DALBURY, in the hundred of Appletree and deanery of Castillar, lies
about six miles West from Derby. Dalbury is described in the Survey of
Domesday, as a hamlet of Mickle-Over, belonging to the abbot of Burton.
Robert de Dun was Lord of Dalbury in the reign of Henry II. (fn. 1) The manor of
Dalbury and Dalbury-Lees were, in the reign of Edward II., the property of
Sir Robert Holand or Holland. (fn. 2) After the death of the Duchess of Exeter,
(relict of Henry Holland,) they appear to have escheated to the crown. Sir
Samuel Sleigh, who died in 1679, was possessed of these manors, which
passed with his daughter and coheiress to Samuel Chetham, Esq., and on his
death, without issue, to Rowland Cotton, Esq., of Bellaport in Shropshire,
who married the other coheiress, and was grandfather of William Cotton,
Esq., the present proprietor. Mr. Cotton is patron of the rectory.
Dale-Abbey, an extra-parochial township in the hundred of Morlestoa
and Litchurch, lies about six miles and a half nearly east from Derby. At
this place was an abbeyof Premonstratension canons. The site of Dale-abbey
is said to have been originally occupied by a hermitage, constructed by a
baker of Derby, who, according to the legend, had a supernatural call from
the Virgin Mary to spend the remainder of his life in solitude and religious
exercises at this place, then called Depedale. The history of Dale-abbey
relates, that Ralph Fitz-Germund, Lord of Ockbrook, in whose woods
this hermitage was built, discovered it accidentally whilst hunting, and being
moved with compassion at the hermit's appearance, gave him the site of
the hermitage, and the tilhe of his mill at Burgh (Burrowash) for his
support. Serlo de Grendon, who married Fitz-Germund's daughter, gave
Depedale to his godmother: he afterwards, with her consent, invited
canons from Calke and gave them Depedale. These canons having been
removed for their misconduct, some white canons of the Premonstratension
order repaired thither, and to them the park of Stanley was given, when the
monastery acquired the name of " De Parco Stanley," by which it was, at
that early period, generally known. There is a legend, that the King
gave the canons as much land as they could encircle in a day, with a plough
drawn by deer, and this story is represented on the windows in Morley
church, which are supposed to have been removed from Dale-abbey. These
canons, nevertheless, not having sufficient means for their support, returned
to Tupholm, whence they came. William de Grendon, Lord of Ockbrook,
supplied their place with canons from Welbeck, but they also soon deserted
the new monastery for want of sufficient sustenance. Geoffrey de Salicosa
Mare, or Saucemere, and his wife Maud, grand-daughter of William de
Germund, with the assistance of his nephew, William de Grendon, having
procured an establishment of nine canons from Newhouse in Lincoln
shire, they were admitted into the Premonstratension order, and settled
at the new monastery in Stanley-park, and being more fortunate than their
predecessors, met with liberal benefactors, who bestowed on them lands
of considerable value, and the advowsons of Heanor, Ilkeston, and KirkHallam. This last foundation of Dale-abbey took place about the year
1204. The abbey was surrendered to the crown in 1539, when their
revenues were estimated at 144l. 4s. Per annum. Willis says, that it was
surrendered by John Staunton, the last abbot, and sixteen monks; but it
appears by the commissioners accounts (fn. 3) of that date, that John Bede, the
last abbot, had a pension of 26l. 13s. 4d., and fifteen monks various smaller
pensions. Francis Pole, Esq., who then took possession of the site and
demesnes, as lessee, probably, under the crown, purchased the altar, crucifix,
organ, grave-stones, &c. and all the live and dead stock. In 1544, he had
a grant of the abbey estate in fee, and the same year conveyed it to Sir
John Port, one of the justices of the King's-Bench. Dorothy, one of his
son's coheiresses, brought it to her husband Sir George Hastings. Sir
Henry Willoughby, of Risley, purchased this estate early in the seven
teenth century, of the Representative of Sir George Hastings, who was
afterwards Earl of Huntingdon, and died in 1605. Sir Henry Willoughby,
having left three daughters coheiresses, one of whom left no issue, the
manor of Dale and the abbey demesnes were held in moieties by the noble
family of Grey and that of Dewes, into which the other coheiresses mar
ried. One moiety of this estate was purchased, in 1716, by the trustees
of Philip, then late Earl of Chesterfield, of Sir Symmonds Dewes, for his
son Alexander, father of the first Earl Stanhope. The other moiety was
purchased, in 1778, of the Earl of Stamford, and the whole is now the
property of the present Earl Stanhope. There are scarcely any remains
of the conventual buildings.
There is a small chapel here for the use of the district, and what is very
remarkable, under the same roof and having a communication with a public
house. In the chapel-yard, is the tomb of Ralph Taylor, who died in 1790,
aged 84, and Elizabeth his wife, aged 96. Earl Stanhope appoints the
minister of the chapel.
DARLEY, in the hundred and deanery of High-Peak, lies five miles south
from Bakewell. The parish contains the township of Darley, and the hamlets
or villages of Farley, Hackney-Lane, Over-Hackney, Little-Rowsley (fn. 4) , Toad
hole, &c. in the hundred of High-Peak; the townships of Wensley and
Snitterton, and the hamlets of Oaker-side and Oaker-end, in the wapentake of Wirksworth, and the village of Bridgetown on the Derwent, partly
There are two annual fairs held on the moors, at a placed called Darley Flash, in this parish, on the 13th of May and the 27th of October, for cattle
The manor of Barley (the Derelei of Domesday) was parcel of the
ancient demesne of the crown. In the reign of Edward I., it was in
moieties between the families of Kendall and Derby, who held under the
crown. William Kendall, who died in 1309, left a daughter and heir
married to Laurence Cotterell. (fn. 5) It is probable that Cotterell died without
issue, and that his widow married Herberjour; for it appears, that in
the year 1392, William Roper conveyed to Nicholas Attewelle, Rector of
Darley, (probably a trustee) a moiety of the manor of Darley, which had
been the inheritance of Margaret his mother, daughter and coheir of
Sir William Le Herberjour, of Chaddesden, by Alice, daughter and heir
of William Kendall. (fn. 6) After this, it was in the Foljambes; Sir Thomas
Foljambe, father of Sir Godfrey, who died in 1379, is described in the
pedigree of the family, as having been of Darley; but it is certain that they
were not possessed of any interest in the manor at so early a period, nor
can we learn how or when they acquired it. (fn. 7) The heiress of another Sir
Godfrey Foljambe brought a moiety of the manor of Darley, which moiety
was then called the manor of Oldhall, to Sir Robert Plumpton, of Plumpton
in Yorkshire. The coheiresses of William Plumpton, his grandson, mar
ried Sotehill and Rocliff: Sotehill's moiety of this manor descended to two
grand-daughters, married to Sir John Constable and Sir William Drury. It
is supposed that the latter purchased Constable's share of this moiety;
in 1547, he sold the whole of the moiety to William Needham, Gent.:
it soon afterwards passed by sale to Senior of Bridgetown. This moiety
is now vested in the Duke of Rutland (fn. 8) and Sir Henry Hunloke, a
minor. On this moiety of the estate, stood the ancient manor-house of
Oldhall, a little to the north of Darley-church, which upon the inclosure of
parley commons, was allotted to the then Duke of Rutland. Some consider
able remains of the old mansion were taken down in the year 1771.
Rocliff's moiety of the Oldhall manor passed with the great grand
dauther of that marriage to Sir Ingram Clifford, who having no issue, it
became vested, pursuant to a settlement, in Sir Ingram and his heirs, and
was sold, in or about 1587, to Roger Columbell, Esq., of Netherhall: it is
now vested in the devisees of the late Herbert Greensmith, Esq. (fn. 9)
Upon the death of Ralph de Darley, in 1370, the other moiety of
Darley manor, called the manor of Netherhall or Whitwell-hall passed to his
sister Agnes, the wife of Thomas Columbell, Esq., of Sandiacre. This place,
in consequence, became the chief seat of the Columbell family, till the death
of John Columbell, Esq., in 1673. His sister and sole heiress married William Marbury, Esq., of Marbury in Cheshire, who dying without issue, in
1697, bequeathed her estates in Darley to Gilbert Thacker, Esq., who had
married her late husband's sister. In 1701, Mr. Thacker sold this manor to
Messrs. Andrew and Robert Greensmith, of Wirksworth. Herbert Green-smith, Esq., grandson of Robert, died seised of this manor in 1789, and bequeathed it to Mr. Herbert Greensmith Beard, of Lincoln, and his brothers
and sisters, by whom the whole of their landed property has been sold off
in parcels; but they retain the manerial rights. The site of the old mansion, called Nether-hall or Whitwell-hall, with an adjoining farm, was purchased in or about the year 1790, by Richard Arkwright, Esq. M.P., the present owner. In the year 1796, Mr. Arkwright took down the old mansion, of
late years called Darley-hall, which by an agreement (still existing (fn. 10) ) between
John de Derlegh and his mason, appears to have been erected about
the year 1321, and built a new house for his own residence at a short
Stancliff-hall, which appears to have belonged to a younger branch of the
Columbell family, and to have been held under the manor of Old-hall,
passed by successive female heirs to the families of Newsam and Pott. It
afterwards belonged to Sir John Digby of Mansfield Woodhouse, who, in
1655, sold it to Robert Steere of Bridgetown, Gent. Sir Paul Jenkinson, of
Walton, being possessed of this estate in 1715, gave it to his daughter
Lettice, by whom the hall and estates were sold, in 1718, to Robert Greensmith, Esq., for the sum of 1750l.; in the year 1799, the devisees of Herbert
Greensmith, Esq., sold the Stancliff-hall estate for 10,500l. to William
Heathcote, Esq., of Batavia in the colony of Demarara. It is now the
property, and the hall is the residence, of his brother and devisee, Mr. John
The manor of Little-Rowsley belonged to the ancient family of Rollesley
or Rowsley, who took their name from this place as early as the reign of
Richard I. The heiress of Rollesley brought this manor to Sir William
Kniveton, of Mercaston, who was created a baronet in 1611. His son, Sir
Gilbert, sold it to Sir John Manners, ancestor of his Grace the Duke of
Rutland, who is the present proprietor.
In the parish church of Darley, are monuments of the families of (fn. 11) Milward, of Snitterton; of the Greensmiths (fn. 12) ; and that of Thomas Garratt,
citizen of London, " who having acquired an ample fortune, purchased
estates in his native county; he patronised many from this neighbourhood,
gave the communion plate to Darley, 200l. to the poor of Darley, and 40l.
to the Sunday schools." Bassano's volume of Church Notes describes
two altar tombs for the family of Rollesley (fn. 13) ; and others for the families of
Columbell (fn. 14) and Wensley (fn. 15) ; memorials also for the families of Senior (fn. 16) and
Pott. (fn. 17)
The rectory is in the patronage of the Dean of Lincoln. There were
formerly two medieties, which were united in 1744.
Mr. Anthony Taylor, about the year 1750, gave the sum of 6ol., and
Mrs. Ann Finney, about the same time, 6ol., towards the endowment of a
free-school at Darley; some smaller benefactions have made it up 140l., the
interest of which, 7l. 10s. is given to a schoolmaster.
The manor of Snitterton, in this parish, and in the wapentake of Wirksworth, is described in the Domesday Survey as a hamlet of Mestesforde.
It belonged, at a very early period, to a younger branch of the ancient
family of Shirley, which took the name of Snitterton. The heiress of Snitterton brought it to the Sacheverells, who possessed it for several generations. This manor, or a moiety of it, was afterwards in the Milwards:
Felicia, the elder coheiress of John Milward, Esq., brought a moiety of
Snitterton, with the manor-house, to Charles Adderley, Esq. In 1695, Mr.
Adderley sold it to Henry Feme, Esq., Receiver-General of the Customs;
and it is now the property of Edmund Turner, Esq., whose grandfather
married the daughter and eventually sole heir, of Mr. Feme. The
other moiety of this manor was purchased by Mr. Isaac Smith, of the
Sacheverells; or of the Shores, of Snitterton, to whom it had been sold
by them. Mr. Smith died in 1638: his descendant, Thomas Smith, Esq.,
then of Farlington, in Hampshire, sold this estate, in 1713, to WilliamHodgkinson, Esq. (fn. 18) , of Overton, maternal great-grandfather of Sir Joseph
Banks, G.C.B., who is the present proprietor. The old mansion, which
was a seat of the Sacheverells, and afterwards of the Milwards, is now occupied as a farm-house.
In the year 1397, Roger Wormhill had the Bishop's licence for celebrating divine service in his oratory at Snitterton.
The manor of Wendesley, or Wensley, is described in the Survey of
Domesday as a hamlet of the King's manor of Mestesforde. Before the
reign of King John, it was in the ancient family of De Wendesley, or
Wensley; whose heiress, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, married Ralph
Blackwall, Esq. In the year 1591, Lettice Wensley, widow, and Ralph
Blackwall, sold a moiety of this manor to John Harpur, Esq. (fn. 19) This moiety
is now the property of his descendant, Sir Henry Crewe, Bart.; but the
landed property has been sold off. One-half of the other moiety, with the
old manor-house, was sold, in 1603, to Richard Senior, of Bridgetown: one
fourth of the said moiety to Sir John Manners, of Haddon; and the remaining fourth to Roger Columbell, Esq., of Darley-hall.
The manor of Cowley (Collei), in this parish, and in the wapentake of
Wirksworth, was held by Swan, under Henry de Ferrars, at the time of the
Domesday Survey. In the early part of Henry the Third's reign, it belonged to Gilbert de Collegh. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it was in
the family of Cadman, whose heiress brought it to Needham. In 1613,
George Needham, and Henry his son, sold this estate to Richard Senior, of
Bridgetown. One of the coheiresses of Anthony, son of Richard, married
Lionel Fanshaw, whose son Henry, in 1718, sold the manor of Cowley to
Thomas Bagshaw, Esq.: the heiress of Bagshaw married Fitzherbert. In
1749, William Fitzherbert, Esq., sold Cowley to George Wall; and in 1791,
Mr. and Mrs. Busby, the latter of whom was widow and devisee of John
Wall (brother of George), sold it to Richard Arkwright, Esq., M.P., the
DERBY, the county-town, lies on the great road from London to Manchester, being 126 miles from the former, and 60 from the latter place.
We are informed by Ethelwerd, a noble Saxon of the blood royal, in his
Chronicle, that the Saxon name of this town was Northworthige, and that
the Danes gave it the name of Deoraby. (fn. 20) The Saxon Chronicle speaks of
it by the latter name only. In the time of Edward the Confessor, Derby
was a royal borough; the number of its burgesses being then 243, exclusively, as it appears, of 41 burgesses who occupied lands adjoining to the
town. At the time of the Norman survey, the number of burgesses was
reduced to 140; forty of whom are described as of inferior degree. At
this time, there were 103 dwellings waste and empty which had formerly
paid taxes. Two parts of all taxes, tolls, and customs, then belonged to
the King, and the remaining third part to the Earl. King Henry I., when
Duke of Normandy, granted the town of Derby to Ralph, Earl of Chester.
The burgesses held the town in fee-farm before the year 1204, when King
John granted them the same privileges, which the burgesses of Nottingham
enjoyed; and confirmed their mercatorial gild, on condition of which they
were to pay the old rent, together with an increase of rol. per (fn. 21) annum.
The borough was then governed by a Provost, whom the charter gives them
power to elect and to remove at pleasure. King Henry III. granted, as a
privilege to the burgesses, in 1261, that no Jew should reside in Derby. (fn. 22) It
appears that among the privileges which the burgesses of Derby claimed
and were allowed in 1330, were four weekly markets, to be held on Sunday,
Monday, Wednesday, and from Thursday-eve to Friday-eve; a fair on
Thursday and Friday in Whitsun-eve, and another for seventeen days,
commencing eight days before the festival of St. James. (fn. 23) King Richard
III. granted the burgesses power to choose a bailiff, to have a gaol, &c.
Queen Mary, in 1553, granted them several houses, lands, and tithes,
which had belonged to the Abbey of Darley; to the College of All-Saints;
the Gild of the Holy Trinity; the chantry of St. Mary, in the college
above-mentioned; the free chapel of St. James, with all its lands; the
church of St. Michael, and the advowson of the church of Lowne, otherwise Heath; then valued altogether at 77l. 2s. 7d. per annum; the bailiffs
paying a rent to the crown of 41l. 15s. 10d. per annum. Queen Elizabeth
first granted the burgesses the privilege of having two bailiffs. King
James I., in 1611, granted them a charter, by which their corporation was
made to consist of two bailiffs and 24 burgesses, with a recorder, chamberlain, and other officers. Among the privileges granted by King
James's charter was, that no stranger should carry on trade in the town,
except at the markets and fairs. King Charles I., in 1629, granted the
burgesses a new charter, under which the body corporate consists of a
mayor, nine aldermen, 14 brethren, and 14 capital burgesses. The chief
officers are a high-steward, recorder, and town-clerk. Henry Mellor was
appointed the first Mayor. The four senior aldermen are perpetual magistrates; the Mayor is vested with the same powers during his mayoralty
and the year following. The present Guildhall at Derby was built about
the year 1731; the old hall was pulled down the preceding year.
Derby has sent members to parliament ever since the year 1294. The
right of election is in the freemen and sworn burgesses, the number of
which, in 1712, was about 700; we have not been able to ascertain the
present number, but are informed that it has greatly increased. The
Mayor is the returning officer. The first Earl of Macclesfield, before he
was raised to the peerage, twice sat in parliament for this town. One of its
representatives has been of the Cavendish family for more than a century.
The county assizes have been held from time immemorial at Derby.
The buildings of the County-hall, which was erected in 1659, were much
improved a few years ago. The county gaol was erected in 1756; the
Duke of Devonshire gave 400l. towards the building. The Epiphany,
Easter, and Michaelmas quarter sessions are held at Derby; the Midsummer sessions being held at Chesterfield.
Other public buildings in Derby are, a theatre, built in 1773, and an
assembly-room, completed in 1774.
An agricultural society was established at Derby about the year 1791;
there is also a philosophical society, instituted by the late Dr. Darwin, and
Robert French, Esq.
There is a great market at Derby, for corn and all sorts of provisions, on
Friday, and a smaller market, for butter, eggs, &c., on Wednesday. (fn. 24) The
fairs which were either granted or confirmed by King James's charter were,
Friday in Easter-week, May 4, Thursday before Midsummer, and September 26; each fair being for two days. King Charles's charter grants or
confirms seven fairs: Friday after the Epiphany; Friday in Easter-week;
Friday after St. Philip and St. James; Friday in Whitsun-week; Friday
before the Nativity of St. John the Baptist; St. James's-day, and Friday
before Sept. 29. Most of these were for two days.
In the year 1732, the corporation had a grant of two new fairs; one
for three days, beginning September 16th; the other for two days, beginning on the festival of St. Paul. In the year 1734, the corporation appointed an annual meeting for the sale of the latter-making cheese, to
last three days, beginning on the 12th of March, altered, in 1738, to
the 21 st.
There are now nine fairs; the Monday after Jan. 6th; Jan. 25th;
March 21, for three days; Friday in Easter week; Friday after May 1;
Friday in Whitsun-week; July 25; September 27, for three days; and
Friday before Oct. nth. Most of these fairs are for cattle, &c.; those
of March and October are great cheese fairs.
In the year 1377, there were 1046 lay persons in Derby, upwards of 14
years of age, exclusive of paupers. (fn. 25) In 1712, the number of inhabitants was
supposed to be. about 4000. (fn. 26) In 1789, the number of houses in the town
and borough of Derby was found to be 1637; that of inhabitants, 8563 (fn. 27) ; m
1801, the houses were in number 2144. the inhabitants 10,832; in 1811,
the houses 2644, the inhabitants 13,043, according to the returns made to
parliament at the two periods last mentioned. In consequence, probably, of
this town being a great thoroughfare from London to the North; it was,
at several times, a prey to the ravages of the plague, in 1586; in 1592; and
1593 (fn. 28) ; in 1625; in 1637, when it broke out at the Whitsuntide fair; in
1645, when the assizes were held on that account in the Friers' close; and
in 1665. At the last mentioned period, the markets were forsaken, and
the town is said to have been in danger of famine.
It appears, that in former times, this town was famous for dyeing cloth,
and that one of the privileges granted by King John's Charter to the burgesses, was, that no one should dye cloth within ten leagues of Derby,
except at Nottingham. It is said also to have been a great mart for wool.
Queen Mary's Charter to the burgesses of Derby, mentions three fulling
mills in Derby; and it may be observed, that this was one of the towns to
which Sir Thomas White, founder of St. John's College in Oxford, bequeathed the sum of 100l., to be lent from time to time in sums of 25l., with
a preference to clothiers. The chief trade of Derby, about a century ago,
consisted in malting and brewing ale, which was in great request, and sent
in considerable quantities to London; in corn dealing also, and baking of
bread for the supply of the northern parts of the county. (fn. 29) Camden speaks
of the Derby ale as being very celebrated, a century earlier; and Fuller,
alluding to it, says, " that never was the wine of Falernum better known to
the Romans, than the canary of Derby to the English thereabout." The
malting business is not carried on to so great an extent as formerly. There
are two public breweries for ale.
About the beginning of the eighteenth century, the first silk-mill that had
been established in England, was constructed at Derby by Mr. Cotchett:
it is spoken of as a singular curiosity in Mr. Wolley's manuscript account
of Derbyshire, written in 1712. The machinery of this mill having been
found inadequate to its intended purposes, the projector soon failed, and
the works were abandoned. A few years afterwards, Mr. John Lombe,
an excellent mechanic and designer, went to Italy, and having, by bribery,
procured the assistance of two artists from the silk-mills there, made drawings and models of the machinery, and having with difficulty made his
escape, returned to England with the two Italians (fn. 30) , about the year 1717.
The next year he procured a patent, but before he could enjoy the fruit of
his labours, fell a sacrifice, as was suspected, to the revenge of the Italian
manufacturers, and died by poison. (fn. 31) After the death of a brother, the concern fell into the hands of his cousin, Sir Thomas Lombe, who died in 1738.
These silk-mills, which are still worked, are the property of the corporation,
and have long been occupied by Messrs. Swift and Co.
Messrs. Strutt have also a silk-mill and a cotton-mill, in which have been
introduced several excellent mechanical improvements, for facilitating and
expediting the several processes.
The manufacture of stockings was introduced into Derby about the same
time as the silk-mill. About the year 1756, Messrs. Strutt and Woollatt
introduced their ingenious invention of making ribbed stockings, for which
they had obtained a patent. Mr. Pilkington supposed, that in 1789, there
were about 170 stocking frames in the town, and that the hosiers of Derby
employed nearly six times as many in the neighbourhood, The stocking
manufacture has been considerably increased since that time.
The slitting mills at the Holmes, which prepare iron for various purposes,
were erected in the year 1734, and three years afterwards, other works for
smelting, rolling, and preparing copper. (fn. 32)
The porcelain manufacture was established at Derby, about the year 1750,
by Mr. Duesbury. The Derby porcelain has long been held in esteem, and
has of late years been much improved in its composition and ornaments.
The clay and granite used in this manufacture, are brought from Cornwall.
This manufactory now belongs to Mr. Bloore, who lately employed about
Messrs. Brown and Mawe have a large manufactory for making vases
and various other ornamental articles of the fluor spar called blue-John.
Besides the manufactures already mentioned, there are at Derby,
a bleaching mill on Nun's-green, worked by steam; a calicoe factory;
two worsted mills; a mill for making tin plates; a red lead mill;
white lead works; and a shot-mill, erected in 1809, by Messrs. Cox and
Co. (fn. 33)
The principal trade of Derby, at an early period, was that of wool.
Camden, writing in the reign of James I., tells us, that the wealth of the
town arose then entirely from buying up corn, and retailing it to the people
in the uplands, and that almost all the inhabitants were forestalled of that
sort. Blome speaks of its trade, in 1673, as being chiefly in barley, which
was made into malt, and sold northward; he observes, that the trade of the
town would be much advanced if the river Derwent was made navigable,
which might easily be done. This was accomplished in the year 1719. (fn. 34)
After the making of the Derby canal, the act for which passed 33 Geo. III.
the Derwent Navigation was discontinued (in 1794). The town of Derby
is supplied by this canal with coals, building stone, gypsum, and various other
articles, Coals are also again exported, as well as manufactured goods,
cheese, &c. There is a large wharf at Derby, and several of the manufactories already mentioned are on the sides of the canal.
The earliest event relating to the town of Derby, recorded in history, is
its capture by the Danes about the year 918, and its recapture by Alfred's
daughter, Ethelfleda Countess of Mercia, who boldly attacked the castle and
took it by storm, after a severe struggle. (fn. 35) After this it fell again into the hands
of the Danes, from whom King Edmund recovered it with four other towns
in 942. (fn. 36) It is probable, that the castle at Derby was suffered to go to ruin
after the Norman conquest. Its site is denoted by the names of the Castlehill and the Castle-field in the parish of St. Peter, near the London road.
A house was built on or near the site about the year 1711, by its owner,
Mr. John Borrow, which is now the property of his descendant, Thomas
Borrow, Esq., and in the occupation of Lady Grey de Ruthin.
After the. conquest, we find no event of much note relating to this town
for several centuries. King Edward II. appears to have been at Derby with
his army just before the battle of Borough-bridge, and it was there that Sir
Robert de Holand surrendered himself to his mercy, and was sent prisoner
to Dover castle. (fn. 37) On the 13th of January, 1585, the unfortunate captive,
Mary Queen of Scots, was lodged one night in Derby, on her road from
Winfield Manor-house to Tutbury-castle. " This day," says Sir Ralph
Sadler, in whose custody she then was, " we remove this Queen to Derbie,
and tomorrowe to Tutbury, the wayes beinge so foule and depe, and she so
lame, though in good health of bodie, that we cannot go thoroughe in a
daye." Again, " I have given strait order to the bailiffs and others of
Derby, to provyde that there be none assemblie of gasing people in the
stretes, and for all quietness as much as may be done. I have written
letters to Sir John Zouch, Sir John Byron, Sir Thomas Cokayne, Mr. John
Manners, and Mr. Curzon, to be ready to attend this Quene to Derbie, with
but a small trayne." So jealous was Elizabeth of any opportunity being
afforded to her royal prisoner of gaining popularity, and so active were her
spies in reporting the most minute occurrences, which might be supposed to
have that tendency; that we find, notwithstanding all his precautions, Sir
Ralph gave great offence, by granting his prisoner the accommodation of
sleeping at Derby; and thus he defends himself in a letter to the Lord Treasurer Burleigh. " Now, as touching the Queen's Majesties myslyking that
I lodgid this Queen in Darby towne, coming hitherwarde, I assure her
Majestie and your Lordship, that it was full sore against my will, if it might
have ben holpen. And to avoyd that towne, if it might have ben, I sent
dyvers tymes of my servants of good judgment, and ones Mr. Somer,
ryding to Tutbury, to see if ther wer any way passable with coche
and caryage, and convenyent places to lodge her and the company in some
village or some gentleman's house, for the journey was to far in one day;
and after they had hardly well sought, they reported that there was no other
passable way for coche but by the common way, and scant that at that tyme
of the yere, by reason of hills, rocks, and woods; and I myself making a
tryal two or three myles, fynding it true, caused landes to be made through
closes to avoyde many evyl passages; and as for gentlemen's houses in
that way or any other, in dyvers miles, there was but Mr. Knyveton's house
at Marraston (fn. 38) , a small house for such a purpose, and very little meanes in
that village, and standyng in the worst way, which maketh me humbly to
beseech her majestie, to think that if ther had been any other meanes, I
wolde not have come by Derby, for I did fore consider of that, and therefore, I wrote long before what we must needs take. And tochinge
the information of a great personage, delyvered to him by some officious
officer, that this Queen offered to salute and to kysse a multitude of the
townes women, and of other speeches that (is sayde) she used to them.
I do lykewise assure, and thereto Mr.—— will be sworne, if need be,
I going next before her, and he next behynd her, yea, before all the gentlemen, of purpose, savyng one that carryed up her gowne, that her interteynment to those women was this. In the litle hall was the good wife, being.
an ancient widow, named Mrs. Beaumont, with four other women, her
neighbours. So soon as she knew who was her hostess, after she had made
a beck to the rest of the women, standing next to the dore, she went to her
and kissed her, and none other, sayinge that she was come thither to trouble
her, and that she was also a widow, and therefore trusted that they should
agree well enough together, having no husbands to trouble them, and so
went into the parlour upon the same loe floure, and no stranger with her,
but the good wife and her sister. And there Mr. Somer stayde untill the
Queen putt off her upper garment and toke other things about her. And
further, so sone as she was within her lodging, the gentleman porter stood
still at the doore to suffer none to go into the house but her owne people
from their lodgings next adjoyning. And then I appointed the bailiffs
to cause a good watche of honest householders to be at all the corners of
the towne, and in the market-place, and eight to walk all night yn that
strete wher she lodgid, as myself, lyeing over against that lodging, can
well testify, by the noise they made all night."
" This your Lordship may boldly affirme, if it please you, upon any occasion, which I will confirme, when God shall sende me to answer it, if it
shall happen to come in question. So as he might have ben better advised, that gave the nobleman suche information as was reported to your
Lordship." (fn. 39)
The house where the Queen of Scots was lodged has been taken down:
it stood in Babington-lane, had belonged to the Babington family, and had
been purchased of them by Mrs. Beaumont's husband, Henry Beaumont,
Esq., a few years before. Mr. Beaumont died in 1584. This mansion was
afterwards the residence of Sir Simon Degge (fn. 40) , author of the Parson's
Counsellor, and editor of Erdswick's Staffordshire.
In the year 1635, King Charles I. visited Derby, accompanied by the
Elector Palatine. (fn. 41) In the month of August 1642, he marched through
Derby with his army, soon after he had erected his standard at (fn. 42) Nottingham.
In the same year, Sir John Gell came with his forces to Derby, and garrisoned the town for the Parliament. (fn. 43) Sir Thomas Fairfax was at Derby in
the Spring of 1643. (fn. 44) Sir John Gell continued to be the governor in August, 1645 (fn. 45) ; and it appears that not long afterwards the town was disgarrisoned, and the soldiers disbanded. " In 1659 there was an insurrection at Derby against the usurped powers." (fn. 46)
On the 21st of November, 1688, the Earl of Devonshire, who was one of
the most zealous promoters of the Revolution, came to Derby with a retinue of 500 men, and read the declaration of the Prince of Orange. (fn. 47)
On the 4th of December, 1745, Charles Edward Stuart, commonly called
the young Pretender, having in the prosecution of his rash enterprise, penetrated into the heart of the kingdom, entered Derby: his army, consisting
of about 7000 men, commanded by the Dukes of Athol and Perth, Lord
Balmerino, and other officers, had preceded him, and previously to his arrival, had obliged the common cryer to proclaim him Regent. He was
lodged at a house, then belonging to the Earl of Exeter, in Full-street, now
occupied by Mr. Edwards. The inhabitants were in great dismay at the
arrival of the rebel army, who plundered the town to a considerable amount,
and committed various outrages. They were soon relieved, however, from
their troublesome visitors: for on the second evening of their stay, a council
of the rebel chiefs was held, in which, after very warm debates, it was resolved to abandon their enterprize; in consequence of this determination,
early on the morning of the 6th, they made a precipitate retreat by way
of Ashborne, and returned to Scotland. (fn. 48)
On the 3d of September, 1768, Christian VII., King of Denmark, accompanied by his Grand Chamberlain, Count Bernsdorff, passed through
Derby, and slept at the George Inn.
One of the entries among the annals from whence some of the preceding
historical facts are taken, shows that Scripture-plays, similar to those described in our account of Chester, were performed at Derby also, in the
reign of Queen Elizabeth: " 1572 — In this year, Holofernes was played
by the townsmen."
We have no intimation of any person of great celebrity born at Derby.
It has been said, indeed, to have been the birth-place of Flamsteed, the
celebrated astronomer. We have been able to ascertain (fn. 49) that he was born in
1646, at Denby, in this county, whither his father and mother, who resided
at Derby, had retired on account of the plague. They returned to
Derby when he was very young, and he was placed at the free grammar-school.
The only literary characters whom we find recorded by biographical
writers as natives of Derby, are, Dr. Thomas Linacre, (of the family of
Linacre in Brampton), physician to King Henry VII. and Henry VIII.,
founder of the College of Physicians, and author of some works on Latin
Grammar, and a Translation of Galen (fn. 50) ; Benjamin Robinson, a Presbyterian
divine of some note, born in 1666, who wrote on the subject of liturgies,
and in defence of the Trinity; and Thomas Bott, a clergyman of the
Church of England, born in 1688, who wrote against Wollaston and Warburton, Remarks on Butler's Analogy, &c. Mr. Hutton, in his History of
Derby, mentions also Robert Bage, author of some well-received (fn. 51) novels.
To these we may add, the veteran antiquary just mentioned, William Hutton, F.A.S.S.; who, at the age of 78, traversed the extent of the Roman
wall, taking a journey of 600 miles on foot for that purpose. He published
a History of the Wall, with its appearance in 1801; a History of Birmingham, of Derby, his native place, and other works; and left behind
him, in manuscript, some interesting and amusing memoirs of his own life,
published since his decease by his daughter. (fn. 52)
Joseph Wright, an eminent artist, whose paintings, especially those which
represent the effects of moon-light, and fire, and candle-light, are much
esteemed, was born at Derby in the year 1734, and died at his native place
in the month of August, 1797.
Among persons of eminence who have made Derby their residence may
be mentioned Thomas Parker, the first Earl of Macclesfield. This nobleman, who was Lord High Chancellor from 1718 to 1725, practised many
years as an attorney in this town, which as before-mentioned he represented
in parliament; and after he was called to the bar continued to reside here
occasionally till he became Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. John
Whitehurst, author of An Enquiry into the Original State and Formation
of the Earth, followed his occupation of a clock and watch-maker in Derby
for 40 years. Anthony Blackwell, author of " The Sacred Classics," was
master of the Grammar-school here. Dr. William Butler, author of a
Treatise on Puerperal Fevers, and the late Dr. Erasmus Darwin, the well
known author of " The Botanic Garden," and other works, both practised
as physicians at Derby for many years. Hutton, in his History of Derby,
mentions also, among eminent residents, Benjamin Parker, a stockingmaker, author of Philosophical Meditations, a Treatise on the Longitude, &c. (fn. 53)
Derby gave the title of Earl to the ancient family of De Ferrars; afterwards to the Plantagenets, of the royal blood. It has been enjoyed by the
Stanley family ever since the year 1485.
There were in ancient times four religious houses in Derby: the abbey
of St. Helen's, afterwards removed to Derley or Darley; a priory of
Benedictine nuns; a small priory of Cluniac monks, dedicated to St. James;
and a convent of Dominican friers.
The abbey of St. Helen's was founded in the reign of King Stephen, by
Robert Earl Ferrars. (fn. 54) In the succeeding reign, Hugh, Dean of Derby,
gave, with the consent of his son Henry, all his lands at Little-Derley (fn. 55) , near
Derby, to the canons of St. Helen's, for the purpose of building thereon a
church and a monastery: he gave them moreover the church of St. Peter,
in Derby, with its appurtenances. (fn. 56) In consequence of this grant, the monks
of St. Helen's removed to Derley, and an oratory was left at St. Helen's;
where, before the year 1261, Nicholas, the official of Derby, founded an hospital, consisting of certain poor brethren and sisters (fn. 57) , governed by a master
or warden. We learn nothing farther of this hospital, which does not
appear to have continued till the reformation. William Berners died seised
of a messuage in Derby called St. Helen's, in 1544; Sir Godfrey Foljambe
in 1585. (fn. 58) The site of St. Helen's was in the parish of St. Alkmund, and
is now the property of Mr. Brown, who carries on there his marble manufactory, already mentioned. After their removal, the canons of Derley
were enriched with many valuable benefactions of manors, churches (fn. 59) , &c.
The Abbot was by Walter Durdant, Bishop of Coventry, made Dean of
all the churches in Derbyshire belonging to his convent, particularly of
those in the town of Derby, with power to hold a chapter of the secular
clergy. (fn. 60) At the time of its dissolution, the revenues of this abbey were
estimated at 258l. 15s. 3d. clear yearly income. Thomas Rage, the last
Abbot, had a pension of 50l. per annum.
The priory of Benedictine nuns, at Derby was founded by the Abbot of
Derley, in the reign of Henry II.; and it was placed under the Abbot's
superintendence by Walter Durdant, Bishop of Coventry. (fn. 61) This priory was
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and was called Prioratus de Pratis de Derby, or
the Priory of King's-Mead. (fn. 62) Among the proceedings of the Court of Chancery in the Record-Office at the Tower, is a bill filed against Isabella de Stanley, Prioress of St. Mary in Derby, in the reign of Henry VI., by the Abbot
of Burton; in which the Abbot complains that the Prioress had for 21 years
past refused to pay some rent due to him; and that when his bailiff went to
distrain she said with great malice, "Wenes these churles to overlede me, or
sue the lawe agayne me, they shall not be so hardy but they shall avye upon
their bodies, and be nailed with arrows; for I am a gentlewoman, comen of the
greatest of Lancashire and Cheshire, and that they shall know right well."
The revenues of this small priory were valued at the time of the dissolution
at 18l. 6s. 8d. clear yearly income. The site, which was on the west side
of Nuns'-Green, in the parish of All-Saints, was granted, in 1541, to Francis
Earl of Shrewsbury, who the next year sold it to Thomas Sutton. (fn. 63) Alan
Cotton died seised of it in 1571. (fn. 64) The site is now the property of Francis
Mundy, Esq., of Markeaton.
The small priory of St. James was originally a cell of Cluniac monks, belonging to Bermondsey Abbey, to which monastery the church of St.
James in Derby was given, before the year 1140, by Waltheof, son of
Swein. (fn. 65) The Cluniac monks, being all connected with the Abbey of
Clugny in France, this priory was returned as alien, in the reign of Edward I.; it was then called Prioratus Sti Jacobi de Derby, de Aldenna. (fn. 66) It
continued nevertheless till the dissolution, when its revenues were estimated
at 11l. 15s. 11d., per annum. Before the Reformation, the chamberlains of
Derby rendered annually to the monks of this house, two pounds of wax,
for the right of passage over St. James's bridge. (fn. 67) This priory was
situated at the end of St. James's-lane. We do not know what became
of it after the Reformation, unless it were the same which was granted to
the corporation, by the name of the free chapel of St. James, with all the
lands, &c. thereto belonging.
The convent of Dominican or Black friers, was founded in or before the
year 1292. (fn. 68) In 1316, they had a grant often acres of land, for enlarging the
site of their convent. (fn. 69) The revenues of this house were estimated, at the
time of its suppression, at 18l. 6s. 2d. clear yearly income. The site, which
is in the parish of St Werburgh, and which gave name to Frier-street, was
granted, in 1543, to John Hinde, and in the course of a few years, passed
in succession to the families of Sharpe, Statham, and Bainbrigge. William
Bainbrigge, Esq., was possessed of it in 1562. Speed's map represents
the site of the Friery, as detached from other buildings at the skirts of the
town, surrounded by an enclosure. Pilkington says, that about sixty years
before the time of his writing, which brings it nearly to the year 1730, the
site of this priory was purchased by the Crompton family. The Reverend
Mr. Cantrell, minister of St. Alkmund, writing in the month of August,
1760, says, " The Friery is lately taken down, and a new house and outward houses are now erected by Mr. Crompton, who purchased the situation." (fn. 70) The Friery belonged afterwards to the family of Dalton, and is
now the property and residence of Mrs. Henley, widow of the late Mr.
The Survey of Domesday enumerates six parish churches in Derby; two
of which belonged to the King; one of them having seven, the other six
clerks; the remaining four belonged to Godfrey Alselin, Ralph Fitzhubert,
Norman de Lincoln, and Edric, who had inherited from his father Cole.
There was formerly a church of St. Mary in Derby, which was granted by
William the Conqueror to Burton-Abbey, together with Heanor (fn. 71) , which
appears to have been a chapel of ease. (fn. 72) In Pope Nicholas's Valor, the
church of St. Mary is not mentioned, and Heanor is described as a parish
church. There are the remains of a chapel of St. Mary, on St. Mary'sbridge, in St, Alkmund's parish, now forming part of the dwelling-house
of Mr. Thomas Eaton.
There are now five parish churches in Derby, All-Saints, St. Alkmund's,
St. Michael's, St. Peter's, and St. Werburgh's.
The Parish of All-Saints is wholly within the borough. The present
fabnc of All-Samts church was built after the designs of Gibbs, in the
years 1723, 1724, and 1725. The money required for the purpose, was
raised principally by subscription, through the exertions of Dr. Hutchinson,
the curate, who himself subscribed the sum of 40l. The fine old gothic
tower, which still remains, has been already spoken of. (fn. 73) The chancel, which
is of the same height and width as the body of the church, is separated from
it by a lofty open screen of iron work: and it has, like the nave, two aisles;
in its north aisle, the corporation meetings for the purpose of choosing the
mayor are held, as well as parish meetings for various purposes: the south
aisle is the burial place of the noble family of Cavendish, for whom there
are several monuments. Against the south wall, is that of Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, (fn. 74) with her effigies in a recumbent attitude. The epitaph
after recording her birth and four marriages, with her issue by her second
husband, William Cavendish, as stated in all the peerages, adds, "hæc inclitissima Elizabetha Salopiæ comitissa, Ædium. de Chatsworth, Hardwick
& Oldcotes, magnificentiâ clarissimarum fabricatrix, vitam hanc transitoriam
XIII die mensis Februarii, anno ab incarn. Domini 1607-8, ac circa annum
ætatis suæ 87, finivit." If Collins be correct in his statement, that she was
fourteen when married to Robert Barley, who died in 1533, her age must be
here somewhat under-rated, and she must have been in her ninetieth year,
even if her first marriage, had not been of twelve months continuance.
The monument of William, second Earl of Devonshire, who died in 1628,
and Christian his Countess, daughter of Edward Lord Bruce, stands nearly
in the middle of the aisle, towards the east end. It has an open canopy
twelve feet in height, under which are upright figures of the Earl and Countess in white marble. This Countess was much celebrated by the wits of her
day, to whom she was a great patroness (fn. 75) ; she was buried with great funeral
solemnity on the 18th of February 1674-5; and at the same time were deposited in the vault, pursuant to her express desire, the bones of her beloved son,
the brave Colonel Charles Cavendish, a most distinguished officer in the
royal army, who was slain at Gainsborough in the month of July, 1643 ; and
had been interred at Newark. On the south wall is a monument, by Rysbrack,
for Caroline Countess of Besborough, (daughter of William Duke of Devonshire,) who died in 1760; and that of William Earl of Besborough, her
husband, who died in 1763, with a medallion, by Nollekins. All the Earls
and Dukes of Devonshire, of the Cavendish family, lie buried in the vault
at Derby, except the first Earl, (who was interred at Edensor,) with their
ladies, besides many of the younger branches of this noble family, among
whom it would be unpardonable to omit the mention of the great ornament of his family, Henry Cavendish, grandson of the third Duke of
Devonshire, one of the most eminent chemists and natural philosophers
of the age, of whom it has been said (fn. 76) , " that since the death of Sir Isaac
Newton, England has sustained no scientific loss so great as that of
Cavendish." He was interred in the family vault, in the month of
In this vault also lie the remains of the brave Earl of Northampton, who
was killed at the battle of Hopton-heath, near Stafford, the 19th of March,
1643. The young Earl requested that he might have the dead body of his
father, but it was refused. Sir John Gell's account of the transaction is as
follows; " Within three days there came a trumpeter to Colonel (fn. 77) Gell,
from my young Lord of Northampton, for his father's dead body, whereupon he answered, if he would send him the drakes which they had gotten
from their dragoons, and pay the chirurgeons for embalming him, he should
have it; but he returned him an answer, that he would doe neither th'one
or th'other; and soe Colonel Gell caused him to be carried in his company
to Derby, and buried him in the Earl of Devonshire's sepulchre, in Allhallows church. (fn. 78) " It appears by the register, that he was not buried till the
4th of June, 1643; nearly three months after the battle. (fn. 79)
In the north aisle of the chancel is a cenotaph in memory of Richard
Croshawe,a native of Derby, master of the Goldsmiths'-company, who died
in 1631, " in the great plague (1625), neglecting his own safety, he abode
in the city, to provide for the relief of the sick poor; and left by will for
lectures and charitable uses, the sum of 4000l., to which his executors
added 900l." In this aisle also, is the monument of Thomas (fn. 80) Chamber,
merchant, who died in 1726, by Roubiliac, with busts of the deceased and
his wife Margaret, daughter of John Bagnold of Derby, M. P.
In the north aisle of the nave, is the monument of Sir William Wheler,
Bart, with busts of himself and his lady (fn. 81) , " flying from London to avoid
the plague;" he died of that dreadful disease, at Derby, in 1666. There are
monuments also for several of the Bateman family (fn. 82) ; William Allestrey,
Esq. (fn. 83) , recorder of Derby, 1655; and Sarah, daughter of Sir Thomas Gresley,
Bart, and wife of Paul Balidon, Esq., 1736. In the nave are memorials
for the families of Turner (fn. 84) and Wyvil (fn. 85) , and in the chancel for those of
Parker, Coke, and Bainbrigge. (fn. 86) In the south aisle is the monument of
Dr. Michael Hutchinson, curate of All Saints, who died in 1730, with
an inscription, commemorating his exertions, in procuring subscriptions
for rebuilding the church, which are stated to have amounted to the
sum of 3,249l. and upwards. (fn. 87) On a pillar between the nave and the
north aisle are memorials of John Chambers, Gent., 1751, and William
Chambers, D. D., 1771: on a pillar between the nave and south aisle, is a
tablet for the Reverend Charles Hope, who died in 1798. The tomb of
John Lawe, a canon of All-Saints, who died in 1400, was discovered when
the church was rebuilt, and is now placed in the north aisle.
Bassano's volume of Church Notes, taken in 1710, before the old church
was pulled down, describes the monuments of Edward Berkeley, Esq., son
and heir of Sir Henry Berkeley, of Yarlington in the county of Somerset,
1655; Barbara, daughter of Anthony Faunt, married first to Sir Henry
Beaumont, afterwards to Sir Henry Harpur, Bart., 1649; Sir John Shore,
M.D. (fn. 88) , 1680; Patience daughter of the " loyal Captain John Meynell," and
widow of John Grace, of Kilbourn, Derbyshire, Gent., 1701; Mary, sister
of Francis Arundel, Esq., of Stoke-park in Northamptonshire, 1676; several
of the Osborne family (fn. 89) , Elizabeth, wife of Mr. Abraham Crompton, 1690;
John Bagnold, Gent., M.P., 1698; John Walton Archdeacon of Derby,
1603, and his wife Jane, 1605, (both great benefactors to the poor;) and a
monument (without inscription) for one of the Suttons of the Nunnery as
appeared by the Arms.
The church of All-Saints was formerly collegiate, having seven, and at
one time eight prebendaries. It is probable that Hugh, Dean of Derby,
who gave Derley to the canons of St. Helen's, was Dean of this church;
before the year 1268, it appears to have been annexed to the deanery of
Lincoln. (fn. 90) Although the name of All-Saints is not mentioned in the Survey
of Domesday, it is evident that it must have been the church there spoken
of as having seven clerks. The church described as having six clerks,
was probably that of St. Helen's, which then had its canons. The canons
of the free chapel of All-Saints are spoken of in the record of 1268, before
quoted. King Edward I. calls it our free chapel (fn. 91) ; yet in the Chantry
Roll of 1547 it is stated, that it was made of royal foundation in 1432, which
is explained as having had a special service then established for praying for
the souls of the King and his progenitors. There was also in this church
the chantry of Our Lady, and the gild of the Holy Trinity, the service of
which was at five in the morning. The revenues of the college were estimated, in 1547, at 38l. 14s. clear yearly income; those of Our Lady's
chantry at 2l. 13s. 4d. It appears by Queen Mary's charter to the Burgesses, that certain woods, &c. in Heath, belonged to this college, of
which it seems that Sir Thomas Smith was the last master. (fn. 92) The college-house, which had been the habitation of the canons, passed into lay hands
after the Reformation: it was some time in the possession of the Allestrey
family, who sold to the Goodwins. It is now, by descent from the latter,
the property of its present inhabitant, Daniel Parker Coke, Esq.
Queen Mary, in the first year of her reign, granted one of the prebends
of All-Saints, called " The Stone-house prebend," and the two small prebends, with several lands, tithes, &c. which had belonged to the college,
and certain premises belonging to St. Mary's chantry and Trinity gild, to
the corporation; directing at the same time, that the Bailiff and Burgesses
should pay 13l. 6s. 8d. to two priests, celebrating divine service, and having
the cure of souls of the parish church of All-Saints; and that two vicarages should be instituted in the said church, and endowed with an annuity
of 7l. 6s. 8d. each, in rents, tithes, &c., and a mansion-house for each.
There is now only one vicarage, in the gift of the corporation, who pay the
vicar a stipend of 80l. per annum. Archdeacon Walton, who died in 1603,
gave 6l. per annum towards augmenting the vicar's stipend.
Among other benefactions to this town, Richard Croshawe before-mentioned founded a Friday's lecture at All-Saints church, to be
supplied by two lecturers, to each of whom he gave 10l. per annum.
The lecturers are the head-master and under-master of the grammar-school.
Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, in the year 1599, a few years before
her death, built an alms-house for eight poor men, and four poor (fn. 93) women,
and endowed it with a rent charge of 100l. per annum, issuing out of the
manor of Little-Longsdon: the alms-people to receive 1l. 13s. 4d. each
quarterly, and 20s. per annum for a gown; the warden to have 20s.
per annum over and above, for keeping clean the monument of the
foundress. This almshouse was rebuilt by the late Duke of Devonshire,
about the year 1777: before his death, he gave an additional endowment
of 50l. per annum. The additional payment took place at Lady.day 1811.
The minister of All-Saints is visitor of the hospital.
A school for boys, on Joseph Lancaster's plan, was established in this
parish in the year 1812. There are at present about 145 boys in this
The parish of St. Alkmund extends some way into the country, comprising the townships of Darley and Little-Chester, and the parochial chapelries of Little-Eaton and Quarndon. The parish church of St. Alkmund
is supposed to have existed in the time of the Saxons. It is dedicated to
St. Alkmund, son of Alured, King of Northumberland, whose body, after
having been first interred at Littleshull, in Shropshire, is said to have been
removed to this church. Many miracles were reported to have been
wrought at his tomb to which there was a great resort of devotees. In this
church is the monument of John Bullock, Esq. (fn. 94) , of Derley-Abbey, with his
effigies, in a gown, with ruff, &c.; Rebecca, coheiress of Westbrook, married first to William Wilson, Esq., afterwards to William Wolley, Esq.,
ob. 1716; John Hope, M.D., 1710; Samuel Burton, Esq., 1751; and
some memorials of the family of Gisborne. (fn. 95)
Bassano's volume of Church Notes describes some memorials of the fa
milies of Goodwin (fn. 96) and Parker. (fn. 97) The tower of St. Alkmund's church
was rebuilt in 1603. (fn. 98)
The church of St. Alkmund belonged to the college of All-Saints: after
the reformation, it was given to the Bailiffs and Burgesses of Derby.
Queen Mary's grant to the corporation provides for the payment of 61. 13s.
per annum to a priest at the church of St. Alkmund, and directs that a
vicarage should be instituted in that church, and endowed with an annuity
of 7l. 6s. 8d. arising out of tithes, rents, &c., granted by her to the cor
poration. In or about the year 1712, Mr. Samuel Goodwin endowed it
with an estate at Plumley, in the parish of Eckington, then 40l. per annum,
now 210l., and a house in the parish of St. Werburgh, which now lets for
32l. per annum. The Mayor and Aldermen are patrons.
Henry Cantrell, who was presented to this benefice as the first vicar, in
1712, published a Treatise to prove that King Charles I. was baptized
according to the rites of the church of England, with an account of the
solemnity from the Heralds' Office at Edinburgh. Mr. Cantrell, in 1760,
communicated to Dr. Pegge several particulars relating to his parish. His
letters are among the Doctor's Collections, at the Heralds' College.
In the parish register is an entry of the burial of Thomas Ball, aged 110,
Nov. 17, 1592.
In this parish, upon the bridge to which it gave name, stood an ancient
chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, of which there are still some remains, forming
part of a dwelling-house, now in the occupation of Mr. Thomas Eaton. In
the reign of Charles II. it was licensed as a place of worship for the Pres
byterian dissenters. The Roman Catholics have a chapel in this parish;
and there are meeting-houses for the Quakers, General Baptists, and Wes
leyan Methodists. The Quakers' meeting was one of the earliest esta
blishments of that sect. Indeed we find, from the Journal of George Fox,
their founder, who was imprisoned at Derby for nearly a year, that the
Quakers first obtained the appellation by which they are now generally
known, at Derby: "Justice Bennet, of Darby," says he, " was the first that
called us Quakers, because I bid him Tremble at the 'word of the Lord; and
this was in the year 1650." (fn. 99) The present meeting-house was built in 1808.
In Bridge-gate, within this parish, is the Black Alms-house; so called
from the circumstance of black gowns being worn by the pensioners. It
was founded in 1638, by Robert Wilmot, Esq., of Chaddesden, for six poor
men and four poor women, and endowed with 40l. per annum, issuing out
of the tithes of Denby. The pensioners receive 1s. 6d. a week, each.
This alms-house was rebuilt in 1814, at the expence of Sir Robert
A school for boys and girls on Dr. Bell's system was established in this
parish in the year 1812. There are now (November, 1816) about 285
boys, and about 185 girls, in this school. (fn. 100)
Derley, called, and of late years generally written, Darley, lies about a
mile north of Derby; in some ancient records it is called Little-Derby.
The foundation and revenues of the abbey at this place have been already
spoken of. There are scarcely any remains of the monastic buildings,
which appear to have been sold piece-meal, for the purpose of demolition,
immediately after the surrender. Robert Sacheverell, Esq., who took pos
session of the site as keeper of the abbey estate for the crown, purchased
the materials. The church with its aisles, the Lady's chapel, St. Sythe's
chapel, and the altars, candlesticks, organs, paving, timbers, grave-stones,
with the metal on them, the roofs, &c. were valued to him at 26l. (fn. 101) The
site was granted, in 1541, to Sir William West, who altered some of the
conventual buildings, or built a new house thereon for his own residence:
Darley-abbey is mentioned as one of his seats in the Heralds' Visitation of
1569. His son sold it in 1574, to John Bullock, Esq. The Bullocks re
built the abbey-house, and continued to possess the abbey estate about four
score years. Thomas Goodbehere, who acquired it by two several pur
chases, made in 1654 and 1656, left three daughters, coheiresses. The
Alestreys purchased the greater part of the manor and the hall in 1672
and 1675, and resided some time at Darley. William Wolley, Esq., of
Derby, purchased the hall in 1709, and afterwards the manor; he rebuilt
the hall in 1727. After being some time in the family of Wolley, this estate
became the property of Mr. Heath, a banker in Derby, on the sale of whose
estates it was purchased by the late Robert Holden, Esq., and is now under
his will the property of his relation of the same name, who resides at Darley
At Darley, which is become a populous village, are a cotton-mill, paper
mill and red-lead-mill, belonging to Messrs. Evans and Co. Darley-hall,
a modern mansion, is the residence of Walter Evans, Esq.
Little-Chester, supposed to have been a Roman station, lies about half
a mile from Derby. The manor is described in the Survey of Domesday
as parcel of the ancient demesne of the crown. In the reign of Edward I.
it belonged, as it now does, to the Dean of Lincoln. The family of Degge
for some time held a moiety of this manor under the Dean. The present
lessee of the manor of Little-Chester, cum membris, is the Duke of Devonshire.
Little-Eaton lies about three miles and a half nearly north from Derby:
the township is within the manor of Little-Chester. The chapel was rebuilt
about the year 1788: the minister is appointed by the vicar of St. Alkmund,
to whom fees' for burials, &c. at the chapel, are payable. Philip de
Wilughby inclosed a park at Little-Eaton in the reign of Richard I. (fn. 102)
Quarndon, commonly called Quarn, lies about three miles nearly north
from Derby. It is one of the members of the manor of Little-Chester.
The Mundy family had a seat at Quarndon, which passed, by a female heir,
to Musters, of Nottinghamshire. This house and estate now belongs to
Lord Scarsdale, who has most of the landed property in the township. The
lands in this township have been inclosed by an act of parliament passed in
1808. Near Quarndon is a chalybeate water, which had considerable
celebrity more than a century ago; and is still occasionally resorted to in
the summer season.
The parish of St. Michael contains nothing remarkable. The church of
St. Michael, which had belonged to the Abbey of Derley, was given by
Queen Mary to the Bailiff and burgesses, with the church-yard, &c.; but
the vicarage is still in the gift of the crown.
The parochial chapel of Alvaston lies about three miles from Derby, on
the road to Ashby-de-la-Zouch. It was esteemed a chapel belonging to the
church of St. Michael in the twelfth century (fn. 103) ; but it appears by the
Chantry Roll of 1547, that it had then been long deemed a separate parish.
The manor of Alvaston, then called Alewoldestune was held by Tochi at
the time of the Domesday Survey, under Geoffry Alselin, or Azelin. (fn. 104) It
belonged afterwards to Ralph Fitz-Germund, founder of Dale-Abbey,
whose descendant, Matilda de Salicosa Mare, daughter of William Fitz-Ralph, Seneschal of Normandy, gave Alwoldestone to that monastery. (fn. 105) The
Grange of Alvaston, which had belonged to Dale-Abbey, was granted, in
1547, to Henry Needham. (fn. 106) William Sacheverell, Esq. died seised of it in
1557: it afterwards passed to a branch of the Alestrey family, who had a
seat here. The manor and hall passed by marriage to the Borrows, and
was sold in 1812, by John Borrow, Esq., to John Elliot, Esq. The Earl of
Harrington purchased the manor of Mr. Elliot; and Mr. Joseph Wheeldon,
the hall and some of the demesne lands.
The tithes of Alvaston formerly belonged to the Abbot and Convent of
Darley, as parcel of the rectory of St. Michael. In the reign of Henry
VII., after a long litigation concerning their respective rights between the
Abbot of Darley, the Vicar of St. Michael's, and the inhabitants of Alvaston, it was agreed that the Abbot and Convent should have the tithes of
hay and corn; that the inhabitants should present a chaplain; that they
should pay him 3l. per annum, and that he should have the small tithes
and oblations. St. Michael appears to have been then acknowledged as the
mother-church, by their having agreed to attend divine service there one
Sunday in every year. The impropriation belonged formerly to the corporation of Derby, under Queen Mary's grant; but had been alienated to
the Alestreys, and passed, with the manor, &c., to the Borrows. An
allotment was given, in lieu of tithes, to John Borrow, Esq., at the time
of the inclosure in 1802. The inhabitants still nominate the perpetual
The parish of St. Peter is extensive; comprising a large part of the
borough of Derby, the township of Litchurch, and the chapelries of Bolton, Normanton, and Osmaston.
There are no remarkable monuments in the church of St. Peter. Bassano's volume of Church Notes mentions memorials of Percival Willoughby,
M.D., 1685 (fn. 107) ; æt. 89, Richard Carter, Gent., 1693; and George Jackson,
M.D., 1699. The church of St. Peter was given to the monks of St.
Helen's, at the time of their removing to Derley, by Hugh, Dean of
Derby. (fn. 108) The impropriation has long been in the Dixie family. Sir Willoughby Dixie, Bart. is the present impropriator and patron of the vicarage,
with the chapel of Normanton.
There was a chantry-chapel in St. Peter's church, founded by Walter
Cruche, Priest, Robert Leversage, and others, the revenues of which, being
then valued at 4l. per annum, were granted by Queen Mary to the corporation. There was another chantry, dedicated to St. Nicholas, founded
by Adam Shardelow, which was valued at 40s. per annum in 1547. (fn. 109)
In this parish is the Free-school, one of the most ancient endowments of
the kind in the kingdom. It is certain that it existed as early as the
twelfth century, and it seems to have been founded in the reign of
Henry II., soon after the removal of the canons of St. Helen's to Derley.
Walter Durdant, Bishop of Lichfield, in his charter, speaks of the school
at Derby as the gift of himself and William de Barbâ Aprilis. (fn. 110) Soon after
this, whilst Richard Peche, who succeeded Walter Durdant in 1162, was
Bishop of Lichfield, Walkelin de Derby and Goda his wife gave the mansion in which they dwelt, and which Walkelin had purchased of William
Alsin, to the canons of Derley, on condition that the hall should be for ever
used as a school-room, and the chambers for the dwelling of the master
and clerks. (fn. 111) This ancient grammar-school was given to the corporation by
Queen Mary; who were to pay to the master and under-master 13l. 6s. 8d.
by four quarterly payments. This school is free to the sons of burgesses
only. The masters are appointed by the corporation: the head-master has
now a salary of 40l. per annum, the under-master of 20l. per annum; and
they are joint lecturers, on Croshaw's foundation, at All-Saints, for which
they receive 10l. each.
Mrs. Jane Walton, relict of Archdeacon Walton, who died in 1603, gave
the sum of 100l. to the master and fellows of St. John's college, Cambridge,
for the maintenance of such scholars as should come from Derby school,
and be admitted of that house, and the sum of 40l., for the better relief of
the master and usher.
Anthony Blackwall, author of the Sacred Classics, was master of this
school: here Flamsteed the astronomer received the early part of his
Mr. Robert Liversage, before the Reformation, gave certain lands and
houses to this parish for charitable uses. This estate was valued at 50l.
per annum in 1710, in 1786 at 185l. is. 8d. per annum (fn. 112) : the present rental
is about 550l. per annum.
In this parish, about a quarter of a mile from the town, adjoining to the
London road, is the Derbyshire General Infirmary, which was built by subscription, and opened in the month of October 1810. The structure, which
is of stone, was built after the designs of William Strutt, Esq., at the
expence of 30,000l. It is of a quadrangular form and three stories high.
This infirmary is constructed on an improved plan, contributing much to the
comfort of the patients, as well as to their speedy recovery. Among the
most striking advantages which it possesses, are two spacious day rooms
for convalescents, in which they eat their meals and pass the greater part of
the day; a fever house under the same roof, but completely separated from
other parts of the building; a subdivision into small wards, by means of
which the medical attendants are enabled to separate the diseased from
each other, and to give to those whose cases may require it, the benefit of
quiet and darkness; and an excellent method of communicating warmth
when necessary, and of ventilating all parts of the building. The infirmary
is capable of accommodating 80 patients, besides those in the fever house.
The average number is about thirty. The medical board consists of
three physicians and four surgeons, besides a house apothecary.
In this parish also, not far from the Infirmary, is the Ordnance-Depôt,
which was completed in the year 1805, from a design of the late Surveyor
general of the Works, James Wyatt, Esq. The armoury on the ground floor,
75 feet by 25, is capable of containing 15,000 stand of arms. A room above of
the same dimensions, is for the reception of army accoutrements. On the north
and south sides of the armoury are two magazines, capable of containing
1200 barrels of gunpowder, and constructed so as to prevent accidents.
There are barracks for a detachment of artillery, and buildings for the residence of the civil officers. This establishment is under the superintendance
of a store-keeper, appointed by the Board of Ordnance.
Litchurch, (which with Morleston, gives name to the hundred) lies about
a mile from Derby, on the Ashby road. Henry Earl of Lancaster, had a
moiety of the manor in 1330. (fn. 113) During the fifteenth century, this manor
was in the Babingtons, who held under the Earl of Warwick in (fn. 114) 1466.
Francis and George Babington conveyed this manor, in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, to Sir Francis Beaumont, one of the justices of the Common-Pleas. (fn. 115) From them it passed probably to George Earl of Shrewsbury, who
was seised of it in 1590. It passed not long afterwards, by sale, to the
Cavendish family. The Earl of Newcastle continued to possess it in 1641.
This manor is now in the crown.
Bolton or Boulton lies about three miles, nearly south, from Derby. The
manor belonged, at the time of taking the Domesday Survey, to Ralph
Fitzhubert. It seems to have been in the Sacheverells at an early period,
and to have continued some time in that family. The Agards acquired
a moiety of this manor, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by purchase from
Shelley. The manor now belongs to Sir Henry Crewe, Bart.
In the year 1271, an agreement was made between the Abbot of Derley
and Robert de Sacheverell, who claimed the patronage of Bolton as a
parish church. By this agreement, in consideration of 20 marks paid by
the Abbot, the said Robert gave up his claim, and admitted Bolton to be a
chapel of St. Peter in Derby, the Abbot agreeing to present a fit minister,
nominated by him; and it was agreed, that the minister should have three
bovates of land, nine sellions, and twelve shillings, rent, besides the small
tithes. (fn. 116) The minister is now appointed by the inhabitants.
Normanton is situated about two miles nearly south of Derby, in the
hundred of Repton and Gresley. The manor, which was granted to the
monks of Derley, iu the year 1234 (fn. 117) , was granted by King Henry VIII., in
1544, to Rowland Babington, Esq. It was purchased of the Babingtons, in
1582 or 1583, by Henry Beaumont, Esq., from whose family it passed to the
Dixies, and is now the property of Mrs. Pochin, sister of the late Sir
Wolstan Dixie, Bart. The Babingtons, and afterwards the Beaumonts and
Dixies, had a seat at Normanton. It was in ruins in 1712. (fn. 118) In the chapel is
the monument of Charlotte Jane, wife of John Dalby, Esq., who died in 1812.
Osmaston is situated about three miles from Derby, near the road to
Ashby-de-la-Zouch. In the Domesday Survey, it is written Osmundestune,
and no doubt it took its name from Osmund, the Saxon possessor, in the
reign of Edward the Confessor. The manor was granted to Robert Holland,
in 1307 (fn. 119) , as an appendage of Melbourn, with which manor it has passed ever
since, and is now the property of the Marquis of Hastings. The principal
estate here, belongs to Sir Robert Wilmot, Bart., descended from a younger
branch of the Wilmots of Chaddesden. Sir Nicholas Wilmot of Osmaston,
Serjeant at law, in the reign of Charles II., was fourth son of Robert Wilmot,
Esq., of Chaddesden, by the heiress of Shrigley. The late Sir Robert
Wilmot, of Osmaston, was created a Baronet in 1772. Sir John Eardly
Wilmot, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, who died in 1792, was of
this branch of the family, being a younger son of Sir Nicholas Wilmot.
Osmastoh-hall, the seat of Sir Robert Wilmot, has been for a few years past
unoccupied, during the present baronet's residence at Bath and on the
In the chapel at Osmaston, is the monument of Sir Nicholas Wilmot,
Knt., who died in 1682, and that of Sir Robert Wilmot, the first baronet,
who died in November 1772. Robert de Dun, Lord of Breadsall, in the
reign of Henry II., gave up all his right in the patronage of Osmaston
chapel to the Abbot of Derley. (fn. 120) Sir Robert Wilmot is the present
patron. Robert Foucher or Folger founded a chantry in this chapel,
in 1357, the endowment of which was, in 1547, valued at 6os. 8d. per
annum. (fn. 121)
The parish of St. Werburgh does not extend beyond the town of Derby.
In the year 1602, the spire of St. Werburgh's church was blown down by a
storm, which destroyed also the chancel and part of the church. On the
north wall of the chancel is the monument of Gervase Sleigh, Esq., of Ash,
who married Elizabeth, daughter of John Cholmley, and died in 1626; and
memorials for John Gisborne, Gent., 1704, and John Gisborne, Esq., 1762.
Bassano's volume of Church Notes describes also memorials for John Gisborne,
Gent, 1689; and for the families of Milward, Cheshire, and Brookhouse. (fn. 122)
The church of St. Werburgh belonged to Derley Abbey. The impropriation is now vested in Lord Scarsdale. The vicarage is in the gift of the
crown. Mr. Francis Ashe, in 1652, gave 10l. per annum, to the vicar of
St. Werburgh, payable by the Goldsmiths' Company. Mrs. Dorothy
Cundy, in 1697, gave nine acres of land, in the fields of Derby and Normanton, to the Vicar of St. Werburgh, on condition of his preaching
Sermons on the 23d of November and the 13th of March. The Reverend
J. Walker, vicar of St. Werburgh, who died in 1710, bequeathed a portion
of tithes, valued at 25l. per annum, in augmentation of this vicarage, but
no benefit is now received from the donation.
In this parish is a meeting-house for the particular Baptists. Near the
site of the friery, is the Unitarian meeting-house. It belonged formerly
to the old Presbyterian congregation, which had existed some time at
Derby, before they obtained a licence from King Charles II., to hold
their meetings in St. Mary's chapel. In the reign of James II., they
removed to a large room in the market-place. The meeting-house in
Friers-gate was erected in the reign of King William. Ferdinando Shawe,
son of an ejected minister of that name, who published a work called
"Emmanuel," held in much esteem among the dissenters of his time,
was minister of the Presbyterian congregation forty-six years: he published a brief memoir of the Life and character of his wife, who was of
the family of Gell of Hopton. James Pilkington, author of the History of
Derbyshire, in two volumes octavo, was minister of the Unitarian congregation from 1778 to 1797, when he removed to Ipswich, and continued there
till his death, which happened in 1804. In this parish also, near the Brookside, is a meeting-house of the Independents, established in 1785, by
seceders from the congregation in Friersgate.
Mrs. Rebecca Fowler, in 1711, gave the sum of 116l, with which land in
Alvaston and Boulton, (now let at 10l. per annum,) was purchased, for the
purpose of buying books for poor children of this parish, and teaching them
to read distinctly the Holy Bible.
There is a Sunday-school, consisting of 150 boys and girls, who are
instructed by gratuitous teachers, Dr. Bell's system having been partially
On Nun's-Green, in this parish, is an hospital founded, in 1716, by Edward Large, of Derby, Gent., for five widows of parsons or vicars; not
restricted to any county or diocese, and endowed with lands which produce
an income of 26l. per annum to each widow. The Reverend Charles
Holden, of Aston-upon-Trent, is patron of this hospital.