Avebury (St. James)
AVEBURY (St. James), a parish, in the union of
Marlborough, hundred of Selkley, Marlborough and
Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 6¾ miles (W. by
S.) from Marlborough; containing, with the tythings of
Beckhampton and Kennet, 751 inhabitants. This parish,
in which the river Kennet has its source, comprises
about 4641 acres; the soil is a light earth resting on
chalk, and the surface is undulated. The village is
built on a portion of the area anciently occupied by a
stupendous monument called Abury, supposed to have
been constructed by the Britons, for the purposes of
religious worship or national assemblies. It consisted
of an extensive ditch and rampart, including double
circles of large unhewn stones, many of which have been
broken, and used as materials for building the houses in
the village, and for other purposes. In the vicinity are
several barrows, and among them the very large and
remarkable one, close to the turnpike-road, called
Silbury hill, which covers an area of five acres and
thirty-four perches, and exceeds in dimensions every
similar work in Great Britain, being 2027 feet in circumference at the base, and 120 at the summit; its
sloping height is 316 feet, and its perpendicular height
170 feet. Within a short distance of this are remarkable stones termed the Grey Wethers, and about a mile
north of the village is a cromlech. The living is a discharged vicarage, to which that of Winterbourne-Monkton was united in 1747, valued in the king's books at
£9; net income, £178; patron, the Crown; impropriators, the family of Hopkins. The glebe consists of 16
acres. The church is of Norman architecture. An
alien priory, dependent on the Benedictine abbey of
Bocherville in Normandy, was founded here in the reign
of Henry I. Robert of Avebury, who wrote a history of
Edward III., is supposed to have been a native of the
Aveley (St. Michael)
AVELEY (St. Michael), a parish, and formerly a
market-town, in the union of Orsett, hundred of
Chafford, S. division of Essex, 1¾ mile (N. E.) from
Purfleet, and 7 miles (S. S. E.) from Romford; containing 849 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises by
computation 2615 acres, is separated from that of West
Thurrock by the creek Marditch. The village, though
now small, was once of some importance. The living is
a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at
£14. 10. 5.; patron, the Bishop of London; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. The great
tithes have been commuted for £453. 15., and the
vicarial for £327; the appropriate glebe consists of 30
acres, and there is one acre of vicarial glebe. The
church is an ancient edifice, with a square tower of flint
and stone, formerly surmounted by a lofty spire, which
was blown down in 1703.
Avenbury (St. Mary)
AVENBURY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of
Bromyard, hundred of Broxash, county of Hereford,
1½ mile (S. E.) from Bromyard; containing 382 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the river Frome,
and also by the road from Bromyard to Ledbury, and
comprises 3178 acres, including about 200 acres of hop
grounds; a small portion of limestone is found within
its limits. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's
books at £7. 8. 9.; net income, £80; patron, the
Crown; impropriator, E. Higginson, Esq., whose tithes
have been commuted for £422. 15., and who has a glebe
of 60½ acres. The church and its large endowments
were anciently attached to the abbey of Dore.
Avening (St. Mary)
AVENING (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of
Stroud, hundred of Longtree, E. division of the
county of Gloucester, 3 miles (N.) from Tetbury;
containing 2227 inhabitants. It is a polling-place for
the eastern division of the county. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £24, and in the
patronage of the Heirs of the late Dr. Brooke: the
tithes have been commuted for £760, and the glebe
comprises 104 acres. The church is supposed to have
been built by the abbess of Caen, in Normandy, to whom
the manor belonged till the suppression of alien priories
in the reign of Henry V. At Nailsworth is an incumbency in the gift of Trustees. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists; also an endowed school in
which six boys are clothed and educated.
Averham (St. Michael)
AVERHAM (St. Michael), a parish, in the union
of Southwell, N. division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham,
3¼ miles (W. by N.) from Newark; containing, with
the township of Staythorpe, 264 inhabitants. This
place suffered from the hostilities of the contending
parties during the reign of Charles I. At the time of
the siege of Newark, many skirmishes occurred here;
and in 1644, the ancient manor-house, then belonging to
Robert Sutton, Lord Lexington and Baron of Averham,
and which had been the residence of the family from
1250, was destroyed. The parish comprises by measurement 2011 acres of fertile land; it is situated on the
river Trent, and is intersected by the road from Newark
to Southwell and Mansfield. The scenery is pleasing;
and the village, with the church, which is on the margin
of the river, forms a beautiful object in the landscape.
The living is a rectory, with that of Kelham annexed in
1775, valued in the king's books at £20; patron, John
Henry Manners Sutton, Esq. The tithes of Averham
have been commuted for £787, and the glebe comprises
nearly 58 acres. The church is a very ancient structure,
in the early English style, with a square embattled tower.
There are some remains of a Roman camp and a watchtower on Michael Barrow hill.
Aveton-Gifford (St. Andrew)
AVETON-GIFFORD (St. Andrew), a parish, in
the union of Kingsbridge, hundred of Ermington,
Ermington and Plympton, and S. divisions of Devon,
3¼ miles (S. E.) from Modbury; containing 1057 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Avon, which is
navigable to the English Channel, and over which is a
bridge, on the road leading to South Enford. The lords
of the manor had formerly the power of inflicting
capital punishment. The living is a rectory, valued in
the king's books at £38. 1. 8.; net income, £586;
patron, James Pitman, Esq. The church is an ancient
structure, in the early style of English architecture,
with later additions.
AVILLE, a hamlet, in the parish of Dunster,
union of Williton, hundred of Carhampton, W.
division of Somerset; containing 17 inhabitants.
AVINGTON, a parish, in the union of Hungerford, hundred of Kintbury-Eagle, county of Berks,
2 miles (E. by S.) from Hungerford; containing 93 inhabitants, and comprising 1143a. 1r. 3p. The living is
a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the
patronage of Sir Robert Burdett, Bart.; the tithes have
been commuted for £299. 10., and the glebe consists of
6 acres. The church exhibits a curious specimen of
Norman architecture, having an arch separating the
chancel from the nave, with an obtuse depending point
in the centre: the font, which is also of Norman design,
is adorned with sculptured figures under arches.
Avington (St. Mary)
AVINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred
of Fawley, Winchester and N. divisions of the county
of Southampton, 4¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Winchester; containing 204 inhabitants. Avington House,
a mansion of the Duke of Buckingham's, is situated
near the bank of the river Itchen, in a demesne tastefully laid out: near the house are some fine old trees,
and the sloping grounds behind it are embellished with
thriving plantations. Charles II. while engaged in his
projected palace at Winchester, spent much of his time
here. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books
at £11. 11. 10½., and in the patronage of the Bishop
of Winchester: the tithes have been commuted for
£264. 13. 6., and the glebe comprises about 25 acres.
AVON, a tything, in the parish of Sopley, union
and hundred of Christchurch, Ringwood and S.
divisions of Hants; containing 207 inhabitants. It is
situated to the north of the village of Sopley, and near
the east bank of the river Avon.
AVON, a hamlet, in the parish of Stratfordunder-the-Castle, union of Alderbury, hundred of
Underditch, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions
of Wilts; containing 23 inhabitants.
AVON, a tything, in the parish of ChristianMalford, union and hundred of Chippenham, Chippenham and Calne, and N. divisions of Wilts, 3
miles (N. E.) from Chippenham; containing 76 inhabitants. It lies south of the village of Christian-Malford,
and near the Great Western railway and the river Avon,
which latter flows hence to Chippenham.
Avon-Dasset.—See Dasset, Avon.
AVON-DASSET.—See Dasset, Avon.
AWBRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Mitchelmersh, union of Romsey, hundred of Buddlesgate,
Romsey and S. divisions of the county of Southampton;
containing 345 inhabitants.
Awliscombe (St. Michael)
AWLISCOMBE (St. Michael), a parish, in the
union of Honiton, hundred of Hemyock, Honiton and
N. divisions of Devon, 2 miles (W. by N.) from Honiton; containing 590 inhabitants. It comprises 2127
acres, of which 183 are common or waste, and is bounded
by the river Otter on the south; the surface is hilly,
and the soil in general a rich productive marl, chiefly
laid out in pasture. The living, which before the Dissolution was attached to the abbey at Tavistock, is a
discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at
£12. 10. 10.; patron, the Duke of Bedford. The
vicarial tithes have been commuted for £200, and £170
are paid to the trustees of Kelland's charity; the glebe
consists of thirty acres, with a house. The church was
erected about the time of Henry VI., and has a handsome stone screen, and a magnificent window finely
ornamented: it is in excellent order, having been repaired in 1838, at an expense of nearly £500. The
remains of a large encampment supposed to be Roman,
and called Hembury fort, are in the parish.
Awnby, with Holywell.—See Holywell.
AWNBY, with Holywell.—See Holywell.
Awre (St. Andrew)
AWRE (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of
Westbury, hundred of Bledisloe, W. division of the
county of Gloucester; containing, with Blakeney, a
post-town in the parish, and the tythings of Awre,
Bledisloe, Hagloe, and Etloe, 1277 inhabitants. This
parish, which is intersected by the road from Gloucester
to Chepstow, forms a promontory of the river Severn,
and comprises 4082 acres by admeasurement; the port
of Gatcomb, and a town named Pomerton once included
within it, do not now exist. The living is a vicarage,
valued in the king's books at £10. 5., and in the patronage of the Haberdashers' Company, London: the
impropriate tithes have been commuted for £400, and
the vicarial for £450. 7.; the glebe consists of nearly
9 acres, and there is a glebe-house, recently built. Besides the parochial church, there is a chapel at Blakeney,
where are also a Baptist chapel and a national school.
In the register, it is recorded that Thomas Sternhold
and John Hopkins, who collected the metrical version
of the Psalms, resided in the parish.
AWSWORTH, a chapelry, in the parish of Nuthall, S. division of the wapentake of Broxtow, N.
division of the county of Nottingham, 7½ miles (N. W.
by W.) from Nottingham; containing 294 inhabitants.
This place borders upon Derbyshire, and has a small
village on the Nottingham canal. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £101; patron, the Rector:
the incumbent resides in a neat house, built in 1843.
The chapel was consecrated about 1760. A poor person
from this chapelry is eligible to Ilkeston almshouse.
Axbridge (St. John the Baptist)
AXBRIDGE (St. John
the Baptist), a markettown and parish, having
separate jurisdiction, and
the head of a union, locally
in the hundred of Winterstoke, E. division of Somerset, 18 miles (S. by W.)
from Bristol, and 130 (W.
by S.) from London; containing 1045 inhabitants.
This place, which derives its
name from a bridge over the
river Axe, was formerly the residence of some of the West
Saxon monarchs, by whom it was invested with many
privileges. The town is of mean appearance, and indifferently paved, but amply supplied with water. The
chief occupation of the poorer class of inhabitants
was the knitting of stockings, but that trade was destroyed by the introduction of machinery, and the
prosperity of the town declined until a fresh impulse
was given to it by the drainage of the adjacent levels,
which so much increased the value of the property in
the neighbourhood, that land which previously was
reckoned worth only 2s. 6d., is now let for £5 and £6
per acre. The navigation of the river Axe also has
been greatly improved by an act obtained in 1802, and
is now toll-free. The market is on Saturday; fairs for
cattle are held on February 3rd, and March 25th, and
Axbridge received its first charter of incorporation
from Philip and Mary in 1556, but this was superseded by one granted by Elizabeth in 1598, the defects
of which were supplied by a charter of James I.,
and these two last have been the governing charters.
The corporate body consists of a mayor, recorder, alderman, eight capital burgesses or councillors, and an
indefinite number of free burgesses; and a bailiff, townclerk and prothonotary, chamberlain, and several other
officers, are also appointed. The corporation hold a
court of quarter-sessions, a court of pie-poudre during
the fairs, and, as lords of the manor, a court baron once
a year, generally in October. A new guildhall and
market-house has been erected by the corporation, at a
cost, including the improvements connected with it, of
about £1800. Axbridge sent members to parliament in
the 23rd of Edward I., but discontinued in the 17th of
Edward III., on petition of the burgesses. The parish
comprises 541a. 2r. 30p., of which 73 acres are estimated
to be covered with buildings and water, and 212 are
waste and unproductive except as sheep pasture: the
Mendip hill, close to the town, abounds with limestone
of excellent quality for building and for burning into
lime. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in
the king's books at £11. 4. 4., and in the patronage of
the Bishop of Bath and Wells: the tithes have been
commuted for £62. 3., and the glebe comprises 36 acres.
The church is a very ancient structure, occupying an
elevated situation on the north-eastern side of the town,
and supposed to have been erected by one of the West
Saxon monarchs, two of whose statues formerly ornamented the tower. There is a place of worship for
Wesleyans. About £100 per annum, arising from
lands bequeathed by different individuals, are applied
to the relief of the poor. The union of Axbridge comprises 38 parishes and places, and contains a population
of 32,206. Near the town is a mineral spring, which
has been found efficacious in chronic diseases.
AXFORD, a tything, in the parish and hundred of
Ramsbury, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 3¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Marlborough;
containing 485 inhabitants.
Axminster (St. Mary)
AXMINSTER (St. Mary), a market-town and
parish, and the head of a union, partly in the county of
Dorset, but chiefly in the hundred of Axminster,
Honiton and S. divisions of Devon, 25 miles (E. by N.)
from Exeter, and 147 (W. S. W.) from London, on the
road to Exeter; comprising the tythings of Abbey,
Beerhall, Shapwick, Smallridge, Town, Trill, Uphay,
Westwater, Weycroft, and Wyke; and containing 2860
inhabitants, of whom 2139 are in the town. This place,
the name of which is derived from its situation near the
river Axe, and from a minster founded here by King
Athelstan, was, in the time of the Saxons, a town of
considerable importance, and the burial-place of many
of their princes. In 1644, a conflict took place in the
vicinity between the royalists and the parliamentarians,
in which Sir Richard Cholmondeley, who commanded
the former, was slain. The town, which is irregularly
built, is pleasantly situated on the declivity of a hill,
near the confluence of the rivers Axe and Yarty, over
the first of which three bridges have been erected; it is
paved, partially lighted, and amply supplied with water
from several good springs. Races are held in August at
Shute hill, three miles distant; and there are assemblies occasionally at the George hotel. The manufacture
of carpets, which had been established for nearly a
century, has been recently transferred to Wilton, and
the only manufacture now carried on is that of tape.
The parish produces stone of good quality for building,
and for burning into lime. The market is on Saturday;
and fairs are held on the first Tuesday after April 25th,
the first Wednesday after June 24th, and the first
Wednesday after Oct. 10th. Courts leet and baron are
held annually by the lord of the manor, at the former of
which constables and other officers are appointed. The
powers of the county debt-court of Axminster, established
in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Axminster, and two adjacent parishes.
The living is a vicarage, with the livings of Kilmington and Membury annexed, valued in the king's books
at £44. 6. 8.; net income, £975; patron, the Bishop of
Exeter. The tithes have been commuted for £670
payable to the impropriators, and £608 payable to the
vicar. The church is an ancient structure, of various
styles; the entrance is under a fine Norman arch richly
moulded; the interior is of the early English style, with
later insertions: the pulpit and reading-desk are curiously carved. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics. The poor law
union of Axminster comprises 11 parishes and places in
the county of Devon, and 6 in that of Dorset; and contains a population of 20,585. About a mile south of the
town, on the bank of the river Axe, are the remains of
Newenham Abbey, consisting of the chapel, kitchen, and
other parts; and at the distance of three miles, is an intrenchment called Musbury Castle.
AXMOUTH, a parish, in the union and hundred of
Axminster, Honiton and S. divisions of Devon, 2¾
miles (S. by E.) from Colyton; containing, with the
extra-parochial liberty of Horsedown, 645 inhabitants.
This place, from the numerous traces of Roman occupation on the eastern bank of the river Axe, which intersects the parish, is supposed to have been the Moridunum
of the Romans. The manor formerly belonged to the
abbey of Sion, in Middlesex, and was given at the Dissolution by Henry VIII. to his queen Catharine Parr, as
part of her dower; it reverted at her death to the
crown, and was granted by Edward VI., in 1552, to
Walter Erle. In the year 1839, a very remarkable and
extensive subsidence of the surface took place about a
mile and a half from the village, on the farms of Dowlands and Bindon, near the coast. The parish contains
3788a. 3r. 9p., the surface of which is beautifully diversified with hill and dale; the soil on the hills is chalky,
well adapted for corn and the pasturage of sheep, while
that in the valleys is a strong clay and marl, and is excellent dairy-land. Limestone and good building-stone
are abundant. The village is situated near the mouth of
the river Axe, which here falls into the English Channel;
near its influx a commodious harbour has been constructed by Richard Hallet, Esq., which is accessible to
coasting-vessels of 200 tons' burthen. The living is a
vicarage, endowed with one-third of the rectorial and
two-thirds of the vicarial tithes, and valued in the king's
books at £22. 19. 2.; net income, £230; patron, J. H.
Hallet, Esq., who, with others, is impropriator of the
remainder of the tithes. The glebe comprises 30 acres.
The church is a very ancient Norman structure, having
two Saxon arches, and a fine specimen of the zig-zag
arch in the north porch, now converted into a vestryroom. On an extra-parochial estate of about 200 acres
called Roosdown, in the centre of the parish, is a chapel
endowed with certain lands from Queen Anne's Bounty,
but no duty has been performed in it within the memory
of man. On Hawksdown hill is a large encampment
supposed to be of Roman or Danish origin.
Aycliffe (St. Acca)
AYCLIFFE (St. Acca), a parish, partly in the union
of Darlington, and partly in that of Sedgefield, S.
E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the
county of Durham, 5 miles (N.) from Darlington; containing 1372 inhabitants, of whom 823 are in the township of Great Aycliffe. This place is supposed by
Spelman to be the ancient "Aclea," where synods were
held in 782 and 789; and two old Saxon crosses lately
discovered in the churchyard, apparently warrant that
conjecture. The parish is situated in the southern portion of the county, and comprises 10,716 acres of arable
and pasture land in nearly equal portions, of which 2134
are within the township of Great Aycliffe; the soil
generally is tolerably fertile, and the pastures are rich.
Magnesian limestone of very pure quality is extensively
quarried. The village is pleasantly situated on the road
from Darlington to Durham, and on the west bank of
the river Skerne, on which are a spinning-mill, and a
mill for the manufacture of brown paper, but not now in
use. The Clarence railway intersects the parish, and
joins the Stockton and Darlington railway within a distance of three-quarters of a mile; the railway from
York to Newcastle also skirts the village. The living is
a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20, and in
the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Durham: the tithes
have been commuted for £386. 1. 8. payable to the
vicar, £165. 3. 8. to the Dean and Chapter, and £238.
7. 2. to other impropriators. The church is a very ancient structure, partly Norman, and partly in the early
English style, and contains 500 sittings, of which 70
are free; the old porch has been restored, several new
windows have been inserted, and the structure has been
AYCLIFFE, SCHOOL, a township, in the parish of
Heighington, union of Darlington, S. E. division of
Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 7½ miles (N. by W.) from Darlington; containing
25 inhabitants. This place, anciently called Scholacley,
gave name to a resident family, of whom John de Scholacley died in 1350; it was a manor belonging to the
Nevills, and was granted in 1411 by Lord Nevill to
Robert De Binchester, to be held of the bishop by military
service, suit at the head courts of the county, and a payment yearly to the Durham exchequer. The vicarial tithes
have been commuted for £74. 16.
AYDON, a township, in the parish of Corbridge,
union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S.
division of Northumberland, 5½ miles (E. by N.) from
Hexham; containing 83 inhabitants. The Reed family
once occupied a good house and a small estate here; at
present several families have land in the township.
Lead-ore and coal exist, but in very small quantities.
Several Roman relics have been found, including two
urns, the effigy of a human being, &c.
AYDON-CASTLE, a township, in the parish of
Corbridge, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale
ward, S. division of Northumberland, 6½ miles (E. by
N.) from Hexham; containing 25 inhabitants. The
castle which gives name to the township stands on
the west side of a deep precipice, at whose foot runs a
small rivulet; it appears to have been of great extent
and strength, and was encompassed by an outer wall,
in which the loop-holes still remain. The fortress was
destroyed by the Scots during their inroad into England,
which ended in their defeat at the battle of Nevill's
Cross, in 1346.
AYLBURTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Lidney,
union of Chepstow, hundred of Bledisloe, W. division
of the county of Gloucester, 4½ miles (S. W. by W.)
from Blakeney; containing 468 inhabitants. The chapel
is dedicated to St. Mary.