Marham-Cherry (Holy Trinity)
MARHAM-CHERRY (Holy Trinity), a parish, in
the union of Downham, hundred of Clackclose, W.
division of Norfolk, 8 miles (N. E.) from Downham;
containing 817 inhabitants. The parish comprises
3966a. 3r. 24p., of which 2529 acres are arable, 1169
pasture and meadow, 74 woodland, and about 200 fen
allotted to the poor. It was anciently remarkable for
the number of its cherry-trees, and subsequently for
walnut-trees of stately growth. The river Nar intersects the parish on the north-west. Near the village
are some chalk-pits, in which various fossils are found.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's
books at £6. 13. 4.; patrons and impropriators, the
Master and Fellows of St. John's College, Cambridge.
The great tithes have been commuted for £645. 15., and
the vicarial for £371; the glebe comprises 28 acres,
with a house, built in 1830 by the Rev. A. Browne.
The church is a handsome structure in the later English
style, with a square embattled tower; under a canopy
are the recumbent effigies of Sir John Steward and his
lady. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans; also a national school, erected in
1841. A Cistercian nunnery, in honour of the Blessed
Virgin Mary, was founded here in 1251, by Isabella de
Albini, Countess of Arundel; at the Dissolution it had
a revenue of £42.
Marham-Church (St. Marvenne)
MARHAM-CHURCH (St. Marvenne), a parish, in
the union and hundred of Stratton, E. division of
Cornwall, 2 miles (S. S. W.) from Stratton; containing 659 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the
north-west by the Bristol Channel, and comprises by
estimation 2600 acres, of which 150 are common or
waste land: the Bude canal passes through it. There is
a small iron-foundry. Fairs are held on the Wednesday after the 25th of April, and on the 12th of August.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at
£15. 11. 0½., and in the gift of the Rev. John Kingdon:
the tithes have been commuted for £390, and the glebe
comprises 38 acres, with a house.
Marholm (St. Cuthlac)
MARHOLM (St. Cuthlac), a parish, in the union
and soke of Peterborough, N. division of the county
of Northampton, 4½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Peterborough; containing 197 inhabitants. The living is a
rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 2. 3½.; net
income, £266; patron, Earl Fitzwilliam. The church
has an ancient font, and, amongst other memorials, a
magnificent marble monument to William, Earl Fitzwilliam, and Anne, his countess. In the parish is Abbey
Milton, one of the seats of the family, a large irregular
structure, the most ancient part of which is of the time
Mari-Ansleigh (St. Mary)
MARI-ANSLEIGH (St. Mary), a parish, in the
union of South Molton, hundred of Witheridge,
South Molton and N. divisions of Devon, 3½ miles (S.
E.) from the town of South Molton; containing 338 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1740 acres, of which
540 are common or waste. The living is a perpetual
curacy; net income, £120; patrons, the Trustees of
Davey's Charity; impropriator, W. Stabback, Esq., whose
tithes have been commuted for £165, and whose glebe
comprises 2 acres.
MARK, a parish, in the union of Axbridge, hundred of Bempstone, E. division of Somerset, 5 miles
(S. S. W.) from Cross; containing 1308 inhabitants. It
comprises 4477 acres, the greater portion of which is
pasture; great quantities of cheese are produced. Fairs
are held on the Tuesday before Whit-Sunday, in August,
and in September. The living is a perpetual curacy;
net income, £154; patron and impropriator, the Earl
of Harrowby, whose tithes have been commuted for
£295, and whose glebe comprises 8 acres. The church
is a handsome structure in the later English style.
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
MARK-EATON, a township, in the parish of Mackworth, union of Belper, hundred of Morleston and
Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 1¾
mile (W. N. W.) from Derby; containing 200 inhabitants. It comprises 1912½ acres of rich land, and has a
small ancient village. The Hall is a large brick mansion
with a spacious park in front, erected about 1750. The
township is entitled to an annual payment of £12. 12.
for apprenticing a boy, the gift of German Pole, of Radbourn, in 1682.
Markby (St. Peter)
MARKBY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of
Spilsby, Wold division of the hundred of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2¾ miles
(N. E. by E.) from Alford; containing 102 inhabitants.
A priory for canons of the Gilbertine order was established here, of which nothing now remains but the
site, indistinctly pointed out by the inequalities of the
ground. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income,
£72; patron and impropriator, P. Massingberd, Esq.
The tithes have been commuted for £200, and the glebe
comprises 60 acres. The church is an ancient structure,
built with the materials of the priory. There is a place
of worship for Primitive Methodists.
Market-Bosworth.—See Bosworth, Market.
MARKET-BOSWORTH.—See Bosworth, Market.—And other places having a similar distinguishing
prefix will be found under the proper name.
MARKET-STREET, a chapelry, in the parishes of
Caddington, Flamstead, and Studham, partly in the
hundred of Dacorum, county of Hertford, and partly
in that of Manshead, county of Bedford, 3½ miles
(S. W. by S.) from Luton. The ancient name of Merkgate, or Mark-gate, of which the present is a corruption,
appears to have been derived from Merk, a boundary,
and Yate, or Gate; the place having formerly been the
end of the inclosed country, where it is supposed there
was a gate on the high road or Watling-street. On a
hill in the vicinity, now occupied by an ancient mansion,
stood a nunnery of the Benedictine order, dedicated to
the Holy Trinity; it was founded about 1145, principally by Geoffrey, abbot of St. Alban's, on land given
by the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, and at the Dissolution had a revenue of £143. 13. 8. The village is on
the road from London to Birmingham, and consists of
one long street: the manufacture of hats and bonnets
of straw-plat is somewhat considerable; and a fair is
held about Michaelmas. The living is a perpetual
curacy; net income, £227; patron, D. Goodson Adey,
Esq. The chapel, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and
situated in Cell or Priory Park, was erected about a
century since, in lieu of one at the manor-house, which
had been burnt down. There are places of worship for
Baptists and Wesleyans.
MARKET-STREET, a township, in the parish of
Wymondham, incorporation and hundred of Forehoe,
E. division of Norfolk; with 1324 inhabitants.
Market-Weston (St. Mary)
MARKET-WESTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the
union of Thetford, hundred of Blackbourn, W. division of Suffolk, 6 miles (S.) from East Harling; containing 330 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from
Bury, through Buckenham to Norwich; the scenery is
varied, and the seat of the Thruston family is within the
parish. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in
the king's books at £8. 19. 7., and in the patronage of
the Rev. H. T. Wilkinson, incumbent: the tithes have
been commuted for £324. 19. 1., and there are 16 acres
of glebe. The church, which occupies a gentle eminence,
is a handsome structure in the later English style, with
a square embattled tower, and has a porch of earlier
date; it was re-opened at the end of 1845, after a complete renovation, effected at a cost of £2000. A rectoryhouse was built in 1837.
Markfield (St. Michael)
MARKFIELD (St. Michael), a parish, in the union
of Market-Bosworth, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S.
division of the county of Leicester, 7 miles (N. W. by
W.) from Leicester; containing 1203 inhabitants. The
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 1. 8.;
net income, £441; patron, the Marquess of Hastings.
The church has been enlarged. Land producing £10
per annum was bequeathed to the poor by Mrs. Jane
Avery, in 1723.
Markham, East (St. John the Baptist)
MARKHAM, EAST (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of East Retford, South Clay division
of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the
county of Nottingham, 1½ mile (N.) from Tuxford; containing 771 inhabitants. This parish, consisting of 2700
acres, comprised a wide tract of moorland, which was inclosed in 1811; the soil is generally a fertile clay. The
village is situated on an acclivity, and is large and well
built. The living is a vicarage, with the rectory of West
Drayton annexed, valued in the king's books at £11.
18. 11½.; net income, £334; patron and impropriator,
the Duke of Newcastle: the tithes were commuted
for land in 1810. The church is a large structure, with
a lofty embattled tower, and contains several ancient
monuments to the Markham, Cressy, and other families.
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Markham, West, or Markham-Clinton (All Saints)
MARKHAM, WEST, or Markham-Clinton (All
Saints), a parish, in the union of East Retford, South
Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division
of the county of Nottingham, 1¾ mile (N. W.) from
Tuxford; containing, with the hamlet of Milton, 191
inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 1067
acres. The living is a vicarage, with that of Bevercoates
united, valued in the king's books at £7. 12. 1.; net
income, £254; patron and impropriator, the Duke of
Newcastle: the tithes were commuted for land in 1808.
The present church, erected at the expense of his Grace,
to supersede the old edifice, and also as a place of sepulture for his family, was consecrated on the 3rd of January, 1834, and is a handsome structure of the GrecianDoric order, of Roche-Abbey stone. Sir John Markham, chief justice of the king's bench in the reign of
Edward IV., was born here.
MARKINGFIELD, an extra-parochial place, in the
liberty of Ripon, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S. S. W.)
from Ripon; containing 27 inhabitants, and comprising
650 acres. The old Hall, a large mansion formerly encompassed by a moat, was long the seat of the knightly
family of Markingfield, of whom Sir Ninian was at the
battle of Flodden, in 1513. The estate was forfeited to
the crown by the rebellion of Thomas Markingfield, in
1569, and was granted to the Chancellor Egerton.
Markington, with Wallerthwaite
MARKINGTON, with Wallerthwaite, a township, in the parish and liberty of Ripon, W. riding of
York, 4¾ miles (S. S. W.) from Ripon; containing 510
inhabitants. The township comprises about 3000 acres
of land, including that part of the pleasure-grounds of
Studley Park in which stand the splendid ruins of
Fountains Abbey, and the mansion of Fountains Hall.
The village is situated west of the road from Ripon to
Ripley. The hamlet of Wallerthwaite consists of a farm
and a few cottages, and is distant about a mile eastward
of Markington. The church of St. Michael, in the
township, consecrated in October, 1844, is a beautiful
though small structure, on a picturesque site adjacent to
the village; it has a fine east window of stained glass.
The erection cost £900, and the family of the late Mr.
Wilberforce gave £1000 towards the endowment. The
living is in the gift of the Bishop of Ripon. There is a
place of worship for Wesleyans.
Marksbury (St. Peter)
MARKSBURY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union
and hundred of Keynsham, E. division of Somerset,
3½ miles (E. by S.) from Pensford; containing, with the
hamlet of Houndstreet, 328 inhabitants. The parish
comprises by computation 1420 acres, principally pasture. The soil is generally a stone brash, but black and
blue marl are found, and successfully applied to the
improvement of the land; the surface is hilly, and the
lower grounds are watered by several rivulets. Coal is
obtained. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in
the king's books at £10. 4. 2.; net income, £240;
patron, General Popham, to whom a small portion of
the tithes belongs. There are slight remains of an ancient chapel on Wingsbury Hill; and a monastery existed in the parish, the site of which is now occupied by
a private mansion.
Markshall (St. Margaret)
MARKSHALL (St. Margaret), a parish, in the
union of Witham, Witham division of the hundred of
Lexden, N. division of Essex, 5 miles (N.) from Kelvedon; containing 33 inhabitants. This parish, originally
called Mercheshald, comprises by admeasurement 806
acres, of which about 200 are arable, 420 pasture, and
180 woodland; the situation is low, and the soil generally a strong loam, resting on clay. The living is a
rectory, valued in the king's books at £14, and in the
gift of W. Honywood, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £176, and the glebe comprises 32 acres. The
church is a modern brick edifice, of octangular form,
erected by General Honywood, and containing a finelyexecuted monument to Mrs. Mary Waters Honywood,
who died aged 93, leaving 367 immediate descendants.
Marks-Tey, Essex.—See Tey, Marks.
MARKS-TEY, Essex.—See Tey, Marks.
Marland, Peter's (St. Peter)
MARLAND, PETER'S (St. Peter), a parish, in
the union of Torrington, hundred of Shebbear, Black
Torrington and Shebbear, and N. divisions of Devon,
4½ miles (S. by W.) from Torrington; containing 351
inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the
patronage of the Ven. Archdeacon Moore: the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £195.
borough and market-town,
and the head of a union, in
the hundred of Selkley,
Marlborough and Ramsbury,
and N. divisions of Wilts,
27 miles (N. by E.) from
Salisbury, and 75 (W. by S.)
from London; containing
3391 inhabitants. The name,
anciently written Marleberg,
or Marlbridge, is supposed
to be derived from the marl,
or chalk, hills by which the town is surrounded. Camden supposes this to have been the Cunetio of Antoninus,
but more recent researches induced the late Sir R. C.
Hoare to place the station at Folly Farm, about a mile
and a half eastward, where that celebrated antiquary
discovered a tessellated pavement, and other relics of a
Roman settlement. At the time of the Norman survey,
Marlborough had a church, and was held in royal demesne; soon after, a castle was erected, which seems to
have been the cause of the subsequent enlargement of
the town. In the time of Richard I., and during his
imprisonment in Austria, his brother John took possession of this fortress; but Richard, on his return from
captivity, seized it, with all the other possessions belonging to his brother, and on their reconciliation he
still retained the castle of Marlborough in his own
hands. King John occasionally kept his court here;
and in the civil war of this period, Marlborough was
held alternately by the king and the barons: it seems
to have been the occasional residence of the sovereign
till the time of Henry VII., and to have formed part of
the dowries of several queens. There was also a royal
residence at Ogbourne, about a mile and a half from the
town. The assizes were held at Marlborough from the
time of Henry III. to that of Charles I.; and in the
52nd of Henry III. a parliament was assembled here
which enacted the laws relative to the police of the
kingdom, and to the administration of justice, commonly called the "Statutes of Marlebridge."
Seal and Arms.
The castle and borough were granted by Henry VIII.
to Edward, Duke of Somerset, and became forfeited to
the crown on the attainder of that nobleman, in the
reign of Edward VI.; they were subsequently restored
to the Seymour family, and have descended, by intermarriage, to the Marquess of Ailesbury. Even in Camden's time, a few fragments only of the castle were remaining. A large house which occupies its site, and is
now used for the purposes of the college of Marlborough,
is said to have been commenced by Francis, first lord
Seymour, of Trowbridge, and to have been improved by
the first duke of Somerset of the Seymour family, and
subsequently by the Earl of Hertford, in the early part
of the eighteenth century. The old keep was converted
into a spiral walk, in the grotto of which Mrs. Rowe
wrote the most celebrated of her works, Friendship in
Death; and here, also, Thomson is said to have composed a great part of his Seasons, when on a visit to the
Earl of Hertford, one of the most distinguished patrons
of literature of that age. In the civil war between
Charles I. and the parliament, the latter had a garrison
in the town under the Earl of Essex; but the royal
army, commanded by Lieut.-General Wilmot, marching
hither from Oxford in Dec. 1642, captured above 1000
prisoners, besides large stores of arms and ammunition,
with all which they returned in safety to that city.
The town is delightfully situated on the banks of the
Kennett, upon the northern verge of the forest of Savernake, and on the north of it are open downs; it consists principally of one long street, running from east to
west, which is paved, and lighted with gas. The older
houses are constructed of wood, and ornamented in
front with curious carved work; the more modern are
of stone and brick. On the north side of the chief
street is a piazza projecting in front of the houses,
serving for a promenade in wet weather; and at its
eastern extremity is a market-house, erected on the site
of a former one, by the corporation, in 1790. The inhabitants are well supplied with water. The trade is
mainly in corn, coal, malt, bacon, and butter and cheese,
of which two last articles vast quantities are sent every
week to London; and some advantages arise from the
situation of the town on a great thoroughfare. The
markets are on Wednesday and Saturday; the former
is for vegetables, and the latter, which is considerable,
has long been celebrated for its extensive supply of
grain, cheese, butchers' meat, &c. Fairs are held on
July 11th, for horses and wool; Aug. 22nd, for lambs,
horses, and cows; and Nov. 23rd, for sheep, horses,
and cows. Marlborough, which is a borough by prescription, received its first existing charter from King
John, in 1205, and others from Henry III., in the 13th
and 30th years of his reign, which were confirmed by
several succeeding kings. In 1577, Queen Elizabeth
bestowed a charter, under which the town was governed
until 1836, when the corporation was made to consist of
a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors; the
mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace, the
county magistrates having concurrent jurisdiction. The
privilege of sending members to parliament has been
exercised ever since the 23rd of Edward I.: the right of
election was, by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap.
45, extended to the £10 householders of the old borough
(containing 211 acres) and the parish of Preshute, which
together constitute the new borough, and comprise 3983
acres: the mayor is returning officer. Courts leet are
held by the corporation; and the King's court, for the
recovery of debts to any amount, takes place every
three weeks, under the charter of John. The powers of
the county debt-court of Marlborough, established in
1847, extend over the registration-districts of Marlborough and Pewsey. The county bridewell and house
of correction was erected in 1787.
Marlborough comprises the parishes of St. Mary the
Virgin, containing 1871 inhabitants, and St. Peter and
St. Paul, containing 1520; the whole divided into five
wards. The living of St. Mary's is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 9. 4.; net income, £100; patron, the Bishop of Salisbury. The
church, a neat edifice of stone, with a Norman doorway,
sustained considerable damage during the civil war, in
1641; having undergone substantial repair, and been
repewed and beautified, it was re-opened for divine service in October, 1844. The living of the parish of St.
Peter and St. Paul is a discharged rectory, valued at
£12; net income, £130; patron and impropriator, the
Bishop. The church, which stands at the western extremity of the main street, has a lofty square tower
with battlements and pinnacles. There are places of
worship for Independents and Wesleyans. The free
grammar school was founded, and endowed with the
revenue of the dissolved hospital of St. John, by grant
of Edward VI.; the income is about £180 per annum,
and the scholars share, with those of the free schools of
Manchester and Hereford, in certain exhibitions at
Brasenose College, Oxford, and certain scholarships at
St. John's College, Cambridge, founded by Sarah, Duchess
of Somerset, in 1679. Marlborough College, or School,
for the education of the sons of the clergy and others,
was formally opened in August, 1843, by the bishop of
the diocese, in the presence of the Marquess of Ailesbury, the mayor and corporation, and several distinguished members of the school-council. The prominent
design is, to provide the clergy of the country with the
means of classical instruction for their children at a
more moderate rate than is charged in the great public
schools. The number of pupils at present is limited to
200, of whom two-thirds are sons of clergymen, and
one-third sons of laymen; but it is the intention of the
council to admit 500 pupils so soon as their funds enable them to enlarge their plan. The fine mansion of
the former dukes of Somerset, known of late years as
the Castle hotel, was, together with extensive new
buildings, fitted up for the establishment. The foundation stone of a chapel within the precincts of the college,
was laid by the bishop; the edifice has just been completed, and is a pretty specimen of the early English
style. The poor-law union comprises fourteen parishes
or places, containing a population of 9234. The monastic institutions here were, a Gilbertine priory dedicated to St. Margaret, founded in the reign of John, and
the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was £38. 19. 2.;
a convent of White friars, established in 1316, by the
merchants of the town; St. John's Hospital, founded in
the reign of Henry II.; and St. Thomas', founded in
that of Henry III., and annexed to the priory of St. Margaret in the reign of Richard II. A chapel and other
portions of the priory were standing a few years since.
Among the distinguished natives of the town the following may be specified: Henry of Marlborough, an
English historian of the fourteenth century; Sir Michael
Foster, an eminent lawyer, and one of the judges of the
court of king's bench, born in 1689; Walter Harte,
poet and historian, who died in 1773; Dr. Sacheverell, of
political celebrity, born in 1672, during the incumbency
of his father, in the parish of St. Peter and St. Paul;
and John Hughes, a poet, and one of the writers in the
Spectator, born in 1677. Marlborough confers the title
of Duke on the family of Spencer-Churchill.