Goodneston - Gosforth

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis (editor)

Year published

1848

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Pages

315-319

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'Goodneston - Gosforth', A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 315-319. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=50985 Date accessed: 22 November 2014.


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Goodneston (St. Bartholomew)

GOODNESTON (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Faversham, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 2 miles (E.) from Faversham; containing 60 inhabitants. It consists of 334 acres. The living is a rectory, with the vicarage of Graveney united, valued in the king's books at £5. 2. 6.; patrons and impropriators, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and J. Pryce Lade, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for £160, and the glebe comprises 3 acres.

Goodnestone (Holy Cross)

GOODNESTONE (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Eastry, hundred of Wingham, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 2½ miles (S. E.) from Wingham; containing 424 inhabitants. It comprises 1864 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £200; patron and impropriator, Sir B. W. Bridges, Bart. The church, principally in the early English style, and partly erected by the ancestors of Sir John Boys, the gallant defender of Donnington Castle, who died in 1664, and was buried here, has, with the exception of the tower, been rebuilt under the superintendence of Rickman and Company, of Birmingham, architects, the original character being carefully preserved; the tower is a very handsome structure, and the whole forms an interesting specimen of its style. Almshouses for four persons were endowed by Gabriel Richards in 1671. A fair for pedlery is held on the anniversary of the Holy Cross.

Goodrich, or Goderich (St. Giles)

GOODRICH, or GODERICH (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Ross, Lower division of the hundred of Wormelow, county of Hereford; containing, with the townships of Glewstone and Huntisham, 738 inhabitants, of whom 490 are in the township of Goodrich, 5¼ miles (S. W. by S.) from Ross. Richard Talbot, lord of Goderich Castle, founded and endowed, in 1347, a small priory of Black canons in honour of St. John the Baptist, the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was valued at £15. 8. 9. The parish is beautifully situated on the river Wye, and traversed by the road from Ross to Monmouth. It comprises 2421a. 3r. 30p., whereof about 100 acres are wood, 348 waste land or common, and the remainder arable and pasture in nearly equal portions; the surface is undulated, the scenery picturesque, and the soil sandy. There is a great number of cider-mills. Sandstone exists in every part of the parish, and limestone is quarried for burning into lime, and for the repair of the roads; the conglomerate called "pudding-stone" is also found. A bridge has been lately built across the Wye, at an expense of £8000, by which there is a free communication with the Forest of Dean. On a lofty and beautifully-wooded hill are the majestic remains of the old castle of the Talbots, which was destroyed by order of Oliver Cromwell; and upon an opposite eminence, is Goodrich Court, erected by Sir S. R. Meyrick, in the baronial style, and forming a prominent and interesting object in the general beauty of the scene: it contains a splendid collection of ancient armour, in the knowledge of which the learned proprietor is eminently skilled. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Hereford: the great tithes have been commuted for £155, and the vicarial for £370; the glebe comprises 35½ acres. The Right Hon. F. J. Robinson, now Earl of Ripon, was elevated to the peerage in 1827 by the title of Viscount Goderich, an honour formerly enjoyed by his maternal ancestor, De Grey, Duke of Kent, who was proprietor of Goodrich Castle and manor after the Talbots.

Goodshaw-Booth, in Rossendale, county of Lancaster.—See Booths, Higher.

GOODSHAW-BOOTH, in Rossendale, county of Lancaster.—See Booths, Higher.

Goodworth

GOODWORTH, a tithing, in the parish of Goodworth-Clatford, union of Andover, hundred of Wherwell, Andover and N. divisions of the county of Southampton; containing 66 inhabitants.

Goole

GOOLE, a sea-port and market-town, and the head of a union, in the parish of Snaith, Lower division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 4½ miles (S.) from Howden, 25 (W.) from Hull, and 175 (N. N. W.) from London; containing 2850 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the river Ouse, near its confluence with the Dutch river, which communicates with the Don, has within the last thirty years risen from an inconsiderable and undistinguished hamlet into a town of commercial importance. The town and port owe their origin to the construction of the Knottingley and Goole canal, for which the Aire and Calder Navigation Company obtained an act of parliament in 1820. This canal, which communicates with the river Aire at Ferry-Bridge, and thereby completes the most important line of inland navigation in the kingdom, was opened to the public on the 20th of July, 1826; and in the year following, by commission from the court of exchequer, the town was constituted a port for foreign trade. On the 6th of April, 1828, a brig laden with merchandise cleared out of the dock for Hamburg, in the presence of a vast concourse of people, assembled from various parts to celebrate the event; and on the same day, a market for corn and provisions of all kinds, to be continued weekly, was opened in a commodious market-place. In the course of this year, the company obtained another act for further improvement in the navigation, and for the construction of additional docks for the accommodation of large steam-ships, then recently introduced; these works were commenced in 1835, and completed in 1838.

The harbour is situated near the confluence of the Dutch river with the Ouse, over the former of which is an ancient wooden bridge of three arches, connecting the town with Old Goole. It has an entrance basin 250 feet long and 200 wide, communicating with the Ouse, here 500 feet wide, by two locks, one of which will admit vessels of more than 300 tons' burthen; and, by gates, with a ship-dock 600 feet long and 200 wide, having an average depth of 18 feet, and with a dock for barges 900 feet in length and 150 in width, having a mean depth of 8 feet. These docks communicate with each other by means of gates and swivel-bridges; and the barge-dock has a communication also with the Goole and Knottingley canal, over which is a handsome stone bridge of one arch. The new works consist of a spacious wet-dock and a large dry-dock, the former communicating with the ship-dock, which has been lengthened for the purpose, and opening into the Ouse by a lock 210 feet long and 58 wide; and towards the river a stone frontage has been erected, connecting the entrance into the lock with the entrance harbour. The quays are commodious, and there are extensive ranges of warehouses for bonding merchandise of every description, one of which is approved as a warehouse of special security; yards for timber, iron, slate, and other articles; and a timber-pond capacious enough for floating 3000 loads. A patent-slip for repairing vessels was formed in 1830; and every requisite accommodation has been provided for facilitating the general business of the port. Between the docks and the entrance harbour are the custom-house and excise-office, forming a handsome structure, of which part is also appropriated as merchants' counting-houses, and offices for the Aire and Calder Company; and between the entrance harbour and the river Ouse, coal-sheds have been erected for the supply of steamers frequenting the port. In the construction of the various works and buildings connected with the navigation, the company have expended more than £1,000,000, at this place, and on their line of navigation to Leeds and Wakefield, since the year 1820. An act was passed in 1845, authorizing the construction of a railway to Snaith, Pontefract, and Wakefield, 27 miles long; and in 1846, another act was obtained empowering the railway company to construct a station, a jetty, coal-staiths, and other conveniences at Goole. The trade of the port consists chiefly in the exportation of coal, lime, the woollen and cotton manufactures of Barnsley, Wakefield, Leeds, and Manchester, and the iron and cutlery wares of Birmingham and Sheffield; and in the importation of corn, timber, wool, and other goods. The amount of duties paid at the custom-house, in a recent year, was £61,599; the number of vessels of above 50 tons' burthen registered as belonging to the port, was 163, and their aggregate tonnage 14,640, exclusive of small craft for the inland trade, and six steam-vessels employed in carrying passengers and merchandise to Hull, and towing vessels into and out of the harbour.

The town, which is situated to the north of the docks, consists of several spacious and regularly formed streets, containing numerous well-built houses; and, from the uniformity of its style, has a very pleasing aspect as seen from the river. A subscription library was established in 1836; and rooms have been erected by a proprietary, in which assemblies and concerts take place, and public meetings are held. The market is on Wednesday, and is numerously attended. The powers of the county debt-court of Goole, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Goole. The township comprises by computation 4280 acres, of which upwards of 3500 are in cultivation, more than 500 peat-moss, and the remainder water; the soil has been greatly improved by warping: formerly the staple produce was the celebrated Yorkshire kidney-potatoes, so much esteemed in the London market, but these may be said to be now almost entirely superseded by the Scotch red-potato. The old village of Goole extends southward along the banks of the Ouse, and consists of houses irregularly built. A temporary place was fitted up for divine worship by the Aire and Calder Company in 1830, accommodating about 300 persons; and a handsome church, for which the company gave the site, besides supplying the stone, and other materials to a great extent, has been since completed: it is dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, and contains 1000 sittings. The first stone was laid on the 28th of June, 1843, by T. H. S. Sotheron, Esq., who subscribed £500 towards the building. The living is in the gift of Trustees. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, and Independents; and a free school with an endowment in land producing £21 per annum. The poor law union of Goole comprises 18 parishes or places, 16 being in Yorkshire, and 2 in the county of Lincoln; and contains a population of 12,535.

Goosey

GOOSEY, a chapelry, in the parish of Stanfordin-the-Vale, union of Wantage, hundred of Ock, county of Berks, 3¾ miles (N. W.) from Wantage; containing 179 inhabitants, and comprising 907a. 13p. The chapel is dedicated to All Saints.

Goosnargh

GOOSNARGH, a township, and an ecclesiastical parish, in the parish of Kirkham, union of Preston, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of Lancashire, 6¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Preston; the township containing, with Newsham hamlet, 1621 inhabitants. The first lords of this dictrict bore the name of Goosnargh: Robert de Goosnargh left an heiress, married to Hugh de Mytton, who was living in the reign of John; and an heiress of the latter family brought the estate by marriage to the Cateralls. Subsequently, the Cliftons, Middletons, and Botillers held lands in Goosnargh. The parish, which was formed in 1846, consists of the lower end of Goosnargh, the hamlet of Newsham, and township of Whittingham, and comprises many thousand acres of arable and pasture land, with some moorland and wood; the surface is elevated, the soil mostly clay, and the scenery from the higher parts most extensive. Inglewhite, in the parish, is traditionally said to have been a market-town, and there is still a market-cross in the centre of the green. A fair for cattle is held on the Tuesday in Rogation-week, a fair for sheep on April 25th, and one for calves on October 5th.

The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford; net income, £150, with a house. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is of great antiquity: the present edifice is deemed a restoration of the reign of Henry VIII., and was repaired in 1778; it has a square tower, and in the north aisle is a choir called Middleton chapel. The Independents have a place of worship; and there is a Roman Catholic chapel, built about a century ago by the Franciscans, and transferred to the Benedictines in 1834, when the building was enlarged; it stands on an eminence, and has an endowment of 30 acres of land, with a house attached: the Rev. Edward Dinmore is the priest. A school possesses an endowment of land in Whittingham, producing £32. 10. per annum; another school is endowed with £25 per annum, left originally by Henry Colborne, but now paid by the Drapers' Company, London, who appoint the master. A girls' school was founded by Richard Oliverson, Esq., of London, who in 1840, at a cost of £1000, built premises in which all the schools are now held: Mr. Oliverson allows the mistress £30 per annum. An hospital for decayed gentry was founded, and richly endowed with land, under the will of William Bushell, Esq., M.D., who died in 1735: the building is in the village, near the church, and is a large and handsome structure of freestone, with accommodation for about thirty persons. The benefits of the charity are limited to the townships of Goosnargh, Whittingham, Elston, Fulwood, Preston, and Euxton, the recipients to be Protestants: the number at present maintained is 26, eight males and eighteen females. The income, which in 1809 was £902, is now about £1500 per annum; and on the expiration of a lease of part of the property in the hands of the Earl of Derby, the income of the hospital will be increased many hundreds more.

Goostrey, with Barnshaw

GOOSTREY, with Barnshaw, a township and a chapelry, in the parish of Sandbach, union and hundred of Northwich, S. division of Cheshire, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Church-Hulme, or Holmes-Chapel; the township containing 325 inhabitants. The manors of Goostrey and Barnshaw (the latter anciently written Bernulpshaw and Bernilshawe) were given by Hugh Fitz-Norman to the convent of St. Werburgh, in Chester: the monks had a chapel here. After the Dissolution the manors were given to the Dean and Chapter of Chester; and subsequently passed to the Cottons and Mainwarings. The township comprises 1697a. 3r. 8p., of which the soil is sand and clay. A railroad, leading from Manchester to Crewe, passes for about four miles through. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120; patron, the Vicar of Sandbach. The income arises from two farms, one of which is situated in the township of Cranage, and consists of 65 acres, and the other in the township of Timperley, parish of Bowdon, containing 39 acres. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £123, and the impropriate for £56. 10. A school is supported by the interest of £200 left by Mrs. Haslehurst in 1682.

Gopsall-Hall

GOPSALL-HALL, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Market-Bosworth, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 4¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Market-Bosworth. This place comprises 724 acres, nearly all park; and is the property of Earl Howe, whose large and elegant mansion, on a gentle eminence nearly in the centre of the Park, was built by Charles Jennens, Esq., about the year 1750, at a cost of more than £100,000. The principal front looks towards the south, and on each side is a wing projecting 27 feet, the whole length being 180 feet; the grounds are adorned with temples, are finely wooded, and well stocked with deer. The Ashby-de-la-Zouch canal passes close to the north-east side of the Park, and on its western side is the Ashby and Atherstone road. Here was a cell to the abbey of Merevale, in the county of Warwick.

Gorefields

GOREFIELDS, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 3 miles (N. W.) from NewportPagnell. It comprises 60 acres of land. Here was a monastery, but it was early destroyed.

Goring (St. Thomas à Becket)

GORING (St. Thomas à Becket), a parish, in the union of Bradfield, hundred of Langtree, county of Oxford, 6¼ miles (S. by W.) from Wallingford; containing 971 inhabitants. A priory of nuns of the order of St. Augustine was founded in the reign of Henry II., and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary; the revenue at the Dissolution was valued at £60. 5. 6. The village stands pleasantly on the east bank of the Thames, and commands some fine views of that river: in 1837 an act was passed for building a bridge, which has been completed; and a station on the Great Western railway is situated in the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £146; patron and impropriator, C. W. Gardener, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 1809. The church, anciently the church of the priory, is in the Norman style, with a massive tower; the roof of the belfry is finely groined: a north aisle, in the later English style, has been added to the original building. There is a small chapel attached to the Alnutt almshouses at Goring heath, to which a chaplain is appointed by the trustees of the charity, by whom it was endowed. The Independents have a place of worship. In 1724 Mr. Alnutt bequeathed an estate, among other purposes, for apprenticing children of the parishes of Goring, Cassington, Checkendon, Ipstone, and South Stoke; the income is about £450 a year, for which they are educated, partly clothed, and apprenticed. The Ikeneld-street here crosses the Thames into Berkshire.

Goring (St. Mary)

GORING (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Poling, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 2½ miles (W.) from Worthing; containing 503 inhabitants. This place at the time of the Domesday survey belonged, as part of the earldom of Arundel, to the Albini family. The parish comprises about 2000 acres, of which the far greater portion is good arable land, about 400 acres pasture and down, and 180 wood. Here is a station of the Brighton and Chichester railway, about midway between those towns. Goring Castle is a handsome mansion, containing many stately apartments, and pleasingly situated in a richly-wooded demesne. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 10., and in the gift of David Lyon, Esq.; impropriator, W. W. Richardson, Esq., lord of the manor. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £163, and the glebe comprises 6½ acres; the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £376. The church, an ancient structure in the early English style, with several Norman details, and containing numerous monuments, was taken down, and rebuilt on the old site, in 1837, at an expense of £6000, defrayed by Mr. Lyon; the present structure is in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, surmounted by a lofty spire of wood covered with copper, painted to resemble stone.

Gorleston (St. Andrew)

GORLESTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the hundred of Mutford and Lothingland, E. division of Suffolk; containing 3779 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the east by the North Sea and the river Yare, and on the north by South-Town, or Little Yarmouth, with which it now forms one parish, comprising 2300 acres, and reaching about three miles from its southern point to Yarmouth bridge over the Yare. A wooden pier (one of the finest in the kingdom) forms a breakwater towards the south, and the entrance to the Yare leading to the port of Yarmouth. Numerous pilots reside here, for vessels coming in and going out of the river; and there are lodging-houses for visiters, commanding a fine view of the pier, river, and sea, with accommodation for sea-bathing. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the rectories of South-Town and West-Town consolidated in 1520, valued in the king's books at £11; patron and incumbent, the Rev. F. Upjohn; impropriators, the landholders. The great tithes have been commuted for £243. 17., and the vicarial for £214. 15. The church is a large and ancient structure, consisting of a nave and north and south aisles, having separate roofs, all thatched; the old steeple, which had long been a landmark for vessels passing through the Yarmouth roads, was blown down in 1835. At SouthTown (which see) is a chapel dedicated to St. Mary. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. A priory of Augustine friars was founded in the reign of Edward I. by William Woodrove, and his wife Margaret; and an hospital for lepers was in existence at Gorleston in 1372.

Gornall, Lower

GORNALL, LOWER, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Sedgley, union of Dudley, N. division of the hundred of Seisdon, S. division of the county of Stafford, 2 miles (W.) from Dudley; containing 5000 inhabitants. The surface is much undulated; the district abounds with coal-works, and chains and nails are made to a great extent. The church, dedicated to St. James, was built at a cost of £1500, raised by subscription, aided by Queen Anne's Bounty, on a site given by the late Lord Dudley and Ward, by whom, also, the living was endowed with £15 per annum; it was consecrated in 1823, and enlarged in 1837. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Lord Ward; total income, £150. There are places of worship for Baptists, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans; and attached to the church is a national school.

Gornall, Upper

GORNALL, UPPER, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Sedgley, union of Dudley, N. division of the hundred of Seisdon, S. division of the county of Stafford, 2 miles (N. W.) from Dudley; containing 2775 inhabitants. This place is remarkable for the extent of its stone-quarries, and for its fine brick-clay. As in Lower Gornall, the manufacture of chains and nails is carried on here extensively. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, was consecrated in July, 1843, and is a plain structure in the later English style, with turrets, built at a cost of £2389, raised by subscription, and a grant from the Incorporated Society: of 921 sittings, 645 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Sedgley; net income, £150, with a parsonage-house. The Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans have places of worship. In connexion with the church is a national school.

Gorran (St. Gorran)

GORRAN (St. Gorran), a parish, in the union of St. Austell, E. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall, 5¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Tregoney; containing 1232 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the south-east by the English Channel, and comprises the small haven called Port East, where an extensive pilchard-fishery is carried on. It consists of 3836 acres, of which 158 are waste land or common: the surface is hilly, and from many points the views are extensive; the lands are chiefly arable. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20; net income, £258; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Exeter. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In the centre of the village are considerable remains of an ancient chapel with a tower: on the high grounds above Dodman's Point are remains of a circular intrenchment; and in a field on the estate of Trevennen, called Chapel Close, was formerly a chapel.

Gorstella

GORSTELLA, a hamlet, in the township and parish of Doddleston, union of Great Boughton, Lower division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester; containing 52 inhabitants.

Gorton

GORTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Manchester, union of Chorlton, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 3½ miles (E. S. E.) from Manchester; containing 2422 inhabitants, and comprising 1500 acres. This place is situated on the road to Mottram and Sheffield, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the cotton manufacture and in the making of hats. A sort of lime made here, called Ardwick lime, grows hard under water. The Manchester, Ashton, and Stockport canal, and the Manchester and Sheffield, and Manchester and Birmingham railways, pass through the chapelry. In the vale of Gorton is a reservoir 44 acres in extent, excavated by the Manchester Water-works' Company for the partial supply of that town. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150, with a glebehouse; patrons, the Dean and Canons of Manchester. The chapel, dedicated to St. Thomas, was rebuilt about 1756: it contains several old volumes, the gift of Humphrey Chetham, each volume fastened by a chain. There are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyans, and Unitarians; and a school in union with the National Society.

Gosbeck (St. Mary)

GOSBECK (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 4¾ miles (E. by N.) from Needham-Market; containing 316 inhabitants, and comprising by admeasurement 1467 acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 5. 5.; net income, £316; patron, the Rev. W. Attwood. The church is an ancient structure in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower; it was repewed in 1840.

Gosberton (St. Peter and St. Paul)

GOSBERTON (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Spalding, wapentake of Kirton, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 6 miles (N. by W.) from Spalding; containing 2120 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage; net income, £130; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln; impropriator, S. Everard, Esq.: the tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 1799. A chapel of ease has been built by subscription in a distant part of the parish, on a plot of ground given by Earl Brownlow, lord of the manor. A school, endowed with £18 a year, is conducted on the national plan. £130, the amount of various benefactions, are annually distributed in coal and bread to the poor; and the interest of £100 three per cents. left by Mrs. Banks, in 1835, is distributed in clothing to widows.

Gosebradon (Holy Trinity)

GOSEBRADON (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the hundred of Abdick and Bulstone, W. division of Somerset, 5 miles (N.) from Ilminster. The living is a sinecure rectory, valued in the king's books at £1. 2. 6.; the church has been demolished, and there is not even a house in the parish.

Gosfield (St. Catherine)

GOSFIELD (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union of Halstead, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 2¾ miles (W. S. W.) from Halstead; containing 653 inhabitants. The surface is generally elevated, rising in almost every direction; the soil is a good loam, mixed in different degrees with sand and gravel. The ancient Hall is situated in an extensive park, abounding with stately trees. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; patron and impropriator, E. G. Barnard, Esq.: the great tithes have been commuted for £161. 16. 3., and the vicarial for £257. 16. The church is in the park, and attached to it is a small sepulchral chapel, formerly a chantry; in the chancel, and also in the chapel, are some elegant monuments.

Gosford-Bridge

GOSFORD-BRIDGE, a township, in the parish of Kidlington, union of Woodstock, hundred of Wootton, county of Oxford, 4¾ miles (N.) from Oxford; containing 39 inhabitants. According to Tanner, here was a house of sisters of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, who removed about 1180 to Buckland, in Somersetshire: the estate, which was given to them by Robert D'Oily and his son, continued in the possession of the Hospitallers, who built an oratory or chapel here about the year 1234, until the period of the Dissolution.

Gosforth (St. Mary)

GOSFORTH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Whitehaven, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 6¾ miles (S. E.) from Egremont; containing 1113 inhabitants. The parish comprises a large tract of moorland, affording indifferent pasture, and there are several peat-mosses; it is intersected by numerous small streams, which unite with the Bleng, and fall into the river Irt. Freestone of excellent quality is extensively quarried. Fairs, chiefly for cattle and horses, are held on Bornwood common, on the 25th of April and the 18th of October. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 14. 7., and in the patronage of the family of Senhouse, with a net income of £85: the tithes were commuted for land in 1810. In the churchyard is an ancient stone pillar, which was formerly surmounted by a cross. A copper battle-axe has been dug up at Bolton wood; and at Seascales are the remains of a Druidical temple.

Gosforth (St. Nicholas)

GOSFORTH (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union, and partly in the E. and partly in the W. division, of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland; comprising the townships of North and South Gosforth in the former, and of East and West Brunton, Coxlodge, Fawdon, and East and West Kenton, in the latter, division; and containing 3020 inhabitants, of whom 132 are in North Gosforth, 4½ miles (N.), and 224 in South Gosforth, 2¾ miles (N. by E.), from Newcastle. The former township, which contains 737 acres, was held of the crown by the Surtees family from 1100 to 1509, when it passed by marriage to Robert Brandling, who was knighted at the battle of Musselburgh: the latter township, consisting of 420 acres, anciently belonged to the family of Lisle. The parish is of considerable extent, and rich in mineral produce; the surface, though generally level, has a gradual rise towards the north and west, and the soil is clayey. A colliery was commenced in 1825, and the coal was reached in February, 1829; nearly 450 persons are employed upon the works. Gosforth House, erected in 1760, after a design by Payne, is a large and elegant structure of white freestone, and from its situation has a commanding appearance: a fine fish-pond, covering 53 acres, is the resort of innumerable flocks of water-fowl. The living is annexed to the vicarage of St. Nicholas, Newcastle: the church, which is in South Gosforth, was rebuilt in 1798, and enlarged in 1819, and is a neat edifice, with a square tower surmounted by an octagonal spire. The tithes of North and South Gosforth have been commuted for £107 payable to the Bishop of Carlisle, £107 to the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, and £44 to the incumbent. A chapel at North Gosforth has been demolished.