BARLBOROUGH, in the hundred of Scarsdale and deanery of Chesterfield,
is situated seven miles and A half N. E. of Chesterfield. The manor of
Barlborough (Barleburh) was given to Burton Abbey by Wulfric Spott.
Before the conquest it had reverted to lay hands; in the Domesday
survey it is described as having belonged to Levenot, and being then the
property of Ralph Fitzhubert, under whom it was held by Robert. This
Robert was most probably ancestor of Robert de Meinell, one of whose
coheiresses brought Barlborough to Sir Matthew de Hathersage. The
coheiresses of Hathersage brought it in moieties, about the latter end of
Henry the Third's reign to Goushill and Longford. These families held the
manor in moieties for several generations. Anthony "Wingfield who had
married a coheiress of Sir Robert Goushill suffered a recovery in 1513. (fn. 1)
Thomas Earl of Derby died seised of a manor in Barlborough, which appears to
have been this moiety in 1521; Edward Stanley, Lord Monteagle, his uncle,
in 1523; Sir William Holies, sometime Lord Mayor of London, died seised
of a manor in Barlborough (which seems to have been this moiety) in
1542. Queen Mary, in 1554, granted to Dame Anne Stanhope the manor
of Barlborough (fn. 2) , which had belonged to the Earl of Derby: Sir Thomas
Stanhope sold this manor, in 1571, to Sir Richard Pype, who died seised of
it, with the advowson of the rectory in 1587. Francis Rodes, Esq., who was
made one of the Justices of the common pleas in 1585, purchased of the
family of Selioke, an estate described as the manor of Barlborough (fn. 3) which
had belonged to the Constables. Sir John Rodes, son of the judge, had a
ehancery suit with Humphrey Pype Esq., son of Sir Richard, who claimed
to be sole Lord of the manor of Barlborough, and asserted that the estate
purchased of the Seliokes was freehold, but not manerial. It is most probable,
that Sir John Rodes, or some of his immediate descendants, afterwards purchased Pype's moiety. The ancestors of Judge Rodes, had been originally of
Lincolnshire, afterwards of Yorkshire; and had been settled at Stavely-Woodthorpe in this county for five generations, in consequence of a marriage
with the heiress of Cachehors; Sir John Rodes, his son, settled at Barlborough: Francis son of Sir John was created a baronet in 1641- The title
became extinct by the death of Sir John, the fourth baronet, in 1743; his
sister Frances married Gilbert Heathcote, M.D., whose grandson inherited
this estate, took the name of Rodes, and died in 1768. Cornelius Heathcote
Rodes, Esq., nephew of the latter, who took the name of Rodes in 1776, is
the present proprietor of the manor of Barlborough, and resides at Barl
borough—hall. This ancient mansion has been already described. (fn. 4)
The other moiety of Barlborough passed with a coheiress of Sir Nicholas
Longford, who died in 1610, to a younger son of the Poles of Wakebridge.
Park-hall, in Barlborough, continued to be the property and seat of this branch
of the Pole family, till the death of the last survivor of two maiden ladies in
1755. (fn. 5) It then passed by will to a younger son of the Radborne family, and
having since devolved to the elder branch., is now the property of Edward
Sacheverell Chandos Pole, Esq., of Radborne. The old mansion, Park-hall, is
now a farm-house. A survey of the year 1630 (fn. 6) , describes three parks in
Barlborough, containing altogether about 400 acres of land. There is
now no park at Barlborough.
In the parish church is the monument of German Pole, of Park-hall, who
died in 1686-7. In Bassano's volume of church notes, a monument is men
tioned of Sir Richard Pype, sometime Lord Mayor of London, who died in
1587; and that of Joan, daughter and heir of William Lord Furnival, who
brought the barony of Furnival to her husband, Sir Thomas Nevil, and died
in or before the year 1399. The last-mentioned monument must have been
removed from Radford Priory, in Nottinghamshire. (fn. 7) Mr. Rodes is patron
of the rectory.
There is an alms-house at Barlborough founded and endowed in 1752, by
Mrs. Margaret and Mrs. Mary Pole for six old maids, old bachelors, or
widows. (fn. 8) The estate belonging to this almhouse is now let for 75l. per
annum. The pensioners have each a weekly allowance of 3s. and coals.
BARROW, situated chiefly in the hundred of Appletree: but extending
into that of Morleston and Litchurch, lies on the banks of the Trent, about
six miles from Derby, which is the post-office town. The parish comprises
the hamlets of townships of Arleston, Stenson, and Synfyn, besides the paro
chial chapelry of Twyford. The manor of Barrow, at the time of the
Domesday Survey, was held by Godwin, under Henry de Ferrars. An estate
at Barrow, which had been parcel of the manor of Melbourne, was annexed
to the see of Carlisle, before the year 1273. (fn. 9) It was held on lease under
the Bishops of Carlisle by the family of Coke, as parcel of the rectory of Melbourne.
This estate having been enfranchised by virtue of an act of parliament passed in 1704, is now the property of the Reverend Henry Des
Voeux, whose father-in-law, Daniel Dalrymple, Esq. purchased the fee of
Lord Melbourne, about the year 1800. Mr. Des Voeux possesses also an
estate in Barrow, which belonged to the family of Sale: it was bequeathed
by Mrs. Elizabeth Sale to her relation, the late Mr. Dalrymple.
In the parish church were monuments (fn. 10) of Sir John Bothe, 1413; John
Bothe, 1482, &c. and that of Henry Milward of Synfen, 1615. There is
a monument for Robert Beaumont, Esq., who married a daughter of Sir
Robert Beaumont of Gracedieu and died in 1726.
The church of Barrow in the Deanery of Derby, was formerly appropriated to the prior and convent of St. John of Jerusalem, to whom it was
given in the reign of Henry II., by Robert de Bakepuz. The prior and
convent had a preceptory here, which, on the authority of the Notitia
Monastica, we had erroneously supposed to have been at Barrow, in
Cheshire. William Bothe, Esq, in 1519, died seised of lands at Barrow on
Trent, held under the manor of the prior and convent of St. John. This
no doubt was their manor of the rectory. William Beaumont, Esq. died
seised of the rectory, with a capital messuage, &c. in 1591. This estate is
now the property of his descendant, John Beaumont, Esq. who is patron of
the vicarage. Mr. Beaumont has lately built a new house on the rectory
Mrs. Elizabeth Sale of Willington, in 1776 (fn. 11) , left the interest of lool. to
this parish, part of which, 3l. 14s. per annum, is to be applied to the purpose
of instructing poor children.
The manor of Arleston, or Erleston, was conveyed in the year 1426, by
Thomas Bradshaw and Agnes the wife of Robert del Stoke to John Bothe (fn. 12) ,
whose descendant, William Bothe, Esq. died seised of it in 1519. It was
afterwards in the Blounts; Sir Henry Blount sold it, in 1640, to Sir John
Harpur, ancestor of Sir Henry Crewe, Bart., the present proprietor.
The manor of Synfen or Synfin belonged, in the reigns of Edward I.
and Edward III. (fn. 13) , to the family of Touk or Toke, who were succeeded by
the Bothes. It is probable that the Tokes possessed Arleston also, as both
estates passed from the Bothes to the Blounts; and having been sold by Sir
Henry Blount to the Harpurs, in the reign of Charles L, are now the
property of Sir Henry Crewe, Bart.
Sinfin-moor, a large common (fn. 14) , on which the Derby races were formerly
held, was inclosed by act of parliament, about the year 1804, and
allotted amongst the adjoining townships of Sinfin, Barrow, Alvaston,
Osmaston, Boulton, Normanton, Chellaston, and Swarkeston.
The village of Twyford lies about a mile and three-quarters from Barrow.
The manors of Twyford and Stenson (Steintune) were held at the time of
the Domesday survey, by Leuric, under Henry de Ferrars. In the reign
of Henry VI., they were conveyed by John Curzon of Croxall to John
Crewcher and Agnes his wife. Thomas Finderne died in 1558, seised of
the manors of Steinson and Twyford; Jane, his sister and heiress, brought
them in marriage to Richard Harpur, Esq., one of the justices of the
Common Pleas. John Harpur, Esq., grandson of Sir Henry Harpur, the
first baronet, died seised of this estate, (not then esteemed a manor) in 1713,
One of his coheiresses brought it to the family of Francis, and by subsequent
marriages, it passed successively to Ashby and Bathurst. Since the death
of the late General Bathurst of Clarendon-park, Wilts, it has been purchased
by Sir Henry Crewe, Bart., who is the present proprietor.
In the parochial chapel at Twyford, are some monuments of the Harpur
family (fn. 15) ; that of Samuel Bristow, Esq., 1767; and some mutilated tombs of ala
baster, one of which has the effigy of a man in armour, with the date of 1532.
The minister is appointed by the vicar of Barrow.
BARTON-BLOUNT, in the hundred of Appletree, and in the deanery of Cas
tillar, lies about nine miles east of Derby. The manor of Barton (Barctune)
was, at the time of the Domesday survey, held by Ralph, under Henry
de Ferrars; in the year 1296, under Edward Earl of Lancaster, by John
de Bakepuze. (fn. 16) From this family, it acquired the name of Barton-Bakepuze, which, after it had passed into the possession of their successors, the
Blounts, was exchanged for that of Barton-Blount. Sir Walter Blount, who
bad a charter for free-warren at Barton, in 1385, was slain at the battle of
Shrewsbury, being then the King's standard-bearer. Walter, his great-grandson, became Lord High Treasurer to King Edward IV. and K. G. and in 1465,
was created Lord Mountjoy. His grandson, William, the fourth Lord Mountjoy, who died in 1535, directed by his will, that if he should die in the
county of Derby, or in Staffordshire, he should be buried at Barton. Not
long after this, the manor of Barton came into the family of Merry (fn. 17) ,
from which it passed by marriage to that of Simpson. In the year
1751, it was purchased of the trustees of Merry Simpson, who is said
to have been a mendicant friar in a convent in France, by Sir Nathaniel
Curzon; it is now the property of Francis Bradshaw, Esq. who acquired it
by an exchange with the present Lord Scarsdale. The advowson of the
rectory has passed with the manor. Barton-Blount-house was garrisoned by
Colonel Gell in the month of October 1644, for the purpose of watching
the motions of the King's garrison at Tutbury (fn. 18) ; a skirmish between the
two garrisons took place on the 15th of February, 1646. The ancient man
sion, which has been modernized, is now the seat of Mr. Bradshaw.
Mr. Pole, of Radborne, has a considerable estate in this parish called
BEIGHTON, in the hundred of Scarsdale and deanery of Chesterfield, lies
about nine miles north from Chesterfield. The parish contains the hamlet
or village of Hackenthorp. The manor of Beighton was given by Wulfric
Spott, in the reign of King Ethelred, to Burton Abbey. (fn. 19) At the time of
taking the Domesday survey it appears, that there were two manors in
Beighton (Bectune,) one of which was held by Lewin, under Roger de Busli;
the other belonged to Roger de Poictou. Sir Gervas de Bernak, Lord of
Beighton, is spoken of as one of the benefactors to Beauchief Abbey, before
the year 1276, and Walter de Furneaux, as being Lord of the manor in
1279. (fn. 20) .' William de Furneaux died seised of it in 1320; his sisters and co
heiresses married Latimer and Ravensworth, and, on failure of issue from
Latimer, the whole devolved to Henry Fitzhugh, son of Henry de Ravens
worth. A co-heiress of Henry, the last Baron Fitzhugh, brought Beighton
to Sir John Fiennes, eldest son of Richard, the first LordDacre of the south.
Gregory Lord Dacre sold this manor in 1570 to Francis Wortley, Esq.
Before the year 1649, it had passed into the family | of Pierrepont, and is
now the property of Earl Manvers.
In the parish church is an ancient monument (without date) for Richard
Bosville, and memorials of the family of Jermyn of Drakehouse (1715–1777)Bassano's volume of church notes mentions the monument of Edward Dow
cett, Esq. 1501. The church of Heighten was given to the priory of Mountgrace (fn. 21) in Yorkshire by Sir James Strangeways, Knight, and Elizabeth his
wife, and, in 1455, was appropriated to that monastery. King Henry VIII.
granted the rectory and advowson in 1544 to Robert and William Swift.
One of the coheiresses of Robert Swift brought this estate to her husband
Francis Wortley, Esq. and it has since passed with the manor, Earl Manvers
being now impropriator and patron.
There is a charity school at this place, which has a small endowment (2l. 6s.
per annum), the greater part of which (2l. per annum) was the benefaction
of Mr. George Jessop.
FENNY-BENTLEY, in the wapentake of Wirksworth, lies nearly nine
miles from Wirksworth, and two from Ashborne, which is the post-office
town. The manor of Fenny-Bentley belonged to a branch of the Beresfords of Staffordshire, who settled at this place in the reign of Henry VI.
The elder branch of the Beresfords of Bentley soon became extinct in the
male line; the heiress married Edmund Beresford, Esq. of Staffordshire,
whose heiress married Stanhope; and the heiress of Stanhope, Cotton. The
manor passed away from the Beresfords, and having been in various hands is
now the property of two unmarried ladies of the name of Irving, who inherited from Jackson. There are no remains of the manor-house, which was
a castellated mansion.
In the parish church is the monument of Thomas Beresford, Esq. who
settled at Fenny-Bentley, and died in 1473; he married Agnes, daughter
and heir of Robert Hassall, Esq. of Cheshire, by whom he had sixteen sons
and five daughters. This gentleman must have lived to a great age, for it
appears, by a singular passage in his epitaph, that he distinguished himself at
the battle of Agincourt, where he had a command:
"Militia excellens, strenuus dux, fortis et audax,
"Francia testatur, curia testis Agen."
From one of this Thomas Beresford's younger sons descended a family, for
whom there is a series of memorials in the parish church, from 1516 to 1790
inclusive. The present representative of this branch, John Beresford, Esq.
of Ashborne, still possesses lands in Bentley. Richard Beresford, Esq. resides at Bentley.
There was a chantry in this church founded by the Beresford family, and
valued, in 1547, at 4l. 13s. 4d. per annum. The Dean of Lincoln was patron
of the rectory.
BLACKWELL, in the hundred of Scarsdale, and in the deanery of Chesterfield, lies about nine miles from Chesterfield, and three from Alfreton,
which is the post-office town. The manor was held in the reign of Edward III. by Rhees ap Griffith, and Joan his wife, the heiress of Somerville,
of the Chaworth family, as of their manor of Alfreton. (fn. 22) The Babington
family possessed the manor of Blackwell, alias Sulney, in the 15th century. (fn. 23)
Sir William Holies died seised of the manor of Blackwell in 1590. Gil
bert Holies, Earl of Clare, and Sir John Molineux of Teversall, Bart, were
joint lords in 1710. (fn. 24) The estate of Sir John Molineux now belongs to his
descendant, Henry Howard Molineux, Esq. M.P.; the other estate belongs
to His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, having been purchased by his grandfather, in 1742, of the Duke of Newcastle's trustees.
Hilcote-hall, now the seat of John Wilkinson, Esq. has been in his family
since the beginning of the last century.
The church of Blackwell was given to the priory of Thurgarton by
William Fitz-Ranulph, and in the reign of Henry II. became appropriated
to that monastery. The impropriation is now vested in the Duke of Devon
shire, who is patron of the vicarage.
BOLSOVER, in the hundred of Scarsdale and deanery of Chesterfield, is
a decayed market-town, 6 miles from Chesterfield, about 25 from Derby,
and nearly 146 from London. The parish of Bolsover contains the township
There was a market on Fridays at Bolsover as early as the year 1225 (fn. 25) : it
has been discontinued since about the middle of the last century; a fair is
still held on Midsummer-day, but it is little more than a holiday fair.
The manor of Bolsover (Belesovre), which had belonged to Leuric, was,
at the time of the Domesday Survey, held by Robert, under William Peve
rell. It is probable that Peverell afterwards held it in demesne, and built a
castle at Bolsover j for not long after the forfeiture of this estate by William Peverell the younger, for poisoning Ralph Earl of Chester in 1153,
we find mention of Bolsover castle, as having been given with the manor by
King Richard I., in 1189, to his brother John, on his marriage with one of
the Earl of Gloucester's coheiresses. (fn. 26) When the well-known agreement was
entered into between Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, and John, the King's brother, then Earl of Morteyne, during Richard's absence in the Holy Land,
Bolsover castle was committed to the custody of Richard del Pec. Two
years after John's accession, Geoffrey Luttrell was appointed one of the over
seers of the expenditure of 30l. for inclosing Bolsover park for the King. (fn. 27)
In 1204, the government of this castle was given to William Briwere.
Bryan de Lisle was appointed governor in 1207, Nicholas de Chevet in
1208. In the year 1215, we find Bolsover castle in the possession of the
rebellious barons. William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, having raised troops
for the King, took it by assault, and in recompence for this service was ap
pointed governor. The same year, Bryan de Lisle was reinstated in his go
vernment, and in 1216 received a mandate to fortify the castle against
the rebellious barons; or if he found it not tenable, to demolish it. The
same year the King appointed Gerard de Furnival to reside in Bolsover
castle with his wife and family, for the better preservation of the peace of
those parts. William Earl of Derby, was appointed governor of Bolsover castle
by King Henry III. soon after his accession (in October 1216), and held the
government for six years. During the twelve following years, there was a
quick succession of governors. (fn. 28)
In or about the year 1234, the manor and castle of Bolsover were
granted to John Scot, Earl of Chester, and passed with one of his co
heiresses to Henry de Hastings, Lord of Bergavenny, having been
assigned as part of her portion in 1236. Other lands having been
given in exchange to Hastings in 1243 (fn. 29) ", Bolsover reverted to the
crown. Roger de Lovetot was made governor in 1253. (fn. 30) Ralph Pipard
was appointed governor of Bolsover and Hareston castle for life in 1301;
he died in 1308. Sir Richard Stury died seised of the castle and manor
of Bolsover, which he held for life, under the King's grant in 1395 (fn. 31) ; Edmund of Hadham, Earl of Richmond, father of King Henry VII., died
seised of Hareston and Bolsover in 1456. King Henry VIII., in 1514,
granted these castles to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk: on the
attainder of his son, the second Duke, they reverted to the crown. King
Edward VI., in 1552, granted a lease of the manor of Bolsover to Sir John
Byron for fifty years, and the next year granted the fee to George Lord
Talbot. In 1613, Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury sold the manor of Bolsover to
Sir Charles Cavendish. At this time the old castle was in ruins,. and it is
probable that the remains of it were removed by Sir Charles Cavendish,
who, the same year that he purchased the manor, began the foundation
of the present castellated mansion.
William, elder son of Sir Charles Cavendish, at the age of fifteen
was made Knight of the Bath; in 1620, created Baron Ogle (fn. 32) and
Viscount Mansfield; in 1628, Baron Cavendish of Bolsover and Earl
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne; in 1644, Baron of Bothal and Hepple, and
Marquis of Newcastle; and in 1665, Earl of Ogle and Duke of New
castle. This loyal nobleman entertained King Charles I. with great mag
nificence at Bolsover, when he was on his way to Scotland in 1633.
The expence of the dinner was 4000l. Lord Clarendon speaks of it as
" such an excess of feasting as had scarce ever been known in England
before, and would be still thought very prodigious, if the same noble person
had not within a year or two afterwards made the King and Queen a more
stupendous entertainment, (which God be thanked) though possibly it might
too much whet the appetite of others to excess, no man ever after in those days
imitated." The Duchess of Newcastle, in her memoirs of her noble husband,
expressly says, that this second entertainment was the year after the former,
which the King " liked so well, that a year after his return out of Scot
land, he was pleased to send my Lord word, that her Majesty the Queen
was resolved to make a progress into the northern parts, desiring him to
prepare the like entertainment for her Majesty, as he had formerly done for
him, which my Lord did, and endeavoured for it with all possible care and
industry, sparing nothing that might add splendour to that feast, which
both their Majesties were pleased to honour with their presence. Ben
Jonson he employed in fitting such scenes and speeches as he could best
devise, and sent for all the gentry of the country to come and wait on their
Majesties, and, in short, did all that ever he could to render it great and
worthy their royal acceptance. This entertainment he made at Bolsover in
Derbyshire, some five miles distant from Welbeck, and resigned Welbeck
for their Majesties lodging. It cost him in all between fourteen and
fifteen thousand pounds." (fn. 33)
In the early part of the civil war, the Earl of Newcastle, being com
mander in chief of the King's forces for the northern and midland counties (fn. 34) ,
placed a garrison at Bolsover, of which he made Colonel Muschamp
governor. The Earl was at Bolsover with his staff in the month of De
cember 1643. About the middle of August 1644, Bolsover castle was
taken by Major-general Crawford. The parliamentary writers represent it
as having been well manned, and fortified with great guns and strong works.
It is said to have surrendered on summons, and that 120 muskets were
taken in it, with much plunder. (fn. 35) When the Marquis's estates, which had
been seized by the parliament, were about to be sold, his friends in England
made great efforts to save Bolsover and Welbeck, but in vain. Bolsover was
purchased on speculation, with the intention of pulling down the castle, and
selling the materials. After part of it had been pulled down, Sir Charles
Cavendish repurchased it, at a great disadvantage, for his brother. The
family portraits, by Vandyke, were preserved, and Lord Mansfield, after
the death of his uncle, had Bolsover castle some time in his possession but
was unable to repair it. When the King's affairs had grown desperate,
the Marquis of Newcastle retired to the continent, and resided chiefly at
Antwerp, till the restoration, after which he returned to England, and in
1665 was created a Duke, as before mentioned. About this period he retired
from public life, spending his time chiefly in the country, " pleasing himself," as the Duchess, in the Life of her husband, expresses herself, " in the
management of some few horses, and exercising himself with the use of
the sword, which two arts he hath brought, by his studious thoughts, rational
experience, and industrious practice, to an absolute perfection." The
noble Duke had been long celebrated for his eminent skill in the manage,
in which, at the time that he was governor to Prince Charles (afterwards
Charles II.) he had instructed his royal pupil. During his residence in
Antwerp, he published his celebrated work on horsemanship. A second
edition was published in England in 1667. After the Duke had a little recovered from the wreck which had been made of his fortune during his
banishment, he repaired Bolsover castle, and occasionally resided there
during the latter part of his life. Both the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle found great resources in literary pursuits; they were both dramatic
writers and poets. The Duchess's printed works, which were chiefly philosophical, fill ten folio volumes, and she left three more in manuscript. Her
printed works are become rare, and few of them would afford amusement
to readers of the present day, except her Life of the Duke. The Duchess
died in 1673, the Duke in 1676: they were buried in Westminster Abbey,
where a magnificent monument was erected to their memory.
Henry, the second Duke of Newcastle, who resided often at Bolsover,
died there in 1691, and was buried in the parish church: leaving no issue,
his estates devolved to his daughter and coheiress Margaret, married to
John Holies, Earl of Clare, who, in 1694, was created Duke of Newcastle,
Henrietta, their only daughter and heir, married Edward Harley, Earl of
Oxford. Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley, heiress of the Earl of Oxford,
brought the manor, or as it is called in some records, the barony of Bolsover,
to William Duke of Portland, grandfather of the present noble owner,
William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, Duke of Portland. The barony of
Bolsover and Woodthorpe was valued, in 1641, at 846l. 8s. 11d, per
Bolsover castle, which is situated on the brow of a steep hill, and
commands a very extensive prospect, consists of two detached buildings;
one of these, which indeed may properly be called the castle, is a square
castellated mansion, with turrets and a tower of larger dimensions at the
north-east corner. The foundation of this mansion was laid by Sir Charles
Cavendish in the year 1613. Huntingdon Smithson was the architect.
Most of the rooms in this mansion are small. The dining-room, or, as it
is called, the pillar-parlour, about 21 feet square, is supported in the centre
by a circular pillar, round which is placed the table. Above stairs is a large
room called the star-chamber, about 45 feet by 30. This mansion has not
for many years been inhabited by its noble owners. It is at present, by the
Duke of Portland's permission, in the occupation of the Reverend Mr.
Tinsley, vicar of Bolsover.
There have been various opinions concerning the date of the magnificent
range of buildings, which extends along the grand terrace, now unroofed
and in a dilapidated state. Mr. Bray was of opinion, that the apartments
in these buildings were fitted up for the royal visits before mentioned.
Dr. Pegge, on the contrary, supposes this building to have been erected
some time after the restoration. Lord Orfbrd, who was of the same opinion
with respect to its having been constructed after the Restoration, suggests
that it might have been built from designs prepared before the civil war by
Smithson, who died in 1648. The date of Diepenbeck's view of Bolsover
(1652) decides the point, that the building in question was erected before
the Restoration; it is equally certain that it must have been erected before
the civil wars, indeed before the royal visit before-mentioned; it being impracticable, that the King and Queen, with their court, and " all the gentry
of the country," could have been entertained in the mansion already
described: indeed, from the slight manner in which the Duchess, in the Life
of her husband, speaks of the additions made by him to Bolsover castle, we
think it a more probable conjecture, that the great range of building, now
in ruins, was built, as well as the mansion which is now habitable, by his
father. The Duke's additions probably consisted of the spacious riding
house, for the practice of his favourite amusement; the smithy, &c. &c.
Dr.Pegge supposes that the great range of buildings was never completed.
There can be little doubt but that it was completed and occupied long before
the time of the civil war. During the sequestration of the estates of its noble
owner Bolsover castle suffered much, both as to its buildings and furniture;
but these damages were repaired by the Duke after the Restoration. It is
certain that the state apartments were not dismantled till after the year 1710,
at which time, Bassano (fn. 36) speaks of them as furnished, and describes the
pictures then in the several rooms, which are said to have been removed to
Welbeck. The portraits of the Duke of Newcastle on horseback, described
by Bassano, are not now to be found there, probably they were in a state
of decay. In the saloon at Welbeck is a very fine whole length portrait of the Duke, by Vandyke; but it is uncertain whether it was one of
those described by Bassano. Those which can be ascertained to have been
included in his catalogue are of little value, and are placed in staircases, &c.
There is a whole length of the Duchess of Newcastle in one of the passages
at Welbeck, in a fancy dress, by Diepenbeck. The gallery at Bolsover
was about 200 feet in length, by 22 in width; the dining-room, 78 feet by
32; the two drawing-rooms, one 39 feet, the other 36 feet, by 33.
Bolsover park, which was inclosed in the year 1200, has long ago been
converted into tillage.
In the parish church is a burial place belonging to the Cavendish family.
The monument of Sir Charles Cavendish, who died in 1617, has his effigy
in armour, recumbent on a mat, under an enriched arch supported by
Corinthian columns. Underneath is a recumbent figure of his second Lady,
the heiress of Cuthbert Lord Ogle. The costly monument of Henry Duke
of Newcastle, who died in 1691, has a marble sarcophagus, supported on
each side by Corinthian columns; it commemorates also Frances Duchess of
Newcastle, who died in 1695; Margaret, their daughter, wife of John Holies,
Duke of Newcastle, who died in 1716; Sir Charles Cavendish, brother of
the first Duke of Newcastle; and Charles Viscount Mansfield, the Duke's
eldest son, who died in his life-time.
In the chancel is the tomb of Huntingdon Smithson, architect, who died
in 1648. (fn. 37)
Bassano's volume of Church Notes, taken in 1710, mentions a tomb of
William Woolhouse, Esq. 1411, and the monument of Anthony Lowe, Esq.
1643. There are now some memorials of the Woolhouse family of later date,
(1633—1667,) and others for the Barkers of Norton-Lees-hall, 1659,
&c. Lady Barker, relict of the late Sir Robert Barker, Bart., the last
of this family, and heiress of Brabazon Hallowes, Esq. was buried at
Bolsover in 1806.
The church of Bolsover, with its chapel, was given by William Peverell to
Darley Abbey, and confirmed by William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby. (fn. 38) It
was afterwards appropriated to that monastery. The Duke of Portland is
now impropriator and patron of the vicarage. The Earl of Oxford gave
10l. per annum as an augmentation of the vicarage in 1716: it was aug
mented by Queen Anne's Bounty in 1728.
It appears that there was, at an early period, a chapel in Bolsover castle.
William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, settled an annual rent charge of a mark
of silver to the chaplain. (fn. 39)
There had been for many years a Presbyterian meeting at Bolsover. The
meeting-house, after having been long shut up, was re-opened in 1813;
the congregation are now Independents.
The charity-school at Bolsover is endowed with 61. per annum, said to have
been given by the Countess of Oxford. The school-house was built in 1756.
Mrs. Isabella Smithson, who died in 1761, supposed to have been grand-daughter (fn. 40) of Smithson the architect, bequeathed the sum of 2000l. to the
poor of Bolsover: her executors having refused to pay it, a suit was commenced, and the money was recovered, together with 956l. interest, in 1770.
The interest of this money, which has been laid out in bank annuities, is now
appropriated under the direction of the Court of Chancery, according to
the discretion of the minister, churchwardens, and four trustees: it has
hitherto been given (in sums not exceeding three guineas annually,) to per
sons upwards of 55 years of age, not possessed of any property, and never
having received parochial relief.
The manor of Glapwell was held with Bolsover at the time of the
Domesday Survey. During the whole, or the greater part, of the thirteenth
century, it was in the family of De Glapwell. It is probable that the
heiress brought it to the Woolhouses. William Woolhouse, Esq. died seised
of it in 1411. The heiress of Woolhouse, about the middle of the seven
teenth century, married the ancestor of Thomas Hallowes, Esq. the present
proprietor, who resides at Glapwell-hall.
There was formerly a chapel at Glapwell. In the register of Darley
Abbey (fn. 41) is an agreement, about the year 1260, between the abbot and his
parishioners of the vill of Glapwell, about roofing the chapel. They agreed
to give five acres of land for the purpose of repairing, or, if necessary, of
rebuilding the chapel.
There was many years a Presbyterian congregation at Glapwell. William
Woolhouse, Esq. who died In 1667, gave a rent charge of 20l. per annum to
Oxcroft, which had before belonged to the Peverells, was in the reign of
Henry III. in the family of Heriz. It was, at a later period, in the family of
Rodes, of whom it was purchased in or about the year 1599, by the Countess
of Shrewsbury. It has passed, with Hardwicke and other estates, to the
Duke of Devonshire.