Crewe - Croft

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Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Samuel Lewis (editor)

Year published

1848

Supporting documents

Pages

725-729

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'Crewe - Croft', A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 725-729. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=50905 Date accessed: 23 August 2014.


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Crewe

CREWE, a township, in the parish of Farndon, union of Great Boughton, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 6¼ miles (N. W.) from Malpas; containing 67 inhabitants. It comprises 284 acres, whereof the soil is clay; and is bounded on the west by the river Dee, which separates the parish from Wales.

Crewe

CREWE, a township, in the parish of Barthomley, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 4½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Sandbach; containing, according to the census of 1841, 396 inhabitants. The town of Crewe, which but a few years since consisted of only one house, now assumes the appearance of a rapidly increasing place; and its population, swelling with its size, amounts to about 5000. It lies near the road from Nantwich to Sandbach; is built, for the most part, on ground belonging to Oak Farm, in the adjoining parish of Coppenhall; and consists of several hundred dwelling-houses, occupied, almost exclusively, by persons connected with the railway lines to which the place owes its present importance. The houses are arranged in four classes, viz.: lodges, in the villa style, for the superior officers; ornamented Gothic buildings, for the next in authority; detached mansions, which accommodate four families, with separate entrances to each; and cottages, with four apartments, for the work-people. The first, second, and third classes have all gardens and yards, and the fourth gardens, also; and the whole presents a remarkably neat specimen of a model town. Each house and cottage is supplied with gas, and water is abundant: there are baths, a playground, a newsroom, a library, and an assembly-room.

The Grand Junction or Liverpool and Birmingham Railway Company, desirous of having a central position for their works, selected Crewe; and from their station here, now serving as a general station, diverge the Chester and Crewe railway, taking a west-north-west direction to Chester; and the Crewe and Manchester railway. The three lines now belong to the London and North-Western Company. The entire railway-works cover a space of thirty acres, and employ about 1100 persons, of whom 800 are engaged in the engineering department, and the remainder in the coach-building department. Among the various buildings is the forge, where the iron-work is executed, the fan being used instead of the bellows; and in another portion is the coach-building room, in continuation of which are the repairing-shop and smithy. Another wing is appropriated to the locomotive branch, presenting the aspect of a vast polytechnic institution, and in which are all the implements of engineering. In the extreme wing is the brass and iron foundry; and an immense space is allotted to trains of carriages, and to steam-engines, some of which latter are kept always ready under steam pressure, in case of accident.

The township comprises 1913 acres, of which the prevailing soil is sand and clay. It has been the inheritance of the Crewe family from a very early period. The Hall, the seat of Lord Crewe, exhibits a good specimen of the more enriched style of architecture which prevailed in the early part of the 17th century: it was begun in 1615, and completed in 1636, and the ceilings and wainscots of many of the rooms, and the principal staircase, retain their original decorations. The gallery, a hundred feet in length, is fitted up as a library, and contains a number of family portraits, and fine pictures: the mansion has also a private chapel, where divine service is performed every Sunday morning, and where is a large painting of the Last Supper, with two beautiful specimens of ancient stained glass. The park is embellished with a charming sheet of water covering 90 acres, and the scenery of the domain is strikingly picturesque. A church was consecrated in the town in December, 1845; it is in the Anglo-Norman style, in the form of a cross, and has an elegant tower: the whole is of Newcastle blue brick, with freestone angles. There is an endowment of £200 per annum for the minister. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £110 payable to the impropriator, and £30 to the rector of the parish. A school was founded in 1729, pursuant to the will of Thomas Leadbeater, Esq., who bequeathed £30 for the erection of a house, and £120 for the maintenance of a master; and there have been erected schools for the children of the artisans who are engaged on the works.

Crewkerne (St. Bartholomew)

CREWKERNE (St. Bartholomew), a market-town and parish, in the union of Chard, hundred of Crewkerne, W. division of Somerset, 10 miles (S. W. by S.) from Ilchester, and 132 (W. S. W.) from London; comprising the tythings of Clapton, Coombe, Easthams, Furland, Hewish, Laymore, and Woolminstone; and containing 4414 inhabitants. This place, being a royal manor, anciently enjoyed many privileges, and in the reign of Henry II. was exempt from taxation. The town is pleasantly situated in a fertile valley, watered by branches of the rivers Parret and Axe, and sheltered by hills richly planted. It has five principal streets, diverging from a spacious market-place, in the centre of which is a large and commodious market-house; the houses are in general well built and of handsome appearance, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. Sailcloth, stockings, and dowlas, are manufactured. An act was passed in 1846 for a railway to this town, 8½ miles in length, from the Yeovil branch of the Bristol and Exeter line. The market, which is well supplied with corn, is on Saturday; and a fair is held on the 4th of September, for horses, bullocks, linen-drapery, cheese, and toys. The powers of the county debt-court of Crewkerne, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-districts of Chard, Beaminster, and Yeovil. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £158; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Winchester; impropriator, J. Hussey, Esq. The church is a spacious cruciform structure in the decorated English style, with a highly enriched tower rising from the intersection, crowned with battlements and ornamented with angular turrets; the interior is finely arranged, the windows are large, and filled with tracery, and the piers and arches which support the tower are lofty and of graceful elevation. There are places of worship for Particular Baptists and Unitarians. The free grammar school was founded in 1449, by John de Combe, precentor of the cathedral of Exeter, who endowed it with land now producing £300 per annum: it has four exhibitions, of £5 per annum each, to any college at Oxford, founded by the Rev. William Owsley, who gave a rent-charge of £20. There are two other schools, endowed with £9. 12. per annum, and two almshouses, one of which, for twelve aged men and women, was in 1707 endowed with a rent-charge of £29 by Mrs. Mary Davis.

Crich (St. Mary)

CRICH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Belper, partly in the hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, partly in that of Scarsdale, and partly in that of Wirksworth, N. and S. divisions of the county of Derby; containing, with the township of Wessington and the hamlet of Tansley, 3698 inhabitants, of whom 2619 are in the township of Crich, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Alfreton. This is a place of some antiquity, and coins of Adrian and Diocletian have been found in an adjacent lead-mine, from which circumstance it is conjectured that lead was obtained here by the Romans. It is situated on an eminence commanding extensive prospects, on the road from Alfreton to Wirksworth, and near the river Derwent. The parish comprises about 3400 acres, the substratum of which has long been a source of considerable wealth: the lead-mines, several of which are now in operation, produce a metal of the finest quality, and appear to have been wrought continuously since the time of the Norman survey, when "Leuric had a lead-mine at Cric." The manor of Wakebridge, in the parish, belonged to Darley Abbey, and still enjoys the privilege of exemption from king's duty on lead-ore, the mine of which, in the manor, is considered the richest in the county. The parish contains also limestone and gritstone quarries, the stone of the latter of which was in demand for the use of the Midland railway, and is applied to building and other purposes.

The village not long since was inconsiderable, but rose into importance from the establishment of a cottonmanufactory at Frichly in 1793, and in 1810 received the grant of a market, which however was discontinued on the decline of the factory. The chief employment at present is frame-work knitting; there are also manufactories for the spinning of candle-wicks, and one for bobbin-turning. Cattle-fairs are held on the 6th April and 11th October. The Cromford canal passes along the western side of the parish, and, by a tunnel on the south, joins the Nottingham canal; the Midland railroad runs through the eastern part, and a branch has been laid down to a limestone-quarry at the top of the village, for the purpose of conveying the stone to twelve kilns lately built. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 10. 10.; net income, £98; patron and impropriator, Sir W. W. Dixie, Bart.: the tithes were commuted for land in 1776. The church is a fine structure, with a tower surmounted by a spire, and contains several ancient monuments of the Dixie family; it is beautifully situated, commanding an extensive prospect. Among the old monuments is one supposed to be of Sir W. de Wakebridge, who fought in the Holy Land. A church has been built in the hamlet of Tansley; and there are places of worship for Wesleyans, Independents, and Baptists. About one mile north of the village is Crich Cliff, a lofty hill, upon which an observatory was erected in 1789.

Crick

CRICK, a hamlet, in the parish of Caerwent, union and division of Chepstow, hundred of Caldicot, county of Monmouth, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Chepstow; containing 148 inhabitants. The road leading from this village to Caerwent was a Roman way. The village contains a house, now a farmhouse, where Charles I. was concealed for some time.

Crick (St. Margaret)

CRICK (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Rugby, hundred of Guilsborough, S. division of the county of Northampton, 6½ miles (N. by E.) from Daventry; containing 1006 inhabitants. This place was visited by the army of Fairfax, which rested here on the night previous to the battle of Naseby, when the church and rectory-house were unroofed and otherwise damaged. The parish is situated on the borders of Warwickshire, and intersected by the road from Northampton to Coventry: it comprises by measurement 3271 acres; the surface is rather hilly, and the soil various, in some parts clayey, in others gravelly and sandy. The manufacture of worsted stockings was formerly carried on to some extent, but has been discontinued. Coarse limestone is found, and used for flags, and occasionally for building. A nameless rivulet, which flows into the Avon near Dovebridge, has its source within the parish; and the Grand Union canal, connecting Leicester with the Grand Junction canal, passes through a tunnel 1524 yards in length. The Crick station on the London and Birmingham railway is within two or three miles. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £32. 13. 1½.; net income, £890; patrons, the President and Fellows of St. John's College, Oxford: the tithes were commuted for 560 acres of land in 1776. The church is a spacious and handsome structure, in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower; the window of the chancel has been lately restored, and is a very beautiful specimen of flowing tracery: the stained glass with which the windows generally were embellished was destroyed by the soldiers of Fairfax. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. The Roman Watling-street skirts the western boundary of the parish, where Roman antiquities have been found; and there are tumuli in various parts. Archbishop Laud was rector of the parish for seven years.

Cricket (St. Thomas)

CRICKET (St. Thomas), a parish, in the union of Chard, hundred of South Petherton, W. division of Somerset, 3 miles (E.) from Chard; containing 78 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the Exeter and London road, in a district of much natural beauty; and the handsome seat and extensive domain of the Hood family form an interesting feature in the surrounding scenery. A fair is held on Whit Monday and Tuesday, for cattle. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 17. 6., and in the gift of Lord Bridport: the tithes have been commuted for £92, and the glebe comprises 30 acres, with a glebe-house.

Cricket-Malherbie (St. Mary Magdalene)

CRICKET-MALHERBIE (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Chard, hundred of Abdick and Bulstone, W. division of Somerset, 2¾ miles (S.) from Ilminster; containing 36 inhabitants. The parish stands on elevated ground, and comprises by computation 520 acres: the Creech and Chard canal passes at the distance of a mile. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 6. 3.; net income, £77; patron, Stephen Pitt, Esq.: the glebe consists of about 20 acres.

Cricklade

CRICKLADE, a borough and market-town, in the union of Cricklade and Wootton-Basset, hundred of Highworth, Cricklade, and Staple, Cricklade and N. divisions of Wilts, 48 miles (N. by W.) from Salisbury, and 83 (W. by N.) from London; containing 2128 inhabitants. This place, which is of great antiquity, is by some supposed to have derived its name from the British Cerigwâld, signifying a country abounding with stones; and by others from the Saxon Cræcca, a brook, and Lædian, to empty, the small rivers Churn and Rey here discharging themselves into the river Isis. It is thought by Dr. Stukeley to have been a Roman station, from its position on the Roman road which connected Corinium, now Cirencester, with Spinæ, now Speen. About the year 905, Ethelwald, opposing the election of Edward the Elder to the throne, collected a large body of troops, consisting principally of East Angles, and advanced on a predatory excursion to this place, from which he retreated with his plunder before Edward, who was marching to attack him, reached the town. In 1016, Cricklade was plundered by Canute the Dane; since which it has not been distinguished by any event of historical importance.

The Town is situated in a level tract of country, on the south bank of the Isis, which has its source in the vicinity; it consists principally of one long street, and is paved from the fund called the Cricklade-Way lands, varying from £150 to £170 per annum, and arising from an early bequest. Water-works have been constructed, and pipes laid down in the main street, by a spirited individual. The market is on Saturday; there is also an extensive market for corn and cattle on the third Tuesday in every month, and a pleasure-fair is held on the 23rd of September. The Thames and Severn canal runs to the north of the town, and is connected with the Wilts and Berks line by the North Wilts canal, which passes the town to the south-west; the Swindon and Gloucester branch of the Great Western railway runs a few miles to the south. The county magistrates hold a meeting on the first Saturday in every month; and a bailiff and other officers are appointed by a jury at the court leet of the lord of the manor, who also holds a court every third week for the recovery of debts under 40s. Cricklade is a borough by prescription, and exercised the elective franchise from the reign of Edward I., with various intermissions, till that of Henry VI., since which time it has uninterruptedly continued to return two members to parliament. In consequence of notorious bribery, the franchise was in 1782 extended to the adjoining divisions of Highworth, Cricklade and Staple, Kingsbridge, and Malmesbury. The polling-places are Cricklade, Brinkworth, and Swindon.

Cricklade comprises the parishes of St. Samson and St. Mary, the former containing 1642, and the latter 486, inhabitants, and consisting together of nearly 8000 acres, about two-thirds of which are arable; the soil is generally a rich loam, producing fine crops, and the surface is mostly flat. The living of St. Samson's is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 11. 10½.; net income, £460; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury, who are also appropriators of the rectory, of which the Rev. T. Heberden is lessee. The church is a spacious and ancient cruciform structure, with a handsome embattled tower, rising from the intersection, crowned by a pierced parapet and pinnacles, and highly ornamented with niches and pedestals: the south porch was formerly a chapel, built by the Hungerford family; and towards the east is another porch, with large battlements, having in the centre the figure of a lion couchant. The interior is of corresponding character; the piers and arches that support the tower are lofty and of graceful elevation. A stone cross, which once stood in the principal street, was removed into the churchyard when the old town-hall was taken down. The living of St. Mary's is a discharged rectory, valued at £4. 14. 0½.; net income, £83; patron, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. The church is a very ancient structure; the chancel is separated from the nave by a circular Norman arch, and the interior contains many vestiges of its original character. In the churchyard is a handsome stone cross of one shaft on a flight of steps; the head is richly ornamented with small sculptured figures in canopied niches. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. Near St. Samson's churchyard is a building erected in 1652, by Robert Jenner, goldsmith, of London, for the purpose of a school, but which for many years was used as a poor-house, and has only lately been restored to its original purpose. Among the several charities is one of a hundred acres of land granted by Charles I., out of the forest of Braydon, and now producing about £125 per annum, of which onehalf is given to decayed tradespeople, and the other, in equal portions, applied to the apprenticing of children, and distributed among the poor. A benefaction called Dunches' charity, consisting of lands worth £30 a year, is also, by the will of the donor, appropriated to eight decayed tradespeople not receiving parochial aid. The union comprises fourteen parishes or places, and contains a population of 13,165. In the parish of St. Mary are the remains of the priory of St. John the Baptist, founded in the reign of Henry III., now converted into a private residence. There was also an hospital dedicated to the same patron, the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was £4. 10. 7.: some land, belonging to it, in the parish of St. Samson, is still called the Spital.

Cridling-Stubbs

CRIDLING-STUBBS, a township, in the parish of Womersley, union of Preston (under Gilbert's act), Lower division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 4¾ miles (E.) from Pontefract; containing 159 inhabitants. It is chiefly of the same limestone bed as Womersley township, and comprises by computation about 900 acres.

Crigglestone

CRIGGLESTONE, a township, in the chapelry of Chapelthorpe, parish of Great Sandall, union of Wakefield, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3¾ miles (S.) from Wakefield; containing 1479 inhabitants. This township lies on the Wakefield and Manchester road, in a picturesque and fertile district, and comprises 2950 acres of profitable land. It abounds in coal, which is shipped to supply the London market: Messrs. Pope and Co., of London, in 1843 opened an excellent coal-pit here, at an outlay of £30,000 to effect the "winning." There are several villages in the township, the principal being that of Chapelthorpe, so called from the chapel, a neat edifice, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Sandall. The annual sum of £19. 13., arising from bequests, is appropriated to the support of a Sunday school, and the relief of the poor, who have also an interest in the liberal bequest made by Alderman Scholey to the parish.

Crimplesham (St. Mary)

CRIMPLESHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Downham, hundred of Clackclose, W. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (E.) from Downham; containing 358 inhabitants. It comprises 1658a. 1r. 7p., whereof 1058 acres are arable, 488 pasture, and 59 woodland. Crimplesham Hall is a handsome mansion, in the grounds of which was formerly a church. The living is a discharged perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £90; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Ely: the tithes have been commuted for £525. 1. 8., and the glebe contains 58 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early and decorated English styles, with a tower; the north and south entrances are in the Norman style. At the inclosure in 1806, twelve acres were allotted to the poor, the proceeds of which, amounting to £23 per annum, are distributed in coal.

Cringleford (St. Peter)

CRINGLEFORD (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Henstead, hundred of Humbleyard, E. division of Norfolk, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Norwich; containing 191 inhabitants. It comprises about 1200 acres, chiefly arable; and derives its name from an ancient gravelly ford, which has been superseded by a stone bridge, over the river Yare, separating the liberties of Norwich from the county. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £205; patrons and impropriators, the Trustees of St. Giles' Hospital, Norwich. The church is in the later English style, with a square embattled tower. Within the parish was once a free chapel, dedicated to St. Ethelred, to which pilgrims used to resort in great numbers.

Cripton

CRIPTON, a hamlet, in the parish of WinterbournCame, union of Dorchester, hundred of CullifordTree, Dorchester division of Dorset, 3½ miles (S. by E.) from Dorchester; containing 17 inhabitants.

Critchill, or Crichel, Long (St. Mary)

CRITCHILL, or CRICHEL, LONG (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Wimborne and Cranborne, hundred of Knowlton, Wimborne division of Dorset, 6½ miles (W. S. W.) from Cranborne; containing 120 inhabitants. This parish, which received its distinguishing appellation from its greater length in comparison with the adjoining parish of More-Critchill, is divided into two tythings, Critchill-Gouis and Critchill-Lucy, so named from their ancient lords. It comprises 1867 acres, of which 730 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, united in 1774 to that of More-Critchill, and valued in the king's books at £12. 13. 8½.; the glebe consists of 110 acres. The church has a good tower at the west end, with a massive buttress on its north side. Some vestiges of a Roman road may be traced.

Critchill, More (All Saints)

CRITCHILL, MORE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Wimborne and Cranborne, hundred of Badbury, Wimborne division of Dorset, 6 miles (N. by W.) from Wimborne; containing, with the hamlet of Manswood, 316 inhabitants, and comprising by admeasurement 1649 acres. The living is a rectory, with that of Long Critchill united, valued in the king's books at £10. 9. 7.; net income, £371; patron, Henry Sturt, Esq. The church is a small ancient structure, having an embattled tower, with a porch of modern erection, and has been lately beautified with a western window in the later English style, and otherwise much improved at the expense of the patron: it had a chantry, well endowed with land by John de Bridport, in the 2nd of Edward III., for a chaplain to pray daily for his soul. Traces of the Roman road from Badbury-Rings to Old Sarum may be seen in the parish.

Crixeth, county Essex.—See Creeksea.

CRIXETH, county Essex.—See Creeksea.

Croborough.—See Blackwood.

CROBOROUGH.—See Blackwood.

Crock-Street

CROCK-STREET, a hamlet, in the parishes of Ilminster and Donyatt, hundred of Abdick and Bulstone, union of Chard, W. division of Somerset, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Ilminster; containing 54 inhabitants. A quantity of coarse earthenware is made.

Crocker-Hill

CROCKER-HILL, a hamlet, in the parish of Boxgrove, union of West Hampnett, hundred of Box and Stockbridge, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex; containing 52 inhabitants.

Crockern-Well

CROCKERN-WELL, a hamlet, partly in the parish of Bishop-Cheriton, and partly in that of Drewsteignton, hundred of Wonford, Crockern-Well and S. divisions of Devon, 7 miles (S. W.) from Crediton. It abounds with beautiful scenery. Here was formerly a chapel, of which there are no remains.

Crockerne-Pill

CROCKERNE-PILL, a hamlet, in the parish of Easton-in-Gordano, union of Bedminster, hundred of Portbury, E. division of Somerset, 5½ miles (N. W.) from Bristol; containing 1748 inhabitants. This hamlet, which had its rise in the seventeenth century, is situated on the banks of the Avon, near the junction of that river with the Severn, and is chiefly inhabited by mariners, engaged in piloting vessels to and from Bristol, and along the Channel, under the regulations of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of Bristol.

Croford

CROFORD, a tything, in the parish of Wiveliscombe, union of Wellington, W. division of the hundred of Kingsbury and of Somerset; containing, with the tything of Nunnington, 455 inhabitants.

Croft (St. Michael)

CROFT (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Leominster, hundred of Wolphy, county of Hereford, 5½ miles (N. N. W.) from Leominster; containing, with the detached township of Newton, 144 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1581 acres; it is of undulated surface, and the scenery is extensive and beautiful. The land is divided into equal portions of arable and pasture, with some excellent oak-timber, particularly at Croft Park, surrounding the mansion. There is a limestonequarry. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of Yarpole annexed, valued in the king's books at £7. 11. 3., and in the patronage of W. T. K. Davies, Esq.; net income, £330. The tithes of Croft have been commuted for £120; and there is a glebe of 71½ acres, with a house. The church is ancient, and contains a beautiful monument to one of the Croft family. A national school is supported by subscription. At Castle Park, on an eminence to the north-west of the village, is CroftAmbury, an ancient British camp, with a double ditch and rampart.

Croft, with Southworth (Christ Church)

CROFT, with Southworth (Christ Church), a parish, in the union of Warrington, hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Warrington; containing 1155 inhabitants. The Croft family held lands in Croft in the reign of Edward III.; Southworth gave name to the knightly family of Southworth, and both manors were possessed by Sir John Southworth in the 39th of Elizabeth. They subsequently passed to other families, and also belonged to the Roman Catholic establishment at Stonyhurst. This is a new parish formed out of the parish of Winwick by act of parliament, in 1845. It comprises 1851 acres, whereof 1288 are meadow and pasture, and the remainder nearly all arable; the surface is level, and the soil clay and peat. The population consists partly of handloom weavers. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Earl of Derby: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £230; and there is a glebe-house, built at the expense of the rector of Winwick. The church, which is in the later English style, with a tower and spire, was erected in 1833, at the cost of £4000, defrayed by the rector of Winwick, aided by society grants. There are places of worship for Unitarians and Methodists; and a Roman Catholic chapel. A school is endowed with £6. 10. per annum, and a house and garden.

Croft

CROFT, a parish, in the union of Blaby, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 6¼ miles (E. by N.) from Hinckley; containing 321 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 1000 acres. The soil is various; to the north of the village, light; with some good pasture land near the borders of a brook which flows through the parish; and on the south of the village, a stiffish clay. There is a large quarry, supplying an excellent material for building and for the repair of roads; and about one-fourth of the population is employed in frame-work knitting. The village is situated on a granite rock rising from the edge of the brook, and continuing in a ridge northward, until it terminates in a remarkable conical hill, covered with verdure, and conspicuous for many miles round. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 3. 4.; net income, £582; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Robert Thomas Adnutt. A portion of the tithes have been commuted for land, and the remainder for a rent-charge of £70. 8.; the glebe comprises altogether 250 acres, with a glebe-house.

Croft (All Saints)

CROFT (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Spilsby, Marsh division of the wapentake of Candleshoe, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 1¾ mile (N. N. E.) from Wainfleet; containing 649 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £23. 7. 3½.; net income, £388; patron and impropriator, Lord Monson.

Croft (St. Peter)

CROFT (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Darlington, wapentake of Gilling-East, N. riding of York; containing 744 inhabitants, of whom 422 are in the township of Croft, 3½ miles (S.) from Darlington. The parish comprises the townships of Croft, Daltonupon-Tees, part of Great Smeaton, and part of Stapleton; and consists by measurement of 6384 acres, of which 5032 are in tillage, and 1352 meadow and pasture. It has been latterly much resorted to for the benefit of its sulphureous springs, which are similar to those of Harrogate. The spa is in the township of Croft, and on the property of Sir William Chaytor, Bart.: it was first brought into notice in 1668, and so early as 1713 the water had acquired such fame that it was sold in London in sealed bottles at an exorbitant price. In 1808 the proprietor erected a capacious hotel, with suitable conveniences, and a number of lodging-houses for the accommodation of visiters; and over the spring is a splendid suite of baths, built in 1829. The air is remarkably pure; the surrounding country is pleasant, and the views on the banks of the Tees are delightful, commanding an extensive tract in the highest possible state of cultivation. The village is neatly built, and situated on the river, over which is a handsome stone bridge of seven arches, about 200 yards distant from the spa; it is 414 feet in length, and from the bed of the river to the top of the iron-railing 59 feet high. At about a quarter of a mile below the village, the York and Newcastle railway crosses the Tees by a splendid oblique viaduct of four arches, at an angle of 45°, and 54 feet above the level of the river; the Croft station is only about one hundred yards from the village, although locally in the parish of Hurworth. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 8. 4., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £825. The church is an ancient edifice, and exhibits specimens of various styles of English architecture; it contains an altar-tomb to a member of the Milbank family, and another to the family of Clervaux, the ancestors of Sir William Chaytor. Burnet, the author of the Theory of the Earth, was born here in 1635.