Malpas - Manchester

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis (editor)

Year published

1848

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Pages

221-247

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'Malpas - Manchester', A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 221-247. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51130 Date accessed: 20 September 2014.


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Malpas (St. Oswald)

MALPAS (St. Oswald), a parish, in the unions of Nantwich, Great Boughton, and Wrexham, chiefly in the Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, but partly in the county of Flint, North Wales; comprising the townships of Agden, Bickerton, Bickley, Bradley, Broxton, Bulkeley, Chidlow, Cholmondeley, Chorlton, Cuddington, Duckington, Edge, Egerton, Hampton, Larkton, Macefen, Malpas, Newton, Oldcastle, Overton, Stockton, Tushingham, Wichaugh, and Wigland; and containing, exclusively of the Welsh portion, 5726 inhabitants, of whom 1022 are in the township of Malpas, 15 miles (S. S. E.) from Chester, and 165 (N. W.) from London. The early name of this place was Depenbech, and was of similar import with the present appellation, which signifies a bad pass or road. The barony formed part of the possessions of Earl Edwin prior to the Conquest, and was given by the first Norman earl of Chester to Robert Fitz-Hugh, one of the eight barons of his parliament; it was soon afterwards divided into two unequal parts, and still continues so. The ancient barons exercised capital jurisdiction within the limits of the barony, and in them was vested (but distinct from their rights as barons of Malpas) the office of serjeant of the peace for the whole palatinate, excepting the hundreds of Macclesfield and Wirrall: the punishment for capital offences, designated in some records as "the custom of Cheshire," was decapitation, and it was usual to present the heads of felons at the castle of Chester. The jurisdictions have undergone considerable alteration, and the remaining portion of the old baronial rights has descended with the manor of Malpas. The castle, the head of the barony, was built soon after the Conquest, and stood immediately adjoining the church; the only vestige of it is a circular mound, on which the keep stood. The town is very pleasantly situated on an eminence, on the road from Shrewsbury to Chester, and commands an extensive prospect over a great part of North Wales, Staffordshire, and the Vale Royal: it consists of four streets, which diverge at right angles from a common centre, where is an old cross, and are well paved; the inhabitants are supplied with water from works recently established. The market is on Wednesday; and fairs are held on April 5th, July 26th, and Dec. 8th, for cattle, linen and woollen goods, toys, and pedlery. There are courts leet and baron annually, at which constables are appointed, and debts under 40s. are recoverable.

The living is a rectory, divided from time immemorial into two portions. The first, valued in the king's books at £48. 8. 6½., has a net income of £1000, and is in the gift of the Marquess of Cholmondeley, and T. T. Drake, Esq.; the second, valued at £44. 19. 2., has a net income of £910, and is in the gift of Mr. Drake: an excellent parsonage-house and glebe are attached to each portion. The church is a spacious and venerable edifice, in the later English style: the windows are enriched with elegant tracery, and some of them with fine stained glass; in the chancel are some ancient stalls, niches, and monuments, and at the end of the north and south aisles are sepulchral chapels belonging to the families of Cholmondeley and Egerton. There are three chapels in the parish, St. Chad's, Whitewell, and Bickerton; the first and last each form a separate incumbency, and Whitewell chapel is annexed to the higher mediety. A domestic chapel, open for the tenants and neighbours, is attached to Cholmondeley Castle, about four miles distant; and the parish contains places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. The grammar school was founded early in the seventeenth century, by a subscription, to which Hugh, first earl of Cholmondeley, contributed £200. Richard Alport, in 1719, bequeathed £500 for the support of a school, which has been incorporated with one established on the national plan; and Dr. Townson, archdeacon of Richmond, and rector of Malpas, left £500 old South Sea stock, the dividends on which are applied in educating children. An almshouse was built by Sir Randle Brereton in the time of Henry VIII., and endowed by Sir Thomas Brereton in the reign of Charles I.: it was rebuilt in 1721, by Hugh, Earl of Cholmondeley, for six widows; and a bequest by Thomas Poyser, Esq., of the interest of £600, makes an addition of £3 per annum to the income of each of the inmates. In 1748, Miss Elizabeth Taylor left £500 for clothing poor men in the townships of Malpas and Edge. The late learned and pious Dr. Heber, Bishop of Calcutta, was a native of the town, in which his father was rector of the higher mediety. Philip Henry, the nonconformist, resided at the Broad Oak, in the parish, where his son, Matthew Henry, the celebrated commentator on the Bible, was born. Malpas confers the title of Viscount on the Marquess of Cholmondeley.

Malpas (St. Mary)

MALPAS (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newport, division of Caerleon, hundred of Wentlloog, county of Monmouth, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Newport; containing 270 inhabitants. It comprises 988a. 3r. 20p., of which 315 acres are arable, 587 meadow and pasture, and 26 woodland. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £60; patron and impropriator, Sir C. Morgan, Bart. The church is a handsome structure in the early English style, with a tower crowned by pinnacles; it has a lofty ceiling of wood, richly carved, and in the chancel are some ancient oak stalls. A small establishment of Cluniac monks, a cell to the priory of Montacute, in Somersetshire, was founded here about the time of Henry I.

Malswick

MALSWICK, a tything, in the parish and union of Newent, hundred of Botloe, W. division of the county of Gloucester; containing 234 inhabitants.

Maltby

MALTBY, a hamlet, in the parish of Raithby, union of Louth, Wold division of the hundred of LouthEske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from the town of Louth. Here was a preceptory of Knights Templars, to which Ranulph, one of the earls of Chester, was the first benefactor; it afterwards belonged to the Hospitallers.

Maltby

MALTBY, a township, in the parish of Stainton, union of Stockton, W. division of the liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 3½ miles (E. by N.) from Yarm; containing 171 inhabitants. This place was formerly the residence of a family of the same name, who continued in possession for several generations; and since the time of their connexion with the spot, land has been held by the families of Morley, Wentworth, Pennyman, and others. The township is in the district called Cleveland, and comprises about 1180 acres of land, now partly the property of the Earl of Harewood. The village, which is but indifferently built, is situated on an eminence, and on the road from Stainton to Yarm.

Maltby (St. Bartholomew)

MALTBY (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Rotherham, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York; containing, with the township of Hooton-Levett, 839 inhabitants, of whom 763 are in the township of Maltby, 6 miles (E.) from Rotherham. This parish is on the road from Sheffield to Gainsborough, and comprises by computation 4473 acres, whereof 81 are common or waste. The celebrated Roche-Abbey quarries, which furnished materials for the groined roof of King's College chapel, Cambridge, are in the parish. The village is situated in a fertile and richly-wooded valley, and the surrounding scenery is beautifully picturesque. Sandbeck Park, formerly the residence of the lords Castletown, and now the seat of the Earl of Scarborough, who is lord of the manor, is a stately mansion in an ample and tastefully embellished demesne. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4., and in the gift of the Earl, who, with others, is impropriator; net income, £120. The vicarial tithes of Maltby township have been commuted for £81. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Viscount Castletown, in 1714, gave certain waste land for a school, now producing £20 a year.

Maltby-Le-Marsh (All Saints)

MALTBY-LE-MARSH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Louth, Wold division of the hundred of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Alford; containing 229 inhabitants, and comprising 1377a. 1r. 13p. A pleasure-fair is held in June. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 17. 8., and in the gift of the Rev. George Allott: the tithes have been commuted for £294, and the glebe comprises 28 acres. The church is an ancient structure, with a handsome tower. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans; also a school founded in 1705, by Mrs. Anne Bolle, who endowed it with 65½ acres of land now producing £78. 12. per annum. On a bridge over a drain which divides this parish from Mablethorpe, a conflict is said to have occurred between the knights of the respective places, in which both parties fell; in the church is the recumbent effigy of a knight, and the bridge is still called Earl's Bridge.

Malton, or New Malton

MALTON, or New Malton, an ancient borough and market-town, and the head of a union, in the wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 18 miles (N. E. by N.) from York, and 213 (N. by W.) from London; containing, with the parish of Old Malton, 5317 inhabitants, of whom 4021 are in Malton. This place is of very remote antiquity; and the numerous military roads in the vicinity apparently leading to it, the remains of intrenchments yet discernible, and the many Roman coins and other relics which have been found at various times and are still occasionally discovered, seem to indicate its importance as a Roman station. From an inscription dug up in 1753, near the lodge of the castle, it would appear that the "Equites Singulares," or body guards of the emperor, were stationed here, most probably in the time of Severus. During the heptarchy, the town seems to have been a royal vill of the kings of Northumbria, of whom Edwin was saved from assassination near this place by the fidelity of his servant Lilla. A spacious castle of formidable strength was erected soon after the Conquest, by one of the De Vesci family, to whom the manor belonged, and in 1138 was seized and garrisoned by the Scots, who had made an irruption into this part of the country; the town was burnt by Archbishop Thurstan in his attempt to expel the invaders, but was rebuilt shortly afterwards, and then named New Malton. The castle was finally destroyed by Henry II. In the reign of James I., Ralph, Lord Eure, erected a handsome castellated mansion on the site of the castle; but in consequence of some disagreement between his grand-daughters and coheiresses, it was taken down, and the materials were divided between them by the sheriff of Yorkshire, in 1674: only the lodge and entrance gateways are remaining. Mary, the younger of these coheiresses, who succeeded to the manors of Old and New Malton, conveyed them by marriage to William Palmes, Esq., by whom they were transferred to Sir Thomas Wentworth, whose descendant obtained the title of Lord Malton, and was afterwards created Marquess of Rockingham; on the death of the last marquess, in 1782, the title became extinct, and the manor passed to his nephew, the late Earl Fitzwilliam.

The town is pleasantly situated on elevated ground, on the north side of the river Derwent, which, flowing through the adjacent valley, forms a boundary between the East and North ridings. It is above half a mile in length, and consists of several streets diverging from a spacious market place. The houses are generally well built, and many of them, both in the town and suburbs, are handsome and of modern erection; the streets are lighted with gas from works originally constructed in 1832, by Messrs. John and James Malam, and purchased for £4000, by a proprietary of £10 shareholders, in 1836. A theatre, and a commodious suite of public rooms, were erected in 1814: the theatre has been converted into a mechanics' institution, consisting of 400 members, with a library of 1000 volumes; and the public rooms comprise a subscription library and newsroom, assembly and concert rooms, and accommodations for the shows of the Malton Horticultural Society. The Talbot hotel is situated in elevated grounds tastefully laid out, and formed into a fine terrace with hanging gardens, commanding a good view of the course of the Derwent through its fertile and picturesque vale, and affording a delightful and well-frequented promenade. Over the river is a stone bridge of three arches, connecting the town with the populous suburb of Norton, in the East riding. The Derwent, made navigable from Malton to the river Ouse in the reign of Anne, furnishes a means of communication with Hull, Leeds, and Halifax; and a considerable trade in corn, butter, hams, and other provisions, is carried on with those towns, from which groceries, coal, woollen-cloths, and various other articles are received in return. There is direct railway communication with York on the one side, and with Scarborough and Whitby on the other; and in 1846 an act was passed for making a railway to Thirsk, 23¼ miles long: another act was passed in 1846 for a railway to Driffield, 19 miles in length. Here are two iron-foundries, some small manufactories for linen, gloves, hats, and pelts, and several flour-mills, breweries, and large malting establishments. The market, which is on Saturday, is amply supplied with corn, cattle, and provisions of every kind. The market-place is spacious; and on the west side of the town is the cattle-market, occupying an open area of three acres, near which slaughter-houses have been erected by Earl Fitzwilliam. Fairs, chiefly for cattle, are held during the week before Palm-Sunday, on the Saturday before Whit-Sunday, on the 15th of July, the 11th and 12th of October, and the Saturday before Martinmas. During the week before Palm-Sunday, great numbers of horses are exhibited for sale, and races frequently take place.

The inhabitants had anciently a charter of incorporation, and the borough was governed by two bailiffs, till the reign of Charles II., when, on a writ of Quo warranto, judgment was given in favour of the crown, and the town was placed under the control of a bailiff appointed by the lord of the manor. It first sent representatives to parliament in the reign of Edward I.; at that time the prior of Old Malton, who was one of the members, was arrested on his return from the parliament, for debt, but pleading his exemption while going to, or returning from, his parliamentary duties, he was liberated. The borough still returns two members, but the limits of the borough have been extended, under the Reform act, by the addition of Old Malton and Norton; the bailiff is returning officer. Petty-sessions are held every alternate Saturday, and the general quartersessions for the North riding formerly took place here: the powers of the county debt-court of Malton, established in 1847, extend over the registration-districts of Malton and Pickering. The town-hall is a neat edifice in the market-place. Malton comprises the parishes of St. Leonard and St. Michael, the former containing 2391, and the latter 1630, inhabitants; and the livings are perpetual curacies united to the living of Old Malton. The church of St. Leonard is an ancient structure in the later English style, with a spire, not carried up to its full height from an apprehension of danger to the stability of the tower. The church of St. Michael, situated in the market-place, is also ancient, in the Norman style, with a square tower. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Primitive Methodists, Unitarians, and Wesleyans; and several schools. The poor-law union comprises 68 parishes or places, containing a population of 21,949, and a spacious workhouse has been erected. At the foot of an eminence called the Brows, is a chalybeate spring, similar in its properties to the waters of Scarborough; it has an appropriate building over it, and is surrounded by delightful walks.

Malton, Old (St. Mary)

MALTON, OLD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and parliamentary borough of Malton, wapentake of Ryedale, N. riding of York, 1 mile (N. E.) from Malton. The parish is bounded on the south-east by the river Derwent, and the Rye pursues its course on the north: the village is pleasant, and is on the road from Malton to Pickering. The living is a perpetual curacy, with the livings of St. Leonard and St. Michael in Malton; net income, £198; patron, Earl Fitzwilliam; appropriator, the Archbishop of York. The church, extensively restored in 1844, is formed of the remains of a priory founded in 1150, by Eustace Fitz-John, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, for Gilbertine canons, and the revenue of which at the Dissolution amounted to £257. 7. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A free grammar school was founded in the 38th of Henry VIII., by the Archbishop of York, for instruction in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, with an endowment now amounting to about £100 per annum.

Malvern, or Great Malvern (St. Mary)

MALVERN, or Great Malvern (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Upton-upon-Severn, Lower division of the hundred of Pershore, Upton and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 8 miles (W.) from Worcester; containing 2768 inhabitants. This place is situated on the eastern declivity of a range of hills separating the counties of Worcester and Hereford, and extending from north to south for nearly nine miles, the greatest elevation being 1440 feet; the heights vary from one to two miles in breadth from east to west, and the most important are the Worcestershire and Herefordshire beacons, the summits of which command highly interesting views extending over several counties. The intrenchments of the British camp, so often the subject of antiquarian research, occupy the greater portion of the Herefordshire Beacon, hence denominated the "Camp Hill;" and at its base is an intrenchment reputed to have been formed by Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, as a boundary between his portion of Malvern Chase and that then belonging to the Bishop of Hereford. Here was a hermitage endowed by Edward the Confessor, which, after the Conquest, was converted into a Benedictine priory, a church and conventual buildings being erected in 1083, by Aldewine, the hermit, and endowed by Gisleber, abbot of Westminster, with ample possessions. The priory was subordinate to the abbey of Westminster, and subsisted till the Dissolution, when the revenue was estimated at £375. 0. 6.

The parish comprises 4297a. 1r. 11p. of land, exclusive of common and waste. The village or town is situated in an elevated, dry, and sheltered situation fronting the vale of the Severn, and is one of the most ancient and celebrated inland watering-places in Great Britain, having frequently been honoured by royal visits, and being always the residence of many of the nobility and gentry: Her present Majesty, when Princess, resided here with her august mother, for some time. The society is of the first order; during the summer months the place is very full, and often crowded. There are several excellent hotels, the principal of which are the Foley Arms and the Belle Vue, with various boarding and lodging houses; many of the mansions are surrounded by extensive shrubberies and pleasure-grounds. The library is a handsome building in the Italian style, and is well supplied with books and newspapers; a part is appropriated to a bazaar, and adjoining are baths and billiard-rooms. The purity and invigorating quality of the waters here, for the use of which the most elegant accommodation is provided, and the salubrity of the air, have long given celebrity to Malvern, as a retreat for invalids. The water of St. Ann's Well, on the side of the Worcestershire Beacon, contains, on analysis, the following proportions: of sulphuric acid, ·660 gr.; muriatic acid, ·640; soda, ·300; lime, ·205; magnesia, ·528; silicious matter, ·500; precipitate, and loss, ·167; total 3·000. There is a similar spring, called the Holy Well, about two miles southward (see Malvern Wells); and a little below the church is a mild chalybeate. On the eastern side of North Hill are "The Tanks," built at the expense of Charles Morris, Esq., of Portmansquare, for the use of the neighbouring poor.

The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 3. 4., and in the patronage of Lady Emily Foley; net income, about £300; impropriator, Earl Beauchamp. The church, formerly that of the Benedictine priory, was purchased at the Dissolution by the inhabitants, and made parochial; it is a beautiful and venerable cruciform structure, with an embattled tower rising from the centre. Part of it was rebuilt under the direction of Sir Reginald Bray, in the reign of Henry VII., and the exterior is in the style of that period. The interior retains much of its original character: the nave is Norman, with low massive piers and circular arches; the chancel, aisles, and remaining transept are in the pointed style. The ancient windows are exceedingly magnificent. For the preservation of this noble building, the public are in a great degree indebted to the late vicar, the Rev. Henry Card, D.D., who during a period of thirty years was indefatigable in obtaining subscriptions for its repair. The south aisle of the chancel has recently been restored, and fitted up with a pulpit, lectern, benches, and a screen of richly carved oak, at the expense of the present vicar; it is used for week-day and occasional services. At Barnard's Green is a church dedicated to St. Mary, built in 1844, at a cost of £2000; it is in the early English style, with a campanile tower: the living is in the patronage of the Vicar. The Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion have a place of worship. Two national schools are supported by subscription, affording instruction to nearly 300 children. A dispensary was established in 1830, and a visiting society in 1840.

Malvern, Little (St. Giles)

MALVERN, LITTLE (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Upton-upon-Severn, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Upton and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 5¼ miles (W. by N.) from Upton; containing 103 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the roads from Ledbury to Worcester and Upton, in a district abounding with romantic scenery; and comprises about 1300 acres, of which 200 are arable, 350 rich meadow, and 100 woodland. From the Herefordshire beacon, which is partly in the parish, the prospect extends over the rich plains of Worcester, Gloucester, and Herefordshire, embracing the distant hills in South Wales. There are some remarkably fine oaks, one of which, called St. Benedict's oak, is of most majestic growth. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £53; patron, Earl Somers; impropriator, W. Berington, Esq. The church, which has long been in decay, part of it forming a beautiful and interesting ruin, belonged to a Benedictine priory, a cell to the abbey of Worcester, founded in 1171, in a gloomy cavity near an ancient intrenchment round the base of the Herefordshire beacon, by two brothers, Joceline and Edred, who were successively priors. At the Dissolution, the revenue was valued at £102. 10. 9.; and adjoining the church are some remains of the buildings, converted into a dwelling-house called Malvern Court. There is a Roman Catholic chapel.

Malvern-Wells

MALVERN-WELLS, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Hanley-Castle, union of Upton-uponSevern, Lower division of the hundred of Pershore, Upton and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 2 miles (S.) from Malvern, on the road to Ledbury; containing 300 permanent residents. This place is romantically situated on the west side of the parish, and commands extensive and pleasing prospects to the north, east, and south. Many families of respectability reside here; and excellent lodging-houses are occupied during the summer months by visiters drawn hither by the salubrity of the air, and the virtues of the Holy Well, which is celebrated for its purity. On an analysis, the water is found to contain, in an imperial gallon, 1.6 grains of carbonate of lime, 5·33 carbonate of soda, ·9199 carbonate of magnesia, ·625 carbonate of iron, 2·896 sulphate of soda, 1·553 muriate of soda, and 1·687 of residuum. Every accommodation is provided for drinking the water, and for hot and cold bathing. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rev. Peter Edward Boissier, M.A., Christ-Church, Oxford. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, is a cruciform structure in the early English style, built in 1836 at the sole expense of the patron, by whom, also, it is endowed; it has three stained-glass windows, and contains 600 sittings, of which 300 are free. A national school is supported by subscription.

Mamble (St. John)

MAMBLE (St. John), a parish, in the union of Cleobury-Mortimer, Lower division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Hundred-House and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Bewdley; containing 377 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west by a portion of Shropshire, and comprises by measurement 2658 acres; the substratum abounds with coal of good quality, of which several mines are in operation, and there are some quarries of inferior stone used for the roads. A railway extends from the collieries to the Leominster canal, which approaches within half a mile of the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Bayton united, valued in the king's books at £9. 4. 7., and in the patronage of the Crown; impropriator, Sir E. Blount, Bart.: the great tithes of the parish have been commuted for £235, and the vicarial for £180. The church is a very ancient structure, and contains many old monuments, among which are some to the Blounts, formerly of Sodington Hall, in the parish, and a handsome monument erected to the late Lieut.-Colonel Greswold, by the officers of the Enniskillen Dragoons, of which he had the command. Sodington Hall was destroyed by fire, in the great civil war, by some troops of the parliament: what remained of it was taken down in the year 1807, when several curious Roman relics were discovered beneath the foundations.

Mamhead

MAMHEAD, a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of Exminster, Wonford and S. divisions of Devon, 8 miles (W.) from Exeter; containing 246 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 1130 acres, of which 440 are arable, 360 pasture, 250 wood, and 30 common or waste land; the surface is pleasingly varied, and great quantities of fine flax are produced. There are some quarries of good building-stone. On Mamhead point is an obelisk of Portland stone, 100 feet high, erected by Thomas Balle, Esq., of Mamhead House. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 17. 6., and in the gift of Sir Robert W. Newman, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £145, and the glebe comprises 24 acres. The church is a handsome structure, in the early English style.

Mamhilad

MAMHILAD, a parish, in the union and division of Pont-y-Pool, hundred of Abergavenny, county of Monmouth, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from Usk; containing 303 inhabitants. It comprises 1678 acres, of which 120 are common or waste land. The high road from Abergavenny to Pont-y-Pool, and the Brecon and Monmouthshire canal, intersect the parish from north to south; and the road from Usk to Pont-y-Pool also affords facility of communication. The living is a perpetual curacy, until lately united to the vicarage of Llanover: the church is an ancient structure.

Mamhole

MAMHOLE, a hamlet, in the parish of Bedwelty, union of Abergavenny, Lower division of the hundred of Wentlloog, county of Monmouth; containing 6789 inhabitants, who are principally employed at the extensive coal and iron works carried on in the neighbourhood.

Man, Isle Of

MAN, ISLE OF, an island annexed to the British dominions, in the Irish Sea, nearly at an equal distance from the English and Irish coasts, and lying between 54° 2' and 54° 26' 30" (N. Lat.), and between 4° 14' and 4° 47' (W. Lon.). The distance from Douglas to Liverpool (N. W. buoy) is 60 miles, and to St. Bees' Light 36; from the Point of Ayre to the Mull of Galloway 17, and to the Copeland Islands at the entrance of Belfast Lough 38; and from the Calf of Man to Dublin 60, and to Holyhead 45. Within its limits are 8500 inhabited houses, 370 uninhabited, and 56 in course of erection; and the population amounts to 51,000.


Seal and Arms.

This island was called by Ptolemy Monoeda, or Moneitha, the "Further Mona," to distinguish it from the Isle of Anglesey, or Mona: by Pliny it was styled Monabia; and by Bede Menavia Secunda, likewise in contradistinction to Anglesey, which he terms Menavia Prima. On account of the rocky or stony nature of the soil, it was also called Menang, and Manen. The genuine Manx name is Mannan-beg, or Little Mannan, derived from the name of an ancient king, Mannan Mac Ler. About the year 444, St. Patrick, having converted the inhabitants to Christianity, founded here a church, and a see, of which he appointed St. Germanus bishop. The island, many years afterwards, on the irruption of the northern barbarians, fell under the dominion of the Scots, and was subsequently annexed to that kingdom by Aydan; but in 610 it was wrested from the Scots by Edwin, King of Northumbria; and from this period, for nearly 300 years, the British historians are silent with respect to any circumstances connected with its history. The Manx traditions, however, record during this interval a succession of twelve petty kings, called Orries, the first of whom, an enterprising prince, son of the King of Denmark and Norway, having subdued the Orcades and the Hebrides, took possession also of this island, where he fixed his residence and enjoyed for many years a reign of uninterrupted tranquillity. Guttred, his son and successor, built the castle of Rushen, in repairing which, in 1815, a beam was discovered by the workmen inscribed with the date 947. In this castle Guttred was interred. He was succeeded by his son Reginald, on whose assassination a younger brother Olave assumed the government, but not having obtained a ratification of his title from the King of Norway, to whom the island was tributary, he was invited to that kingdom, and on his arrival was arraigned and put to death. Olain, his brother, next took possession of this and some other islands, and after a reign of twenty-three years died in Ireland, and was succeeded by Allen, who, being poisoned by his governor, made room for Macon. The latter refusing to do homage for his crown to Edgar, King of England, was dethroned, but was soon afterwards restored, and made admiral of the great fleet raised by that monarch to protect the English coasts from the repeated assaults of the northern pirates: Macon was one of the eight tributary kings whom Edgar, in token of their vassalage, compelled to row his barge on the river Dee.

Godred Crovan, son of Harold Harfager, King of Norway, who accompanied his father in his invasion of England on the death of Edward the Confessor, took refuge here on the defeat of his countrymen, and was hospitably entertained. Returning the following year with a numerous army, after being twice repulsed by the inhabitants he at length took possession of the island, and established himself in the southern part, granting the remainder to the islanders, on the absolute condition of their holding it under him as lord of the whole. From this time the island became vested in the Kings, or Lords, of the Isles. Godred, who also held the sovereignty of the Hebrides, or Western Islands, maintained a naval force sufficient for the security of his conquests, and turned his arms against Ireland, at that time divided into petty principalities, reducing Dublin and a considerable part of the province of Leinster. He left three sons, Lagman, Harold, and Olave: the first of these succeeded to the government, and being jealous of his brother Harold, whom he suspected of exciting insubordination among his soldiers, caused him to be put to death; but repenting, he resigned the crown to his youngest brother Olave, and died on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Olave being then a minor, and residing in the court of Henry I., where he received his education, the island, from its unsettled state, was exposed to the attacks of the neighbouring powers. Magnus, King of Norway, having conquered the Orkneys and the Hebrides, now possessed himself, almost without resistance, of the Isle of Man, over which he reigned more than six years; but having proceeded with a small naval force to reconnoitre the Irish coast, in 1102, and incautiously landing with a party of his followers, he was taken by surprise, and slain. Olave, who had been in exile for sixteen years, was immediately invited to the government, of which he held undisturbed possession for many years. Having gone over to Norway, however, to get his title acknowledged, on his return he found his dominions distracted by the rival pretensions of the three sons of his deceased brother Harold, who, having been educated in Ireland, raised considerable forces in that country, and landing in the Isle of Man, demanded one moiety of the Isles; and a meeting being convened at Ramsey for taking their demand into consideration, Reginald, one of the brothers, feigning to address the king, suddenly struck off his head with a battle-axe: this preconcerted signal for a general attack led to a sanguinary conflict, in which many were slain on both sides. Such insidious treachery did not long remain unavenged: on the return of Prince Godred from Norway, where his father Olave had left him to be educated, the whole island submitted to his authority, and the three sons of Harold were delivered up for punishment. In 1158, Summerled, Thane of Argyll, and brother-in-law to Godred, attempted to usurp the government; their fleets meeting, an obstinate and sanguinary conflict ensued, without victory inclining to either side, when a truce was agreed on, and afterwards a treaty, by which the kingdom of the Isles was divided between them. Godred died in 1187, leaving three sons, Reginald, Olave, and Ivar, of whom he appointed Olave, his only legitimate son, his successor; this prince being then a minor, the people made Reginald king, but afterwards, on his attaining maturer age, they raised Olave to the throne. To recover his lost dignity, Reginald did homage to John, King of England, for his crown, and made submission to the pope; and, having obtained assistance from Alan, Lord of Galloway, and Thomas, Earl of Atholl, landed on the island while Olave, with his chief officers and soldiers, was in the Western Isles. He massacred the unprotected inhabitants, plundered their houses, burnt the churches, and laid waste the southern part of the island; and, even after the return of Olave, succeeded in setting fire to the shipping, then at anchor under Peel Castle. An intestine warfare raged for some time with great fury, but Reginald was ultimately killed in a battle fought at Tynwald Mount. Olave died in 1237, and was succeeded by his son Harold, who having gone over to Norway, was, with his wife, drowned on his return; his brother Reginald assumed the government in 1249, but was slain, with all his party, in an insurrection headed by a knight named Ivar. On the death of Reginald, who left only an infant daughter, his brother Magnus was chosen king, and, according to the usual custom, went over to Norway, where, after two years' attendance, he was declared King of the Isles, and received a confirmation of his title to him and his successors. Notwithstanding this, Mary, the daughter of Reginald, set up a claim for the kingdom, and did homage for it to Edward I.; which circumstance was, 400 years afterwards, adduced as a plea on which judgment was obtained in favour of the heirs general of Ferdinand, Earl of Derby, against their uncle, Earl William.

From this time the power of the Norwegian kings began to decline, and that of the Scottish kings, from whom the Isles had been wrested, recovered strength. Deprived of that support which the inhabitants had hitherto received from Norway, and threatened by the Scots, who were preparing to regain the island by force, Magnus in 1256 visited England, to secure the protection and assistance of Henry III. Aquinus, King of Norway, in 1265 made an unsuccessful attempt to avenge the insult offered to his authority, by a descent upon Scotland, where he met with such powerful resistance, that he was forced to take shelter in the Orcades. Magnus died without issue, the same year; and Alexander, King of Scotland, having subdued the Orkneys and the Hebrides, attacked the Isle of Man, now unprotected, and achieved the conquest of it with a powerful army, in 1270, after a decisive battle at Ronaldsway, in which 900 of the Manks, with their leader, were slain: the kingdom was at once annexed to the dominions of Alexander, who, in token of his conquest, substituted for the ancient armorial ensign of the isle, which was a ship in full sail, the device of the three legs. The tyrannical oppression of the lieutenants by whom it was governed under the Scottish kings, inspired the inhabitants with the resolution of throwing off the Scottish yoke; but the bishop, informed of their determination, interfered to prevent a war, and obtained the consent both of the Manks and of the Scots to decide the contest by thirty champions selected by each party: in the conflict which ensued, the Manks' champions were all killed, and five of the Scottish warriors remained masters of the field. This victory confirmed the conquest of the Scots, and the Manks, finding no resource, submitted to their fate: the ancient regal government was abolished, and a military despotism established in its place. In 1289, the island was surrendered by the Scottish commissioners to Edward I., who restored it the following year to John Balliol; and on the death of Edward in 1307, his sucsessor Edward II. seized it, and, in the course of one year, bestowed it successively upon his favourites, Piers de Gaveston, Gilbert de M. Gascall, and Henricus de Bello Monte. In the reign of Edward III., a female descendant of Mary, daughter of Reginald, revived the claim of her family to the sovereignty of the island, and solicited the protection of that monarch, who, having ascertained the validity of her title, gave her in marriage to Sir William de Montacute, and granted such succours in ships and men, that Sir William expelled the Scots, and, to the great joy of the natives, restored the ancient government in the right line. In the prosecution of his lady's claim, Sir William had contracted so large a debt, that he was compelled to mortgage the island for seven years to Anthony Bec, Bishop of Durham, who, in 1377, obtained from Richard II. a grant of it for life. At the bishop's decease, however, it reverted to the natural heir, William de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, who sold it in 1395 to Sir William Scroop, afterwards Earl of Wiltshire, who was beheaded at the commencement of the war between the houses of York and Lancaster. In the reign of Henry IV. it was in the possession of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, upon whose rebellion it was seized for the king's use by Sir William and Sir John Stanley, the latter of whom, in 1406, received a grant of the island, castle, peel, and lordship of Man, and the Isles appertaining thereto, with all the royalties, regalities, and franchises, and the patronage of the see, to him and his heirs, in as full and ample a manner as they had been granted to any former lord or king, to be held of the British crown, by liege homage, paying to the king a cast of falcons at his coronation. In this family the royalties and revenues descended regularly to William Stanley, sixth earl of Derby, who obtained from James I. a new grant of the isle which was confirmed by act of parliament. The title of "King of Man" was first exchanged for that of "Lord of Man," by Thomas, second earl of Derby.

During the parliamentary war, the island remained steadily attached to the interests of the king, and was among the last places that surrendered to the parliament. General Ireton, on the part of the parliament, offered to James, Earl of Derby, the repossession of all his estates in England, upon condition of his surrendering the Isle of Man; but the earl, in a spirited and memorable reply, rejected the offer with indignation. On the execution of the earl at Bolton-le-Moors, in 1651, the defence was undertaken by his lady; but ReceiverGeneral William Christian, who had the command of the garrison of Castle Rushen, into which she had retired, deeming her cause hopeless, surrendered to the parliament, and the island was subsequently granted to Lord Fairfax. Charles II. restored the island to the son of Earl James; and Christian, being tried by the Manx authorities, and found guilty of treason, was shot, in January, 1662, and his estates confiscated; but the attainder was afterwards reversed, and the family restored to their estates, by an order from the king.

One of the most important occurrences in the civil history of the island was the grant, in 1703, by James, the tenth earl of Derby, and Lord of Man, of the Act of Settlement, by which the lessees of estates were finally established in possession of them, and their descent assigned in perpetuity, on the payment of certain fines, rents, and duties to the lord. This nobleman dying without issue, in 1735, the lordship of Man descended to James Murray, second duke of Atholl, as heir general of his great-grandfather, James, Earl of Derby, who was beheaded at Bolton. In order to put an end to the contraband trade of the island, which, in the beginning of the last century, had attained such an extent as materially to affect the revenue of the country, an act was passed in 1726, authorising the tenth earl of Derby to sell the royalty and revenue of the island; but though many overtures were made by the government, no purchase was concluded till after the death of the abovementioned Duke of Atholl, whose only daughter, Charlotte, Baroness Strange, being married to her cousin James, heir to the dukedom, conveyed to him the lordship of Man. Proposals for the purchase were renewed to this nobleman, in 1765, and measures being at the same time introduced into parliament for more effectually preventing the illicit trade of the island, the duke and duchess agreed to alienate the sovereignty for £70,000, reserving only the manorial rights, the patronage of the see, and some few emoluments and perquisites. A misunderstanding, however, arising in consequence of the British government claiming more than the duke and duchess intended by the treaty to relinquish, a further sum of £2000 per annum was granted to them, upon their lives, and the sovereignty of the island was then transferred to the crown. Soon after this, the act of parliament was passed, which effectually checked the contraband trade. On the ground of inadequate compensation, the duke's son John petitioned parliament, but unsuccessfully until the year 1805, when an act was passed, assigning to him and his heirs one-fourth of the gross revenue of the island; but under another act passed in 1825, the lords of the treasury purchased the whole of the remaining interest of the family, at a valuation amounting to £416,000; and the Isle of Man, with all its privileges and immunities, was thus entirely ceded to the British crown. During the present century, and especially since the island has enjoyed a daily intercourse with England, it has greatly improved in its agriculture and trade, and has more and more attracted the notice of travellers and visiters, by whom, it is thought, not less than £100,000 are now annually spent here. Its pure water, bracing atmosphere, romantic scenery, and interesting antiquities, combine to render it an agreeable watering-place.

The Island is about thirty miles in length, and from nine to eleven miles in average breadth. It is divided into two unequal parts by a mountainous ridge reaching from North Barrule, at the northern extremity, to Brada Head, at the southern; and comprehending in the chain Snaefield, Mount Greeba, Pen-ny Pot, and several others, of which the loftiest is Snaefield, 580 yards above the level of the sea. The sides, as is the case in most of the other mountains, are covered with turbary, or turf, to a short distance from the base, and with various kinds of moss, heath, and rushes, to the summit. North Barrule is a rock of clay slate, which is also the prevailing formation in South Barrule, the latter differing chiefly by being varied, on the north side, with large masses of granite, containing silvery mica, red and white felspar, and grey quartz. Greeba is of very rugged and precipitous ascent, especially in that part near the road leading from Douglas to Peel: the stratum near the surface is a glossy clay, intersected by many large veins of quartz, alternating in some parts with layers of mica slate. Pen-ny Pot, consisting chiefly of clay slate from the base to the summit, is extremely marshy. From Ramsey to Derby haven, and round the south and west shores of the island, the land terminates in cliffs of clay slate, varying in elevation from 100 to more than 250 feet; at the southern extremity is the promontory of Spanish Head, consisting of bold precipices, rising perpendicularly from the level of the beach to the height of more than 300 feet, and divided by extensive chasms into pyramidal and conical masses, which overhang the shore. Detached from this extremity of the island by a rocky channel several hundred yards in breadth (in the middle of which is an island, called Kitterland, whereon sheep are fed in the summer), is the Calf of Man, the largest of the rocky islets which surround the coast: it is nearly five miles in circumference, and comprises an area of more than 600 acres; on the western side the cliffs rise in perpendicular masses to the height of 400 feet, and its summit, which commands an extensive view of the Welsh, Scotch, and Irish mountains, is 500 feet above the level of the sea. On the south side of the Calf of Man is a very large mass of rock, called the Burrow or Barrow, in form resembling a lofty tower, and separated from the other masses by an opening of romantic appearance: near it is another, called the Eye, perforated by a natural arch resembling the eye of a needle.

The harbours are, Douglas, Ramsey, Peel, Port-leMary, and Castletown; and the natural havens, Derby haven, Laxey, and Port-Erin. Douglas harbour, which is dry at low water, and is considered the best dry harbour in the Irish Sea, admits vessels of considerable burthen to approach the quay at high water, the depth being then from twenty to twenty-three feet. The pier, constructed by government at an expense of £22,000, is 520 feet in length, and 40 feet broad to an extent of 450 feet from its commencement, when it expands to a breadth of 90 feet, terminating in a circular area of greater elevation than the narrower part, with a lighthouse in the centre. All vessels having goods or merchandise for bonding are, by act of parliament, compelled to deliver their cargoes exclusively at this port. The bay is two miles across, and has good anchorage except on the north side, being sheltered from all winds except the east and south-east: both its points are rocky, precipitous, and dangerous, and in the centre is a large bed of rocks, called St. Mary's Rock, or the Connister, which are just covered at high water. Ramsey harbour, accessible to vessels of 100 tons' burthen, was lately much improved by the construction of an additional pier, which increased the depth of water more than five feet: there is a lighthouse on the quay. The bay is spacious, and the anchorage good; and several herring-boats are laid up here during the winter. Peel harbour, affording shelter to vessels of small burthen, is formed by a pier 400 yards long, and varying from seven to ten yards in breadth, at the extremity of which is a harbour-light. A jetty, 40 yards in length, was erected in 1830, at an expense of £550. The depth of water at ordinary spring tides is about 15 feet, and at neap tides 11 feet. There are 120 herring-boats, of from 16 to 30 tons' burthen each, belonging to the harbour. Derby haven is the principal resort of the herringboats during part of the fishing season. At its southern extremity, and connected with the mainland by a stone wall about 100 yards in length and 12 feet thick, is the small island of St. Michael, on which a strong circular fort was erected by Charlotte, Countess of Derby, during the protectorate; the walls of this fort, on which is placed a harbour-light, are still entire, and inclose an area 18 yards in diameter, in which are the ruins of two houses, and near them the remains of a church, now used as a place of interment for Roman Catholics, and for persons shipwrecked on that part of the coast. The haven, which is a mile and a half from the direct course, is, from the greater security which it affords, usually selected as a place of landing by passengers to Castletown from Ireland. Port-le-Mary has a good harbour, protected by a pier of considerable extent, at the extremity of which is a harbour-light; and Port-Erin has an excellent bay, affording protection from all winds except the west, and much frequented by the fishing fleet at the commencement of the season. In the high lands between North Barrule and Mount Greeba rise several Streams, which run into the sea at Douglas, Ramsey, Peel, Laxey, and Castletown. The principal are, the Sulby river, which rises on the Snaefield mountain; and the Dhoo and Glass, which unite near Douglas. Even these, however, are shallow and inconsiderable; and few of the numerous others in various parts of the island, are of sufficient force to turn a mill. The Herring-fishery, for which the season commences about July and continues till the end of October, employs from 200 to 300 boats, of from fifteen to thirty tons' burthen, and mostly without decks: the number of herrings generally cured, though subject to great fluctuation, may be averaged at from eight to ten millions.

The island, like the Hebrides, is destitute of natural woods, but in various parts, plantations and shrubberies have been brought into a luxuriant state. The climate is rather milder in winter than that of the neighbouring coasts, but gales of wind and rain are frequent, and of long duration in the spring, rendering the seed-time unfavourable: the heat in summer is moderate, and the harvests are consequently later. The soil of the northern portion of the island is a light sand, resting on a bed of common clay, and in some places of clay marl; but the greater part consists of a soil resting on greywacke and on clay-slate, in general thin, and unproductive without good management. Wheat, barley, and oats are raised in abundance; and great quantities of wheat and barley are exported, these, together with herrings, constituting the chief export trade of the island. Turnips, for which the climate and the soil appear to be extremely propitious, are largely produced; flax is grown in most parts of the island, and artificial grasses thrive well. The commons, or uncultivated lands, are estimated at 31,000 acres. The principal minerals are lead and copper ores, of which veins are found in several of the mountains; the chief mines are at Laxey, Foxdale, and Brada Head near PortErin. Those at Laxey are worked in two levels driven from the steep banks of the river, in the higher of which, opened towards the close of the last century, and extending to the depth of 100 yards, lead and copper ores are found, together with much blende, some zinc, and a kind of mineral earth, called black jack, of which a great quantity is sent to Bristol, where, after being ground and prepared, it is converted into black paint; the lead-ore contains silver, in some instances in the proportion of 200 ounces, and generally in that of from 60 to 80 ounces, per ton. The Foxdale mines, between Castletown and St. John's, of which the chief produce is lead, with a small portion of copper, after having been for some time relinquished, were re-opened; and in 1830, a new vein of lead-ore was discovered within a few feet from the surface, affording an abundant supply with comparatively little labour and expense. Limestone is found in various parts; and below high-water mark, at Spanish Head, is a quarry of very tough clay-slate which is raised in large blocks, occasionally substituted for timber. The Roads, which were formerly exceedingly dangerous, have been much improved since 1776, when an act of Tynwald was passed for improving the highways and bridges, which has been amended by various subsequent acts; they are now little inferior to those of England, and are kept in repair by a fund arising from a tax upon retailers of ale and spiritnous liquors, on lands, houses, and dogs, licences for killing game, and by some fines.

The Commerce of the island, previously to the act of revestment in 1765, and the subsequent regulations, consisted principally in importing and exporting foreign goods, the average returns of which exceeded £350,000, and by some are stated to have amounted to half a million sterling per annum; but on the passing of that act, the customs of the port became vested in the British crown. By an act passed in the 6th of George IV., a new code of revenue laws was framed, of which the principal feature was the system of licensing the importation of certain goods charged with high duties; thus confining it to an extent proportionate to the consumption of the inhabitants, and preventing the island from becoming a depôt for smugglers. With some trifling exceptions, the exportation was confined to goods that were the produce or manufacture of the island, on which no export duty was paid. Among the imports were corn, meal, flax, seeds, linen-yarn, wood-ashes, and flesh of all kinds, which might be imported from any place free of duty; agricultural implements, black-cattle, horses, sheep, boards, brick, cordage, and twine for nets, packthread, hemp, tackle for the fisheries, hoops, linen, utensils for cloth manufacturers, salt, soap-lees, leather, tiles, trees, and timber, which might be imported duty free from all parts of the United Kingdom; balks, barrels, staves and headings for pipes, ebony, hoops, rod and bar iron, oak-planks, oars, spars, pipe-clay, and naval stores, from the British colonies. By the act 7th and 8th Victoria, c. 43, the licence system created by the act of George IV. was in a great measure abrogated, so that tea, coffee, sugar, and indeed all other articles except spirits, wines, and tobacco, may be imported without limit as to quantity, and at about one-half the English duty. Spirits, wines, and tobacco are still admitted by licence, and are thus restricted: brandy, 20,000 gallons, at a duty of 4s. 6d. per gallon; Geneva, 20,000 gallons, duty 2s. 6d.; rum, 70,000 gallons, duty 1s. 6d.; and tobacco, 70,000 lb., at a duty of 1s. 6d. per lb. The act also abolished the system of harbour dues, and opened the ports to the commerce of any part of the world; the change altogether has greatly increased the trade of the island, and the customs' revenue. No foreign imported goods, except corn, can be exported to British ports, the penalty being the forfeiture of the vessel and cargo. The manufacture of sheeting, linen, towelling, sailcloth, and sackcloth, was introduced about the beginning of the present century, when flax-mills were erected; and about the same period the woollen manufacture was established. There are also extensive breweries, paper-mills, tanneries (chiefly for the Manx hides and skins), candle and soap manufactories, and various others, which the freedom from the excise duties tends greatly to encourage: the quantity of leather being insufficient for the supply of the inhabitants, much is imported from England, which is of a very superior quality. Distilleries of all kinds are prohibited by the British government, under a penalty of £200, with forfeiture of all implements employed in the process.

The Government was originally vested in the ancient king, and his council of elders, called Taxiaxi, from a Celtic term of that import, or, according to another opinion, from Taxi, a corruption of Taisgi, a guardian, and Acci, hereditary property. The institution of the assembly is attributed to the Danish prince Orry, who, having added the Hebrides and Orcades to his conquest of this island, directed the inhabitants to choose sixteen representatives, and those of the out-isles eight, to assist him in the government. This assembly consisted of the principal landowners, but for what time the institution continued, and what powers were exercised, cannot now be distinctly ascertained. Since the act of revestment, the functions of the several officers of administration have been more explicitly defined; but the internal policy, laws, and ancient usages of the island remain unchanged; and it is still free from the imposition of direct taxes, with the exception of those for the making and repairing of highways and bridges, previously noticed.

The civil government is vested in Her Majesty; in a council consisting of a governor, and other principal officers; and the House of Keys, comprising twenty-four representatives; the two latter estates together constituting a court of Tynwald, by which all public laws are enacted and promulgated. The Governor, who, with all the civil and military officers, is appointed by the crown, is chancellor ex officio; and his consent is necessary to the enactment of a law. A Lieutenant-Governor performs all the functions of the governor in his absence. The Council consists of the governor, or lieutenant-governor, the bishop of the diocese, the attorney-general, the clerk of the rolls, the two deemsters, the receiver-general, the water-bailiff or admiralty judge, the archdeacon, and the vicar-general, who are ex officio members of the body: the duty of the council is to advise the governor, and to assist him in the administration of justice in his several courts. The House of Keys is the assembly anciently called Taxiaxi: it is supposed to have obtained the name Keys from interpreting, in all cases, the common law; to it lies an appeal from the inferior law courts, and it hears appeals in all cases of disputed titles to landed property. The members fill up vacancies in their body by a majority of votes, nominating two persons, of whom the governor elects one, who thus becomes a member for life; the House may be assembled at the pleasure of the governor. The two Deemsters are officers of very extensive jurisdiction and of high authority, being chief justices of the island: one, presiding over the northern part, keeps his court at Ramsey; and the other, over the southern division, at Douglas. They have cognizance of all causes exceeding the sum of 40s., not being actions for "unliquidated" damages, or such as properly belong to the court of chancery. A High Bailiff is appointed for each of the four towns, by commission from the governor; he is conservator of the peace, and superintendent of police, having jurisdiction in all matters of debt under the amount of 40s. A Coroner, who also has powers analogous in many respects to those of English sheriffs, is appointed by the governor to each of the six sheadings or great divisions of the island. In each parish is an ancient officer, called a Moar, whose duty it is to collect the rents, escheats, waifs, and estrays due to the lord, and to execute the orders of the court baron.

The Laws of the island still retain much of their ancient peculiarity of character, though modified by occasional acts of Tynwald, and in some respects rendered more in unison with those of England. The common law was formerly administered by the deemsters and keys, who, under the lord proprietor, governed the island by a lex non scripta, committed to their loyalty and fidelity, as a sacred trust, and by them orally communicated to posterity. Hence the Manks, at the remotest period of antiquity, designated their common law by the name of "Breast Laws," from its being deposited in the breasts of the deemsters and keys, and only on important occasions divulged to the people. The island has always been governed by its own laws: its most ancient records are the laws and ordinances enacted by the court of Tynwald in 1417. The statute book commences in 1422, and contains a collection of statutes, ordinances, and customs, "presented, reputed, and used for the laws of the island." The laws enacted in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries have but little weight as precedents; a more regular system of legislation commenced about the year 1764, since which several alterations have been made. By an act of Tynwald in 1777, and subsequently in the 57th of George III., the code now in general use was revised, the institution of the grand jury differing from that of England only in the additional benefit of receiving evidence on the part of the accused, which enables them with more certainty to decide upon the finding of a bill.

The principal Courts are those of Chancery, Exchequer, Common Law, General Gaol Delivery, Admiralty; the Deemsters', the High Bailiffs', and the Ecclesiastical courts. The Court of Chancery, in matters of civil property, has the most extensive jurisdiction of all the courts in the island, and is both a court of law and equity: the governor, or, in his absence, the lieutenantgovernor, who is the representative of the sovereign, presides, assisted by the deemsters, the clerk of the rolls, and the water-bailiff or admiralty judge. The Court of Exchequer, which is generally held immediately after the court of chancery, under the governor, or lieutenant-governor, takes cognizance of all matters connected with the revenue. The Courts of Common Law are held at Castle Rushen, and Ramsey, four times in the year; the governor is president, but his duties are performed by one of the deemsters, agreeably to a statute law to that effect. The court takes cognizance of all actions, real, personal, and mixed, and of all suits at common law that require to be determined by a jury. The Court of General Gaol Delivery is held in Castle Rushen twice in the year, under the governor, or lieutenant-governor, assisted by the judicial members of the council, and other officers, for determining upon all offences which by the laws of the island are deemed capital. The Court of Admiralty, in which the waterbailiff presides as sole judge, is held every Saturday, and takes cognizance of all pleas respecting maritime affairs, and of all offences committed on the seas, within the distance of three leagues from the shores of the island. The Deemsters' Courts, which are of great antiquity, are held twice a month in the north and south districts into which the island is divided, the former at Ramsey, KirkMichael, or Peel, and the latter at Douglas and Castletown; they take cognizance of assaults, debts, contracts, and all causes not involving the inheritance of land. The High Bailiffs' courts are held at Castletown, Douglas, Peel, and Ramsey. The Court for Insolvent Debtors is held half-yearly at Castletown. The ecclesiastical courts are, the Consistorial Court, in which the bishop, or his vicar-general, and registrar preside, for all matters relating to the probate of wills, granting letters of administration, almony, church assessments, the guardianship of property belonging to minors, and on all matters pro salute animæ; the Court of the Vicar-General, which takes cognizance generally of all offences against religion and the interests of the church; and the Chapter or Circuit Court, for matters connected with the see, and the general affairs of the diocese.

The Military Establishment of the island consists generally of one or two companies of regular troops from regiments in England, stationed at Castletown, for manning the garrisons, and for the defence of the coast, under the command of the governor. Each of the parishes furnishes four men on horseback, armed, under a captain appointed by the governor; and in each is also an officer, appointed by the governor, called the captain of the parish, who on emergency calls out the militia under his command, and who is also by virtue of his office conservator of the peace.

The towns are Castletown, Douglas, Peel, and Ramsey. Castletown, in the parish of Kirk-Malew, anciently called Rushen, contains 2283 inhabitants, and, being the seat of government, is considered the capital: it is situated at the southern extremity of the island, and on the western shore of Castletown bay, opposite the promontory of Langness Point, 9½ miles (S. W.) from Douglas, the principal port. The town is the most ancient in the island, and is supposed to be coeval with the erection of the castle of Rushen, from which it derived its name, and which was founded by Guttred, the second Danish sovereign in succession from Orry. It is intersected by a small river, over which are a drawbridge, opposite to the castle, for foot passengers, and higher up a bridge of stone for carriages. Near the castle wall is a spacious area, forming the market-place; a convenient markethouse, with an assembly-room over it, was built in 1830. In the town and its vicinity are breweries, corn-mills, lime-kilns, and tanneries. At Derby haven is a small village, chiefly consisting of cottages and some large herring-warehouses. The Castle, which was originally the principal fortress in the island, is situated on the west side of the river, and is considered to bear a striking resemblance to the castle of Elsinore, in Denmark; it is surrounded by a lofty embattled wall and a fosse, and defended by a glacis of stone, said to have been added by Cardinal Wolsey, when guardian to Edward, Earl of Derby. The building is quadrangular, with square towers on the sides, the largest being more than 80 feet high: within the area are some commodious modernised apartments, until of late the residence of the lieutenantgovernor, and some rooms in which the courts are held; and on the walls are three buildings of small dimensions, where the records are kept, and the business of the Rolls' office is transacted. The keep, which is built of hard limestone resembling that found in the neighbourhood, is still entire, and forms the only prison in the island.

The old Chapel of Castletown, erected in 1698 by Bishop Wilson, was taken down in 1826; and the present edifice, handsomely built of limestone cemented, with an octagonal tower, was erected at an expense of £1600. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics. King William's College was founded in 1830, by the trustees of property now producing £500 per annum, assigned by Bishop Barrow, in 1668, for the promotion of sound learning, the education and support of two young men to supply the Manx churches, and other charitable uses. The course of studies embraces religious instruction, the classics, mathematics, oriental literature, the modern languages, navigation, and other sciences, forming a complete and general system of education; the pupils pay a small sum per quarter, and a small admission fee towards the establishment of a library. The buildings, which were consumed by fire in Jan. 1844, were partly in the early English and partly in the Elizabethan style, and formed a spacious cruciform structure, 210 feet in length from east to west, and 135 from north to south: at the intersection rose an embattled tower, 115 feet high, strengthened with buttresses, and crowned by a parapet. They included a handsome church, in the early English style, the erection of which was defrayed from funds collected in England by Bishop Ward, for providing additional churches in the island; and the collegiate buildings, which cost £6000, defrayed partly with money saved out of the academic fund, and partly by the liberal subscriptions of the inhabitants, comprised a public lecture-room, a large hall for a library, four large class-rooms, and houses for the masters, containing numerous apartments for the accommodation of pupils as boarders.

Douglas

Douglas, the largest and most populous town in the island, is situated partly in the parish of Kirk-Braddan, but chiefly in that of Onchan, near the centre of the eastern coast, and on the south of the large semicircular bay of the same name. This town, which contains 10,000 inhabitants, derives its name from the rivers Dhoo and Glass uniting their streams a little above it, and falling into the harbour; it is of a triangular form, the longest side extending from the bridge at the upper end of the harbour, in a north-eastern direction, towards the coast, and the shortest from the same point in a direction towards the pier. The streets are in many parts inconvenient and narrow, and the houses without order or uniformity of appearance; but from the importance of its commerce, and the advantages of its port, it has undergone considerable improvement, and in the suburbs are several new streets regularly formed, and houses of handsome appearance. The town is partially paved, and lighted with gas by a company chartered by act of Tynwald, and the inhabitants are well supplied with water: the pier forms an agreeable promenade. To the south is a range of hills, called Douglas Head; and on the north-east are to be seen the cliff of Clay Head and the mountains of Snaefield and Pen-ny Pot, with the spacious intervening bay, to the right of which is a long extent of the Cumberland coast, crowned with distant mountains: from the summit of Douglas Head, the high lands of Wales are plainly discernible. The bay, with the town and country above it rising from its shores in the form of an amphitheatre, forms a beautiful object, as approached from the sea; and to the north of the town are extensive and firm sands. About half a mile beyond the town is Mona Castle, a magnificent mansion, erected at an expense of £40,000, by the Duke of Atholl, of a fine white sandstone brought from the Isle of Arran. Near it is an elegant marine villa, the late residence of Colonel Stewart, pleasantly situated; and adjoining the lodge is the Marine Terrace, a handsome range of houses of modern erection. At the entrance of the bay, on the south shore, is a battery of two guns. On the banks of the river, west of the town, are several handsome seats, among which is the Nunnery, a building in the early English style, so called from the contiguous ruins of a religious establishment founded, according to Manx tradition, in the sixth century, by St. Bridget, and of which the prioress was a baroness of the island. The salubrity of the air, and the fineness of the beach, have rendered Douglas a place of general resort for sea-bathing, and suitable residences and lodginghouses have been erected at the northern extremity of the bay, and in the town, for the accommodation of the numerous visiters who frequent it during the summer months. On the 16th of August, 1847, it was visited by Her Majesty when on her way to Scotland, with her royal consort and suite, the royal squadron anchoring in the bay: Her Majesty expressed herself highly delighted with the romantic scenery around. A neat theatre is opened during the season; four newspapers are printed, and there are several libraries and newsrooms in the town, and a United Service Club established in 1829.

Considerable trade is carried on at Douglas with the neighbouring coasts; and the building of small vessels and fishing-boats, both for home and for foreign use, is greatly encouraged, the shipwrights being remarkable for their skill. There are also several soap-manufactories, tanyards, breweries, and corn-mills, in the town and neighbourhood. The custom-house, a commodious building, situated on the quay, was formerly the residence of the Duke of Atholl. There is a steam-packet to Liverpool direct, every day during summer, and twice a week during winter; also a regular line between Douglas and Fleetwood. Steam-vessels running between Liverpool and Glasgow call daily, and one from Whitehaven to Dublin every Saturday on her way thither, and every Monday on her return, during the summer: there are also several traders from the port to Liverpool, Whitehaven, and the Scottish and Irish ports. The market, on Saturday, is well furnished with provisions of all kinds; and there is an ample supply of fresh fish throughout the year, with a little salmon during the summer months. A fair for cattle is held on November 12th. The deemster for the southern division of the island holds his court here as occasion requires, and the high bailiff his court every Saturday for the recovery of debts under 40s. The vicar-general holds an ecclesiastical court every alternate Friday, and a chapter or circuit court in spring and autumn. The court-house, situated near the pier, is a plain building, with a small lock-up house for the confinement of offenders previously to their being sent to Castletown for trial.

On one side of the market-place is a small chapel, dedicated to St. Matthew, to which is attached a library, established by Bishop Wilson, and augmented by Bishop Hyldesley with a bequest of 200 volumes. On an eminence to the west of the town is a neat chapel dedicated to St. George; and in Fort-street is another, dedicated to St. Barnabas, in the early English style, with turrets crowned with pinnacles at the angles of the nave, and at the west end a handsome tower surmounted by a spire, 140 feet high. The two first chapels are in the gift of the Bishop, and the last in the gift of Trustees. The fine church of St. Thomas was erected in 1847–8. A condemned sloop of war, on the application of Bishop Ward, was presented by Earl de Grey, when first lord of the admiralty, and is moored in the harbour as a mariner's chapel. There are places of worship for Independents, Primitive Methodists, Wesleyans, Presbyterians, and Roman Catholics. A national school, established in 1810, and for which commodious schoolrooms have been erected at an expense of £1120, is supported by subscription; a house of industry has been established within the last few years, and there are various benefit and friendly societies.

Peel

Peel, anciently called Holme Town, in the parish of Kirk-German, containing 2133 inhabitants, is situated on the western coast, 10½ miles (N. W.) from Douglas, and 12 miles from Castletown. It is chiefly remarkable for the remains of its ancient castle and cathedral, to which it was indebted for its early importance. Prior to the sale of the island in 1765, Peel was a place of considerable commerce, and the resort of smugglers; but since that period the inhabitants have been principally employed in agriculture and the fishery, herrings on this part of the coast being taken in abundance, and not less than 120 boats belonging to the harbour. The market is on Friday, chiefly for provisions; and there are fairs on March 28th and July 24th, for horses and cattle. The deemsters hold their courts here occasionally; the high bailiff a court every Saturday, for the recovery of debts under 40s.; and the vicar-general a chapter or circuit court, in spring and autumn. A new court-house has been erected. The free grammar school was founded in 1746, by Philip Moore, Esq., who endowed it with £500; the mathematical school was founded in 1763, by the Rev. James Moore, of Dublin, who bequeathed the ground-rent of three houses in that city. There is also a national school, and several small bequests have been left for instruction.

The remains of the Castle are situated on a small rocky island, about 100 yards west of the town, and separated from it by Peel river, but joined to the mainland by a stone wall narrowing towards the summit, built many years since to defend the harbour. The walls are flanked with towers, and inclose a polygonal area of about five acres, almost filled with the ruins of walls, buildings, and dwelling-houses; in the centre is a pyramidal mound of earth surrounded by a ditch, supposed to have been either a tumulus raised over the ashes of some illustrious chief, or a mount from the summit of which harangues were made to the populace. Within the area are the ruins of the church of St. German, erected about the year 1245, as the Cathedral, but which has not been used, except as a burial-place, for many years: beneath the eastern part of it is a vault, 18 feet deep, of which the groined roof is supported on low dwarf pillars, and which was anciently used as the ecclesiastical prison. Bishop Hyldesley was the last prelate enthroned in the church. The ruins of St. Patrick's, the first Christian church erected in the island, are a little to the west of the cathedral, and exhibit some characteristics of the Norman style. In the rocks along the neighbouring coast are many curious caverns; and agates and cornelians are found on the sands. About three miles from the town is the Tynwald Mount, where all new laws, according to ancient usage, must be promulgated to the people. When the legislative assembly is collected, a chair under a canopy is placed on the summit for the governor, or lieutenant-governor, below whom, on terraces, the deemsters, the council, and the keys, take their places, according to their respective orders, the surrounding area being occupied by the people. The Tynwald court is held on July 5th, when coroners are appointed for the year. The legislative assembly meet at St. John's chapel, from which, after divine service has been performed, they move in procession to the mount.

Ramsey

Ramsey, containing 2104 inhabitants, is situated on the north-eastern coast, in the parish of Kirk-Maughold, 15½ miles (N. N. E.) from Douglas, and 25 (N. E.) from Castletown, near the mouth of the Sulby, the largest river in the island, over which is a stone bridge of three arches. The neighbourhood, which is exceedingly picturesque, and adorned with several handsome seats and pleasing villas, is remarkable as the scene of numerous battles fought between the Danes and the Scots, when the latter had possession of the island. On Her Majesty's return from Scotland, in the autumn of 1847, the royal squadron anchored for five hours in Ramsey bay, Prince Albert going on shore, and ascending a contiguous eminence, that he might survey the country. From this height, his royal highness commanded a view of five parishes, with their villas and gardens, of the distant sea, and the highlands of Scotland; he was highly gratified, and acknowledged in glowing terms the beauties of the scenery before him. The inhabitants of Ramsey and its vicinity, flattered by the royal attention, named the mount "Mount Albert," and a contiguous glen "Victoria Glen," and raised a subscription to erect a monument on the former as a lasting memorial of the visit. The town is irregularly built; the streets are wide, clean, and well paved. The trade consists principally in the exportation of Manx produce, especially wheat, amounting in value to about £40,000 per annum; and several steam-packets between Liverpool and Glasgow call at the port twice in the week. The market, on Saturday, is abundantly supplied with provisions, which are lower in price than at any other town in the island. Common-law courts are held here quarterly, a deemster presiding; the deemster for the northern division of the island holds his court occasionally, and the high bailiff his court every Saturday for the recovery of debts under 40s. An ecclesiastical court, in which either the bishop or his vicar-general presides, takes place every alternate week; and a chapter or circuit court, in spring and autumn. The court-house, which is the largest in the island, is a neat building, ornamented over the entrance with the arms of England and those of the island sculptured in stone. A new chapel, dedicated to St. Paul, and situated in the market-place, was erected in 1819, by subscription, and the old chapel, just without the town, is now used as a burial-place for strangers. The living is in the Bishop's gift; income, £100. There are places of worship for Scottish Presbyterians, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans; also two national schools; and some small sums have been left for instruction, and for the poor.

The See, according to Camden, was originally established in the ninth century by Pope Gregory IV., in the small village of Sodor, in Iona, or St. Columb's Isle, corruptly called Icolmkill, a small island of the Hebrides. In 1098, Magnus, King of Norway, having by conquest obtained possession of those islands and the Isle of Man, united them under one bishop, in whose jurisdiction they continued till 1333, when the English took the island; since which period, though the bishop has maintained no claim to the see of Sodor, he has retained the ancient title of Sodor and Man. He enjoys all the dignities and spiritual rights of other bishops, with the exception of having a vote in the house of peers, in which, by courtesy only, he has a seat. The see was annexed to the province of York in the 33rd of Henry VIII. The ecclesiastical government is vested in a bishop, archdeacon, a vicar-general, a registrar, an official, and an archdeacon's registrar; the bishop has an endowment of £3000 per annum.


Arms of the Bishopric.

The Island is divided into the north and south portions, each of which contains three sheadings. In the north division are, Ayre sheading, comprising the parishes of Kirk-Andreas, Kirk-Bride, and Kirk-ChristLezayre; Garff sheading, those of Kirk-Lonan and Kirk-Maughold; and Michael sheading, those of KirkBallaugh, Jurby, and Kirk-Michael. In the southern division are, Glanfaba sheading, comprising the parishes of Kirk-German, Kirk-Marown, and Kirk-Patrick; Middle sheading, those of Kirk-St. Anne, Kirk-Braddan, and Kirk-Onchan; and Rushen sheading, those of KirkArbory, Kirk-Christ-Rushen, and Kirk-Malew.

The parish of Kirk-Andreas is situated in the northern part of the island, and contains 2332 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £800. The church, rebuilt in 1802, contains a handsome marble font, which formerly belonged to Philip I. of France, but, being confiscated at the time of the Revolution, was presented to the parish by Mr. Corlett: near the entrance gate is an ancient cross with Runic inscriptions. A second incumbency, called St. Jude's, is in the gift of the Archdeacon; income, £100. There is a parochial school, and at KerroGarroo a school for girls; also a national school in the parish. A fair is held in the village on the 11th of December, for cattle. Near a seat called Ballacurry, is a quadrangular encampment, supposed to have been constructed by the parliamentarian troops. Some barrows have been opened in the parish, and found to contain urns and other relics.

Kirk St. Anne parish, 4 miles (N. E.) from Castletown, on the road to Douglas, contains 769 inhabitants, and comprises by measurement 4000 acres, chiefly in pasture. Stone of good quality is quarried for building, and also for repairing the roads. The village is neatly built, and the surrounding scenery pleasingly diversified. A fair for cattle is held on Whit-Monday. The living is a vicarage in the patronage and impropriation of the Crown; the vicarial tithes, by a recent act of the Manx legislature, have been commuted for a rent-charge of £175, and the glebe comprises 7 acres. The church is a small neat edifice, built in 1720. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists. A national school was endowed with £100, by Mr. William Leece, of Liverpool, in 1805; and in the village is a small school of industry for girls. About a mile to the east of the church, is an irregular circle of stones, probably Druidical; and on the coast to the left of Greenock Creek is an oblong tumulus called Cronk na Myrrhow, or the Hill of the Dead.

Kirk-Arbory parish is situated in the southern part of the island, and, including the village of Colby, contains 1615 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £150; impropriator, G. Quirk, Esq. There is a parochial school. Fairs are held on June 22nd, October 28th, and December 6th. Near Balladoole is a brackish spring, issuing perhaps from a salt rock. Behind Colby House is KielPharrick, or Kirk-Patrick, a good specimen of the ancient kiels, or kirks, so common in the island: these kiels consist of a small inclosed area occupied with graves, in the centre of which are the ruins of the ancient church, generally of a quadrangular form, and of diminutive proportions. In the vicinity are five lofty stones of uncommon dimensions, and some other Druidical remains; and there are barrows in various parts of the parish.

Ballaugh parish lies in the north-western portion of the island, and contains 1516 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £300; one-third of the rectorial tithe be, longs to the bishop. The old church, dedicated to St. Mary, is about a mile from the village; near which a new building has been erected, in the early English style, with a lofty embattled tower of three stagesstrengthened with buttresses and crowned by pinnacles. There is a parochial school. A brewery has been established; fairs take place annually on May 20th and August 26th. In this and the adjoining parishes are several rabbit-warrens; and near the village are pits of shell marl, in which heads, horns, and skeletons of gigantic antediluvian elks have been found: a complete skeleton, of the largest dimensions, is deposited in the museum of the University of Edinburgh.

Kirk-Braddan parish includes part of the town of Douglas, and contains 2379 inhabitants. There are paper and corn mills, and a linen manufactory employing about 400 persons, to which are attached a flaxmill and spacious bleaching-grounds. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the tithes of four quarter lands; net income, £175; patron, and appropriator of the remainder of the tithes, the Bishop. The church is pleasantly situated in a picturesque spot, about two miles from Douglas, on the road to Peel: in the churchyard are a Runic pillar with an inscription, and several ancient crosses. Other incumbencies are noticed under the head of Douglas. Here is a parochial school. Near the bleaching-green, on that branch of the Douglas river called the Glass, is a fortified hill named Castle Ward; and in the vicinity are various ruins of kiels, or kirks, which are preserved with scrupulous veneration.

Kirk-Bride

Kirk-Bride is the most northern parish in the island, and contains 1153 inhabitants. A fair for cattle is held on February 12th. In the parish is the Point of Ayre, forming the northern extremity; the land is very low, and the shoals that extend to a considerable distance from the shore have occasioned many shipwrecks. A few years since, a lighthouse was erected near the Point, rising to the height of 106 feet above the level of the sea. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Crown, with an income of £300; one-third of the rectorial tithe belongs to the bishop. The church is dedicated to St. Bridget. A school is supported.

Kirk-Christ-Lezayre parish, situated near the town of Ramsey, contains 2322 inhabitants; it is very extensive, and abounds with picturesque views and much beautiful scenery. Turf and bog-timber are found in considerable quantities within its limits. Fairs for cattle are held at the village of Sulby, on the 4th of June and 24th of July. The living is a vicarage, with a net income of £176; the patronage, and two-thirds of the rectorial tithes, belong to the Crown, and the remaining third of the rectorial tithes to the bishop. The church is dedicated to the Holy Trinity. A chapel dedicated to St. Stephen was erected at Sulby in 1839; it is a handsome cruciform structure in the later English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire, and contains under the same roof schoolrooms for boys and girls, which, being thrown open by sliding panels, form on Sundays a part of the space allotted to the congregation. The living is in the gift of the Bishop; income, £60. In addition to the parochial school are, the Sulby school, endowed with £11 per annum; and the Mountain school, founded in 1764.

Kirk-Christ-Rushen parish, 4 miles (W.) from Castletown, contains 3079 inhabitants, and comprises several thousand acres, of which 5428 are titheable; it includes Spanish Head, the Calf of Man, and the villages of Port St. Mary and Port Erin. The Calf of Man contains only a small portion of arable land, the remainder consisting of sheep-walks, wearing a dreary aspect, unenlivened, with the exception of the garden of the farmer, by either shrub or tree. This small isle is the resort of sea-fowl and aquatic birds of every kind, and abounds with rabbits, of which not less than 2000 are annually killed. In another part of the parish, some lead-mines were formerly wrought, but have been for a long time discontinued; there are good quarries of limestone, and also of freestone for building. Port St. Mary and Port Erin are pleasantly situated and neatly built, and the surrounding scenery abounds with romantic features. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £140, and the glebe contains one acre, with a house lately built. The church is a plain neat edifice, erected in 1757. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists; and a parochial, a national, and a girls' school. Between Port St. Mary and Port Erin are two huge masses of unhewn slate, called the "Giants' quoiting stones;" and within a mile of them is Fairy Hill, a barrow situated in a low morass, from which two defiles lead respectively to Port Erin bay and Fleswick creek.

Kirk-German

Kirk-German parish, including the town of Peel, contains 4029 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage; net income, £160; patron and appropriator, the Bishop. The church is dedicated to St. Peter. There is a parochial school; and at St. John's is a chapel, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown. Fairs are held at St. John's on March 17th, May 1st and 18th, July 5th, and November 1st. There are several ancient kiels in the parish.

Kirk-Jurby parish occupies the north-western part of the island, and contains 1063 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage; net income, £170; patron and appropriator, the Bishop. The church, dedicated to St. Patrick, stands about half a mile to the north-east of Point Jurby, on an elevated site, from which the high lands of England, Scotland, and Ireland, may be plainly discerned. In the churchyard is a barrow, and in other parts of the parish are various others, besides several watch and ward hills. There is a parochial school. A fair is held on April 5th, for hiring female servants. Turf and bog-timber are found in the parish, in abundance.

Kirk-Lonan parish, 7 miles (N. E. by N.) from Douglas, contains 2220 inhabitants, and comprises 755 acres, of which about 600 are sheep pasture, a few acres woodland, and the remainder inferior arable; the substratum is chiefly freestone of good quality for building, which is extensively quarried, and there are some mines of lead and copper ore. The village of Laxey is finely situated on the sea-shore, near the influx of a stream on whose banks are a flax-mill and a paper-mill, in the latter of which a considerable quantity of paper is manufactured for exportation. Fairs are held on the 10th of May and the 5th of August, for horses and cattle. The living is a vicarage, endowed with one-third of the tithes of the parish: the net income is £140, and the patronage and impropriation belong to the Crown; the glebe comprises 13 acres. The church, dedicated to St. Lomanus, was rebuilt by subscription, in 1833, and is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire. At Dhoon is an incumbency in the gift of the Bishop; income, £60. Here are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists; also a parochial, and a national school. About two miles on the road to Douglas are parts of a Druidical tomb, called the Cloven-stones, from two stones loftier than the others, and by tradition said to have been erected over the remains of a Welsh prince who, having landed at Laxey for the invasion of the island, was killed by the natives, and interred on the spot. There are also numerous cairns and barrows.

Kirk-Malew parish, including Castletown, the capital of the island and the seat of government, and the villages of Ballasalla and Derby haven, contains 5368 inhabitants; it is situated at the south-western extremity of the island, and comprises by computation 12,000 acres, of which 9000 are arable, and the greater portion of the remainder meadow and pasture. The surface is boldly varied, rising in some parts into hills of mountainous elevation, and the lower grounds are watered by a river which flows into Castletown bay; the scenery is in many parts beautifully picturesque. There are mines producing lead and copper, and also some quarries of excellent building-stone; on the northern declivity of South Barrule mountain are extensive slate-quarries, and within the parish are the Foxdale lead-mines. On the banks of the river are flax and corn mills; there are likewise some breweries. A considerable trade is carried on in lime, not only for the supply of the island, but also for exportation to England, Scotland, and Ireland; the whole is brought from the quarries and lime-works belonging to Thomas Moore and Thomas Jefferson, Esqrs. The village of Ballasalla, the largest and most populous village in the island, is beautifully situated, comprehending some fine views, in which the ruins of Rushen Abbey, on the opposite bank of the river, form an interesting feature. Fairs are held at St. Mark's on the 5th of January and the 12th of May, and at Ballasalla on the 12th of August and 29th of September, for cattle. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Crown: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for £140, and the glebe contains 7 acres. The church, erected in 1688, is a neat structure, and contains numerous handsome monuments. The chapel dedicated to St. Mark was erected in 1772, under the auspices of Bishop Hyldesley, who endowed it with a glebe of 60 acres; it was repaired in 1830, at the expense of the then bishop. The parish contains two other chapels, St. Mary's, and St. Thomas's; one of these is noticed under the head of Castletown. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists. The free grammar school at Castletown was founded in 1666, by Bishop Barrow, and is endowed with £60 per annum, arising from the Impropriate Fund. The parochial school at Ballasalla is endowed with £8 per annum for the master; a national school at Castletown is maintained by subscription. Near Ballasalla are the remains of the monastery of St. Mary of Rushen, founded in 1098, and endowed with one-third of the tithes of the island; and in several parts of the coast are vestiges of ancient fortifications, among which is a circular encampment, surrounded with a moat, and defended by a parapet.

Kirk-Marown parish, situated on the road between the towns of Douglas and Peel, contains 1317 inhabitants, and comprises by computation 10,000 acres, of which about one-half are arable, and the other pasture and mountain. The surface is mountainous, and the scenery much diversified, being in some parts embellished with plantations of firs, chiefly larch, and with ash, elm, and sycamore trees. The soil in the valleys is a rich loam, and on the hills a lighter kind of loam intermixed with gravel; the substratum is mostly primitive rock, and abounds with mineral produce of various kinds, but chiefly lead. A fair for horses and cows is held on the 2nd of February. The living is a vicarage; net income, £150, with 13 acres of glebe; patron, the Crown. The church was erected in 1754, by subscription, aided by the Atholl family, and is a neat structure in the early English style, containing 300 sittings. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a parochial school, and an infants' school, are supported partly by an endowment from the Impropriate Fund and from Lady Elizabeth Hastings' charity. The old church of the barony forms an interesting ruin. On the northern acclivity of Mount Murray are the most perfect remains of a Druidical temple to be found in the island; the main part consists of stones of moderate size, placed erect, and at regular distances, inclosing a circular area 14 yards in diameter, and to the east of the inclosure are two semicircular mounds of stone and earth, with an interval of five yards between them, circumscribing part of the circle. The spot is bleak and sterile, but the name Glen Darrah, signifying in the Manx language "the vale of the oaks," would imply that it was formerly planted.

Kirk-Maughold parish, which includes the town of Ramsey, and the villages of Maughold and Port Vullin, contains 3689 inhabitants. It is situated on the northeastern coast, extending to the bold promontory of Maughold Head, which terminates in a lofty and precipitous cliff, forming the eastern extremity of the island. The surface is boldly varied, and the scenery in many parts embellished with wood; the higher grounds command extensive sea-views, embracing in the distance the mountains of Scotland and of Cumberland. On one of the acclivities is a fine spring called St. Maughold's Well, formerly of great celebrity, and still resorted to for its medicinal properties; and at Ballaglass is a cascade of great beauty, surrounded by well-wooded scenery. The soil is for the greater part gravel, producing excellent barley; there are mines of iron in operation, the ore of which is exported to England and Scotland, and also some extensive quarries of good building-stone. Fairs are held in March and November, chiefly for cattle. The living is a vicarage, with a net income of £175; the glebe comprises 70 acres: the patronage and impropriation belong to the Crown. The church is an ancient structure in the later English style, situated in an area of three acres; it was formerly a sanctuary for criminals. At Ramsey is a second incumbency. There are two places of worship for Wesleyans; and a parochial school endowed with £15 per annum. Opposite to the church gate is a cross, and near it a column consisting of a circular shaft about five feet high, supporting a cubic block of stone, with figures sculptured on the sides; both crosses are supposed to be of Danish origin. About half way between the village and Ramsey, also, is a stone cross of great antiquity.

Kirk St. Michael parish, situated on the road from Ramsey to Peel, contains 1376 inhabitants, and comprises by computation 9000 acres, of which 5000 are arable, 2000 pasture, and about 2000 mountain and common land. It is intersected from north-east to south-west by the mountains Slieudhoo, Slieu-neGraughane, and Sartyl, from which the lands slope towards the sea-shore, where they terminate in precipitous heights varying from 20 to 100 feet above the level of the sea. The scenery is in many parts romantic. The heights are indented with several deep glens, watered by small streams descending from the hills and flowing into the sea, making in their progress some picturesque waterfalls; of these glens the principal are Glen Trunk, Glen Val Eirah, Glen Wyllan, and Glen Balla Gawn. Stone of excellent quality is abundant. The village, which is situated near the sea-shore, is neatly built; there are three mills for grain, and one for flax, a carding-mill, and a dye-house. Fairs for horses, cattle, and sheep are held on the 10th of October. Within a mile to the west of the village is Bishops' Court, the episcopal palace, an ancient structure, of which mention occurs in the thirteenth century. The building was originally a massive tower, surrounded by a moat including a spacious area, but has been improved at various times by successive prelates; Bishop Murray erected an elegant chapel, added several apartments to the palace, and embellished the demesne, which comprises from 500 to 600 acres. Near the village is a neat court-house; the consistory court is held on the last Thursday in every month except September and December, the bishop presiding either in person or by his vicar-general and registrar, and the vicar-general holds chapter courts in spring and autumn. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £165, with a glebe of 25 acres. The church, rebuilt in 1835, at a cost of £1300, is in the Norman style, and contains 800 sittings; it has since been coated with Roman cement, at an expense of £200. In the churchyard are the tombs of the venerable Bishop Wilson, who died in the 93rd year of his age, and the 58th of his prelacy, and of his successor, Bishop Hyldesley: Dr. John Phillipps, Dr. George Mason, and Dr. C. Crigan, bishops of the see, were likewise interred here. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists. A parochial and a national school, in one building erected in 1841, are partly supported from the Impropriate Fund and Lady Elizabeth Hastings' charity. Opposite to the churchyard gate is a lofty square Runic pillar of slate-stone, curiously sculptured from the base to the summit, with devices singularly involved, and bearing an inscription to the honour of Thurulf, a Norwegian chief. There are several barrows in the neighbourhood. The late Col. Mark Wilks, author of Historical Sketches of the South of India, was a native of the parish, of which his father was incumbent.

Kirk-Onchan parish includes the chief part of the town of Douglas, and contains above 10,000 inhabitants; it is situated on the road to Ramsey, and comprises 4782a. 3r. 16p. The living is a vicarage, in the gift of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £140, and the glebe, in two detached portions, comprises 23 acres, with a house built in 1839. The church, dedicated to St. Paul, was erected in 1833, and is a handsome structure, in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire. There are places of worship for Wesleyans; and a parochial school is partly supported by an endowment from the Impropriate Fund and Lady Elizabeth Hastings' charity.

Kirk-Patrick parish, containing 2768 inhabitants, and situated about a mile and a half from the town of Peel, was formerly part of the parish of Kirk-German, from which it was separated in 1714. It is bounded by the small river Neb, which, except in times of flood, is merely a trout stream flowing through Peel into the sea. The surface is mountainous, with comparatively little wood, though recently some plantations have been commenced, which, when sufficiently extended, will greatly enrich the scenery; the lands are chiefly arable, and the produce excellent wheat, of which considerable quantities are sent to Liverpool. To the south of the church is the romantic Glen Moij, celebrated for its beautiful waterfall. There are several quarries of blue slate little inferior to that of Wales. The manufacture of woollen-cloth and blankets is carried on occasionally for the use of the country people, on a very limited scale. The living is a vicarage; net value, £180, with a detached glebe of 40 acres; patron, the Bishop. The present church was erected on the separation of the parish, chiefly through the exertions of Bishop Wilson, who contributed £50 towards its endowment; it is a plain structure. The old church or chapel, now in ruins, is within the walls of Peel Castle. A church was erected at Dalby, in 1838, by Bishop Ward; it is a handsome edifice in the later English style, dedicated to St. James, and the living is in the gift of the Bishop. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists; also a parochial school with an endowment of £12 per annum. Near Dalby is a spot said to have been the cemetery of the Manx monarchs; it is situated under a lofty cairn, and is accessible at high water by boats. Ballamoore, in the parish, was the seat of Sir George Moore, the only native of the Isle of Man that ever attained the honour of knighthood.

The service in the several churches is performed alternately in the Manx and English languages. By letterspatent dated 1675, Charles II. granted an annuity of £100 payable from the exchequer out of the excise duties, towards the maintenance of poor clergymen of the isle; out of which, £3 per annum were to be paid to the schools of Castletown, Douglas, Ramsey, KirkAndreas, Ballaugh, and Kirk-Bride. The impropriate tithes of several parishes, also, were purchased from Charles, Earl of Derby, by Bishop Barrow and Archdeacon Fletcher, for the sum of £1000, as appears by indenture dated November 1st, 1666, for the purpose of augmenting the stipends of the poorer livings, and for the erection of a free school, and the support of a master, in each parish in the island. On the death of James, Earl of Derby, in 1735, James, Duke of Atholl, as heir-general of the Derby family, took possession of the tithes, for the recovery of which, or for indemnity for the loss, Bishop Wilson and Archdeacon Kippax, in 1742, filed a bill in chancery. The earl agreed to pay the annual sum of £219. 7. 10½.; and this payment having been discontinued in 1809, a bill of revivor was filed by Bishop Crigan and Archdeacon Mylrea, who eventually obtained the payment into the Bank of England of £16,000, in discharge of the obligation. The produce of this sum, £600 per annum, is appropriated to the augmentation of church livings; to the payment of £60 per annum to the master of the grammar school at Castletown, and £5. 10. per annum to each of the masters of the parochial schools. James, Duke of Ormond, in 1676 charged certain estates in Ireland with the payment of £60 per annum, for the establishment of a lectureship in philosophy, history, and logic; but after the duke's death the payment was discontinued, and Bishop Wilson obtained in commutation the sum of £600, the produce of which is appropriated to that purpose. Lady Elizabeth Hastings, in 1739, bequeathed £40 per annum, arising from lands and tenements in the West riding of Yorkshire, to be distributed among certain parishes, for instruction. Mrs. Halsalls, in 1758, bequeathed property in the isle, now producing £111 per annum, to erect a house for the master of the grammar school at Castletown, and to build and endow a free school there for girls; the residue to be annually applied to the support of the widows, and to apprenticing the orphan children, of clergymen. For this last purpose the income, augmented by subsequent benefactions, is about £110 per annum. Bishop Hyldesley left £600 to the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, to supply the islanders with religious books.

Manaccan, or Monathon (St. Menaacus and St. Dunstan)

MANACCAN, or Monathon (St. Menaacus and St. Dunstan), a parish, in the union of Helston, W. division of the hundred of Kerrier and of the county of Cornwall, 7 miles (S. W. by S.) from Falmouth; containing 569 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in a pleasant vale of the same name, is bounded on the east by the river Hel, and includes the small port of Helford. The parish comprises by measurement 1718 acres. There are slate-quarries at Treath, and stone of good quality for building is obtained. In a stream that flows through the vale into the estuary adjoining the parish, a mineral was discovered a few years since, which was called Manaccanite, and subsequently Titanium; it is one of the varieties of Titaniferous iron. The river, which at Halford is nearly a mile in breadth, is navigated for three miles beyond that port by vessels bringing timber from Norway; and the port affords safe anchorage for vessels of from 200 to 300 tons' burthen, when detained by contrary winds from reaching Falmouth. Fairs are held on the 11th of March and 15th of October, or on the Tuesdays nearest to those days. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £4. 16. 0½.; patron, the Bishop of Exeter; impropriator of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, G. W. F. B. Gregor, Esq. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £240, and the incumbent's for £180; the glebe comprises 34 acres. The church, an ancient structure, in the early English style, received in 1824 an addition of 100 sittings: a large fig-tree growing out of the south wall, and about sixty years old, is in a flourishing state. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans, and a national school. At Tregonwell are vestiges of an old chapel, and Roman coins have been frequently found there; at Resmorden is a double intrenchment, running parallel with the road from Helston to St. Keverne. The Rev. R. Polwhele, historian of the counties of Cornwall and Devon, was vicar from 1794 to 1821.

Manaton (St. Winifred)

MANATON (St. Winifred), a parish, in the union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Teignbridge, Crockernwell and S. divisions of Devon, 6 miles (S.) from Moreton; containing 429 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4200 acres, of which 2469 are common or waste land. Tin is procured in abundance, and at Challacombe are mines in operation; granite also is found, and from the quarries here, which are not now worked, were supplied great quantities of granite for the erection of Waterloo bridge, London. The river Bovey flows through a rocky subterraneous channel, about a furlong in length, and forms a picturesque cascade. On Hayne Down is a pillar of granite. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 12. 8½.; net income, £209; patron, the Rev. W. Carwithen, D.D.: the glebe comprises 36 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower. At Grimspound, in the parish, is an inclosure of loose stones, containing about three acres, within which are several minor inclosures. The Rev. J. B. S. Carwithen, Bampton lecturer at Oxford in 1809, and author of the History of the Church of England, was born here in April, 1781.

Manby (St. Mary)

MANBY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Louth, Marsh division of the hundred of Louth-Eske, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5½ miles (E. by S.) from the town of Louth; containing 211 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation about 1500 acres; the surface is rather level, and the soil strong. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 10. 2.; net income, £482; patron, the Rev. John Waite: the tithes were commuted for 346 acres of land, and a money payment, in 1815. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.

Manby

MANBY, a hamlet, in the parish of Broughton, union of Glandford-Brigg, E. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5 miles (W. by N.) from Glandford-Brigg. Manby Hall is a neat mansion, in pleasant grounds.

Mancetter (St. Peter)

MANCETTER (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Atherstone, Atherstone division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick; containing, with the town of Atherstone, and the hamlets of Hartshill and Oldbury, 5182 inhabitants, of whom 332 are in the township of Mancetter. The township consists of 1493 acres. The river Anker and the Coventry canal run through it, and roads to Hinckley and Nuneaton branch off here. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 4.; net income, £229; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Benjamin Richings; impropriator, J. M. B. Pigott, Esq., M.D. The church occupies an eminence supposed to have been the site of a camp; it is a spacious and ancient structure of very picturesque appearance, and has a handsome eastern window of stained glass. Additional churches have been built at Atherstone and Hartshill. Half a mile east of the church was the Roman station styled by Antoninus Manduessedum, of an oblong form, with large ramparts inclosing an area of about seven acres, intersected by the Roman Watling-street; the north-western side, named Castle banks, is in Warwickshire, and the southeastern, called Oldfield banks, in Leicestershire. Oval flint axes, or celts, Roman bricks, coins of gold, silver, and brass, with various other relics of antiquity, have been found. In the village of Mancetter is an hospital, endowed with a bequest of £2000 from James Gramer, in 1724, for six poor men, now increased to eleven, who each receive 7s. per week: they are chosen from the poor of Mancetter and Atherstone, Mancetter having the prior claim. During the reign of Mary, Robert Glover and Mary Lewes, of this place, suffered martyrdom; the former at Coventry, and the latter at Lichfield. Tablets to their memory are erected in the church.

Manchester (The Blessed Virgin, or St. Mary)

MANCHESTER (The Blessed Virgin, or St. Mary), a borough, city, and parish, in the hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster; containing, in the year 1841, 353,390 inhabitants, of whom 163,856 are within the township of Manchester, 31 miles (E. by N.) from Liverpool, 54 (S. E. by S.) from Lancaster, and 186 (N. W. by N.) from London. The origin of this city, which is so pre-eminent for the extent of its trade and the importance of its manufactures, may be traced to a period of remote antiquity. In the time of the Druids it was distinguished as one of the chief stations of their priests, and was celebrated for the privilege of sanctuary attached to its altar, which in the British language was styled Meyne, signifying "a stone." Prior to the Christian era it was one of the principal seats of the Brigantes, who had a castle or stronghold, called Mancenion, or "the place of tents," near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. The site of the castle, still designated the "Castle Field," was by the Romans, on their conquest of this part of the island under Agricola, about the year 79, selected as the station of the Cohors Prima Frisiorum, and, with reference to the original British name, called by them Mancunium; hence the Saxon name Manceastre, from which the modern appellation of Manchester is obviously derived. This station was for nearly four centuries occupied by the Romans, and was amply provided with every thing requisite for the accommodation and subsistence of the garrison established in it, having also a water-mill on the Medlock, at some distance below the town, upon a site that still retains the name of Knott Mill. The station included a quadrangular area 500 feet in length and 400 in width, the interior not exactly level, but rising from the centre towards the sides, where a rampart of earth sloping inwards was raised from the ground surrounding the inclosure, which was thus made lower than the site of the castrum. On the summit of this rampart a wall was originally built, extending round the inclosure, and on one side was placed the castle or fort; but very little of the foundation of the wall is at present discernible, the few remaining portions being under ground, and the greater part of the site covered with modern buildings. From this station, as from a common centre, Roman roads branched off to Cambodunum, Eboracum, Condate, Rigodunum, Veratinum, and Rerigonium. In the vicinity of the aboriginal settlement, which eventually obtained the name of Aldport, Roman urns and other vessels, stones inscribed to centurions of the cohort, votive altars, coins, fibulæ, and lachrymatories, have been found at various times; and without the vallum, foundations of Roman buildings, and other vestiges of antiquity, have been frequently discovered.

After the departure of the Romans, the fort of Mancunium was taken from the Britons, about the year 488, by a party of the Saxons, who had forcibly established themselves in this part of the kingdom: they placed a garrison in it, which, however, surrendered to the British, who retained possession whilst Arthur Pendragon was prosecuting his victories. In 620, it was captured by Edwin, King of Northumbria, who annexed it to his dominions; and soon afterwards a colony of Angles settled here. In 627, the inhabitants were converted to Christianity by the preaching of Paulinus, a missionary employed by Gregory I., and a Christian church was built, and dedicated to St. Michael. Manchester having been taken by the Danes, was wrested from their possession about 920 by Edward the Elder, who repaired and fortified the castle, and rebuilt the town, which had been almost destroyed in the assaults of the invaders, placing in it a strong garrison of his own soldiers, on account of its being a frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. It was raised to the distinction of a burgh, with extensive privileges, and for some time continued highly prosperous; but being exposed to repeated attacks, and having suffered so much injury in the wars between the Northumbrians and the Danes, it appears at the time of the Conquest, notwithstanding its enlargement by Edward, to have been in every respect inferior to Salford, a Saxon settlement on the opposite bank of the Irwell, which, being a royal demesne, had risen into importance, and imparted its name to the hundred. In the Norman survey we find that Manchester contained two churches, but it is not otherwise mentioned as a place of any note.


Seal and Arms.

Soon after the Conquest, the town came into the possession of Albert de Gresley, whose descendant Robert, the fourth lord of Manchester, obtained for it, in the reign of Henry III., the grant of a fair on the eve and festival of St. Matthew. In the reign of Edward I., the barons, in order to raise a great number of men to serve in the army destined for the invasion of Scotland, conferred several privileges on their vassals; and Thomas de Gresley, sixth baron of Manchester, upon that occasion granted to the inhabitants what has been emphatically called the Magna Charta of Manchester. This charter, which was granted on the 14th of May, in the year 1301, among other privileges, confers the right of choosing a boroughreeve; the liberty of disposing of lands of inheritance according to pleasure, reserving only to the heir in such cases, the prior right of purchase; the power of arresting for debt within the borough the persons of knights, priests, or clerks; and various other privileges. The baron of Manchester was thrice summoned to parliament by writ in the reign of this monarch, by whom he was made a knight of the Bath; and was one of the barons who, in the reign of Edward II., conspired against Piers Gaveston. About seventy years before this, Salford had become a free borough by charter from Ranulph de Blundeville, Earl of Chester.

In 1352, the manufacture of "Manchester cottons," a kind of woollen-cloth made from the fleece in an unprepared state, was introduced. In that year, numerous Flemish artisans, who had been invited into England by Edward III., settled in the town, where, finding every requisite advantage, they brought the woollen manufacture to a considerable degree of perfection; and though interrupted by the war between the houses of York and Lancaster, and subsequently in the reign of Edward VI., by a dreadful malady called the sweating sickness, the trade had in the reign of Elizabeth become of such importance, that one of the queen's aulnagers (officers appointed to examine, and affix the seal to, manufactured cloth) was stationed here, in 1565. During the progress of the Reformation, an ecclesiastical commission for the diocese of Chester was established at Manchester, and numbers of popish recusants, from various parts of Lancashire, were imprisoned in the New Fleet here, which appears to have been erected about that time, and probably for that purpose. The commissioners were, Henry Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon; Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York; the Earl of Derby; and Dr. Chadderton, Bishop of Chester, who then resided in the episcopal palace at Manchester, but, in consequence of frequent disputes between his servants and the inhabitants, removed to Chester. The commissioners, though principally engaged in promoting the reformed religion, and in the detection and punishment of popish recusants, published, during their sittings at Manchester, a declaration against pipers and minstrels attending bear and bull baitings, and against the "superstitious ringing of bells, wakes, festivals, and other amusements;" to counteract the influence of which prohibition, James I. published his celebrated Book of Sports. Upon the threatened invasion by Philip of Spain, the town supplied 144 men armed with bills and pikes, 38 archers, and 38 arquebusiers, to assist in repelling the "Invincible Armada."

During the Parliamentary war, Manchester was the scene of much obstinate contention. The commissioners of array visited it, to demand ammunition for the use of the king; but the town having been previously secured for the parliament by Ralph Assheton, one of the representatives of the county, the inhabitants refused to surrender; and Lord Strange attempting to enter with a considerable force, they took up arms, and were joined by numbers from the adjacent country, when a skirmish occurred, in which several men on both sides were killed. This event, which was regarded by the house of commons as the commencement of the war, was announced by the Speaker as "terrible news from the north." The inhabitants, apprehending a more serious attack, fortified the town; and the king, having set up his standard at Nottingham, sent Lord Strange with 4000 infantry, seven pieces of cannon, and some cavalry, to reduce it. After an obstinate conflict of several days, during which it was defended by Captain Bradshaw, aided by LieutenantColonel Rosworm, an able German engineer, Lord Strange being summoned on the death of the Earl of Derby to join the king, whose head-quarters were then at Shrewsbury, withdrew his forces, and raised the siege. To guard against future assaults, the fortifications which had been hastily thrown up were completed and enlarged; and in 1643, Sir Thomas Fairfax entered the town, which now became the head-quarters of the parliamentary army stationed in Lancashire. It was again summoned by the Earl of Newcastle, at the head of 10,000 or 12,000 men; but being unsuccessful, the earl took the route to Hull, in pursuit of Fairfax. During the protectorate of Cromwell, Manchester, in obedience to the Protector's writ to the high sheriff of Lancaster, made two successive returns of a member to serve in parliament, in common with other towns which did not subsequently exercise the elective franchise. In 1652 the walls were thrown down, the fortifications demolished, and the gates carried away and sold; a measure that appears to have originated in its growing commercial importance, and its increase in wealth and population. The restoration of Charles II. was celebrated here with the most splendid pomp and ceremony; the utmost festivity and rejoicings took place, and the public conduits were made to flow with wine in copious streams. In 1715, a tumultuous assembly headed by one Syddall, a barber, demolished the Independent chapel in Acres Fields, at that time the only dissenting place of worship in the town, and proceeded to commit other depredations; but the insurrection was quelled, and Syddall, with several of his accomplices, was committed to Lancaster gaol. On his liberation, he joined the rebels in Preston, and being again taken prisoner, was sent to this town and executed.

In 1745, Prince Charles Edward, who the year before had visited Manchester, where he was hospitably entertained for several weeks at Ancoats Hall, the mansion of Sir Edward Mosley, Bart., entered the county of Lancaster at the head of an army of 6000 men, and advanced to this town, with a view to recruit his forces, and to raise supplies of men, arms, and money. On November 28th, the young Pretender took up his quarters in the house of Mr. Dickenson, in Market-street, from that circumstance called the Palace, and issued a proclamation requiring all persons who had any duties to pay, or any of the public money in their hands, to pay the same to his secretary. The sum of £3000 was levied in money; from 200 to 300 men were raised for the service, and many horses were put under requisition for mounting the cavalry and drawing the baggage. On December 1st, the rebel army quitted Manchester, marching southward to Derby, which they reached on the 4th; but to avoid the danger of being inclosed by the armies of Marshal Wade and the Duke of Cumberland, they retreated to Manchester, and, continuing their march to the north, reached Carlisle on the 10th. In 1759, an act of parliament was passed for discharging the inhabitants from their obligation to grind corn and other grain at the school mill on the river Irk, a custom which had prevailed from a remote period, and had frequently excited a strong spirit of popular discontent. By this act the inhabitants were released from every obligation, except that of grinding malt, which is still retained; and though the sum paid to the feoffees of the mill is very moderate, yet the compulsory clause of grinding malt has induced almost all the brewers to establish themselves in townships which, though adjoining to, and within the immediate vicinity of, the town, are not subject to that obligation. Christian, King of Denmark, on his tour through England in 1768, took up his abode in the town, at the Bull inn. In 1773, the Russian princess, Czartoriski, arrived here from Birmingham, to inspect the aqueducts and excavations at Worsley, and during her stay visited the principal factories. In 1805, the Archdukes John and Lewis of Austria, accompanied by a retinue of scientific men, spent some time here; and in 1817, the Grand Duke Nicholas, now Emperor of Russia, honoured the town with a visit. The Duke of Bordeaux visited Manchester in the winter of 1843–44, the King of Saxony in 1844, and the Grand Duke Constantine of Russia in 1846.

The city of Manchester stands on the river Irwell, which here receives the streams of the Irk and the Medlock, and on the north-west bank of which is the borough of Salford, connected, by means of six bridges, with Manchester, and forming an integral part of it. Of these bridges, the most ancient, which had existed from time immemorial, was rebuilt in the reign of Edward III., and remained, a monument of early art, until the erection on its site of the Victoria bridge, which was completed in 1839, at a cost, including the approaches, of £20,800: the Strangeways iron bridge was erected in 1817; the Albert bridge was opened 26th September, 1844. Over the Medlock are nine bridges, in various parts of the town; that leading from Oxford-street crosses the stream in an oblique direction. There are also seven bridges over the Irk, of which six are very low, and subject to be flooded at high water; the seventh is a lofty structure of three arches, and a great ornament, connecting a line of road from the extremity of Millerstreet with what was anciently Strangeways Park, and forming a new entrance into the town, which avoids the steep ascent of the Red Bank, and the dangerous turn in the old road from Scotland-bridge. Exclusively of these, are several smaller bridges over the Shooter's brook, and not less than thirty across the numerous branches of the canals which intersect the town, besides numerous railway-bridges over the rivers and canals.

The older part of the city contains several ancient houses (which, however, are fast disappearing); and the streets in this quarter, with the exception of such as have been improved under various acts of parliament, are inconveniently narrow. The more modern parts contain many spacious streets, in which are respectable houses; but the general plan of the town, notwithstanding, seems to have been more adapted to the accommodation of its extended trade than to the display of elegance and symmetry in its general appearance. Cotton-mills, factories, and warehouses of immense extent, have been erected in those portions previously occupied by the most pleasant dwelling-houses, and almost every part is crowded with the cottages of families employed in the different works. The streets are well paved, and lighted with gas: they were formerly under the direction of 240 commissioners, appointed by an act passed in the 9th of George IV., for cleansing, paving, lighting, watching, and regulating the town; but in 1843 an act was obtained, transferring the powers vested in these commissioners to the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses. Other acts were passed in 1844 and 1845, for the improvement of the city. The inhabitants are supplied with water by the Manchester and Salford Company, established by an act of parliament, in 1809; the water is conveyed by pipes from reservoirs at Beswick and Gorton, of which the latter covers more than fifty acres of ground, excavated in 1825. In the year 1847 an act was passed for a better supply of water, the works to be constructed by the corporation. Salford was formerly included in the same jurisdiction as Manchester, with respect to its police; but by the act procured in the 9th of George IV., they were separated, and Salford is now governed by a distinct code of regulations, under an act of the 11th of George IV. The municipal borough of Manchester in 1846 contained 41,606 dwelling-houses, 5385 dwellingcellars, 4872 shops used as dwellings, 3813 warehouses and workshops, 123 factories, 48 foundries, 16 banks, 14 markets, 4 railway stations, and 5 gas stations.


Commissioners' Seal.

The environs, in some parts, particularly in Broughton, abound with scenery pleasingly diversified; and in the neighbourhood are many handsome ranges of building, and numerous elegant villas. Ardwick Green, in the centre of which is a fine sheet of water, is surrounded with respectable residences; and Salford-crescent, occupying an elevated site, commands a beautiful view of the windings of the Irwell, with the fertile valleys on the opposite bank. Close to the Irwell are several successive tiers of houses, which rise from the margin of the river; on the Irk is Gibraltar, an irregular cluster of rural and picturesque cottages. The scheme for providing three public parks for the population of Manchester, was set on foot in June 1844; and a fund of £32,000 having been raised by subscription, exclusively of a grant of £3000 from government, the parks were opened, in August 1846. The Peel Park, situated in Salford, within the western environs, on the banks of the Irwell, is the nearest to the centre of the town, and presents a great diversity of surface. It comprises altogether 32 acres, was formerly called Lark Hill, and was private property: the cost, including a large mansion-house, was £10,375. The Queen's Park, bounded on the east by the Rochdale road, near the second milestone, slopes by easy gradations towards a kind of ravine on the west; it comprises 30 acres, and is more finished and more beautiful in its details, than the Peel Park, the trees and shrubberies having previously attained a more mature growth. The cost, with the mansion of Hardham Hall, was £7250. The Philips Park, nearly two miles east of the Exchange, is bolder and more varied than the other parks, consisting of high knolls, with much broken ground, and a pretty little amphitheatre sloping down to the Medlock: there are, however, few trees. The cost of this park was £7300; the area is 31 acres.

The Literary and Philosophical Society was founded in 1781; gold and silver medals are awarded for the best dissertations on particular subjects, and the society has published seven volumes of Transactions, in the English, French, and German languages, which are much circulated on the continent. The Agricultural Society, consisting of members residing within thirty miles, was established in 1767, and is one of the earliest institutions of the kind in England. A part of Chetham's Hospital is appropriated as a Library, to which, under certain regulations, the public enjoy free admission: the founder bequeathed £1000 to be vested in land, which fund, by the management of trustees, has considerably accumulated; and the library now contains more than 25,000 volumes, some valuable manuscripts, a collection of prints, and several natural and artificial curiosities. The Portico, an elegant edifice of Runcorn stone, of the Ionic order, erected by subscription in 1806, at an expense of £7000, contains a library of above 14,000 volumes, committee, news, and reading rooms, and other offices. Among the other libraries, are, the Old Subscription Library, in Ducie-place, established in the year 1765, now containing 20,000 volumes, and supported by 400 members; the Library for Promoting General Knowledge, in Newall's-buildings, Market-street, established in 1771, revived in 1802, and now comprising upwards of 10,000 volumes; and the Subscription Library, founded in the year 1792, and containing 13,000 volumes. The Law Library was instituted by the members of that profession, in 1820. The Society for Promoting the Study of Natural History was projected in 1821, and rapidly attained its present state of maturity and importance: the buildings, in Peter-street, are of brick, with a handsome stone portico, and contain an extensive and valuable museum, a library of works on natural history, a council-room, and apartments for the librarian and keeper. The Royal Institution, embracing a variety of objects connected with the pursuits of literature and science, and the cultivation of the fine arts, originated with a few publicspirited individuals in 1823, and was soon honoured with public, and finally with royal, patronage. The building, which was erected from a design by Barry, is of a durable stone from the vicinity of Colne, and forms a splendid addition to the architectural ornaments of the town. The principal elevation, towards Mosleystreet, has a noble portico of six lofty columns of the Ionic order, supporting a rich entablature and pediment, on each side of which are columns and pilasters connecting the centre with the wings. The whole cost of the pile was estimated at about £50,000. The Athenæum, an institution for the benefit of young men in the middle rank of life, is another handsome building of stone, erected close to the Royal Institution, also from a design by Barry; it comprises a theatre for lectures, readingroom, &c., with a library of above 13,000 volumes: there are 2600 members. The Botanical and Horticultural Institution was founded in 1828: its garden, about two miles from the Exchange, on the new Stretford road, comprising about sixteen acres, contains a great variety of green-house, herbaceous, Alpine, American, rock, and medicinal plants; the entrance is a fine structure of the Ionic order, and cost about £2000. The Mechanics' Institute was established in 1824, and a building was erected in 1827 at an expense of £7000. The Geological Society, instituted in 1838, now consists of upwards of 220 members. The Statistical Society held its first meeting on the 2nd of September, 1833, and is the first institution of the kind established in England. The Academy of Arts was established by some of the leading artists, on the plan of mutual instruction, in 1845.

The present Theatre Royal was opened in September 1845: it will hold 2147 persons, and has a front of the Corinthian order. The Amphitheatre, or, as it is now called, the Queen's Theatre, was built in 1753, for a principal theatre, but being found too small, was rebuilt by act of parliament in 1775, and having been burnt down in 1789, was again rebuilt in 1790. A third theatre is called the City Theatre Royal. The Gentlemen's Private Subscription Concerts were established in 1777, when a room adapted to the accommodation of 800 auditors was built in Fountain-street, which at length proving too small, a new concert room was erected in 1829, for the reception of 1200 subscribers, in Lower Mosley-street, at an expense of £7000; the entrance is through a handsome lofty portico of six columns of the Corinthian order, supporting a rich entablature and pediment. The Gentlemen's Glee Club was founded in 1830, and is well known for the talent of its members, and its prize glee compositions. The Choral Society, established in 1833, consists of about 200 members; it holds its meetings in a large room in the Royal Institution. The Assembly-rooms, Mosley-street, were erected in 1792, and form a capacious suite of rooms. The first of a proposed series of triennial musical festivals was attempted here, with complete success, in 1828: oratorios were performed in the collegiate church, and miscellaneous concerts and dress balls were given in the theatre and assembly-rooms; the performances combined the first musical talent in the country, and after paying all expenses, more than £5000 were distributed among the different charitable institutions. The Races, which were established in 1730, commence on the Wednesday in Whitsun-week, and continue to the end of the week: the present fine course was laid out in 1847, and is situated in Broughton Meadows; the stand cost £8000, and £2000 were spent in the improvement of the ground, which is held on lease.

The improvement in the various branches of the trade and manufactures of Manchester has been uniformly progressive, and justly entitles it to be considered one of the most extensive and prosperous cities in the world. Its staple trade is the cotton manufacture, which, in all its different ramifications is carried on to an extent almost incredible. The town had obtained considerable eminence for its manufacture of woollen goods, called "Manchester cottons," as before mentioned, in the reign of Edward III.; and in that of Charles I. the linen and cotton trade had made some progress. In the Treasure of Traffic, published by Lewis Roberts, in 1641, Manchester is said to have purchased linen-yarn from Ireland, and cotton-wool from London, and to have sent the goods woven to London and other places for sale. About the year 1740, the manufacturers residing here employed agents in various parts of the country to procure a supply of raw cotton, which was manufactured by the spindle and the distaff, in the cottages of the workmen, chiefly into fustians, thicksets, dimities, and jeans, to which were added cotton thicksets, goods figured in the loom, and subsequently cotton velvets, velveteens, and strong fancy cords. About the year 1760, these goods, which had till then been made only for home consumption, found markets on the continents of Europe and America; and the quantity of weft produced in the whole of Lancashire, by about 50,000 spindles worked by hand, was insufficient to keep the weavers in the town of Manchester constantly employed, and to afford a supply adequate to the increasing demand. Recourse was now had to the aid of machinery, and Mr. John Kay invented the instrument called the pucking peg, by the assistance of which the weaver was not only enabled to produce twice the quantity of work, but also to weave cloths of any width. The facility thus given to the weaving department caused a corresponding increase in the demand for yarn, and Mr. Thomas Highs, in conjunction with Mr. Kay, invented the spinning-jenny, the powers of which were greatly augmented by the improvements of Mr. Hargreaves, whose success, exciting the apprehensions of the hand-workmen, led to the destruction of his machinery, and his retreat to Nottingham, where he died in indigence. Mr. Highs continued to make the spinning-jennies for sale, and also invented the water-frame, or throstle, for spinning twist by means of rollers; and these machines were subsequently improved under Sir Richard Arkwright, whose exclusive patent right was annulled by a decision of the court of king's bench, in 1785, when the privilege of using such machinery was thrown open to the public. The late Sir Robert Peel, Bart., assisted by Mr. Hargreaves, first brought the cylindrical carding-engines into use, and effected many improvements in the application of machinery to the cotton manufacture, by the adoption of which, aided by the powers of the steamengine, the quantity of goods of all descriptions made in the town has been prodigiously increased.

Every process of that manufacture is carried on to a very considerable extent, but the branch of it for which Manchester is most distinguished is the spinning, in which department alone there are upwards of one hundred factories in the town and its vicinity. The powerloom is a recent invention, originating with the Rev. Mr. Cartwright, of Holland House, in the county of Kent, who, after repeated attempts, ultimately succeeded in establishing a factory upon that principle at Doncaster, and was indemnified by parliament for the losses he had sustained in the course of his experiments. Mr. Grimshaw, of Manchester, adopting Mr. Cartwright's plan, established a factory in which were 500 power-looms, but the building being destroyed by fire, the design was for a time abandoned. The difficulties which had impeded the general adoption of this invention were finally removed by the aid of Mr. Johnson's machine for dressing the warps, and in 1806 the use of the power-loom was again introduced, with complete success. The cotton-factories, in several of which the whole process of the manufacture, from the introduction of the raw material to its completion, is carried on, are immense ranges of building, from six to eight stories in height; some of them employing from 1800 to 2000 persons each. The making of muslin was first attempted about the year 1780, at which time the machine called the mule was introduced into the spinning factories, and to such a degree of perfection has this branch of manufacture been brought, that the muslins of Manchester are little inferior to those of India. The silk manufacture has of late years been revived, under very favourable circumstances, and is rapidly improving; the number of mills established is considerable, and the silks manufactured are as remarkable for the beauty of their texture as those of Spitalfields, or of France. The principal articles at present made in the town are, velvets, fustians, jeans, ticking, checks, ginghams, nankeens, diaper, quilting, calico, muslins, muslinets, cambric handkerchiefs, small wares, silks, and, in fact, every variety of cotton and silk goods. There are also extensive, Bleaching-grounds, and works for Printing and Dyeing, and for every other department of the manufactures; and in addition to what may be considered the staple manufactures of the town, are numerous others dependent on them, such as that of machinery of all kinds, for which there are large Forges, Foundries, &c.: the manufacture of steam-engines is very extensive. The town has several laboratories for the making of Oil of vitriol, and other chymical productions used in the different processes of the trade, for bleaching, dyeing, and the like. In the vicinity are mills for the manufacture of Paper of all descriptions, from the coarsest kind, for packages, to the finest kinds of writing and printing paper, all of which have been brought to a high degree of perfection, and are manufactured on a large scale. There are extensive Hat manufactories, which have flourished for many years; and various other branches of manufacture, which have all improved with the increasing trade of the town, afford employment to the inhabitants. Engraving, as connected with the printing of calico, muslin, and cotton goods, is extensively carried on; and there are Saw-mills on a very extended scale. According to a statement published a few years ago by the Manchester Statistical Society, steam-power equal to 6036 horses is employed in Manchester and Salford, in cotton spinning and weaving; 1277-horse power in bleaching, dyeing, printing; 734 in machine-making, foundries, &c.; 341 in silk manufactures; 306 in cottonthread and small wares, tape, &c.; 206 in collieries; 155 in saw-mills; 81 in engraving for printing calico; 80 in fustian-shearing; 78 in breweries; 70 in flaxspinning; 66 in chemical works; 58 in woollen works; and 436 in miscellaneous operations; making a grand total of steam-power equal to 9924 horses. In the year 1847, there were 174 cotton-factories and other large works in the municipal borough of Manchester, employing when in full operation about 40,000 hands. For the purchase of the diversified productions of the town, of which immense quantities are exported, foreign merchants have either agents or one of their partners resident here, to conduct their commercial transactions, and to purchase, not only Manchester goods, but also the produce of all the adjoining manufacturing districts, which are accumulated here as in a central depôt. A Chamber of Commerce was established in 1820, by which the trading interests of its members, and those of Manchester generally, have been greatly promoted. The Branch Bank of England, nearly opposite the town-hall, is a handsome building from the designs of Mr. Cockerell, commenced in 1845. The Free-Trade Hall is one of the largest buildings in the town: the floor extends 136 feet in length, by 105 feet in breadth, and, including the platform and galleries, the hall covers an area of 1889 square yards; the roof is supported by two rows of slender pillars.

The Exchange and Commercial Buildings were erected from a design by Mr. Harrison, in 1806, at an expense of £20,000, advanced on shares of £50 each, by 400 proprietary members, who subsequently added £30 each for the purchase of the site. It is a spacious, handsome, and well-arranged edifice of Runcorn stone, in the Grecian style, and the north front, which faces the market-house, is semicircular, and ornamented with lofty fluted columns of the Doric order. The area of the exchange-room is 812 square yards. The newsroom, which occupies the basement story of the north part of the building, is elegantly provided with every accommodation, and is lighted by a semicircular dome and handsome windows of plate glass: at the distance of fifteen feet from the walls is a circular range of pillars of the Ionic order, supporting the ceiling; and over the central fire-place is a full-length portrait of Thomas Stanley, Esq., for many years member for the county, finely painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence. There are 2000 subscribers belonging to the establishment. Above the newsroom, and resting on the pillars that support the ceiling, is a circular range of building, two stories high, of which the lower contains the Exchange library, belonging to a proprietary of 400 members, and comprising more than 15,000 volumes. A handsome geometrical staircase leads from the hall to the upper part of the buildings, in which is an elegant dining-room, with a rich mantel-piece of Abyssinian marble at each end, and an orchestra on the north side; the room was opened in celebration of the anniversary of the birthday of George III., in 1809. There are also several anterooms, and a variety of offices connected with the general purposes of the institution.

The vast trade and commercial importance of the town have been in a great degree promoted by its proximity to Liverpool, whence its manufactures are exported to every quarter of the globe. It has a facility of water communication with that port by means of the Mersey and Irwell navigation, constructed in 1720, under an act of parliament amended in 1794, when the proprietors were incorporated, and by the celebrated Bridgewater canal; both of which communicate with the river Mersey, at Runcorn. The Manchester, Bolton, and Bury canal, constructed by act of parliament in 1791, crossing the Irwell at Clifton, and again at Little Lever, passes for 15 miles through a district abounding with coal and other mineral produce; and unites with the Leeds and Liverpool canal near Blackburn, by a branch formed in 1793. The Ashton-under-Line canal, constructed in 1792, is carried, by a lofty archway, in an oblique direction over Store-street, and, by another aqueduct of equal strength and considerable beauty of design, over the river Medlock; it has a branch to Stockport, and at Fairfield another branch communicates with Oldham. The Rochdale canal, constructed in 1794, forms a communication from the Duke of Bridgewater's canal at Manchester to the Calder navigation at Sowerbybridge, beyond which is a cut from Salter-Hebble to Halifax. In 1836 an act was passed for making a canal to connect the Rochdale canal and the river Irwell. By means of the Grand Trunk canal, a line of communication is established with London, Bristol, and other principal towns. A joint-stock company, for the conveyance of goods by water, called the New Quay Company, was originally established in 1822, with a capital of £30,000, and has a number of vessels plying between Manchester and Liverpool.

The facilities afforded by lines of Railways are far greater, and tend highly to augment the trade of the town, and to increase the celerity with which business is transacted. In 1826, an act was obtained for the construction of a railway between Manchester and Liverpool, adapted to the use of carriages drawn by locomotive engines impelled by steam, for the conveyance of merchandise and passengers. This undertaking was completed in 1830. The original station is in Water-street, and the depôt, which is nearly contiguous, is on the Liverpool road; the whole corresponding in appearance to the importance of the undertaking. The line is carried by a series of 22 arches, commencing at the warehouses in the Liverpool road, across the roofs of the houses in Water-street, and over the river Irwell by a handsome stone bridge of two arches, each 65 feet in span, and 30 feet high from the surface of the water to the central summit. An act was passed in 1836, for making a railway from Manchester to Leeds: the line, 50 miles in length, extends to Normanton, in Yorkshire, where it joins the Midland railway; the total expenditure up to July 1840, when the line was opened to the public, was £2,113,980. A branch to Ashton and Stalybridge, 6½ miles long, quits the line at a short distance from Manchester, and a railway is in progress under other management between Stalybridge and Leeds, by which a direct communication will be opened between Manchester and Leeds. The original station and the depôt of the old Manchester and Leeds (or Lancashire and Yorkshire) line, between Lee and St. George's streets, are elevated on a viaduct approached from the office below by a flight of steps, and contain carriagesheds, a polygonal engine-house, workshops, and other requisites. The Manchester Junction railway, opened in 1844, and two miles and a quarter long, consists of two parts. One commences near the original station of the Leeds railway, which is now exclusively a goods' station; and, after crossing the Irk three times, and being carried over several streets, terminates at Hunt's Bank, near the confluence of the Irk and the Irwell, where a station called the Victoria has been completed for the Leeds and the Liverpool railways. The other part, which belongs to the Liverpool line, is 1790 yards in length, commencing between the river Irwell and Ordsall-lane, in Salford; it is principally constructed upon arches, and terminates at Hunt's Bank. The Victoria station is of extraordinary size, the portion roofed over being 700 feet long and about 114 wide, and the iron roof containing nearly 80,000 square feet. The Manchester and Bolton railway was originally projected to be laid down in the bed of the Bolton and Bury canal, which was purchased for £100,000; but this line was abandoned. The present one commences at New Bailey street, Salford, where is a handsome station; it is thence conveyed by a viaduct of several arches, and passes under the Oldfield road at a distance of 320 yards from the line of the Liverpool railway, after which it proceeds in a direction nearly parallel with the canal, to Bolton, a distance of ten miles. The whole was opened in May, 1838, and the line has since been connected with the Liverpool and the Leeds lines. The East Lancashire railway quits the Bolton at Clifton, north-west of Manchester. The Manchester and Birmingham railway, which joins the Liverpool and Birmingham and the Chester and Crewe railways at Crewe, is 30 miles in length, and begins at Store-street, where there is a station comprising all the necessary arrangements. An act of parliament was passed in 1845, for the construction of a railway to connect the Manchester and Birmingham and the Manchester and Liverpool lines at Manchester, and also for making a railway to Altrincham, in Cheshire; the whole to be 9¼ miles in length, and to be called the Manchester South Junction and Altrincham railway. The Birmingham line is also connected with the Ashton branch of the Leeds line, by means of the Ardwick Junction, which commences at Ardwick, south-east of Manchester, on the Birmingham line, and after a course of a mile and three-quarters, terminates at the Ashton branch, north-east of Manchester. The Manchester, Ashton, and Sheffield railway, also begins at Ardwick; this very important line was opened in December 1845, and in 1846 an act was passed for its extension into Lincolnshire.

The market days are Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, of which the first is principally for the sale of merchandise, brought in great quantities in carts and wagons from the different factories. The markets are plentifully supplied with corn and provisions of all kinds. The corn-market is held in a building in Hanging-ditch, which was opened as a corn-exchange in 1837; the hay-market is in Bridgewater-street, and the cattle market in the new Smithfield, at Shude-hill. The markets for butchers' meat are held in Brown-street, Bridge-street, the London-road, and other parts of the town. The fish-market is in a suitable building erected on the site of what was formerly called the Old Shambles, at the expense of Sir Oswald Mosley, near Smithy Door, in 1828; the meal, flour, and cheese market is in a building on Shude-hill. The fruit, or apple, market is held in Fennel-street, and the upper end of Long Millgate; the vegetable market is held in St. Mary's gate, and in the upper end of Smithy Door, the middle and lower end of which form the market for butter, poultry, and eggs. An act was passed in 1846 for regulating the markets and providing new market-places. Salford, which was previously supplied from Manchester, has now a separate market, for which accommodation is provided under the town-hall, Chapel-street, Salford. The principal Fairs are on Easter Monday and Tuesday, for toys; and October 1st and 2nd, for horses, cattle, and pigs. At Salford, a fair commencing on WhitMonday is much frequented by the Yorkshire clothiers, blanket-manufacturers, button-makers, and japanners. The Cloth-hall, a spacious and convenient building, is occupied by numerous tenants during this fair, which lasts for 21 days; and there is another fair, beginning on November 17th, and continuing for the same space of time: the first day of each is for the sale of cattle.

By the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, Manchester was constituted a parliamentary borough, with power to return two representatives: the borough comprises 6006 acres; the number of voters is 10,423, and the mayor is returning officer. Under the same act, Salford was invested with the franchise, with the privilege of returning one member: the limits of the borough comprise 5083 acres, and the number of electors is 2354. Manchester received a charter of incorporation on the 23rd of October, 1838, and is divided into 15 wards, which extend over the townships of Manchester, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Hulme, Ardwick, Beswick, and Cheetham; the whole comprising 4260 acres. The municipal body consists of a mayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 councillors; the number of magistrates is 34. Her Majesty granted a separate court of quarter-sessions for the borough, and appointed a recorder; and a barrister, with a salary of £1000 per annum, sits daily as a magistrate. There is a large and effective police force under the control of a chief commissioner; and a boroughreeve and two principal constables are chosen from among the most respectable of the inhabitants, by a jury impanelled by the stewards of the manor, at the latter of the courts leet, which are held after Easter and Michaelmas. The powers of the county debt-court of Manchester, established in 1847, extend over the registrationdistricts of Manchester and Chorlton; the powers of the Salford court extend over the districts of Salford and Worsley. The Manchester court of bankruptcy, established in 1842, and held daily, embraces part of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire. The quarter-sessions are held at Salford by adjournment, when the business for the whole of that hundred is transacted, under the superintendence of a chairman, who has a salary of £800 per annum. The Town-hall is a noble edifice, erected from a design by Mr. Francis Goodwin, at an expense of £40,000, on the model of the temple of Erectheus at Athens, with a beautiful tower and dome in the centre, resembling the tower of Andronicus, called the "Temple of the Winds." From the centre of the townhall is the principal entrance to a market-place, through a Doric colonnade; there are separate markets for meat, vegetables, fish, and poultry, chiefly covered over, and well ventilated: this building was erected under the superintendence of Messrs. Lane and Goodwin, at an expense of £10,000. The Salford Town-hall was erected in 1825–6, at a cost, including the market incorporated with it, of £9600. The New Bailey, or house of correction for the hundred of Salford, adjoining which is the governor's residence, was erected in 1790, upon the radiating principle, and comprises 24 wards, the same number of day-rooms and airing-yards, and 150 workshops.

The establishment of a bishopric in the town of Manchester was first proposed by the commissioners appointed in the reign of William IV. to inquire respecting ecclesiastical duties and revenues. The recommendations of these commissioners as to dioceses were embodied in the act 6 and 7 William IV., cap. 77, which provided for the foundation of the bishopric, upon the union of the dioceses of St. Asaph and Bangor, in the principality of Wales; and it being ultimately determined that the two Welsh sees should continue to be distinct, an act was passed on the 23rd July, 1847, for the immediate creation of the see of Manchester. On the 10th of August, Her Majesty in council sanctioned a scheme drawn up by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, which contained, among others, the following provisions. It is declared, that, on and after the 1st day of September, the collegiate church of Manchester is to be the cathedral of the new diocese; that the bishop, and the dean and chapter, are to exercise the same rights and privileges as those exercised by the bishop, and the dean and chapter, of Ripon; and that the income of the bishop is to be £4200 per annum. The diocese is placed in the province of York; and is declared to consist of the rural deaneries of Manchester, Blackburn, and Leyland, in the archdeaconry of Manchester, and of the deaneries of Amounderness and Tunstall, in the archdeaconry of Lancaster; thus embracing nearly the whole of Lancashire. The act for establishing the bishopric, contains a provision against the increase of the number of lords spiritual; it being provided that the archbishops of Canterbury and York, and the bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester, shall always possess seats in parliament, but that the last appointed of the other bishops shall not be summoned. The exclusion, however, does not apply to the case of a prelate who, having a seat, is translated to another diocese; it has reference simply to a newly-made prelate. The first Bishop of Manchester is the Rev. James Prince Lee, late head master of the free grammar school of Birmingham, who was consecrated on the 23rd of January, 1848.


Arms of the Bishopric.

The old collegiate church, which, till after the Reformation, afforded accommodation for all the inhabitants of Manchester and Salford, was founded, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, in the 9th of Henry V., by Thomas, Lord De la Warre, who endowed it for a warden and eight fellows. The establishment, the revenue of which was £226. 12. 5., was dissolved in the reign of Edward VI., and re-established in that of Elizabeth under the designation of the Warden and Fellows of Christ's College. The dilapidation of the church, and the misappropriation of the collegiate funds, under the wardenship of Richard Murray, induced the inhabitants to petition the throne for a revival of the former charter, in 1635, and Charles I. conferred upon them a new charter of foundation, with rules for the government of the college, drawn up by Archbishop Land. Under this grant, the management was vested in a warden or dean, appointed by the Crown, who must at least be a bachelor in divinity, or of canon and civil laws; and in four fellows, who must be masters of arts, or bachelors of laws: they are a body corporate, denominated by act of parliament passed in 1840 the "Dean and Canons of Christ's College," and now forming the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral. The charter provides for the appointment of a sub-warden, treasurer, collector, registrar, a master of the choir, organist, four singing men (either clerks or laymen), and four boys skilled in music; and ordains that there shall be continually in the college, two chaplains, or vicars, of the degree of bachelors of arts, to administer the sacraments, visit the sick, and perform other religious offices. During the usurpation of Cromwell, the Independents established their own form of worship in the college, in 1649; the establishment was soon afterwards dissolved by an act of parliament for the sale of dean and chapter lands, and during the interregnum, the last warden officiated as parochial minister, for an annual stipend. At the Restoration, the institution was revived, subject to the statutes of Charles I., and the warden reinstated in his office. The revenue is £4025, and is divided into six parts, of which two are paid to the dean, and one to each of the canons.

The Cathedral Church is a spacious and elaborately ornamented structure, in the later English style, with a handsome square embattled tower, strengthened with buttresses, and crowned by pinnacles. The roof of the nave, which rises to a considerable height above the aisles, is concealed by a rich pierced parapet decorated with pinnacles; the windows are filled with elegant tracery, and the whole of the exterior, which is relieved by the projection of some beautiful chapels, has a truly magnificent appearance. The view of the interior is also strikingly impressive: the lofty nave is lighted by clerestory windows of fine proportions, and the choir is splendidly enriched with tabernacle-work of delicate execution; the roof is groined, and ornamented with grotesque figures of angels playing on musical instruments, with shields, and other devices, richly carved. Portions of the original stained glass are still preserved in several of the windows; and the altar is decorated with a piece of tapestry representing the offerings of the early Christians, and the punishment of Ananias and Sapphira. In different parts of the church, and in the chapels, are ancient and interesting monuments.

The parish comprises the ancient chapelries of Ardwick, Birch, Blackley, Cheetham, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Denton, Didsbury, Gorton, Newton, and Stretford; and the townships of Beswick, Bradford, Broughton, Burnage, Chorlton-on-Medlock, Crumpsall, Droylsden, Failsworth, Harpurhey, Heaton-Norris, Haughton, Hulme, Levenshulme, Manchester, Moss-Side, Moston, Openshaw, Reddish, Rushulme, Salford, and Withington. Trinity church, at Salford, was founded and endowed by Humphrey Booth, Esq., in 1635, but having fallen into decay, was rebuilt in 1752; it is a neat edifice in the Grecian style, and of the Doric order, with a steeple, and contains some handsome monuments and mural tablets. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of Sir R. G. Booth, Bart. St. Ann's church, on the south side of St. Ann's square, founded in 1709, under the auspices of Lady Ann Bland, is a spacious structure in the Grecian style, and of a mixed order, with a tower formerly surmounted by a spire, which has been taken down; the interior is appropriately decorated. The living is a rectory not in charge; patron, the Bishop of Chester. St. Mary's, between Dean's-gate and the river Irwell, erected by the Warden and Fellows of the College, by act of parliament, in 1756, is a handsome edifice of the Doric order, with a tower and spire 186 feet in height. The interior, though dark, from the massive proportions of the pillars supporting the galleries, is very elegant: the altar is embellished with a well-executed painting of the Ascension, after Raphael, by Williams, and the window is enriched with stained glass, beneath which are the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul. The living is a rectory not in charge; net income, £166; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. St. Paul's, a neat edifice of brick, was erected in 1765; it was greatly enlarged, and re-consecrated in 1778, and a district has been lately assigned. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £293; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. This church has the largest Sunday schools perhaps in Christendom attached to it. St. John's, in Byrom-street, was built by Edward Byrom, Esq., under the authority of an act of parliament, in 1769, and is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a tower: the interior is remarkably neat, and finely ornamented; some of the windows are embellished with beautiful stained glass, and in the vestry-room are several fine paintings. The living is a rectory not in charge; net income, £290; patron, the Rev. W. Huntington, the incumbent. St. James', erected by the Rev. Cornelius Bayley, D.D., in 1787, and consecrated in 1788, is a spacious brick edifice, with a small stone spire: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Dean and Chapter. St. Michael's, a large edifice of brick, was founded by the Rev. Humphrey Owen, in 1789: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Dean and Chapter; net income, £72. St. Peter's, erected by subscription among the inhabitants, and consecrated in 1794, is a handsome edifice of Runcorn stone, in the Grecian style, with a stately tower and a noble portico of the Doric order; the interior is remarkable for the elegance and chasteness of its decoration, and the altarpiece is embellished with a fine painting of the Descent from the Cross, by Annibal Caracci. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £160; patrons, Trustees. St. Stephen's, Salford, a neat building of brick ornamented with stone, with a handsome tower, was founded in 1794, by the Rev. N. M. Cheek, to whose memory a neat mural tablet has been erected; the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the present Incumbent, the Rev. J. E. Booth; net income, £245. St. George's, on the Middleton road, was built in 1790, by the Rev. Samuel Pidgeon, of Sale, and after being used by Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, was purchased and consecrated for a church in 1818: there are 1293 sittings, all free. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a chapelry district assigned; net income, £220; patron, the Bishop of Chester.

St. Matthew's district-parish church, in Castle-field, was erected in 1825, by grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners, at an expense of £11,917, and is an elegant structure in the later English style, with a tower and spire: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £271; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. St. Philip's district-parish church, in Salford, a handsome edifice in the Grecian style, with a tower and semicircular portico of the Ionic order, was also erected in 1825, by grant from the commissioners, at an expense of £16,804: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £410; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. Christ Church, in Acton-square, Salford, was built in 1830–1: the living is in the gift of Trustees. A district church in the later English style, with a tower, was erected in Travis-street, Ancoats, and dedicated to St. Andrew, in 1831, at an expense of £9988, under the act of the 58th of George III.: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £122; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. All Souls' district church, in the early Norman style, with two turrets, was erected in Everystreet, Ancoats, in 1839, by subscription, and by a grant of £500 from the Incorporated and Diocesan Societies; it contains 1397 sittings, of which 697 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a district chapelry annexed; net income, £150; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. St. Clement's, in Lever-street, erected in 1793, is open for the performance of divine service, according to the liturgy of the Church, but is not consecrated.

The foundation stone of the first of ten additional churches, to be erected and endowed in Manchester and Salford, was laid in Regent-road, Salford, in August, 1841; the church is dedicated to St. Bartholomew, and the living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of Trustees, with a net income of £112. St. Barnabas' church, Rodney-street, in the densely-populated district of Islington, another of the ten churches, was commenced in March 1842, and consecrated in November 1844; it contains 1100 sittings, one third free. An ecclesiastical parish has been assigned to it, under the 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37, and the living is a perpetual curacy in the patronage of Trustees, with a net income of £150. St. Matthias', near Broughton bridge, Salford, was also built by the Ten-Churches Association: the living is in the gift of Trustees. A building formerly belonging to the Methodist New Connexion, and to which a new front has been added in the Norman style, was consecrated as a church in November 1844; it is now called Christ Church, and is situated in Blackburn-street. St. Simon's church, Salford, of which the first stone was laid March 24th, 1845, was erected partly by the Church Commissioners, and is in the pointed style, with a tower and spire: an ecclesiastical parish has been assigned to it, out of Trinity district, under the 6th and 7th Vict., cap. 37, and the living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester, alternately, with a net income of £150. In Granby-row is a church dedicated to St. Simon and St. Jude, erected by the Manchester and Eccles Church-Building Society, an association distinct from the Ten-Churches Association: the living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Bishop of Chester, with a net income of £150. The same society purchased a large meeting-house in Canal-street, Ancoats, which they converted into a church, dedicated to St. Jude. The foundation stone of St. Philip's church, Bradford-road, the fifth of the ten churches proposed to be erected, was laid in December 1846, by the Ven. Archdeacon Rushton; the building is in the early English style, will hold 1000 persons, and is externally cased with Yorkshire stone. Other churches in and near the town, including some erected by the two associations, are described under the heads of the adjacent townships.

The municipal borough of Manchester comprises altogether 97 places of worship, and 106 public schools; the towns of Manchester and Salford generally, and their immediate vicinities, have above 130 places of worship. Of this latter number, there are 31 churches, 21 Wesleyan meeting-houses, 17 Independent, 12 Methodist Association, 9 Baptist, 6 Roman Catholic, 5 Scottish Presbyterian, 5 Unitarian, 4 Methodist New Connexion, 4 Primitive Methodist, 4 Welsh Independent, 2 Welsh Calvinist, 2 Swedenborgian, 2 New Jerusalem, 2 Independent Methodist, a synagogue, a tabernacle, an Apostolic Church, and a place of worship each for the Society of Friends, Welsh Baptists, and Christian Brethren; besides three or four churches and meeting-houses now being built. Among the places of worship conspicuous for architectural beauty may be noticed the Roman Catholic chapel of St. Augustine, an elegant edifice in the later English style, built in 1820, from a design by Mr. Palmer, at an expense of £10,000; and the splendid chapel in High-street, Salford. The meeting-house for the Society of Friends is a spacious structure, erected under the direction of Mr. Lane, at a cost of £12,000, and conspicuous for its chaste simplicity and the beauty of its Ionic portico, the design of which was taken from that of the Temple of Ceres on the Ilyssus. The Wesleyan meeting-house in Oxfordroad has a handsome portico of the Doric order; and that in Irwell-street, Salford, has an Ionic portico and pediment. The Unitarian meeting-house, erected in 1839, is in the later English style.

The Free Grammar school, was founded in the 7th of Henry VIII., by Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, who endowed it with houses and lands now producing a revenue exceeding £4000. Twelve exhibitions, of £40 per annum each, to either of the universities, belong to the school; which also, in turn with the schools of Hereford and Marlborough, has an interest in sixteen scholarships at Brasenose College, Oxford, and in the same number at St. John's College, Cambridge, founded by Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, in 1679, and varying in value from £18 to £26 each per annum. In the nomination of the Dean of the cathedral, and the Rectors of Prestwich and Bury, as trustees of Hulme's estates, are fifteen exhibitions varying from £60 to £120 each, to Brasenose College, for bachelors of arts, who may remain there four years after taking that degree; these were founded by the benevolent William Hulme, and are frequently conferred upon scholars from Manchester. The old school-house is a plain spacious building, erected in 1777, on the site of the original edifice, and having an owl, the crest of the founder, sculptured on a large stone medallion over the entrance. A new school-house has been erected, in consequence of the flourishing condition of the estates of the charity. The Blue-coat hospital, part of which is appropriated to the Chetham library, was founded in 1653, by means of a bequest from Humphrey Chetham, who left £7000 to trustees, to purchase estates for its endowment; and a sum of money to provide a house for the reception of 40 scholars, who were to be maintained and educated. The buildings of the college founded by Lord De la Warre, were, after its dissolution, purchased by the trustees from the Earl of Derby, to whom it had been presented by the crown, and appropriated to the use of the hospital. The premises occupy the site of the baronial mansion of the Gresleys, on the bank of the river Irk, near its confluence with the Irwell, and comprise an extensive range, exhibiting through all its subsequent repairs, strong features of its collegiate architecture. A large reading-room is ornamented with antique carvings, and portraits of the founder; of Dr. Alexander Nowell, dean of St. Paul's; Dr. William Whitaker, successively master of Trinity, Queen's, and St. John's Colleges, Cambridge; Robert Bolton, a learned divine; and John Bradford, a native of Manchester, and a pupil in the grammar school, who was burned as a heretic in the reign of Mary. The Independent College situated at Withington, about three miles to the southwest of the city, is a spacious and handsome structure in the later English style, consisting of a central range with two boldly projecting wings, forming three sides of a quadrangle. In the centre of the principal range, which is two stories high, is a square embattled tower, surmounted by an octagonal lantern turret; and beneath a lofty oriel window, is the chief entrance. The New (Unitarian) College was founded at Manchester Feb. 22nd, 1786, removed to York Sept. 1803, and brought back to Manchester Sept. 1840; it has property valued at above £15,000, and is otherwise supported by subscriptions: the studies are conducted by a principal, four professors in the literary and scientific department, and three in that of theology and ecclesiastical history. The late John Owens, Esq., a merchant of the city, left the bulk of his fortune to trustees, for the foundation of a college, free from every religious test. A "Collegiate School" has been erected for the sons of tradesmen, in the Stretford-new-road, by the Church Educational Society of Manchester: the first stone was laid June 19th, 1845. The Ladies' Jubilee school, for maintaining, educating, and qualifying as household servants, female orphans, was established in 1809, in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the accession of George III., and is a neat and commodious building on the borders of Strangeways Park: Miss Hall, one of the original and most zealous promoters of the institution, bequeathed at her death in 1828, £44,000, to be equally divided among this school, the infirmary, the lying-inhospital, and the fever ward. In 1723, Mrs. Anne Hinde bequeathed land now producing nearly £200 per annum, for education. Among the numerous other schools are the National central schools in Manchester and at Salford, founded in 1812; and a Lancasterian school commenced in 1809, and held in a building in Marshal-street, erected in 1813, at an expense of £5000. The Roby schools were completed in the beginning of 1845, and cost £3000.

The Infirmary was established in 1752, by Joseph Bancroft, Esq., in conjunction with Charles White, Esq., M.D.; and in 1755 a building for the purpose was erected by subscription; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and hot, cold, vapour, and medicated baths have been fitted up, the profits arising from which are appropriated to the support of the institution. A lunatic hospital and asylum was founded in 1765; a dispensary was established in 1792, and in 1830 the late king, on the solicitation of the chairman and committee, became the patron of the institution, which is now styled "The Royal Infirmary, Dispensary, Lunatic Hospital, and Asylum." An act was passed in 1844, authorising the committee to erect a new lunatic asylum. The Fever hospital, in Aytoun-street, is a plain and substantial structure of brick, erected by subscription, at an expense of £5000, in 1805. The Lying-in-hospital was instituted in 1790. The school for the Deaf and Dumb, formerly held in this building, was established in 1823: the necessity of increasing its means of usefulness having led to a public subscription and a bazaar, £3848 were paid to the treasurer as the commencement of a fund for a new building; and Mr. Henshaw, of Oldham, having bequeathed £20,000 for endowing a Blind Asylum, his trustees and the committee of the school determined to erect their buildings contiguous to each other. A beautiful pile was built near the Botanic garden: the Deaf and Dumb institution occupies one wing, and the Blind asylum the other: the centre being allotted to a chapel for the use of both. The first named institution cost about £11,000, and contains accommodation for 100 children; the Blind asylum affords room for 150 inmates. An institution for curing Diseases of the Eye was commenced in 1815, and though its annual income does not exceed £200, it affords relief to 1500 patients generally during the year; the Lock hospital, in Bond-street, was established in 1819, and the Female Penitentiary in 1822. Public Baths and Washhouses were opened in 1846: in the first half year ending March, 1847, the number of washings was 3233, and of pieces washed 105,928; the number of bathers was 7720. There are funds at the disposal of the boroughreeve amounting to more than £3000 per annum, arising from charitable bequests, for distribution in bread, clothes, money, and other necessaries, among the aged, infirm, and indigent poor.

Among the distinguished natives of Manchester, or persons who have been otherwise connected with it, may be enumerated, William Crabtree, an astronomical writer and the inventor of a micrometer, born at Broughton, within the parish, and killed at the battle of Marston-Moor in 1644; John Byrom, an ingenious poet, and the author of a system of short-hand, born at KersalMoor, near the town, in 1691; John Ferriar, M.D., author of Illustrations of Sterne, and other popular works; Thomas Barritt, a distinguished antiquary, whose large and valuable heraldic collections in manuscript are placed in the library of Chetham's hospital; Thomas Faulkner, an enterprising traveller, who published the earliest authentic account of Patagonia, and died in 1774; the Rev. John Whitaker, the Manchester historian; Thomas Percival, M.D., an eminent physician and popular writer; Charles White, M.D., F.R.S., a distinguished surgeon and anatomist; Joseph Farrington, R.A., a landscape painter of considerable celebrity; and Dr. Dalton, who died at Manchester, July 28th, 1844, aged 78 years. The city gives the titles of Duke and Earl to the family of Montagu.