Elmstead (St. Anne)
ELMSTEAD (St. Anne), a parish, in the union and
hundred of Tendring, N. division of Essex, 4¼ miles
(E. by N.) from Colchester; containing 809 inhabitants.
This place, which derives its name from the abundance
and luxuriant growth of elms, is partly bounded by the
river Colne, and comprises 2692 acres, whereof 289 are
in wood; the surface is generally flat, and the soil light
and gravelly. A fair, chiefly for toys, is held on the
15th of May. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued
in the king's books at £8; net income, £310; patrons
and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Jesus
College, Cambridge. The church is a very ancient
edifice, with a tower scarcely rising above the roof; it
consists of a nave, chancel, and south aisle, between
which last and the nave is an effigy in wood of a Knight
Templar. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
The parish is crossed by a Roman road from Colchester
Elmsted (St. James)
ELMSTED (St. James), a parish, in the union of
Elham, hundred of Stouting, lathe of Shepway, E.
division of Kent, 10 miles (S. by W.) from Canterbury;
containing 505 inhabitants. It comprises 2683a. 2r. 33p.,
of which 1247 acres are arable, 979 meadow and pasture, 51 in hop plantations, 295 wood, and the remainder common. A fair is held on July 25th. The
living is a discharged vicarage, united to the rectory of
Hastingleigh, and valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.
ELMSTHORPE, a parish, in the union of Hinckley,
hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of
Leicester, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from Hinckley; containing 36 inhabitants. A portion of the army of Richard
III. encamped here on the night previous to the battle of
Bosworth-Field, and took shelter within the dilapidated
walls of the ruined church, which has since been converted into a barn. The living is a rectory, annexed to
the rectory of Barwell, and valued in the king's books
at £6. 13. 4.
ELMSTONE, a parish, in the union of Eastry,
hundred of Preston, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 2¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Wingham;
containing 81 inhabitants. It is situated about three
miles south of the river Stour, and comprises 431a. 3r.
37p., including about 12 acres of hop-grounds: the soil is
generally fertile, and the surface flat, and thinly wooded.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at
£6. 7. 8½., and in the gift of Wm. Delmar, Esq.: the
tithes have been commuted for £267. 9., and there are
11½ acres of glebe. The church, which stands on an
eminence, is built of flint, in the early English style,
and has been lately repaired.
Elmstone-Hardwicke (St. Mary Magdalene)
ELMSTONE-HARDWICKE (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the unions of Tewkesbury and Cheltenham, partly in the Lower division of the hundred
of Deerhurst, but chiefly in the Lower division of the
hundred of Westminster, E. division of the county of
Gloucester; containing 410 inhabitants. The parish
is situated on the river Chelt, and intersected by the
high road from Cheltenham to Worcester and Malvern;
it comprises 2562a. 2r. 26p., chiefly in tillage, and extends to within less than two miles of Cheltenham.
Stone of a blue colour, and very soft, is quarried for
inferior uses. The living is a discharged vicarage,
valued in the king's books at £9. 2. 3½., and in the
patronage of the Crown. The tithes have been commuted in two separate portions; the great tithes of
Hardwicke for £370, and the vicarial for £147. 10.;
the great tithes of Uckington for £313. 10., and the
vicarial for £72: the vicarial glebe comprises nearly
9¾ acres, with a glebe-house lately built at the cost of
the incumbent, the Rev. John Byron. The church is a
neat plain edifice of early date, repaired in 1846-7.
Springs of water, similar to those at Cheltenham, are
said to exist in the parish.
Elmswell (St. John the Evangelist)
ELMSWELL (St. John the Evangelist), a parish,
in the union of Stow, hundred of Blackbourn, W.
division of Suffolk, 1 mile (N. N. E.) from Woolpit;
containing 671 inhabitants. The parish is situated on a
commanding eminence, and comprises about 2100 acres;
the soil is partly mixed and partly a stony clay. The
Elmswell station of the Ipswich and Bury railway is six
miles from the Stow-Market station, and nine miles
from that of Bury. Elmswell Hall, a hunting seat
belonging to the abbots of Bury St. Edmund's, was
given in the reign of James I. to Sir Robert Gardiner,
and is now a farmhouse. The living is a rectory, valued
in the king's books at £11. 7. 11; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. T. Lawton, whose tithes have been
commuted for £492. 4., and whose glebe comprises 19
acres. The church is a handsome structure in the
decorated English style, with a square embattled tower;
in the south aisle is a monument to Sir Robert Gardiner.
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. An almshouse was founded, and endowed with land, by Sir R.
Gardiner, for six poor widows.
Elmton (St. Peter)
ELMTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of
Worksop, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the
county of Derby, 9 miles (E. by N.) from Chesterfield;
containing, with the township of Creswell, 433 inhabitants. It comprises about 1200 acres; the surface is
level, with some small undulations, and the soil a thin
marl resting on limestone. The living is a discharged
vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 1. 3.; net
income, £55; patron and impropriator, the Rev. C. H.
R. Rodes. The extraordinary arithmetical calculator,
Jedediah Buxton, was born at this place in 1707, and in
1772 was buried here.
Elsdon (St. Cuthbert)
ELSDON (St. Cuthbert), a parish, partly in the
union of Bellingham, and partly in that of Rothbury,
S. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland; comprising the townships or wards of
Elsdon, Monkridge, Otterburn, Rochester, Troughend,
and Woodside; and containing 1680 inhabitants, of whom
282 are in Elsdon township, 18½ miles (W. N. W.) from
Morpeth. The river Rede rises at the foot of the Carter mountains, which separate England from Scotland,
and runs through a great part of the parish; it gave
name to the franchise of Redesdale, the lords of which,
from a very remote time, exercised many royal privileges, such as trying causes before their own justices, &c.
The inhabitants of the district were marked by many
peculiar features; in the reign of Elizabeth, they lived
in sheds, during the summer months, pasturing their
cattle on the moorlands, and plundering and levying
contributions upon their neighbours on both sides of
the border. The parish comprises 74,918 acres, of
which 1756 are arable, and 477 woodland. A large
portion consists of dreary moors, but nearly two-thirds
are well adapted for rearing black-cattle and sheep,
having been much improved by the drainage of the
heaths and morasses; oats and barley ripen in most
seasons, but wheat seldom comes to perfection. The
eastern part rests upon beds of limestone, and the
western upon porphyry and basalt, with some mountain limestone.
The township of Elsdon contains 6403 acres, of which
374 are arable, and the remainder pasture. Elsdon
common, containing 10,245 acres, was inclosed in 1729.
The Castle was erected in the 14th century, by Sir
Robert Taylboys, whose arms are on the south parapet;
it is a strong tower-building, now the rectory-house,
the lower story of which is spanned by a single arch.
A market was formerly held, which had been granted
by Edward I., in 1281, to William de Umfraville, at the
same time as the fair, which latter (for cattle, sheep,
and linen and woollen cloth) is held on August 26th.
The village consists of a circular row of houses, having
in the centre a green of several acres. The living is a
rectory valued in the king's books at £20, and in the
patronage of the Duke of Northumberland: the tithes
have been commuted for £800, and the glebe contains
64 acres. The church is a large cruciform structure,
supposed to have been built soon after the time of
Richard II.: some years since, in clearing away the
earth against the north transept, upwards of 100 skeletons were discovered. At Byrness is a separate incumbency, in the gift of the rector. North-east of the
village are the Moat Hills, which, from the relics discovered in them, seem to have been raised by the
Britons, and afterwards occupied by the Romans.
ELSECAR, a hamlet, in the parish of Wath-upon-Dearne, union of Rotherham, N. division of the
wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of
York, 5 miles (S. E. by S.) from Barnsley; containing
1000 inhabitants. This place, which abounds with ironstone and coal, is the property of Earl Fitzwilliam, who
has established extensive works for the making of pigiron, and foundries for castings of all kinds, in which
400 of the population are employed: there are also
collieries, and quarries of excellent stone; and a branch
of the Dearne and Dove canal extends to the village. A
handsome church with a tower and spire, built by the
earl at a cost of £2500, and dedicated to the Holy
Trinity, was consecrated in 1843: the living is in the
patronage of his lordship. Some beautiful fossils are
found in the pits.
Elsenham (St. Mary)
ELSENHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of
Bishop-Stortford, hundred of Uttlesford, N. division of Essex, 5 miles (N. E.) from Bishop-Stortford;
containing 491 inhabitants. This parish is separated
from that of Stansted-Mountfitchet by a small rivulet,
and comprises 1825a. 2r. 8p., of which 1269 acres are
arable, 320 meadow, and 105 woodland. Here is a
station of the railway from London to Cambridge, situated about midway between the stations at Newport and
Bishop-Stortford. The living is a vicarage, valued in
the king's books at £11. 10.; patron, incumbent, and
impropriator, the Rev. Thomas Canning; the great
tithes have been commuted for £438, and the vicarial
for £164; the impropriate glebe comprises 10 acres,
and the vicarial 31 acres. The church is an ancient
structure, with a square embattled tower surmounted
by a slender spire, and contains many interesting details
of early Norman architecture.
ELSEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Mumby, union
of Spilsby, March division of the hundred of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln; containing 68 inhabitants.
Elsfield (St. Thomas à Becket)
ELSFIELD (St. Thomas à Becket), a parish, in
the union of Headington, hundred of Bullington,
county of Oxford, 3¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Oxford; containing 185 inhabitants. This parish comprises
by computation 1300 acres. It was formerly of much
importance, and the remains of an ancient mansion,
which was an extensive pile of building, are still visible.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at
£6. 8. 1½.; patron and impropriator, Lieut.-Col. North:
the tithes have been commuted for £185, and there are
2 acres of glebe. The church, which once contained
three private chapels, was consecrated in 1273: in the
chancel is a large stone, with an inscription round the
edge in Saxon characters, to the memory of Iohannes
de Chiltenham, which is thought to have been brought
from some other place. Archbishop Parker was vicar
in the sixteenth century; and the church contains a
tablet to the memory of the Rev. Francis Wise, a celebrated Saxon scholar, who was first librarian to the
Ratcliffe Library at Oxford, and also vicar of this
Elsham (All Saints)
ELSHAM (All Saints), a parish, in the union of
Glandford-Brigg, N. division of the wapentake of
Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln,
5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Glandford-Brigg; containing
458 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage,
valued in the king's books at £7. 18. 4.; net income,
£46; patron, T. G. Corbett, Esq. The church is a
neat structure in the early English style, with a handsome western porch. An hospital, or priory of Augustine canons, was founded early in the twelfth century,
by Beatrix de Amundevill, and dedicated to St. Mary
and St. Edmund; the revenue at the Dissolution,
amounted to £83. 17. 10.
ELSING, a parish, in the union of Mitford and
Launditch, hundred of Eynsford, E. division of
Norfolk, 5 miles (N. E. by E.) from East Dereham;
containing 457 inhabitants. The parish is finely situated in the vale of the Wensum, and bounded by the
river on the north-west; and comprises 1535a. 2r. 32p.,
of which 1184 acres are arable, 235 meadow and pasture, and 91 common: the scenery is pleasing. The
village is built, in irregular detached portions, along the
southern acclivities of the vale. An act for the inclosure of lands was passed in 1841. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 11. 8.,
and in the patronage of Mrs. Frances Browne; the
tithes have been commuted for £330, and the glebe
comprises 16 acres, with a house. The church, situated
on an eminence, is an ancient structure, chiefly in the
decorated style, with a square embattled tower: in the
east window are full-length portraits, in stained glass, of
Hugh de Hastings and his wife, the supposed founders;
and on the floor of the chancel is a fine brass to Sir
Hugh de Hastings, who died in 1347. There are about
14 acres of church land.
ELSLACK, a township, in the parish of Broughton-In-Airedale, union of Skipton, E. division of the
wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of
York, 4¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Skipton; containing
188 inhabitants. The township comprises 1762 acres,
whereof 380 are common land or waste.
Elstead (St. James)
ELSTEAD (St. James), a parish, in the union of
Hambledon, hundred of Farnham, W. division of
Surrey, 4 miles (W.) from Godalming; containing 743
inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Wey,
and comprises by computation 4119 acres, whereof
1939 are arable, and the remainder waste land. The
surface is generally flat; but some parts rise into hills
of considerable elevation, of which the highest is Crooksbury; and two ridges, called respectively the Hind's
Head and Hog's Back, traverse the parish, the former
on the south-west, and the latter on the north-west of
the village. The soil is chiefly sandy. The living is a
perpetual curacy; net income, £78; patron the Archdeacon of Surrey. The tithes have been commuted for
a rent-charge of £330. Dr. James, inventor of the
powders which bear his name, spent many of the later
years of his life here.
ELSTEAD, a parish, in the union of Midhurst,
hundred of Dumpford, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 4½ miles (W. by S.) from Midhurst;
containing 212 inhabitants. The living is a rectory,
valued in the king's books at £11. 13. 4., and with the
rectory of Treyford and vicarage of Didling annexed;
net income, £331; patron, the Rev. L. V. Harcourt.
The church has portions in the Norman style.
ELSTOB, a township, in the parish of Stainton,
union of Sedgefield, N. E. division of Stockton ward,
S. division of the county of Durham, 9 miles (N. E. by N.)
from Darlington; containing 27 inhabitants. In the
14th century this place belonged to the Gray family,
under the see of Durham, and in the 15th was the property of Sir Thomas Gray, Knt., who was executed at
Southampton in 1417, upon which event the manor
escheated to the bishop; among subsequent proprietors
occur the families of Scurfield, Bromley, Spearman,
Chaloner, and Stewart. The township is situated in a
hilly district, and comprises 733a. 2r. 4p., mostly arable
land: the Clarence railway passes through it. The tithes
have been commuted for £70.
ELSTON, a township, in the parish and union of
Preston, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of
the county of Lancaster, 4¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Preston; containing 56 inhabitants. The ancient name of
the township was Etheleston, and the manor was the
property of the Elstons, who held it from a very remote
period; it afterwards passed to other families, among
whom the Walmsleys are the latest owners. The township is encompassed on the east and south by the river
Ribble. The tithes have been commuted for £52. 12. 6.,
payable to the perpetual curate of Coppull, in the parish
of Standish, and £2. 13. to the vicar of Preston.
Elston (All Saints)
ELSTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of
Southwell, S. division of the wapentake of Newark
and of the county of Nottingham, 5½ miles (S. W. by
S.) from Newark; containing 259 inhabitants. The
parish comprises by admeasurement 1492 acres: the
river Trent is within a mile and a half, and on its bank
is a wharf. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's
books at £9. 8. 9.; net income, £299; patron, R. A.
Darwin, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in
1795; the glebe altogether comprises 172 acres. The
church was almost entirely rebuilt by the late patron,
W. B. Darwin, Esq., at an expense of £2000; the interior is fitted up with open stalls, and contains several
monuments to the Darwin family, and many ancient
details. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and
Primitive Methodists; and a school, erected in 1812,
endowed with land. An almshouse for four widows was
built in 1744, in pursuance of the will of Anne Darwin
in 1722. Dr. Erasmus Darwin, author of the Zoonomia,
was born here.
ELSTON, a chapelry, in the parish of East Stoke,
union of Southwell, S. division of the wapentake of
Newark and of the county of Nottingham, 5½ miles
(S. W. by S.) from Newark; containing 285 inhabitants.
The chapel, a small neat edifice, stands contiguous to
the parish of Elston, and the two villages are so intermingled as not to be distinguishable from each other.
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
ELSTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Orcheston
St. George, union of Amesbury, hundred of Heytesbury, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of
Wilts, 7 miles (N. W. by W.) from Amesbury; containing 93 inhabitants.
Elstow (St. Mary and St. Helen)
ELSTOW (St. Mary and St. Helen), a parish, in
the hundred of Redborne-stoke, union and county of
Bedford, 1¼ mile (S. by W.) from Bedford; containing
562 inhabitants. This place was distinguished for an
abbey founded in the reign of William the Conqueror,
by his niece Judith, Countess of Huntingdon, for nuns
of the Benedictine order, and which flourished till the
Dissolution, when the society consisted of an abbess and
21 nuns, and its revenue was £325. 2. 1. The parish
comprises by measurement 1600 acres; the soil is partly
dry and gravelly, and partly clayey. Fairs for cattle
are held on the 14th of May and 5th of November, each
for two days. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued
in the king's books at £7. 9.; net income, £75; patron
and impropriator, W. H. Whitbread, Esq. The church,
originally the church of the abbey, and now the only
remaining portion of that establishment, is a stately
structure in the Norman style, with a detached tower on
the north side. John Bunyan, author of the Pilgrim's
Progress, was born here.
Elstree, or Idlestree (St. Nicholas)
ELSTREE, or Idlestree (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Barnet, hundred of Cashio, or
liberty of St. Alban's, county of Hertford, 3 miles
(N. by W.) from Edgware; containing 360 inhabitants,
and comprising by computation 1300 acres. The village
stands upon the spot where the Watling-street crosses
from Middlesex into Hertfordshire, and is in the four
parishes of Aldenham, Edgware, Elstree, and Whitchurch. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in
the king's books at £8; net income, £304; patron, the
Lord Chancellor. The tithes were commuted for land
and a money payment, under an act passed in 1776 for
inclosing Boreham common; the glebe altogether consists of 220 acres, with a house built in 1836. The
church, a neat edifice, erected about the time of Queen
Elizabeth, is said to have been first built out of the
ruins of the ancient city Sulloniacim, the foundations of
which are still visible about one mile to the south.
ELSTRONWICK, a chapelry, in the parish of Humbleton, union of Skirlaugh, Middle division of the
wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 9¾ miles
(E. N. E.) from Hull; containing 143 inhabitants. It
was called at the time of the Domesday survey Astenuuic,
and derives its name from its Saxon possessor Elstan.
The township comprises about 910 acres: the village is
agreeably situated, and contains some good houses. The
chapel, consecrated in the reign of Henry VIII., is a
small edifice, with a bell-turret at the west end, and is
entered by a large doorway in the Grecian style, brought
from Humbleton Hall when the chapel was repaired.
ELSWICK, a township, in the ecclesiastical district
of Great Eccleston, parish of St. Michael upon
Wyre, union of the Fylde, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 5½ miles
(N.) from Kirkham; containing 303 inhabitants. This
place, of which the ancient name was Ethelyswick, is
mentioned in the Domesday survey. It appears among
the lands which escheated to the crown by the attainder
of Edmund Dudley; and was held by Thomas, Earl of
Derby, of the king, in the 13th of Henry VIII.: the
property is now in various hands. The township comprises 970 acres, equally divided between arable and
pasture. The village lies about a mile south-by-east
from Little Eccleston, and a mile and a half south-by
west from Great Eccleston. Danes Hill, in the township, is supposed to be connected in name with the
Danish invasion. The impropriate tithes have been
commuted for £129, and the vicarial for £38. There is
a place of worship for Independents.
ELSWICK, a township, in the parish of St. John
The Baptist, Newcastle, union of Newcastle, W.
division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland; containing 1789 inhabitants. This township,
which includes the hamlet of Low Elswick, and comprises 938 acres, is within the borough of Newcastle,
adjoining the town on the west, and containing many
good streets and villas, and some very extensive manufacturing establishments. The rural part rises beautifully from the northern bank of the river Tyne, towards
Benwell, and consists chiefly of arable land, rich and
fertile. Large collieries are in operation in the neighbourhood; and in a place called the Quarry field, abundance of good stone is obtained for building. On the
Tyne is an establishment for the manufacture of whitelead, red-lead, litharge, sheet and pipe lead, and patent
shot, the tower for which last, erected in 1796, is 175
feet high: these works were commenced in 1778, and
are of greater magnitude than any others in the kingdom. Messrs. Lister and Sons established a crucible
factory in 1831; and there are copperas-works, on a
very large scale. Elswick House is a noble mansion,
commanding beautiful views of the vale of the Tyne,
Axwell Park, Gibside, Ravensworth Castle, and the whole
range of the Gateshead hills. A church district named
St. Paul's, High Elswick, was endowed in 1846 by the
Ecclesiastical Commissioners: the living is in the gift of
the Crown and the Bishop of Durham, alternately.
Elsworth (Holly Trinity)
ELSWORTH (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union
of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Papworth,
county of Cambridge, 4½ miles (N. N. E.) from Caxton;
containing 915 inhabitants, and comprising 3755a. 2r.
25p. A pleasure-fair is held throughout the whole of
the week following Trinity-Sunday. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 6. 0½.; net income, £480; patron, the Duke of Portland. The tithes
have been commuted for land. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a lofty
embattled tower crowned by pinnacles; and though
much defaced by injudicious alterations, displays numerous elegant details. Samuel Franklin, Esq., in 1695,
bequeathed 12½ acres of land, now let for £2. 10.
per acre, for the endowment of almshouses for three