Caston (Holy Cross)
CASTON (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union and
hundred of Wayland, W. division of Norfolk, 3½
miles (S. E.) from Watton; containing 513 inhabitants,
and comprising about 1600 acres. The living is a rectory, united to the rectories of Rockland All Saints and
St. Andrew, and valued in the king's books at £11. 19. 2.:
the glebe comprises 59 acres. The church is a spacious
edifice in the decorated and later English styles, with a
tower; the interior contains a monument of the founder,
supposed to be one of the Castons. There is a place of
worship for Wesleyans.
Castor, county of Lincoln.—See Caistor.
CASTOR, county of Lincoln.—See Caistor.
Castor (St. Keneburgha)
CASTOR (St. Keneburgha), a parish, in the union
and soke of Peterborough, N. division of the county
of Northampton, 4½ miles (W.) from Peterborough;
containing 1313 inhabitants. This village, and the opposite one of Chesterton, occupy the site of the Roman
station Durobrivæ, by the Saxons called Dormancester;
and a great quantity of coins from Trajan to Valens,
fragments of urns, tiles, &c., have been discovered.
The Roman Ermin-street commenced here, and, proceeding some distance, branched off into two divisions,
the remains of which are still visible; one leading to
Stamford, and the other, by Lolham-Bridges, through
West Deeping, into Lincolnshire. Lady Keneburgha's
way is supposed to have been a paved way from a fortress on the river Nene, which runs through the parish,
to a castle on the hill, where the Roman governor resided. The place was destroyed by the Danes. The
parish comprises about 3600 acres, and is considerably
diversified in its surface, some parts being flat, and
others very much elevated. The Northampton and
Peterborough railway passes through. The living is a
rectory, valued in the king's books at £52. 12. 8½., and
held in commendam with the see of Peterborough: there
are about 150 acres of glebe, and a glebe-house. The
church, dedicated in 1124 to St. Keneburgha, who
founded a nunnery here, is a spacious cruciform edifice,
with a beautiful Norman tower of two stages, rising
from the intersection, and surmounted by a spire.
There are chapels of ease at Sutton and Upton, in the
parish; a day school, having a master and mistress, is
supported by the Earl Fitzwilliam, and a Sunday school,
in the same building, by the bishop. John Landen, an
eminent mathematician, was born here in 1719. Some
tessellated pavement dug up in the parish is now laid
down in the dairy at Milton Hall, the residence of Lord
CASWELL, a tything, in the parish of Portbury,
union of Bedminster, hundred of Portbury, E. division of Somerset; containing 74 inhabitants.
CATCHBURN, a township, in the parish and union
of Morpeth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division
of Northumberland, 1½ mile (S. by E.) from Morpeth; containing, with Morpeth Castle, Park-House,
and Stobhill, 145 inhabitants. At this place, which is
situated on the east of the great road, Roger de Merlay,
the second, built an hospital dedicated to St. Mary
Magdalene, probably for the use of wayfaring people,
and which is mentioned in a deed of the year 1282.
An inquest taken after the death of Ralph, Lord Greystock, in the 17th of Edward II., enumerates its advowson among his possessions; and John, Lord Greystock,
in 1346, ordained by will that it should be given, with
all its goods and ornaments, to a chaplain. There are
CATCHERSIDE, a township, in the parish of KirkWhelpington, union of Bellingham, N. E. division
of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland,
15 miles (W.) from Morpeth; containing 12 inhabitants.
This place, anciently written Calcherside, has been the
property of the Fenwicks, Blacketts, and Trevelyans;
and, though now still and lonely, appears to have been
once of some little importance. Tradition says there
was a mill here: the "Scotch street" ran through the
place; and in the last century it had an ale-house where
carriers stopped, and villagers assembled for rural
sports. On Camp Hill were traces of a British camp,
which were removed a few years since.
CATCLIFFE, a township, in the parish and union of
Rotherham, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S.)
from Rotherham; containing 252 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 930 acres: the village is on a
gentle eminence above the river Rother, on its western
side. Here is a manufactory for glass, established about
the year 1780.
CATCOMB, a tything, in the parish of Hillmarton,
union of Calne, hundred of Kingsbridge, Chippenham and Calne, and N. divisions of the county of Wilts;
containing 68 inhabitants.
CATCOTT, a chapelry, in the parish of Moorlinch,
union of Bridgwater, hundred of Whitley, W. division of Somerset, 7 miles (E. N. E.) from Bridgwater;
containing 750 inhabitants. This place is situated on
the north side of the Polden hills, within two miles of
the Glastonbury and Bridgwater canal: very fine blue
lias for building is quarried. The living is a perpetual
curacy, in the patronage of Aldborough Henniker, Esq.,
with a net income of £100: the chapel is a plain edifice, in the later English style, and has a very fine old
font. There is a place of worship for dissenters. A
bequest of £20 per annum is regularly distributed among
Cateby, county of York.—See Cadeby.
CATEBY, county of York.—See Cadeby.
Caterham, or Katerham (St. Lawrence)
CATERHAM, or Katerham (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Godstone, Second division of the
hundred of Tandridge, E. division of Surrey, 3¼ miles
(N. by W.) from Godstone; containing 477 inhabitants.
The parish is situated on the road from Croydon to
Godstone, and intersected by the London and Brighton
railway; and comprises by admeasurement 2386 acres,
of which 1462 are arable, 269 meadow and pasture,
175 woodland, and 468 uninclosed common. The surface is hilly, and the soil has several varieties, consisting
of chalk, clay, and black mould: building-stone is
quarried extensively. A fair for toys is held in July.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at
£8. 0. 1½.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. James
Legrew, whose tithes have been commuted for £400,
and who has a glebe of 5 acres. The church was repaired in 1832, and a beautiful monument erected on
the north side of the chancel to the memory of Mrs.
Elizabeth Legrew. There is an encampment on the top
of Whitehill, called the Cardinal's Cap, said to have been
formed by the ancient Britons.
Catesby (St. Mary)
CATESBY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of
Daventry, hundred of Fawsley, S. division of the
county of Northampton, 3¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from
Daventry; containing, with the hamlet of Newbold-Grounds, 105 inhabitants. The parish is separated from
Warwickshire by the river Leam, which bounds it partly
on the north, west, and south; it presents some pleasing
scenery, and consists of 1967 acres. Catesby House
occupies the site of a priory founded in the reign of
Richard I., by Robert de Esseby, for nuns of the Benedictine order, and dedicated to St. Mary and St. Edmund:
the revenue, at the Dissolution, was estimated at £145.
The dormitory is still carefully preserved in its original
style. The living is a donative, valued in the king's
books at £10; patron, C. G. P. Baxter, Esq., who appoints without episcopal institution. The church is in
ruins, and the parochial duty is performed at Catesby
House. The Rev. John Parkhurst, the lexicographer,
was born here.
Catfield (All Saints)
CATFIELD (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred
of Happing, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (S. by E.)
from Stalham; containing 655 inhabitants. It is
bounded on the west by the river Ant; and comprises
by admeasurement 2380 acres, of which about 1500 are
arable, 500 pasture, meadow, and marsh, and 300 water
forming a lake. The living consists of a discharged
rectory and vicarage, valued in the king's books at
£7. 10., and in the gift alternately of the Bishop of
Norwich and G. Cubitt, Esq.: the tithes have been
commuted for £600, and the glebe comprises about 20
acres, with a glebe-house. The church is in the later
style, and consists of a nave, a handsome chancel, and
aisles, with a square embattled tower; the nave is separated from the chancel by a carved screen, and on the
floor is the lid of a coffin, curiously sculptured, removed
from Hickling Priory in 1826. Several large paintings
in fresco, of the Romish sacraments, of martyrs, and
other subjects, have been discovered in the nave, by removing the plaster-work from the upper part of the
walls. The Primitive Methodists have a place of worship. At the inclosure, in 1802, 60 acres of heath were
allotted to the poor for fuel and pasturage. Cowper, the
poet, spent much of his time at the rectory-house, on
visits to his uncle, who was incumbent.
CATFOSS, a township, in the parish of Sigglesthorne, union of Skirlaugh, N. division of the
wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 9½ miles
(N. E. by E.) from Beverley; containing 45 inhabitants.
This place, in Domesday book Catefoss, derives its name,
of British origin, from "coit," a wood, and "foss," a
dyke. At an early period it belonged to the family of
de Fauconberg, and in the reign of Edward III. came
by marriage to the Constables, from whom it has descended to the Bethell family. The township comprises
about 1053 acres of land. Catfoss House, built early
in the 17th century, was pulled down about thirty years
Cathanger, with Stowey
CATHANGER, with Stowey, a tything, in the parish
of Fivehead, union of Langport, hundred of Abdick
and Bulstone, W. division of Somerset; containing
CATHERINE, ST., a parish, in the union of Bath,
hundred of Bath-Forum, E. division of Somerset,
4 miles (N. N. E.) from Bath; containing 159 inhabitants. It is situated in a retired valley, enriched with
much picturesque scenery, and comprises by computation
1000 acres. Catherine Court, adjoining the church, was
a residence of the abbots of Bath till the dissolution of
monasteries, when the manor was granted to the Haringtons. A paper-mill is in operation, giving employment to a few hands. The living is a perpetual curacy,
annexed to the vicarage of Bath-Easton: the tithes have
been commuted for £50 payable to the incumbent, £31
to the impropriator, and £15 to the Dean and Chapter
of Christ-Church, Oxford. In the chancel is a handsome
monument to the memory of some of the Blanchard
Catherington (St. Catherine)
CATHERINGTON (St. Catherine), a parish, and
the head of a union, in the hundred of Finch-Dean,
Petersfield and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 6¾ miles (S. W. by S.) from Petersfield; containing 1003 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 5035 acres, of which 2800 are arable, 1400 pasture, 615 woodland, and 95 common or waste. The
living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's
books at £9. 5. 10., and in the gift of J. Hayward, Esq.:
the great tithes, belonging to Sir L. Curtis, Bart., have
been commuted for £614, and those of the incumbent
for £280; there is a glebe of 2 acres. The church,
situated on an eminence, has some rich Norman arches,
and contains a monument to Nicholas Hyde, chief justice
of the court of queen's bench: a gallery was erected in
1834. The poor law union comprises 5 parishes or
places, and contains a population of 2356.
Catherston-Lewston (St. Mary)
CATHERSTON-LEWSTON (St. Mary), a parish,
in the union of Bridport, hundred of WhitchurchCanonicorum, Bridport division of Dorset, 2¾ miles
(N. E.) from Lyme-Regis; containing 36 inhabitants.
This place was the residence of a branch of the Wadhams, by one of whom, Nicholas Wadham, and Dorothy
his wife, Wadham College, Oxford, was founded. The
parish is situated on the great road from London to
Plymouth, adjoining the post-town of Charmouth, and
comprises by measurement 248 acres. The living is a
discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at
£2. 16. 10½.; net income, £67; patrons, the Executors
of Jones Ross, Esq. The church, rebuilt lately by subscription of the rector and his friends, is a neat small
Cathorpe (St. Thomas)
CATHORPE (St. Thomas), a parish, in the union of
Lutterworth, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of
the county of Leicester, 4½ miles (S. by E.) from Lutterworth; containing 167 inhabitants. The parish is
situated on the river Avon, and on the road from Rugby
to Market-Harborough; and comprises 625a. 10r., of
which 462 acres are pasture, and the rest arable: the
surface is varied, some parts being flat, and others rising
to a considerable elevation; and the soil is chiefly gravel,
with a little clay. The Roman Watling-street crosses
the south-western extremity. Three-fourths of the
population are stocking-frame knitters. The living is a
rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 5. 2½.; net
income, £226; patron and incumbent, the Rev. L.
Harper. The church is an ancient structure, in the
later English style. Dyer, the poet, was for some time
Catmore (St. Margaret)
CATMORE (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union
of Wantage, hundred of Compton, county of Berks,
3½ miles (W. by S.) from East Ilsley; containing, with
the tything of Lilley, 96 inhabitants. It comprises
about 720 acres; the surface is elevated, and the soil
various, in some parts chalk, and in others clay. Here
was formerly a market on Monday, granted in 1306 by
Edward I., together with a fair on the festival of St.
Margaret. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's
books at £5. 5. 7½.; net income, £180; patron, C. Eyre,
Esq.: the glebe consists of about 14 acres.
CATON, a parochial chapelry, and a township, in
the parish of Lancaster, hundred of Lonsdale south
of the Sands, N. division of the county of Lancaster,
5 miles (N. E. by E.) from Lancaster; containing 1195
inhabitants. The manor was a possession of the Gernets, the ancient foresters of Lancaster: there was also
here a family named Caton, who held the manor by
homage and service; and in connexion with the place,
are mentioned, successively, the families of Curwen,
Chorley, Stanley, Dalton, Riddell, Rawlinson, and Edmondson. The chapelry comprises four districts or
quarters, viz.: Brookhouse, Caton Green, Littledale,
and Town-End; and contains by measurement 8373a.
2r. 16p., whereof 600 acres are arable, 3300 meadow and
pasture, 400 woodland, and about 4000 moorland. It
lies on the road from Lancaster to Hornby, and on the
eastern bank of the river Lune, which is here crossed by
a bridge, with a road from it leading to Halton. The
beauty of the diversified scenery elicited a warm eulogium
from the poet Gray, in a letter to Dr. Warton; and Dr.
Whitaker, in describing the beauties of the Vale of the
Lune, says, "Immediately on approaching Caton, its character as the first of northern valleys is established by the
beautiful windings here of the river, the fruitful alluvial
lands upon its banks, the wooded and cultivated ridge
that bounds it on the north-west, the striking appearance
of Hornby Castle in front, and above all the noble form
of Ingleborough, presenting an assemblage of features
not united to compose any rival scenery in the kingdom."
On the top of the moor are several freestone-quarries,
and an inferior stone is found on the surface. There
are two silk-mills, two cotton-mills, and a flax-mill, in
operation, employing in all 400 persons; and at Grassyard Hall is a corn-mill. Scarthwaite, on the bank of
the Lune, is the seat of Adam Hodgson, Esq., commanding the whole extent of the vale, and the winding course
of the river; the precise spot selected by Mr. Hodgson
for his house and terrace, under the auspices of Mr.
Gilpin and Sir John Nasmyth, has long been distinguished as "Gray's Station," and shares in all the exquisite scenery that gives celebrity to the vale. The
Elms, and the land around it, are the property of John
Walmsley, Esq., of Richmond House, near Lancaster,
who is also owner of Caton mill. John Edmondson,
Esq., is lord of the manor.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £140,
with a house erected in 1844; patron, the Vicar of Lancaster. The ancient chapel was built about the year
1245; of this structure, the beautiful Saxon gateway
and the font alone remain: the present edifice was
erected about 300 years ago, and has a square tower.
There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Independents; and a national school supported by subscription. The interest of £250 was left in 1838, by Richard
Sparling Berry, Esq., for parents who educate their
children without parochial relief: four cottages are free
of rent for poor persons; and about £5 are annually
distributed to the poor. In 1803, a Roman mill-stone,
eight feet long, was found in Artle beck, bearing the
name of the Emperor Adrian; and subsequently a stone
with consonants on it, which, when supplied by the
vowel e, form an ingenious monitory couplet.
Catsfield (St. Lawrence)
CATSFIELD (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union
of Battle, hundred of Ninfield, rape of Hastings,
E. division of Sussex, 3½ miles (S. W.) from Battle;
containing 589 inhabitants. It is intersected by the
road from Lewes to Hastings, and comprises 2938 acres,
of which 875 are arable, 1447 meadow and pasture, 520
woodland, and 50 acres hops: the surface is alternated
with hill and dale, and enriched with woods and plantations. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's
books at £7. 9. 4½., and in the patronage of the Earl of
Ashburnham: the tithes have been commuted for £370,
and the glebe comprises 34 acres, with a glebe-house.
The church is a handsome structure, partly in the early
and partly in the decorated English style, with a square
embattled tower surmounted by a low shingled spire:
in the chancel is an elegant monument to the memory
of J. Fuller, Esq., by Nollekens. At the gate of the
churchyard is a remarkably fine oak, more than 40 feet
in girth at a few feet from the ground.
CATSHILL, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish
and union of Bromsgrove, Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, Droitwich and E. divisions of the
county of Worcester, 2¼ miles (N.) from Bromsgrove,
on the road to Stourbridge; containing about 3000 inhabitants. This district is formed of the north part of
the parish, and includes the celebrated Bromsgrove
Lickey, from which is a most extensive and diversified
prospect. The greater part of the population is employed
in the manufacture of nails, and the rest in agriculture.
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of
the Vicar of Bromsgrove; net income, £150, including
an augmentation from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.
The church, dedicated to Christ, was built in 1838, at
a cost of nearly £2000; it is in the early English style,
with a tower, and has 546 sittings, whereof 404 are free.
There are places of worship for Baptists, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans; and a Sunday school in connexion with the church.
CATTAL, a township, in the parish of Hunsingore,
Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of
York, 5¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Wetherby; containing 193 inhabitants. It is situated on the north of the
river Nidd, whose course here is very devious; and comprises by computation 950 acres: the road from York
to Knaresborough passes on the north, about two miles
distant from the village.
CATTERAL, a township, in the parish and union
of Garstang, hundred of Amounderness, S. division
of the county of Lancaster, 1¾ mile (S. S. W.) from
Garstang, on the road to Preston; containing 1102 inhabitants. The family of Catteral were in possession of
this place for a considerable period; from them it passed
by marriage to the Sherburnes, and subsequently came
to the Banisters, Winckleys, and others. The township
is situated at the confluence of the West Calder with the
river Wyre, and comprises 1341a. 3r. 4p. of good land;
the surface is level, running up by a gradual ascent towards Bleasdale: at the higher end is a good stone quarry.
A cotton-mill, belonging to S. L. Behrens, Esq., of
Catteral House, employs 438 hands; and there is another cotton-mill, carried on by Messrs. Jackson;
also a bobbin-turning manufactory. The Preston and
Lancaster railway and canal both pass through the
township. There are two places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists.
Catterham, county Surrey.—See Caterham.
CATTERHAM, county Surrey.—See Caterham.
Catterick (St. Anne)
CATTERICK (St. Anne), a parish, in the unions of
Bedale, Richmond, and Northallerton; comprising, in the wapentake of Gilling-East, the townships
of Bolton-upon-Swale, Ellerton-upon-Swale, Kiplin,
Scorton, Uckerby, and Whitwell; in the wapentake of
Hang-East, those of East and West Appleton, Brough,
Catterick, Colbourne, Hipswell, Killerby, Scotton, and
Tunstall; and in that of Hang-West, the township of
Hudswell; N. riding of York; the whole containing
2965 inhabitants, of whom 600 are in the township of
Catterick, 5 miles (S. E.) from Richmond. This is a
place of great antiquity, having been the site of the
Roman city called Cataractonium, where the Erminstreet branches off in two directions, and in the vicinity
of which numerous Roman relics have been dug up at
different periods. It also flourished during the Saxon
times; but in the devastations of the Danes was utterly
destroyed, and is at present of little importance. A
large brazen caldron full of Roman coins was discovered
about a century ago; and not many years since, a
splendid armilla of gold was found in a field near the
village: the former is preserved at Brough Hall, and the
latter is in the possession of Lady Tyrconnel.
The parish comprises about 21,680 acres, of which
1561a. 6p. are in the township of Catterick: of these
latter, 917 acres are arable, 586 meadow and pasture,
and the rest wood, roads, &c. At the distance of a mile
to the north is Catterick bridge over the river Swale, on
which was formerly a chapel; and opposite is a racecourse. The Richmond branch of the York and Newcastle railway has a station at the bridge. The living
is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £25. 2. 1.,
and has a net income of £678; it is in the patronage of
the Crown, and the impropriation belongs to divers persons. The small tithes for the townships of Hipswell
and Hudswell were commuted for land in 1807. The
church is partly in the early style of English architecture, but chiefly of a later date, and consists of a nave,
chancel, aisles, and tower: the contract for its erection,
dated 1412, has been published by the Rev. J. Raine.
In addition to the church, are three chapels in the parish,
in the patronage of the Vicar. A school, and an hospital for six poor widows, were founded in 1658, by
Michael Syddall, vicar, and have an endowment now
amounting to about £80 per annum. Nelson died in
the arms of the Rev. Dr. Scott, vicar of the parish, who
was his lordship's chaplain at the battle of Trafalgar, in
the year 1805.