Kirkdale - Kirk-Linton

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis (editor)

Year published

1848

Supporting documents

Pages

697-701

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'Kirkdale - Kirk-Linton', A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 697-701. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51083 Date accessed: 29 November 2014.


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Kirkdale

KIRKDALE, a township, in the parish of Waltonon-the-Hill, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 2 miles (N. by E.) from the Exchange of Liverpool; containing in 1846, 9322 inhabitants. The township derived its name from its position midway between the town of Liverpool and the parish church of Walton-on-the-Hill, which, previously to 1700, was the parish church of Liverpool: as the road from the town to the church lay through a hollow part or gentle vale across this township, the place was called Chirkdele, now Kirkdale. Of the families which held lands here soon after the Conquest, was one of the local name. The Waltons were connected with the township in the reign of Henry III.; and the family of More, or de la More, established themselves here in 1280, and built a seat near Liverpool, called More Hall, which, with Bank Hall, was in their possession for upwards of twenty generations. The latter mansion was situated near the sea; it was a curious model of the style of architecture that prevailed five centuries ago, and was then esteemed a very grand structure. Among the distinguished persons from Lancashire who, in the reign of Edward III., accompanied the Black Prince in the royal expedition against France, was William de la More, of Bank Hall, who, for his valour and prowess at the battle of Poitiers, in 1356, was created by the prince a knight banneret; and when Liverpool was besieged in 1644 by the army of Charles I. under Prince Rupert, it was defended by a strong garrison of the parliamentary forces under Colonel More, also of this family. Bank Hall was totally demolished in 1778, and a neat farmhouse was built on its site: the house and farm are now the property of the Earl of Derby.

The township comprises 652 acres of land. Immediately beneath the surface is a deep layer of the finest clay for bricks; and below the clay, in most parts, are rocks of red sandstone. The vicinity of Kirkdale to Liverpool, with which town it is now joined, has greatly and rapidly increased the population, and the value of the land, on which several hundred houses have been erected within the last fifty years. The new docks of Liverpool extend the whole breadth of the township, northward, along the shore of the Mersey; and the township is also intersected from south to north by the Liverpool and Leeds canal, the great road leading to Ormskirk, Preston, &c., and by the Liverpool and Bury, and the Liverpool, Ormskirk, and Preston railways. The only cotton-mill of which Liverpool can boast, is in Kirkdale; it was built in 1838, and employs 950 hands: the operations are confined to spinning.

On an elevated spot here, opposite the mouth of the Mersey, and distant from it about half a mile, stands the County Gaol and House of Correction, covering an area of five acres, and surrounded by a wall 27 feet high, the western portion of which was blown inwards by the hurricane of January 6th, 1840, but immediately restored. The governor's house is on the north side, and a handsome sessions-house built of stone in the Ionic order faces the south: the adjourned quarter-sessions for the county, and the petty-sessions for the hundred of West Derby, are held here. The whole of the prison is in course of being rebuilt on the plan of the model prison at Pentonville, London, from designs by Arthur Hill Holme, Esq., architect, of Liverpool. The new building consists of four wings projecting at right angles from a great central hall, each wing having accommodation for 120 prisoners in separate cells, besides workrooms, baths, &c., on the basement. The chapel stands between two of the wings, near the hall, and the interior, arranged as the segment of a circle, affords space for 400 prisoners, each in a separate stall, so as to prevent them from seeing each other, while all are visible to the chaplain and the officers of the gaol, in front. To this chapel is a tower, containing a vestry, a clock, and bell-turret surmounted by a spire, the apex of which is 100 feet from the ground.

St. Mary's Church, here, is a brick edifice on the west side of the great road, built principally through the exertions of Thomas Dover, Esq., who, at the time of its erection, resided in the district. It was opened for divine service on the first Sunday in August, 1836; and the Rev. D. James, F.S.A., was appointed first incumbent. In 1844 it was deemed expedient to enlarge the building by extending it at both ends, which has greatly improved the proportions of the whole. The east end, facing the road, has two entrances with decorated canopies, a four-light window with rich tracery and bold mouldings, and above it, resting on a highly-decorated corbel supported by a carved head of Wycliffe, a beautiful open bell-turret, though too small for so large a church. The communion end, which in this instance is towards the west, now has windows filled with stained glass of brilliant colours; also a fine screen. The original flat ceiling was removed at the time of the enlargement, and the roof thrown open; the old framing was cased and ornamented with shafts, arches, tracery, and pendants, and the new coved ceiling divided into square compartments by ribs which intersect each other and are covered at the joints with handsome bosses. The roof is admitted to be unequalled for beauty and elegance in Liverpool. The architect already named designed and executed the alterations. The original number of sittings was 960; the present number is 1372, of which 525 are free. The cost of the original building, including the organ and fittings up, was £4000; the cost of the enlargement and improvements, exclusively of the stained glass windows, which were presented, was £2050. The patronage is vested for forty years in five Trustees; it will afterwards be in the patron of Walton-on-the-Hill. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £85. On the same high ground whereon the prison is built, are the Industrial Schools, built by the parish of Liverpool, for the purpose of carrying out the government plan of instructing the children of the poor in the various arts of industry: the buildings are on a magnificent scale, and entirely occupied. St. Mary's Cemetery, one of the public cemeteries of Liverpool, occupies nearly three acres; the front is exceedingly beautiful, and has a fine arched entrance gateway.

Kirkdale (St. Gregory)

KIRKDALE (St. Gregory), a parish, in the union of Helmsley, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 4¼ miles (E. by N.) from Helmsley; containing, with the townships of Bransdale West Side, Muscoates, Nawton, Skiplam, Welburn, and Wombleton, 1040 inhabitants. This parish, which is about 60 miles in circumference, has no village or township of its own name; the higher parts are mountainous moorland, and the lower a rich and luxuriant valley. Coal-mines are worked, and good limestone is obtained for building and for agricultural purposes. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £137; patrons, the University of Oxford; impropriators, John and Francis Barr, Esqrs., lords of the manor of Nawton. There are 3 acres of glebe. The church, which is in Welburn township, in the sequestered and finely-wooded valley of the Hodge beck, has been enlarged at various periods, and contains some Norman portions; the chancel is in the early English style. In the wall over the south door is a stone bearing a Saxon inscription, removed from its original situation, commemorative of the purchase and repairs of St. Gregory's church here, in the reign of the Confessor. At Nawton and Wombleton are places of worship for Wesleyans. In the celebrated Kirkdale Cave, varying from two to five feet in height and breadth, and extending for 300 feet into a solid white rock, various fossil remains of a hyena, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and other animals, were found in the year 1820, imbedded in a layer of mud at the bottom of the cave, about one foot thick.

Kirk-Ella, county of York.—See Ella, Kirk.

KIRK-ELLA, county of York.—See Ella, Kirk.

Kirkham (St. Michael)

KIRKHAM (St. Michael), a market-town and parish, in the union of the Fylde, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of the county of Lancaster; containing 11,604 inhabitants, of whom 2903 are in the town, 9 miles (W. by N.) from Preston, 22 (S. by W.) from Lancaster, and 226 (N. W. by N.) from London. This place is of Saxon origin, and derived its name from its church, which, soon after the Conquest, was given by Roger de Poictou to the abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul in Shrewsbury, from which it was by Edward I. transferred to the monks of Vale Royal in Cheshire, in whose patronage it remained till the Dissolution. The town may be considered as the capital of a district called the Fylde: it stands picturesquely on rising ground commanding a view of Preston and the Fylde, and the air is very pure and healthy. About 80 persons are employed in weaving calico; and an old established flaxmill, conducted by John Birley and Sons, employs about 500. A savings' bank and a newsroom were opened in 1844, under the management of Adam Wright, Esq. There is a station on the Preston and Wyre railway, and the Lancaster canal is distant only about three miles. Within the same distance is the estuary of the Ribble, near the mouth of which a guide is stationed to conduct travellers across the sands at low water to Hesketh bank, the passage being dangerous to persons attempting it without such assistance. The market is on Tuesday; the fairs are on February 4th and the following day, April 29th, and October 18th. The county magistrates hold a petty-session every alternate Tuesday; and a constable and other officers are appointed annually at the court leet of the lord of the manor. The powers of the county debt-court of Kirkham, established in 1847, extend over the greater part of the registrationdistrict of the Fylde.

The parish is one of the most extensive in the county, containing 17 townships, and comprising about 130 square miles, or 38,871 acres. Of the compact portion, the river Wyre forms the northern, and the Ribble the southern, boundary; with Plumpton on the western, and Salwick and Clifton on the eastern, extremities. These boundaries are independently of Goosnargh with Newsham, and Whittingham, townships, both which, though severed from the other 15 townships, form a portion of the parish, about eight miles in length and five miles in breadth. The surface for the most part is level, and unvaried, descending gradually, by an almost imperceptible slope, from the margin of the ancient forests of Bleasdale and Bowland on the east, to the banks of the Wyre and Ribble. The land in many parts is of excellent quality; there is some peat-moss and marsh. In the township of Kirkham are not more than 803 acres. The principal old Halls are Westby, Preese, Bradkirk, and Mowbreck; and in the vicinity of the town are several good modern mansions, among which may be named, Milbank, the seat and property of Thomas Birley, Esq., and Carr Hill, belonging to Thomas Langton Birley, Esq.

For ecclesiastical purposes, the parish was divided in 1846, when seven new and distinct incumbencies were formed, viz.: Goosnargh, Hambleton, Lund, Ribby with Wrea, Warton, Weeton, and Whitechapel; which are all described under their respective heads. In Kirkham parish are retained the townships of Little Eccleston with Larbrick, Kirkham, Medlar with Wesham, Great and Little Singleton, and Treales with Roseacre and Wharles. The old living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £21. 1. 0½.; net income, £921; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The great tithes of Kirkham township have been commuted for £43, and the small for £89; the appropriate glebe consists of 99 acres, and the vicarial of 2½ acres. The original church was built in the year 640; the late church previously to 1586; and the body of the present edifice in 1822, at a cost of £5000: in 1845, a tower surmounted by a graceful spire 150 feet high was added, at a cost of £1500; it has a peal of eight bells. An endowment of £70 per annum is paid to a curate for daily prayers in the church; it is derived from land left by Dr. Grimbaldeston, of the township of Treales. At Great Singleton is a chapel, forming a perpetual curacy. The Independents, Wesleyans, and others, have places of worship; and at the distance of half a mile, on the road to Blackpool, stands the Roman Catholic chapel of St. John, built in 1845, from a design by Mr. Pugin. It is an elegant structure of stone, in the style of the 12th and 13th centuries, and has a tower surmounted by a beautiful spire; the interior contains some private chapels, has a gorgeous altar, and is rich in stained glass: a peal of six fine-toned bells, also, has been put up, the first peal introduced into a Roman Catholic chapel since the Reformation. This chapel owes its erection to the Rev. Thomas Sherburne, of the Willows. The free grammar school, originally founded by Isabel Birley, was in 1655 endowed with a portion of the proceeds of the rectory of Kirkham, purchased by the Drapers' Company with funds bequeathed in trust to them by Henry Colborne. The endowment was augmented by the Rev. James Barker in 1670, by Dr. Grimbaldeston, and other benefactors; the aggregate income being now £550. The school has an exhibition of about £100 per annum to either of the Universities, founded also by Mr. Barker, who likewise left £80 a year for apprenticing boys. A parochial school, established in 1760, has an endowment of £80 per annum, appropriated to the clothing and instruction of girls; and among the other schools are some national and infant schools in connexion with the Church; and two, belonging to Roman Catholics, endowed with £62. 8. per annum. Dr. Shuttleworth, late Bishop of Chichester, was born here.

Kirkham

KIRKHAM, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 1 mile (E. S. E.) from Whitwell; containing 54 inhabitants. This liberty is situated on a long and narrow acclivity on the east side of the river Derwent, which meanders through a beautiful vale; it comprises 259 acres, whereof 39 are wood and plantation, and the remainder arable and pasture. A fair is held on Trinity-Monday. A priory of Augustine canons was founded in 1121, by Sir Walter L'Espee, Knt., and Adelina his wife, and dedicated to the Holy Trinity; the revenue at the Dissolution was estimated at £300. 15. 6. The fine Gothic tower was blown down in 1784, and the only remaining parts of this once magnificent and celebrated priory consist of portions of the cloisters, and some fragments of the church; the eastern window of the latter; the principal entrance gate; and a beautiful Norman arch in the abbey gardens.

Kirk-Hammerton.—See Hammerton, Kirk.

KIRK-HAMMERTON.—See Hammerton, Kirk.

Kirkharle.—See Harle, Kirk.

KIRKHARLE.—See Harle, Kirk.

Kirkhaugh

KIRKHAUGH, a parish, in the union of Haltwhistle, W. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 2½ miles (N. W. by N.) from AlstonMoor; containing about 300 inhabitants. This parish, so called from its church being situated on a haugh, comprises 6657 acres, of which 5381 are common or waste; it is divided by the South Tyne into two nearly equal parts. The soil is light, and the surface hilly; the higher lands are mostly covered with heath, and abound with grouse, and the lower grounds are watered by the South Tyne. Cultivation is confined to the borders of the river, from which the mountains on each side rise with a rapid irregular ascent. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 7. 8½., and in the patronage of R. R. Saunders, Esq.; net income, £70. The church is a neat rustic edifice, with a nave 41 feet and a chancel 9½ feet long, and contains a few monuments. William de Kirkhalgh granted the advowson to Nicholas de Vetriponte, as an appurtenance to the manor of Aldeston, in which state it descended to the Hiltons, and from them to the Ricardsons, &c. Castle Nook, in the parish, is the site of a Roman station, occupying an area of nearly nine acres, and defended on the west by ten breastworks and trenches. At the north-east corner a sudatory was discovered in 1813, from which flows a copious spring of clear water: near to the eastern wall is the Maiden-way; and in the vicinity, a Roman altar, with fragments of a colossal statue, was found some years since. Here, according to Camden, an inscription was set up, and a palace built, in honour of the Emperor Antoninus, about the year 213, by the third cohort of the Nervii. The Rev. John Wallis, author of a History of Northumberland, 1769, was born at Castle Nook in the year 1714.

Kirkheaton

KIRKHEATON, a chapelry, locally in the parish of Kirkharle, union of Castle ward, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 11½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Hexham; containing 164 inhabitants. This chapelry, which is extra-parochial, comprises by measurement 2009 acres. Coal is found, and there is a mine at present in operation; freestone and limestone are also quarried, for building and for burning into lime. The river Blyth has its source on the north side of a hill called the Black Hill, which commands a very extensive view. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of C. B. Bewick, Esq.: the glebe comprises 12 acres. The chapel was rebuilt in 1775.

Kirkheaton, York.—See Heaton, Kirk.

KIRKHEATON, York.—See Heaton, Kirk.

Kirkhouse-Green

KIRKHOUSE-GREEN, a hamlet, partly in the parish of Kirk-Bramwith, and partly in that of Campsall, union of Doncaster, Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of the county of York; containing 90 inhabitants.

Kirkland, with Blennerhasset, county of Cumberland.—See Blennerhasset.

KIRKLAND, with Blennerhasset, county of Cumberland.—See Blennerhasset.

Kirkland (St. Lawrence)

KIRKLAND (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland; containing, with the chapelry of Culgaith and the township of Skirwith, 887 inhabitants, of whom 233 are in the township of Kirkland with Blencarn, 8 miles (E. by N.) from Penrith. The parish comprises 7693a. 2r. 24p., of which 3052 acres are arable, 4625 pasture, and 16 wood. Its surface is boldly varied, rising into hills of mountainous elevation, and the high pasture lands are principally grazed by sheep; about 1000 acres are improvable common. Coal was wrought at Ardale, in the parish, by the late Sir Michael Le Fleming, and on Cross Fell is a mine of lead called Bullman-Hills Vein, the ore of which contains a considerable proportion of silver; copper-ore is also found, and a smelting-furnace has been erected. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 10.; net income, £221; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle. The church is an ancient structure. There is a chapel at Culgaith.

Kirkland

KIRKLAND, a township, in the parish and union of Garstang, hundred of Amounderness, N. division of Lancashire, 2 miles (S. W.) from Garstang; containing 408 inhabitants. This place is first mentioned in the inquisition taken in the 31st of Henry III., which certifies that William de Lancaster died seised, among other lands, of Kirkland. After the lapse of a century, it belonged to William de Kirkland, whose name was derived from his residence, and who died in 1363. It was subsequently possessed by Sir John de Coupeland, and John de Botiler, the latter of whom had married Alice, the heiress of the manors, and from whom proceeded the Butlers, of Kirkland. Thomas Butler, Esq., of this family, took the surname of Cole, in November 1816. The township is bounded by the river Wyre on the east and south, and comprises 895 acres, principally grass-land. Garstang parish church is in the township, standing in a village hence called Garstang Church-Town. Kirkland Hall, the seat of Thomas Butler Cole, Esq., was built about three centuries ago; various additions have since been made to the mansion, which is surrounded by thirty acres of plantations. A school is endowed with £37 per annum.

Kirkland

KIRKLAND, a township, adjoining the town, and in the parish, union, and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland; containing 1222 inhabitants.

Kirk-Leatham (St. Cuthbert)

KIRK-LEATHAM (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Guisborough, E. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Guisborough; containing, with the chapelry of Wilton, 1075 inhabitants, of whom 714 are in the township of Kirk-Leatham. This place, anciently Lythum, appears to have been of considerable importance at an early period: in the Domesday survey it is stated that here was a church, with a minister; and in the time of Edward III. a chantry was founded by Thomas de Thweng, rector and patron, which existed for a short period. Including the hamlets of East and West Coatham, and Yerby, the parish comprises 3873a. 3r. 29p., of which about one-fourth are pasture, 100 acres wood, and the remainder arable. The surface is principally level: the soil is in general a strong clay, with a mixture of rich black loam, and towards the sea the lands are of a light marly loam. Kirk-Leatham Hall, the seat of Henry Vansittart, Esq., is a splendid mansion, erected by the Turner family, and beautifully situated in a tastefully embellished demesne. The village, which is pleasant and handsome, lies on the western bank of a small rivulet. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the gift of Mr. Vansittart (the impropriator), with a net income of £88: the tithes are principally merged; the glebe consists of 13 acres. The church is in the Italian style, with the nave separated from the aisles by columns of the Tuscan order: in the chancel is a monument to Sir Wm. Turner, who was buried near the spot; and adjoining the east end of the edifice is a stately mausoleum of circular form with a dome, containing the family vault, erected by Cholmley Turner, Esq., in 1740. At Wilton is a separate incumbency. Kirk-Leatham hospital, a spacious building, with a chapel in the centre of the principal front elegantly fitted up, was founded by Sir William, for the support of 10 aged men and 10 aged women, and for maintaining and educating 10 boys and 10 girls; for which purpose he endowed it with property now yielding £1330 per annum. Sir William also left £5000, which were appropriated to the establishment of a free grammar school; a handsome building was erected at a cost of £2000, and the remainder of the bequest laid out in the purchase of land worth £300 a year.

Kirk-Leavington.—See Leavington, Kirk.

KIRK-LEAVINGTON.—See leavington, Kirk.

Kirklees

KIRKLEES, a hamlet, in the chapelry of Hartshead cum Clifton, parish of Dewsbury, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1779 inhabitants. This place is celebrated as the site of a Cistercian nunnery, founded in the reign of Henry II. by Reynerus Flandrensis, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. James, and the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was £20. 7. 8. The remains were granted in the reign of Elizabeth, to Robert Pilkington, and subsequently to the Armytages, whose mansion formed part of the conventual buildings, till the time of James I., when the family erected Kirklees Hall, the present seat of Sir George Armytage, Bart. Of the nunnery, which stood on the bank of a rivulet, only small portions now remain; but among the various farm-offices that have been erected, the foundations may be distinctly traced. The tomb of Elizabeth de Stainton, a prioress of the convent, and another thought to be that of a relation, serve to point out the site of the church, which appears to have been at least 150 feet in length. The Hall is a spacious stone mansion, beautifully situated on an eminence, in a well-wooded park tastefully laid out, and embracing extensive prospects, and much variety of scenery. Kirklees was the resort and occasional abode of Robin Hood, who is supposed to have been bled to death by a nun, and was buried here in a secluded spot within the limits of the park; his tomb is surrounded by an iron railing. The walk to the place, through the woods, nearly a mile in length, commands beautiful views of Elland, Brighouse, and the river Calder. At the entrance of the Hall was formerly Robin Hood's statue, rudely sculptured in stone, representing him leaning on an unbent bow, with a quiver of arrows, and a sword at his side; and smaller statues of him and his men are still preserved at Kirklees.

Kirkley

KIRKLEY, a township, in the parish of Ponteland, union and W. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 10¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing, with Benridge and CarterMoor, 168 inhabitants. The family of Eure held the manor of Kirkley in the time of Edward II. by the service of annually presenting a barbed arrow at the manorial court; and previously to the reign of Charles I. the place became the possession and seat of a branch of the Ogle family. The township, with Benridge and Carter-Moor, comprises 1765 acres. Kirkley Hall is a handsome mansion, which, some years since, was enlarged and beautified; it is finely situated, and commands extensive and picturesque views towards the east. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £238. 10., payable to Merton College, Oxford, and the vicarial for £32. 15. Sir Chaloner Ogle, a distinguished naval commander, who captured the famous pirate, Roberts, on the coast of Africa, in 1722, and was subsequently raised to the rank of admiral for his eminent services, was born in the township.

Kirkley (St. Peter)

KIRKLEY (St. Peter), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Mutford and Lothingland, E. division of Suffolk, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Lowestoft; containing 433 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the east by the sea, and on the north by the lake Lothing, comprises 450 acres by measurement. The village, with that of Pakefield, has a small fishery, which affords a supply for the neighbourhood. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 10½., and in the gift of Lord Boston: the tithes have been commuted for £137. 10., and the glebe comprises 19 acres. The church, an ancient structure, with a lofty tower serving as a landmark, consisted of two aisles, and was in ruins for many years prior to 1750, when the south aisle was rebuilt.

Kirklington (St. Swithin)

KIRKLINGTON (St. Swithin), a parish, in the union of Southwell, Southwell division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 3½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Southwell; containing 280 inhabitants. The parish, which is situated on the road from Mansfield to Newark, comprises by computation 1976 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Chapter of the Collegiate Church of Southwell, valued in the king's books at £3. 13. 4.; net income, £49. The church is an ancient structure.

Kirklington (St. Mary)

KIRKLINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Bedale, wapentake of Hallikeld, N. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Howgrave, Sutton, and East Tanfield, 486 inhabitants, of whom 324 are in the township of Kirklington with Upsland, 6¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Bedale. The parish comprises by computation 3700 acres, chiefly arable; there are about 600 acres of pasture, and 300 of woodland. Of the whole, about 280 acres are in the hamlet of Upsland, set out in two farms. The village, which is well built, is situated about a mile west of the Leeming-Lane. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25. 7. 3½.; net income, £1034; patron, the Hon. C. B. Wandesford: the tithes have been commuted for £771. The church is a large structure, with a fine tower. In the neighbourhood are vestiges of a Roman or Danish encampment.

Kirk-Linton (St. Cuthbert)

KIRK-LINTON (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the union of Longtown, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 4¾ miles (E. by S.) from Longtown; containing, with the townships of Hethersgill, Middle-Quarter, and West Linton, 1902 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Line, comprises 9791a. 26p. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £1. 1. 0½.; and in the patronage of the family of Dacre, with a net income of £98. The church is a good specimen of the Norman style. Here is a place of worship for the Society of Friends; and at Blackford is a schoolroom, licensed for the performance of divine worship. Near Kirk-Linton Hall are the remains of an ancient fortress. The celebrated watchmaker, George Graham, esteemed the best mechanic of his time, was a native of the parish; he died in 1751, and was interred in Westminster Abbey.