being one of those given in lieu of the honour of Wallingford. The barton
was for many years on lease to the family of Mill; afterwards to the Braddons.
Capt. William Braddon of this place, who had been a distinguished officer on the
parliamentary side during the civil war, died in the year 1694, and lies buried
within the rails of the communion-table at St. Gennys, where is an epitaph to his
memory, with some English verses beginning—
"In war and peace I bore command,
Both gown and sword I wore."
This has occasioned a tradition which appears to be groundless, that he was
vicar of St. Gennys. It is certain that he was a member of the parliament in
1658; and it is probable that in Cromwell's time, as magistrate he celebrated
marriages, which gave rise, perhaps, to the tradition. Treworgye is now a farmhouse, the leasehold property of Mr. Henry Spry, of Boyton.
Treveeg, in this parish, formerly a seat of the Yeos, is now a farm-house.
Lord Eliot is patron of the vicarage, and impropriator of the great tithes, which
belonged formerly to the priory of Launceston.
ST. GERMANS, in the hundred and deanery of East, a decayed market
and borough town, lies about eight miles from Plymouth dock, about 23 from
Launceston, and 230 from London. It takes its name from St. German, Bishop
of Auxerre, who is said to have resided at this place for a time, during his visit to
England. Mr. Whitaker supposes a bishop's see to have been established at this
place as early as the year 614. That St. Germans was the episcopal see so long as
an episcopal see existed in the county of Cornwall, he has proved in the most
satisfactory manner; but of its existence at that early period, his learned volumes
on the subject of the cathedral of Cornwall afford no proof; nor have we any
intimation from history of any Bishop of St. Germans before the year 910, when
Athelstan was appointed to that see. King Athelstan made Conan Bishop of St.
Germans in 936. After the death of Bishop Burwold, Livingus Bishop of Crediton procured this bishopric to be annexed to his own, and his successor Leofric
made interest to have them both united to that of Exeter. Bishop Leofric
changed the seculars of a college, founded by King Athelstan at St. Germans,
into canons of the order of St. Augustine, between whom and the Bishop the
manor of St. Germans was divided. Leland says, that Bartholomew (Iscanus),
Bishop of Exeter, who died in 1172, changed the monks of St. Germans into
canons regular, on account of the laxity of their lives (fn. 1) . At its suppression in
1535, it was valued at 227l. 4s. 8d., clear yearly income. King Henry VIII.
leased the site of the priory and other lands to John Champernown and others,
and soon afterwards granted the see to Katherine (widow of the said John), John
Ridgway, and Walter Smith. Carew's story relating to the grant of St. Germans
priory is as follows: "John Champernowne, sonne and heire apparant to Sir Philip
of Devon, in Henry the Eighth's time, followed the court, and through his pleasant
conceits, of which much might be spoken, wan some good grace with the King.
Now when the golden showre of the dissolved abbey lands rayned wellnere into
every gaper's mouth, some two or three gentlemen (the King's servants), and
Master Champernowne's acquaintance, waited at a doore where the King was to
passe forth, with purpose to beg such a matter at his hands: our gentleman became inquisitive to know their suit; they made strange to impart it. This while,
out comes the King: they kneel down, so doth Master Champernowne. They
preferre their petition; the King graunts it: they render humble thanks, and so
doth M. Champernowne. Afterwards, he requireth his share; they deny it;
he appeals to the King: the King avoweth his equal meaning in the largesse;
whereon, the overtaken companions were fayne to allot him this priory for his
partage." Norden has strangely mistaken this story, and says, that King Henry
VIII. bestowed the priory of St. Germans upon an ancestor of the Eliots, "being
full of pleasant conceytes, wherewith the Kinge was delited." It is certain that
the Champernowns became sole possessors of the priory estate, and that in 1565
they conveyed it to Richard Eliot, Esq. of Coteland, in Devonshire, in exchange
for that manor. Sir John Eliot, son of Richard, was a distinguished patriot in
the reign of James I., an active opposer of the Duke of Buckingham and the
court measures, particularly that of raising taxes without the consent of Parliament: for some bold speeches on this subject he was committed to the tower,
where he died, in the year 1632. Daniel Eliot, his grandson, left an only
daughter, married to Browne Willis, the celebrated antiquary, by whom we are
informed that his father-in-law, in order to keep up the family name, bequeathed
his estates to Edward Eliot, grandson of Nicholas, fourth son of Sir John abovementioned. The grandson of this Edward Eliot was, in 1784, created Baron Eliot,
of St. Germans, and in 1789 had His Majesty's permission to take and use the
name and arms of Craggs, in consequence of his father's marriage with a natural
daughter of Secretary Craggs, in 1726. His grandson and successor, Edward
Eliot Craggs, now Lord Eliot, is the present possessor of the priory estate and
manor of St. Germans, as well as lessee of the Bishop's manor. Port Eliot, His
Lordship's residence, was formerly called Porth-Prior: it occupies the site of the
priory, but retains no traces of the conventual buildings. The old paintings
mentioned by Mr. Whitaker as having belonged to the priory are now in the
gallery; among other portraits at Port Eliot, are those of Sir John Eliot the
patriot, Locke, Hampden, Secretary Craggs, Major-Gen. Richards, the brave
defender of Alicant, and several family pictures by Sir Joshua Reynolds; among
which is one of his earliest groupes, painted in the year 1746.
The town of St. Germans had a market when the survey of Domesday was
taken; it was then held on Sunday, but had been reduced to almost nothing in
consequence of the Earl of Moreton's market (most probably Saltash), then lately
established in the neighbourhood. The market was afterwards changed to Friday;
in Browne Willis's time, it was very inconsiderable, and has been long wholly
discontinued. There are two cattle fairs, May 28, and August 1.
Leland calls St. Germans "a poor fischar town," and adds, that "the glory of
it stood by the priory." Carew, speaking of this town, says, "the church-towne
mustereth many inhabitants and sundry ruines, but little wealth, occasioned eyther
through abandoning their fishing trade, as some conceive, or by their being
abandoned of the religious people, as the greater sort imagine." The town of
St. Germans is governed by a portreeve, who is elected annually at the lord's
court-leet, and forty censors. It has sent two members to parliament ever since
the year 1562; the right of election is vested in all householders who have
resided twelve months within the limits of the borough: there are only nineteen
houses within the limits.
Besides the borough and vill of St. Germans, the parish contains the hamlets of
Bake, Catchfrench, Coldrinnick, Cuddenbeck, Cutcrew, Hendra, Molineck,
Polemartin, Treskelly, and part of Tidiford. There is no village of any size
except Hessingford, which contains about twenty houses.
The manor of Cuddenbeck has been long held on lease under the Bishops of
Exeter by the Eliot family. The mansion, which was a country-seat of the
Bishop's, was some time a jointure-house of that family; and in 1793, was occupied by the widow of Daniel Eliot, Esq.: it is now a farm-house, retaining some
vestiges of its ancient consequence. The manors of Heskin, Little-Deviock and
Molineck, and the barton of Hendra, belong to Lord Eliot. Heskin has been in
the family more than two centuries. Little-Deviock had been successively in the
Mohuns, Courtenays, Carews, and Rashleighs, and was purchased of the latter
about the year 1767: Molineck, which had been the ancient property and seat (fn. 2)
of the Scawens, was purchased about 1780. Hendra, now a farm-house, some
time a seat of the Austens, and afterwards of the Hancocks, was purchased of the
representatives of the latter (the Kellys of Kelly in Devonshire), by the late Lord
The manor of Bake was anciently in a family of that name, from whom it
passed, by a female heir, in the reign of Edward III., to the Moyles, who have
resided at this place for many generations. Thomas Moyle, of Bake, was Speaker of
the House of Commons in the reign of Henry VIII. Walter Moyle, who was chosen
member for Saltash in the 7th year of King William, distinguished himself in the
house by his speech, in support of the bill for the encouragement of seamen. He
soon afterwards relinquished his seat in parliament, and spent his time chiefly in
studious retirement, at Bake, where he died in 1721, at the age of 49. After his
death, his works, consisting of political pamphlets, critical dissertations, letters, &c.
were published in two octavo volumes, to which was prefixed his portrait from
the original at Bake: this manor is now the property, and Bake the occasional
residence, of Sir Joseph Copley, Bart., whose grandfather, Joseph Moyle, Esq., took
the name of Copley on succeeding to a large estate at Sprotborough, in Yorkshire.
He was created a baronet in 1778, being described of Sprotborough. Sir Joseph
Copley has another manor in this parish called Trewall.
The manor of Bonialva, formerly parcel of the possessions of the prior and
convent of Launceston, was one of those annexed to the duchy of Cornwall, in
lieu of the honor of Wallingford, in 1540: it is now the property of Francis
The manor of Maders belonged to the Vyvyan family, of whom it was purchased, in 1761, by the late Rev. Joshua Howell: his son, David Howell, Esq.,
gave it in exchange for other lands to the Trelawnys of Coldrinnick. Coldrinnick was for many generations the seat of a younger branch of the Trelawnys,
which became extinct by the death of Charles Trelawny, Esq., in 1764. Having
passed by devise successively to the families of Darell, Crabbe, and Stephens (fn. 3) , who
took the name of Trelawny, it is now the property of Charles Trelawny,
a minor, son of the late Edward Trelawny, Esq. (some time Stephens.) Coldrinnick pays great tithes to the parish of Menheniot. Tregonick, formerly a seat
of the Smiths, is now a farm-house, the property of Sir Joseph Copley, Bart.
South-Paderda, the seat of the ancient family of Paderda, was purchased in 1763,
by the Rev. J. Howell, of Mr. Peter Charlick, and exchanged with the Trelawnys
for other lands. Catchfrench, now the seat of Francis Glanville, Esq., was for
several generations in the family of Kekewich, who acquired it by marriage with
the heiress of Talverne of Talverne, in Northill: it was afterwards in the Boscawens, from whom it passed, by a female heir, to the Fortescues: in 1728, it was
purchased of Hugh Fortescue, Lord Clinton, by Julius Glanville, Esq., ancestor of
the present owner.
The parish-church, formerly the conventual church, has been spoken of already
under the head of Ancient Architecture; and it has been stated, that the south
aisle was rebuilt in the year 1261, as appears by the Exeter registers. "A great
part of the chauncell," says Carew, "fell suddenly downe upon a Friday, very
shortly after the publick service was ended, which heavenly favour, of so little
respite, saved many persons lives, with whom immediately before, it had been
stuffed; and the devout charges of the well-disposed parishioners quickly repayred
this ruine." In this church are some monuments of the Eliot family, particularly a
very handsome one by Ryssbrack, in memory of William Eliot, Esq., who died
in 1723. This gentleman founded a parochial library, and endowed it with an
annual income, for the purchase of books. There is a monument, also, for John
Glanville, Esq., of Catchfrench, great-grandson of the Judge.
The great tithes of this parish, formerly appropriated to the priory, are held by
Francis Glanville, Esq., under the church of Windsor. Mention is made in the
registers of the see of Exeter, of a chapel of St. Wynnel in this parish. (fn. 4)
In the year 1657, Nicholas Hony, Esq. founded a school at St. Germans, and
endowed it with land, now let at 10l. 10s. per annum.
ST. GERMOE, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Kirrier,
lies about five miles west of Helston, which is the post-office town, and about eight
miles east of Penzance. The principal villages in this parish are Tresowes, and
Buscreege or Boscreeg. The chapel of St. Germoe, or Germoch, who is said to
have been an Irish king, was given by William, Earl of Gloucester, to the priory of
St. James in Bristol. St. Germoe is considered as a separate parish, but the
church is subordinate to that of Breage, and included in the same presentation.
The impropriation of the great tithes is vested in the representatives of the late
Mr. James Richards. The ancient building in the church-yard, called St. Germoe's
chair, has been already spoken of. The Godolphin tin-mines are in this parish.
GERRANS, in the deanery and west division of the hundred of Powder, lies
east-north-east from Falmouth, about five miles by water, but by land, through
Tregony and Truro, twenty-six; from St. Mawes, in the same direction, about
a mile and a half by water, and four miles by land. Tregony, which is the
post-office town, is eight miles distant. The principal villages in this parish
are Polskatho and Trewithian.
The manor of Tregeare has belonged from time immemorial to the see of
Exeter: it was held on lease for many years by the family of Noseworthy, the
last of whom, dying suddenly at Dunkirk in 1701, Bishop Trelawny leased it to
his own family. The present lessee is James West, Esq. The barton, which had
been in ancient times a country-seat of the Bishops of Exeter, was some time on
lease to the Trevanions of Trelegan, a younger branch of the Caerhayes' family,
who sold the lease to the Hoblyns of Bradridge. In 1712 it was purchased
of the latter by Samuel Kempe, Esq., of Carclew, and is now vested in John
Kempe, Esq.; it is occupied as a farm-house.
The manors of Pettigrew and Nanquitty are the property of Francis Enys, Esq.,
in whose family they have been for a considerable time. The manor of Trelugan
or Trelegan, which had been forfeited by the Marquis of Exeter, was, in the year
1540, annexed to the duchy of Cornwall, with other manors, in lieu of the honor
of Wallingford. The barton was for a considerable time the seat of a branch of the
Trevanions, the last of whom, Hugh Trevanion, died Governor of the Poor Knights
at Windsor, in 1730. His father had sold this barton to Stephen Johns, Gent.
The estate is now in severalties, belonging to Richard Johns, Esq., of Trewince in
this parish (formerly a seat of the Courtenays), Mathew Garland Cregoe, Esq., of
Trewithian, and others. Trewithian has been many years in the family of Cregoe.
Rosteage was, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the seat of Reginald Mohun
(younger brother of Sir William Mohun), a captain under Sir Walter Ralegh, who,
in 1619, sold it to Nicholas Kempe. The present proprietor, Henry Harris, Esq.,
purchased it of the Kempes, in 1780. Tregassa-Vean, within the manor of Tregeare, some time a seat of the family of Hobbs, is now occupied as a farm-house.
The Bishop of Exeter is patron of the rectory. The rector has all the tithes of
the barton of Tregeare, and the estates of Tregarvon and Vradon-hay. A moiety
of the tithes of the rest of the parish is vested in Richard Johns, Esq. The church
is called in the old Valors, Ecclesia de St. Gerendo.
On an estate called Cargurrell, in this parish, is the ancient fortification called
Dingerein, about a mile and a quarter from the church-town, which Mr. Whitaker
supposes to have been the residence of King Gerennius. (fn. 5)
ST. GLUVIAS, in the deanery and east division of the hundred of Kirrier, lies about
a quarter of a mile north of Penryn, which borough is situated within this parish.
The principal villages in the parish are, Burnthouse, Ponsnooth and Treluswell.
The manor of Cosawis, Casawse or Gosose, belonged to the Bodrugans, and
after the attainder of Sir Henry Bodrugan, was given by King Henry VII. to
Sir Richard Edgcumbe, whose descendant (Lord Mount-Edgcumbe) has lately
sold it to Sir William Lemon, Bart. The barton of Casawse was formerly a seat of
the Carveths, as lessees under the Edgcumbe family, and the birth-place of Capt.
Carveth, a distinguished naval officer in the reign of Charles II. On the death
of the last heir-male of this family, it passed to the Levertons. Casawse is now
Roscrow is said by Hals to have been, at an early period, the seat of a family to
whom it gave name, and who became extinct in the reign of Henry VI.; but his
account is incorrect, when he states that it passed by female heirs to the family of
Pendarves. Thomas Killigrew, Esq. died seised of the manor of Roscrow, held
under the Bishop of Exeter, in 1484. (fn. 6) Tonkin says that Thomas Hary, who
settled at this place in the reign of Henry VIII., took the name of Roscrow, and
that his grandson sold this barton to Samuel Pendarves, Esq. It was the seat of
this family-till the death of Alexander Pendarves, Esq., M. P. for Launceston, the
last heir-male of that branch, in 1725; when it passed to his niece Mary, the relict
of Francis Basset, Esq., and is now the property of his grandson Lord de Dunstanville. Treluswell, which was a seat also of the Roscrows, has passed with Roscrow, except a fourth part which one of the coheiresses of Sir Benedict brought to
the family of Daungers, and is now the property of Sir William Lemon, Bart.
Enys, now the seat of Francis Enys, Esq., has been in his family ever since the
reign of Edward I., if not from an earlier period. In the Cornish play of the
"Creation of the Universe," (in the Bodleian library,) Enys, and some neighbouring lands, are given as a reward to the builders of the universe. The Magna
Britannia of 1720 speaks of Enys as celebrated for its fine gardens. There is a
view of the house in Borlase's Natural History. Gwarder, formerly a seat of the
Hallamores, was sold by Henry Hallamore to John Worth, Esq., before 1736. It
is now a farm-house, the property of Francis Enys, Esq.
An estate called Bohelland, in this parish, is said to have been the scene of the
unnatural murder which forms the subject of Lillo's tragedy of "Fatal Curiosity."
The site of the house is still pointed out; but the name of the family is not
known. The particulars of this horrid event are detailed in a pamphlet (fn. 7) published
in the year 1618, when it is said to have happened; and are also given by Saunderson, in his Annals of King James I. (fn. 8) : that author observes, that "the imprinted
relation conceals the names, in favour to some neighbours of repute and kin to the
family," and that "the same sense made him therein silent also."
At a place called the Burnt-town, was a seat of the Beauchamps, as lessees
under the Edgcumbe family. It is now the property of Mrs. Nagle and Lady
Miller, daughters of the late John Beauchamp, Esq., of Pengreep.
In the parish-church is the tomb of Thomas Killigrew, who died in the year
1484, with figures on brass-plates of himself and his two wives Joanna and Elizabeth. There are monuments also of the families of Pendarves of Roscrowe, Enys
of Enys, and the Rev. John Penrose, vicar of Gluvias, who died in 1776.
Lord de Dunstanville is impropriator of the great tithes which belonged formerly to the college of Glaseney. The Bishop of Exeter is patron of the vicarage.
Norden speaks of St. Gluvias as a chapel to Budock, and says that it was in ancient
times called the chapel of Bohelland, because it was built in Bohelland fields.
There was formerly a chapel dedicated to St. Magdalen, near Casawse, supposed to
have been a chantry chapel connected with Glaseney college. The ruins of it
remained in 1736. (fn. 9)
The borough of Penryn, an ancient town which lies within the parish of
Gluvias (fn. 10) , was incorporated by King James I. The corporation consists of a mayor,
recorder, portreeve, eleven magistrates, and twelve assistants. King James's
charter gave this town the privilege also of sending two members to parliament.
The right of election is in the freemen at large, the number of whom at the
last election (in 1812) was nearly three hundred. The boundaries of the borough
extend about half a mile north of the town. There is a silver cup and cover
belonging to the corporation, given by Jane Lady Killigrew, with this inscription:
"From maior to maior to the towne of Permarin when they received me that
was in great misery, J. K. (Jane Killigrew) 1633." Hals says, that this lady had
gone on board two Dutch ships with a party of ruffians, and having slain two
Spanish merchants, their owners, robbed them of two barrels of Spanish pieces of
eight. The lady, he adds, was by means of great interest pardoned; but her
accomplices all executed. Hals's stories are not much to be depended on; it is
more certain that she was divorced from her husband, and that in consequence
she was protected by the inhabitants of Penryn, who bore no good will to Sir
John Killigrew, and his rising town of Smithick. (fn. 11) Jane Lady Killigrew was
daughter of Sir George Fermor, Knt., of Easton-Neston, ancestor of the Earl
of Pomfret: she died in 1648.
A market at Penryn on Mondays, and a fair at the festival of St. Thomas the
Martyr, were granted to the Bishop of Exeter in 1258 (fn. 12) , and a fair at the festival
of St. Vitalis in 1312. (fn. 13) The charter of King James I. grants two markets to be
held on Wednesday and Saturday, and three fairs, May 1, July 7, and December 21. The fairs are still kept up, and there is now a fourth on the 8th of October: they are all considerable cattle-fairs. There is now only one market,
on Saturday, well supplied with butchers'-meat, fish, poultry and vegetables.
Poldavies are made at Penryn, and a great quantity of moor-stone sent from thence
by water to London.
Penryn was a garrison of the King's during the civil war: it was surrendered
to Sir Thomas Fairfax, in the month of March 1646. (fn. 14)
The manor of Penryn-Foreign and Penryn-Borough have belonged, from time
immemorial, to the Bishops of Exeter, who had formerly a country-house at or
The college of Glaseney, in Penryn, of which there are now no remains, was founded
in the thirteenth century for secular canons and vicars. The foundation is generally
attributed to Walter Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, who died in 1326; but Leland
says, "Walter Good or Brunscombe (fn. 15) made it yn a more called Glasenith, in the
bottom of a park of his for a provost, twelve prebendaries, and other ministers."
Bishop Grandison, who died in 1369, was so great a benefactor to this college,
that he shares the honour of the foundation. It was dedicated to the Virgin
Mary and St. Thomas the Martyr. The tithes of St. Allen, St. Budock (including
Gluvias), and St. Feock, were appropriated to this college, the revenues of which,
at its suppression in 1535, were estimated at 205l. 10s. 6d. clear yearly value. It
appears by the will of Thomas Killigrew, bearing date 1500, that the church of
St. Thomas the Martyr, at Glasenith, was then re-building, for he bequeaths the
sum of 100 marks to the new fabric. Leland describes Glasenith college as
"strongly wallid and castellid, having three strong towers and gunnes at the but
of the creek." In another place he speaks of it, as "a college well wallid and
dyked defensably (fn. 16) , cawled St. Thomas, wher be secular canons and a provost."
The last tower of Glaseney college was pulled down about the beginning of the last
century, and a dwelling-house built on the site, which belongs to Lord de Dunstanville, by inheritance from the Pendarves family. Most of the lands belonging to
Glaseney college came into the possession of the Godolphin family, and are now
the property of the Duke of Leeds. Queen Elizabeth founded a grammar-school
at Penryn, and endowed it with 61. 13s. 4d. per annum, issuing out of the duchy
There was formerly a chapel in Penryn, as appears by the following passage of
Leland: "a chapel in the town, and a quarter of a mile out of it the paroch
chirch." There are meeting-houses at Penryn, for the Independent and Wesleyan
ST. GORRAN, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder,
lies about two miles from Mevagissey, which is the post-office town; about five from
Tregony, and about six from St. Austell. The principal villages in this parish,
exclusively of the church-town, are Port-East or Gorran haven (fn. 17) , where great quantities of pilchards are taken and cured, and a few coals imported; Boswringan;
Penare or Pennair; Rescassa; Tregavaras; and Trevarick. There is a small fishingcove called Porthmellin. The manor of Trevascus and Gorran, which belonged to
the ancient family of Trevascus, and passed with its heiress, about the year 1600, to
the Hoblyns, was purchased of their descendant, the Rev. Robert Hoblyn, by William Slade Gully, Esq., the present proprietor. The barton-house of Trevascus,
which had been successively the residence of the families of Trevascus and Hoblyn,
has been taken down. Mr.Slade Gully resides at the barton of Trevenen, which had
been the seat of his ancestors, the Slades (fn. 18) , at least as early as the reign of Queen
Elizabeth. The manor of Trevenen, partly in this parish and partly in St.Ewe,
belonged to the priory of Tywardreth, and was one of those annexed to the duchy
of Cornwall by King Henry VIII. in 1540, in lieu of the honour of Wallingford.
The manor of Treveage, which belonged also to the Hoblyns, and passed by a
female heir to the Bickfords, was purchased of the latter by William Slade
Gully, Esq., who is the present proprietor. There are two farm-houses on the
The manor of Treveor was formerly the property and seat of a family of that
name. Tonkin speaks of a part of the mansion of Sir Henry Treveor as remaining in 1736. The manor afterwards belonged to the Scawens: it is now the
property of Thomas Graham, Esq. The manor of Goloures belonged to the
equestrian family of Hiwis or Hewish, from whom it passed by a female heir to
the Coleshills (fn. 19) . It was afterwards in the Bevills of Gwarnick, one of whose coheiresses brought it to the Grenvilles. In the reign of Henry VIII. it passed by
purchase to Richard Roscarrock, Esq. In the reign of James I. it was in the
Tanners (fn. 20) ; and is now, by descent from the Luttrells, the property of the Rev.
Dr. Luttrell Wynne. Above Goloures wood is a round entrenchment, called
Castle-hill, the site, probably, of a castle, which had been the residence of the
Hiwis family. The manor of Treninick, which belonged anciently to the Hiwis
family, was afterwards in the Gaverigans, whose coheiresses married into the
families of Trefusis and Godolphin. This estate is now the joint property of
Lord Clinton, as representative of the Trefusis family; and Sir John St. Aubyn, as
heir of one branch of the Godolphins.
The manor of Bodrugan or Bodrigan belonged to an ancient family of that name,
who held it under the Champernowns (fn. 21) . This family became extinct in the male
line of its elder branch, about the year 1330. In the reign of Richard III. this place
was the property and seat of Sir Henry Bodrugan, an opulent knight, whose name
is said to have been originally Trenowth. It does not appear how he was connected, or whether he was at all connected, with the ancient Bodrugan family;
it is very probable that he took the name, as was not unusual, upon settling at
this barton. Hals speaks of this change of name, but Tonkin doubts it. Leland,
who lived so near his time, does not mention the circumstance; but Norden,
writing in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, calls him Sir Henry Trenowth.
It is certain, however, that he bore the name of Bodrugan; and, having
been attainted on the accession of King Henry VII., fled into Ireland, and
his large estates, including this manor and barton, were seized by the crown.
Tradition relates, that Sir Henry Bodrugan was in arms in Cornwall, against the
Earl of Richmond; that he was defeated on a moor not far from his own castle,
by Sir Richard Edgcumbe and Trevanion; and that he made his escape by a
desperate leap from the cliff into the sea, where a boat was ready to receive
him (fn. 22) . Most of Bodrugan's estates, including this manor, were granted to
Sir Richard Edgcumbe, and now belong to his descendant the Earl of MountEdgcumbe. Borlase (fn. 23) describes the remains of Bodrugan castle as very extensive,
and says, that there was nothing in Cornwall equal to it for magnificence. He
describes a chapel converted into a barn, the large hall, and an ancient kitchen
with a timber roof; and supposes the architecture to have been about the time of
Edward I. All these buildings were pulled down about the year 1786. A great
barn, spoken of also by Dr. Borlase, and described as capable of containing one
thousand bushels of wheat in the straw, still remains.
The manor of Tregennow, partly in this parish and partly in St. Mewan, was
long in the Arundell family, and has been recently purchased of Lord Arundell,
by Edward Coode, Esq. Part of the manor of Lansladron extends into this
parish. (fn. 24)
The barton of Tregardin, Tregarthen or Trewarthin, belonged anciently to a
family of that name, a coheiress of which brought it to Tripcony. It was purchased of the latter by the Trevanions, from whom it passed, by successive female
heirs, to the families of Major and Goodall. This estate has been lately purchased
of J. Tillie Coryton, Esq., the representative of the Goodalls, by the Rev. H.
Trewolla was for many generations the property and seat of an ancient family
of that name, by whom it was sold, in the reign of Charles II., to the Trevanions.
It is now a farm-house, the property of J. T. B. Trevanion, Esq. The barton of
Nancallan belonged to the Roscarrocks, from whom it passed, by successive fales,
to the families of Hill, Denham, Hancock, and Tremayne. The old mansion
was in ruins in 1736: there is now a farm-house on this barton, the property of
the Rev. H. H. Tremayne.
In the parish-church are a monument of Richard Edgcumbe, Esq., of Bodrugan, 1656; and some memorials of the Slades and Trevanions. (fn. 25)
The great tithes of Gorran are held on lease under the Bishop of Exeter: the
present lessee is William Fortescue, Esq. The house belonging to the rectorial
estate is called Polgarran, and was for some time a seat of the family of Wills,
being lessees of the rectory. The house was rebuilt by Mr. Anthony Wills. It is
said that this gentleman and his six sons joined the Prince of Orange on his landing at Torbay; that one of the sons became a general officer of great distinction;
and in the reign of King George I. had the chief command of the army against the
Scottish rebels, in Lancashire (fn. 26) . On the death of Mrs. Jenophatha Wills, widow,
this estate fell in to the Bishop, who leased it to Mrs. Dorothy Crewys. The
afterwards became vested in Thomas Tonkin, Esq., the Cornish antiquary, who
sometimes resided at Polgarran. There were chapels at Bodrugan and Goloures,
and one at Gorran haven, of which there were some remains in 1736.
Hals speaks of this parish as having been the residence of Dr. James Gibbs,
an eminent physician, whose son, of the same name and profession, was author
of some medical and poetical works.
GRADE, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Kirrier,
lies in the district of Meneage, about nine miles south-south-east of Helston. The
principal village in this parish is Cadgwith.
The manor of Erisey, the ancient property and seat of the Eriseys, now belonging to Lord Falmouth, is partly in this parish and partly in that of Ruan-Major.
The manor-house, now occupied by a farmer, stands on the division of the
In the parish-church are several monuments of the Erisey family. On the
outside of the north aisle of the chancel is a monument in memory of Hugh
Mason, Gent., who died in 1671, with the following inscription:
"Why here? Why not? it's all one ground,
And here none will my dust confound:
My Saviour lay where no one did;
Why not a member, as his head:
No quire to sing, no bells to ring?
Why, sirs, thus buried was my King!
I grudge the fashion of this day,
To fat the church and starve the lay;
Though nothing now of me be seene,
I hope my name and bed is greene."
The church of Grade is a rectory, in the patronage of John Rogers, Esq., of
Penrose. The tithes of several estates in St. Keverne, a third of the barton of
Erisey, and the whole of those of the tenement of Trenoon, in Ruan-Major,
belong to this church.
GULVALL, in the hundred and deanery of Penwith, lies about a mile northeast of Penzance, which is the post-office town, and about two and a half west
from Marazion. The principal villages, exclusively of the church-town, are
Chyendower, Trevarrack, and Trezela.
The manor of Lanestley or Lanisley, which was formerly the name of the
parish, belonged at an early period to the family of De Als, who took their name
from the manor of Alsa or Als, in St. Buryan. Simon de Als gave it, in 1266,
to the priory of St. Germans. King Henry VIII. granted it to Beaumont and
Parry, from whom it passed to the family of Tripcony. About the year 1620,
it became the property of Sir Nicholas Hals, ancestor to Mr. William Hals who
wrote the parochial history of Cornwall, and who describes himself as descended
from the family of De Als before-mentioned. After some mortgages and sales,
which became the subject of a suit in Chancery, it was purchased by the Onflow
family (fn. 27) , and is now the joint property of Admiral Sir Richard Onflow, Bart.,
and his brother Dr. Onslow, Dean of Worcester.
Kenegie was formerly the seat of a family of that name: the heiress of the
Kenegies married Tripcony, whose descendant resided at this place in the reigns
of Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth. About the year 1600, Kenegie became
the seat of a younger branch of the Harris's, of Heyne in Devonshire, who,
on the extinction of the male line in the elder branch, removed to Heyne.
Christopher Harris, Esq. (who died in 1775) bequeathed this barton to William
Arundell, Esq., of Menadarva, who took the name of Harris, and was grandfather
of William Arundell Harris, Esq., of Lifton in Devonshire, the present proprietor.
Kenegie is at present in the occupation of Rose Price, Esq. There is a plate of
the house in Borlase's Natural History: from the terrace there is a very fine view
In the parish-church is the monument of Arthur Harris, Esq., of Heyne,
governor of Mount St. Michael, who died in 1628, with other memorials of
the Harris family. Joseph Beauchamp, Esq. is impropriator of the great tithes,
which belonged formerly to the priory of St. Germans. The King is patron of the
The superstitious notions relating to the spring called Gulfwell, or the Hebrew
brook, in this parish, have been elsewhere spoken of. (fn. 28)
GUNWALLOE lies in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of
Kirrier, about four miles and a half south of Helston, which is the post-office
town. The principal villages in this parish are Beripper and Chiverloe.
The great manor of Wynyaton (fn. 29) , now Winington, was parcel of the ancient
demesnes of the crown. In the year 1235 it belonged to Roger Earl of Cornwall, who then gave it to Gervase de Hornington, in exchange for Bosyny (fn. 30) .
Not long afterwards, it was in the Carminows; and on the partition of the estates
between the two coheiresses of the elder branch of that ancient family, who married Trevarthian and Arundell, this manor fell to the share of the former. From
the Trevarthians, it passed by a female heir to the Reskymers, who continued to
possess it in the reign of Edward IV (fn. 31) . At a later period it was in the Arundell
family, and is now the property of John Rogers, Esq., of Penrose, who purchased
it of the late Lord Arundell in or about the year 1801.
Gunwalloe is a daughter-church to Breage, and included in the same presentation. It is said to have been dedicated to St. Winwallo, Abbot of Tauracum,
whose festival is on the third of March. The great tithes are vested in the
Rev. R.G. Grylls, John Rogers, Esq., and Mr. Joseph Hendy.
GWENNAP, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Kirrier,
lies about three miles east-by-south from Redruth; about four and a half
from Penryn; and about six from Truro. The principal village, exclusively
of the church-town, is St. Daye, where a market on Saturdays, for butchers'meat and other provisions, was established a few years ago, by Mr. Williams, for
the accommodation of the miners. At this place was formerly a fair, held on
Good-Friday: it is now a mere holiday-fair, and kept on Easter-Monday.
The manor of St. Daye, which belonged to the family of Hearle, is now in
severalties. The manor of Pensignance, which anciently gave name to the parish,
was many years in the Carew family, and occasionally the residence of Richard
Carew the historian (fn. 32) : it is now the property of Lord Clinton.
Trefyns, now written Trevince, was in ancient times the seat of a family of that
name, from whom, at an early period, it passed by marriage to the Beauchamps.
It is now the property of Joseph Beauchamp, Esq., of Pengreep, in this parish.
Trevince is now a farm-house. Scorrier-house, in this parish, is the seat of John
The church is dedicated to a female saint, whose name was Wenepe or Wenap.
The great tithes are appropriated to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, who are
patrons of the vicarage. There was formerly a chapel at St. Daye, of which there
are now no traces: the tower was taken down not long before 1780. Norden
speaks of this chapel as dedicated to the Trinity, and says, "that in times past,
men and women from far came to it in pilgrimage: the resort was so great that
it grew to a kind of market, and continueth a market to this day without further
The great mine of Poldice, formerly one of the most productive tin-mines in
Cornwall, (now worked as a copper-mine,) is in this parish (fn. 33) . It is said to have
employed, for forty years, from eight hundred to one thousand men.
GWINNEAR, in the hundred and deanery of Penwith, lies about seven miles
south-west of Redruth, and nearly the same distance north-west of Helston. The
principal villages in this parish are, Cattebidrew, Drannock, Fraddam, Penhal,
Tregortha, and Wall.
The manor of Polkinhorne belonged to an ancient family of that name, whose
heiress, in the reign of Charles II., married Thomas Glynn, Esq. of Helston.
Thomas Glynn (the grandson), who was of Polkinhorne, left an only daughter
and heiress married to Richard Gerveys Grylls, Esq., of Helston, whose son,
the Rev. Richard Gerveys Grylls, and the representatives of his brother, the late
Thomas Grylls, Esq., are the present proprietors: the barton is now occupied as
a farm. The manor of Drannock or Kirland in Gwinnear, was in six severalties
as early as the reign of Queen Elizabeth: one sixth, which belonged to the Trenwiths, was sold by them to the Burgess family, and passed by inheritance to the
Rev. Robert Hoblyn, who is the present proprietor; another sixth belongs to the
Honourable Mrs. Agar, as representative of the Robartes family; a third is the
property of James Buller, Esq., M.P., of Downes; the others are subdivided.
The manor of Roseworthy was formerly in the Courtenay family, and was one
of those given by Joan Lady Carew to her son John (fn. 34) . At a later period, Roseworthy was the seat of the Willyams family, ancestors of J. Willyams, Esq. of
Carnanton, who sold it to the Arundells. It is now a farm-house, the property
of William Harris, Esq., who purchased it of the late Lord Arundell, about the
The barton of Coswin or Cossawin belonged to an ancient family of that name,
extinct about the middle of the seventeenth century: it is now a farm-house, the
property of Mr. Harris.
The barton of Lanyon appears to have taken its name from a branch of the
ancient family of Lanyon, of Lanyon in Maddern, having settled there; and in
this respect, perhaps, it differs from any other in Cornwall; it is apparent, however, that they were the same family, branched off about the latter end of the
sixteenth century (fn. 35) , and it does not appear that before that time the name of
Lanyon, as a barton, was known in this parish. Lanyon was sold, about the
year 1785, to the late John Thomas, Esq., of Tregolls, and is now the property
of Admiral Spry, who married his sister: it is still occupied by the younger
brothers of Mr. Tobias Lanyon, surgeon at Camborne, who is the present representative of this branch of the Lanyon family. The elder branch is extinct.
The great tithes of this parish are vested in the rector and fellows of Exeter
College in Oxford. The Bishop of Exeter is patron of the vicarage, which
was endowed by Bishop Stapledon in 1319. The patron-saint is called St. Wynnear, and sometimes St. Wymer: in the ecclesiastical taxations, the church is
called Ecclesia St. Wymeri.
Gwithian or Gothian
GWITHIAN or GOTHIAN, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred
of Penwith, lies about seven miles from Redruth, which is the nearest market-town.
The regular post-office town is Marazion, but there is a bye-post to Hayle-Copperhouse, in the parish of Phillack. The only village of any consequence in this
parish, except the church-town, is Trevernon.
The great manor of Conarton, as parcel of the honor of Gloucester, belonged,
before the conquest, to Brictric, a Saxon. The Conqueror gave it to Alan Earl
of Britanny, but being resumed by the crown, it was settled on Queen Maud.
William Rufus gave it to Robert Fitzhamon, whose daughter brought it by marriage to Robert, the illegitimate son of King Henry I., who was created Earl of Gloucester (fn. 36) . Robert Earl of Gloucester, son of this Robert, gave Conarton, in 1154,
to Richard Pincerna (Butler), whose son took the name of Conarton, from his
residence on this manor; the grandson, settling at Lanherne, took the name of
Lanherne, and his heiress brought both manors, with other large estates, to the
Arundells. This great manor, to which many extensive privileges, together with
the lordship of the hundred of Penwith (fn. 37) , are annexed, was purchased not long ago,
of Lord Arundell, by Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart. Most of the lands belonging to it had been before alienated. The site of the manor of Conarton,
which anciently gave name to the parish, is said to have been formerly occupied
by a large town, which had two parish-churches. This must have been what
Leland calls Nikenor; his account of which is as follows: "Nikenor a 2 miles
from Ryvier, sumtyme a great town, now gone; 2 paroch chirches yet seene, a
good deale several on from the other, sumtyme in the towne, but it is now commonly taken to be in St. Guivians paroch."
The manor of Godrevy, which formerly belonged to a family of that name,
extends into this parish: the greater part of the estate, which is in Gwithian, belongs to Lord De Dunstanville, and was purchased chiefly of the Arundells of
Menadarva, in 1740 (fn. 38) .
The advowson of this parish, called in old records Conarton, was given by
William Earl of Gloucester, in the reign of Henry II., to the priory of St. James
in Bristol. Near the parish-church is the site of an ancient chapel, of which
there are no remains. A considerable portion of the parishes of Gwithian and
Phillack is covered with sand-hills, supposed to have been originally brought
from the sea-side by hurricanes, probably at a remote period; and we are informed, that among the Arundell papers there is mention of such an event having
happened in the twelfth century. The disproportionately high valuation of the
rectory of Gwithian, in the old Valors, when compared with that of other parishes,
which were then rated much lower, though now of very superior value, affords
a probable conjecture that much land has been lost by the influx of the sand.
It is known by oral tradition, that whole farms have been overwhelmed, at a
period not very remote. We have been informed by Mr. Hockin, the rector,
who has obligingly favoured us with a communication on this subject, that the
barton of Upton, one of the principal farms in Gwithian, was thus overwhelmed;
that his great-grandfather remembered the occupier residing in the farm-house,
which was nearly buried in one night, the family being obliged to make their
escape from the chamber-windows. It is very remarkable that the ruins of this
house, which had never been seen by the oldest man living, were again exposed
to view in consequence of the shifting of the sands in the winter of 1808-9.
The present rector remembers two fields lost at Gwithian, having been buried
with sand ten or twelve feet deep. The church-town would have shared the
same fate, had it not been prevented by the timely exertions of the churchwardens, who, with all possible expedition, caused large plantations to be made
of a species of rush, which grows abundantly in that neighbourhood, and by the
rapid spreading of its long fibrous roots, affords the only known method of
checking the progress of the sands. (fn. 39)
In this parish is an extensive earth-work, called Trevarnon Rounds; it has a
moat and rampart, with an advanced work, which seems to have been occupied in
times not very remote, a cannon-shot having been dug up within its site, by some
labourers employed by the late rector.