Ogbourn (St. Andrew)
OGBOURN (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union
of Marlborough, hundred of Selkley, Marlborough
and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 2 miles (N.)
from Marlborough; containing 511 inhabitants. It
is situated on the road from Marlborough to Swindon
and Cirencester, and comprises about 5000 acres of land,
divided between arable and pasture, the soil of which is
chiefly gravel and chalk. The tract called Marlborough
Downs, forms a considerable part of the parish. The
living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15.
2. 11.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons
of Windsor: the great tithes have been commuted for
£830, and the vicarial for £180. At Rockley, the
knights of St. John of Jerusalem had a commandery;
and there was likewise a chapel of ease, dedicated to St.
Leonard. The remains of Barberry Castle, a large British encampment, may still be traced, partly in this
parish, but chiefly in that of Wroughton. In the neighbourhood are several mineral springs.
Ogbourn (St. George)
OGBOURN (St. George), a parish, in the union of
Marlborough, hundred of Selkley, Marlborough and
Ramsbury, and N. divisions of Wilts, 4 miles (N.) from
Marlborough; containing 522 inhabitants. In 556, a
sanguinary battle was fought here between the Britons
and the West Saxons, which lasted the whole day, and
ended in the total rout of the Britons, and the capture
of their neighbouring fortress, Barberry Castle, in the
vicinity of which numerous barrows are still visible.
A priory of Benedictine monks, subordinate to the abbey
of Bec-Herlowyn, in Normandy, was founded here about
1149; it became the richest and principal cell to that
house in England. The parish is situated on the road
from Marlborough to Swindon, and comprises by admeasurement 3500 acres. The living is a vicarage, valued
in the king's books at £14. 5. 10.; net income, £244;
patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of
Windsor. The church is a Norman edifice.
OGDENS, an extra-parochial liberty with Holyhatch, in the union and hundred of Fordingbridge,
Ringwood and S. divisions of the county of Southampton; containing 30 inhabitants, and principally
situated within the limits of the New Forest.
OGLE, a township, in the parish of Whalton,
union, and W. division, of Castle ward, S. division of
Northumberland, 7¾ miles (S. W.) from Morpeth;
containing 121 inhabitants. This manor formed part
of the possessions, and was the residence, of the Ogle
family, who were seated here before the Conquest, and
with whom it continued till the time of Elizabeth. It
then passed by the marriage of an heiress to the family
of Cavendish, and subsequently by another heiress to
the family of Hollis, both dukes of Newcastle. The
heiress of Hollis married Harley, Earl of Oxford, whose
only daughter, the Duchess of Portland, conveyed the
estates and the representation of the Ogle family to her
descendant the Duke of Portland; and that nobleman,
in 1809, sold the manor to Thomas Browne, Esq., who
in 1830 disposed of it to the Rev. John Savile Ogle, of
Kirkley, the present owner. The township comprises
2082a. 3r. 9p. Of the once strong fortress of Ogle
Castle, which was built in the reign of Edward III.,
when Sir Robert Ogle had a licence to fortify his manorhouse here, and in which David, King of Scotland, was
confined after the battle of Neville's Cross, scarce a
vestige remained in 1827, part of the moat only being
visible. There was anciently a chapel.
OGLEY-HAY, an extra-parochial district, in the S.
division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of
Stafford; containing 500 inhabitants. This place,
which was previously only a rural hamlet, was in 1836
purchased by C. F. Cotterill, Esq., and has since that
period become a place of some trade. The grounds have
been inclosed, and are now well cultivated. They comprise about 1000 acres, nearly all belonging to Mr. Cotterill, who has let the lands on long leases; a village
has been commenced, and some streets laid out, upon an
eminence commanding an extensive prospect. From
its vicinity to beds of coal, and having abundance of
excellent clay for making bricks, the place is likely soon
to become of considerable size. An engineering establishment is carried on, employing a great number of
hands; and there are also a corn-mill, &c. The district
is intersected by the Wyrley and Essington canal: it is
bounded on the north by the Watling-street; the Lichfield and Walsall road runs through it, and the old
Chester road on the south side.
Ogwell, East (St. Bartholomew)
OGWELL, EAST (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in
the union of Newton-Abbott, forming, with West Ogwell, a distinct portion of the hundred of Wonford,
Teignbridge and S. divisions of Devon, 1½ mile (W. S. W.)
from Newton-Abbott; containing 356 inhabitants. It
comprises 1365 acres. There are several quarries of
limestone, which is chiefly used for agricultural purposes; very fine marble is obtained for ornamental
uses, and an iron-mine has been opened. In May, 1595,
the village was nearly burnt down. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 3. 9., and in the
gift of T. W. Taylor, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £245, and the glebe contains 2 acres.
OGWELL, WEST, a parish, in the union of Newton-Abbott, hundred of Wonford, Teignbridge and
S. divisions of Devon, 2¼ miles (W. S. W.) from NewtonAbbott; containing 51 inhabitants. The parish comprises 669a. 2p., of which 29 acres are common or waste.
The substratum abounds with excellent limestone, which
is quarried for building, and for burning into lime.
The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's
books at £7. 2. 11., and in the gift of T. W. Taylor,
Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £105, and the
glebe comprises 22 acres. The church contains three
ancient stone stalls.
Okeford, Child (St. Nicholas)
OKEFORD, CHILD (St. Nicholas), a parish, in
the union of Sturminster, hundred of Redlane, Sturminster division of Dorset, 6 miles (N. W. by N.) from
Blandford; containing 648 inhabitants. The parish is
skirted on the south-west by the river Stour and the
road from Blandford to Sturminster, and comprises by
admeasurement 1752 acres, about one-third of which is
arable, and the rest pasture, with the exception of a few
acres of wood. The surface is diversified with hills and
vales, with a pleasing intermixture of foliage; the soil in
the hilly parts is chalk, and in the lower grounds clay
and gravel. The living consists of two rectories, Superior and Inferior, the former valued in the king's books
at £6. 13. 4., and the latter at £7; patron and incumbent, the Rev. C. E. North. The tithes have been
commuted for £250, and there is a glebe-house, with 71
acres of land. The church contains portions of different
styles; the chancel was rebuilt about the year 1815, and
at the enlargement of the building in 1835 a north aisle
was added. On Hambledon Hill are traces of an intrenchment, in which Roman coins have been found.
Okeford-Fitzpaine (St. Andrew)
OKEFORD-FITZPAINE (St. Andrew), a parish,
in the union of Sturminster, hundred of Sturminster-Newton-Castle, Sturminster division of Dorset,
7½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Blandford; containing 675
inhabitants. This place was anciently possessed by the
family of Nichole, one of whom obtained the privilege
of a market to be held here, and from whom the estate
came to the Fitz-Paynes. The parish comprises 2569
acres, of which 289 are common or waste land. The
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21.
12. 8½., and in the gift of Lord Rivers: the tithes have
been commuted for £490; the glebe comprises 74 acres.
Several British silver coins were found in 1753; and in
the neighbourhood is Banbury Hill, a circular camp with
a single trench.
Okeney (St. Martin).—See Emberton
OKENEY (St. Martin).—See Emberton.
Okeover (All Saints)
OKEOVER (All Saints), a parish, in the N. division of the hundred of Totmonslow and of the county
of Stafford, 2½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Ashbourn;
containing 67 inhabitants. It is situated on the west
bank of the river Dove, and comprises about 650 acres
of land, all the property of H. C. Okeover, Esq., whose
family is connected, collaterally, with the Earl of Shrewsbury and Lord Bagot, and to whom the manor has belonged ever since the period of the Conquest. The Hall,
the seat of Mr. Okeover, was rebuilt in the last century:
it is a beautiful structure, chiefly of brick, with an
Ionic portico in the centre; and its situation is highly
picturesque, having a fine lawn, with many wooded
eminences in the vicinity, and a prospect of the vale of
the Dove. The living is a donative; income, £20; patron, Mr. Okeover. The church is a small ancient
structure, near the Hall, and completely overgrown with
ivy, eglantine, and roses: it contains many monuments
to the Okeover family. In 1727, Rowland Okeover bequeathed out of his estates at Mappleton and Atlow, on
the Derbyshire side of the Dove, a rent-charge of £60,
for the maintenance of an organist, and 12 boys and
girls as choristers, in the church here: the choristers
have never been appointed, but 12 children are clothed
and apprenticed from the charity, two of them of this
parish, four of the hamlet of Swinscoe, in the parish of
Blore, and six from Atlow and Mappleton parishes.
Okeover is remarkable for the ancient barrows of Hallsteds and Arbour Close, two square intrenchments of
stone, supposed to have been formed by the Romans.
Olave, St., Mary-Gate
OLAVE, ST., MARY-GATE, a parish, partly in the
wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York; containing,
with part of the townships of Clifton and Rawcliffe,
1580 inhabitants, of whom 661 are in the township of
St. Olave, within the limits of the union of York. The
parish forms part of the suburbs of York, and comprises
by computation 2120 acres of land. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £138; patron, Earl De Grey.
The church is within the walls of the city.
Old, or Wold (St. Andrew)
OLD, or Wold (St. Andrew), a parish, in the
union of Brixworth, hundred of Orlingbury, N.
division of the county of Northampton, 10 miles (N.
by E.) from Northampton; containing 497 inhabitants.
The road from Northampton to Kettering, and that from
Northampton to Harborough, run, the former about two
miles on the east, and the latter two miles to the west,
of the parish. It comprises 1975a. 3r. 35p.: the surface is undulated; the soil is capable of producing most
kinds of grain of good quality, and there is a considerable portion of pasture land. The living is a rectory,
valued in the king's books at £18. 12. 8½.; net income,
£355; patrons, the Principal and Fellows of Brasenose
College, Oxford. The tithes were commuted for 343
acres of land in 1767. The church is a spacious and
handsome structure in the later English style. Here
is a place of worship for Independents; also a free
school with an income from two bequests and an allotment of land at the inclosure. There is likewise a fund
of about £50 per annum for the relief of the poor, proceeding from a grant of land made by the Rev. John
Townson, in the year 1668.
Old Alresford.—See Alresford, Old.
OLD ALRESFORD.—See Alresford, Old.—And
other places having a similar distinguishing prefix will be
found under the proper name.
Oldberrow (St. Mary)
OLDBERROW (St. Mary), a parish, in the union
of Alcester, and forming a detached portion of the
Lower division of the hundred of Blackenhurst,
Northfield and E. divisions of the county of Worcester,
2¼ miles (W.) from Henley-in-Arden; containing 63
inhabitants. It is bordered by the county of Warwick
on all sides except the north-west, and consists of
1183a. 3r. 2p. of fertile land. The living is a discharged
rectory, valued in the king's books at £4; patron and
incumbent, the Rev. S. Peshall. The tithes have been
commuted for £206, and the glebe comprises 12 acres.
The church, a small ancient edifice, is in the southern
part of the parish.
Oldbury (St. Nicholas)
OLDBURY (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union
of Bridgnorth, hundred of Stottesden, S. division
of Salop, 1 mile (S. by W.) from Bridgnorth; containing 142 inhabitants. The river Severn forms the eastern boundary of the parish, and the road from Bridgnorth to Cleobury-Mortimer runs through it on the
west; it comprises by admeasurement 808 acres. The
living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books
at £5, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes
have been commuted for £210, and the glebe comprises
19 acres. The encampment from which the parliamentary army bombarded the castle of Bridgnorth, is situated
in the parish.
OLDBURY, a hamlet, in the parish of Mancetter,
union of Atherstone, Atherstone division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of
Warwick, 4¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Nuneaton;
containing 46 inhabitants. It comprises 587 acres.
Here was a small nunnery of the Dominican order,
dedicated to St. Lawrence, and subordinate to Polesworth; it is said to have been founded by Walter de
Hastings and Athawis his wife, and at the Dissolution
possessed a revenue of £6. 0. 10.
OLDBURY, a township, in the parish of HalesOwen, union of West Bromwich, Upper division of
the hundred of Halfshire, Hales-Owen and E. divisions of Worcestershire, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from
Hales-Owen; containing 7301 inhabitants. This place
is situated in the heart of a district abounding with
ironstone and coal, which are raised for the supply of
the neighbourhood. The iron-trade is carried on to a
very considerable extent, and there are some steel-works
and alkali-works. The Birmingham canal, which nearly
surrounds the town or village, affords a facility of conveyance to the principal towns in the vicinity. The old
part of the town is irregular, but the more modern streets
are spacious, and contain some highly respectable shops
and houses; the whole is lighted with gas from the
works at West Bromwich, and the inhabitants are supplied with fine spring water from the Fountain Well, an
inclosed reservoir on the north side of the town. Courts
leet and baron are held annually; and there is a prison
for the confinement of debtors: the powers of the county
debt-court of Oldbury, established in 1847, extend over
part of the registration-districts of West Bromwich and
King's Norton. Here is a church, erected by grant
from the Parliamentary Commissioners, and by voluntary contributions; it was opened in 1841, and is in the
later English style, with a tower, and capable of accommodating upwards of 1500 persons. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £156; patron, the Vicar of
Hales-Owen; impropriator, Lord Lyttleton. The great
tithes, including those of Langley, have been commuted
for £123. 5., and the vicarial for £158. 19. There are
places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans,
and others. Edmund Darby, in the year 1659, bequeathed lands for various charitable uses, among which
were the erection and endowment of a school.
Oldbury-on-the-Hill (St. Arioa)
OLDBURY-on-the-Hill (St. Arioa), a parish, in
the union of Tetbury, Upper division of the hundred
of Grumbald's-Ash, W. division of the county of
Gloucester, 5¼ miles (S. W. by W.) from Tetbury;
containing 483 inhabitants. The living is a rectory,
with that of Didmarton united, valued in the king's
books at £16, and in the gift of the Duke of Beaufort:
the tithes of Oldbury have been commuted for a yearly
rent-charge of £245.
OLDBURY-upon-Severn, a chapelry, in the parish,
union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Thornbury, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 2¾
miles (N. W. by W.) from Thornbury; containing 745
inhabitants. The river Severn passes in the vicinity.
OLDCASTLE, a township, in the parish of Malpas,
union of Wrexham, Higher division of the hundred of
Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 1½
mile (S. W.) from Malpas; containing 95 inhabitants.
It took its name from an ancient castle, which was destroyed before 1585. A battle was fought here in 1644,
between the parliamentarian forces from Nantwich and
some of the king's cavalry, in which the latter were
defeated, and Colonels Vane and Conyers killed. The
township comprises 620 acres; the prevailing soil is
clay. The tithes have been commuted for £86.
Oldcastle (St. John the Baptist)
OLDCASTLE (St. John the Baptist), a parish,
in the union, division, and hundred of Abergavenny,
county of Monmouth, 7 miles (N. by E.) from Abergavenny; containing 58 inhabitants. This parish is
situated at the northern extremity of the county, and
to the west of the road from Abergavenny to Hereford;
it comprises 922 acres, of which 163 are common or
waste. Within its limits the rivers Honddu and Monnow unite their waters, the latter forming the boundary
line here between the counties of Hereford and Monmouth. It also embraces a portion of the Black mountains, which combine with the rivers to render the
scenery extremely interesting in several places. The
living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £73; patron,
Edmund Higginson, Esq.; impropriator, Theophilus
Morgan, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for
£48. 4. 6., and the glebe consists of about 123 acres.
The church is old and dilapidated. The parish is celebrated as the place of concealment of Sir John Oldcastle, Baron Cobham, when he escaped from the Tower in
the reign of Henry V.; and a portrait of him is still
preserved in a farmhouse near the church. Some
Roman antiquities have been discovered.
OLDCOATES, a township, partly in the parish of
Blyth, and partly in that of Harworth, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, county of Nottingham, 4 miles (N.) from Tickhill; containing 356
inhabitants. It comprises 903a. 14p., of which 788
acres are arable, and 112 meadow and pasture; the
surface is gently undulated, and the scenery is pleasing.
The village is of considerable extent, and on the western
verge of the county, bordering upon Yorkshire, an extensive brewery has been established. The vicar of
Harworth, or his curate, performs divine service every
Sunday in a schoolroom licensed by the Archbishop of
York; and there is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
OLDCOTT, a township, in the parish of Wolstanton, union of Wolstanton and Burslem, N. division
of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 2½ miles (N.) from Burslem, on the road to Sandbach; containing 1295 inhabitants. The township is
in the ecclesiastical district of Tunstall, and contains
714 acres, abounding with mines of coal and ironstone,
which are extensively wrought. The principal part of
the population reside at a village called Golden Hill.
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Oldfield, with Heswall.—See Heswall.
OLDFIELD, with Heswall.—See Heswall.
OLDHAM, an enfranchised borough, a parochial
chapelry, and the head of a
union, in the parish of Prestwich, hundred of Salford,
S. division of the county of
Lancaster, 7 miles (N. E.
by E.) from Manchester;
containing 60,447 inhabitants, of whom 42,592 are in
the township of Oldham.
This place, the name of which
appears to indicate some degree of antiquity, has within the last seventy years much
increased in importance, from the rapid progress of its
manufactures, for which it is indebted to its vicinity to
Manchester, and to the mines of excellent coal in the
neighbourhood. The town is situated on elevated
ground, near the source of the river Irk, and is bounded
on the east by a branch of the Medlock; the houses are
irregularly built, but since the extension of its manufactures, the place has been very much enlarged, and
has undergone considerable improvement. It was first
lighted with gas in 1827, by a company who also supply
the town with water, and whose capital, originally
£48,000, was increased in 1838 to £72,000. The gasworks, at the bottom of Greaves-street, were built at a
cost of £20,000, including the laying down of the mains;
the water is supplied by iron pipes, from a reservoir
covering about twelve acres of ground, in Strines-dale,
about two miles and a half eastward, partly in Lancashire and partly in Yorkshire, the whole constructed at
an expense of £28,000. The affairs of the town are
regulated by commissioners appointed under a police
act obtained in 1827, which also provided for the building of a town-hall and other offices. The buildings on
the terrace, erected by private enterprise in 1836, contain a public room and a room intended for a market;
and there are a subscription library, founded in 1807;
a lyceum, in 1839; and a mechanics' institution.
Oldham was for a long period celebrated for the
manufacture of hats, which was established so early as
the fifteenth century, and is still carried on to a small
extent. The principal manufactures now are, those of
fustians, velveteens, cotton and woollen corduroys, and
the spinning of cotton, the last being the most considerable. In 1785 the number of cotton-mills was six; in
1815 the number was 47; in 1839 it had increased to
94, and it is at present much greater: they are all
worked by steam. A great quantity of the coal which is
obtained in the neighbourhood is sent to Manchester,
and the collieries, being exceedingly productive, afford
occupation to a large part of the population. The number of steam-engines employed within the borough, in
cotton spinning and weaving, machine-making, ironfounding, bleaching, and logwood-grinding, in the year
1846, was 179; in raising coal, 58; and in grinding
corn, 1; making a total of 238 steam-engines, of 5695horse power. The trade at the western extremity of
the town is much facilitated by the Oldham canal, constructed in pursuance of an act obtained in 1792; it
commences at Hollinwood, and forms a direct communication with Manchester, Ashton-under-Lyne, and
Stockport. The Rochdale canal passes through the
township of Chadderton. There is a branch to the
Manchester and Leeds railway, from Oldham; and in
1846 an act was passed for making a branch, 4¼ miles
long, to the Manchester and Huddersfield railway: an
extension of the former branch, from the west part of
the town to Mumps, or Greenacres moor, on the east,
was opened November 1, 1847. A market for provisions
is held on Saturday; and fairs take place on the first
Thursday after Old Candlemas-day, on May 2nd, July
8th, and the first Wednesday after October 12th, for
horses, cattle, sheep, and pedlery. By the act 2nd
William IV., cap. 45, Oldham was constituted a borough,
with the privilege of returning two members to parliament. The right of voting is in the £10 householders
of the townships of Oldham, Chadderton, Crompton,
and Royton; the returning officer is appointed by the
sheriff. William Cobbett, the celebrated political writer,
was one of the members first returned for the borough.
Petty-sessions are held every Monday and Thursday;
and there is a county court for the recovery of debts,
established in 1847, with jurisdiction over part of the
parishes of Prestwich-cum-Oldham and Middleton.
The chapelry is co-extensive with the borough, and
comprises 11,138 acres, of which the arable land is
scarcely a fifth of that in pasture. Among the mansions
are, Werneth, Chadderton, Royton, and Foxdenton
Halls. John Frederick Lees, and George Lees, Esqrs.,
are the lords of the manor. The living is a perpetual
curacy, in the patronage of the rector of Prestwich;
net income, £234. The tithes of Oldham township have
been commuted for £170. The ancient chapel, dedicated
to St. Mary, and enlarged in 1476 by "Sir Ralph Langley, priest of Prestwich" and third warden of Manchester College, was taken down and rebuilt in 1833, at a
cost of £22,000. The present chapel is an elegant
structure in the early English style, with a square tower
having twelve noble bells: the eastern window is richly
stained, with figures representing the Four Evangelists
and four minor Prophets; and the interior generally
is particularly chaste. St. Peter's chapel was erected
by subscription in 1765, and enlarged in 1804, and is
now a district church: the living is a perpetual curacy,
with a net income of £150, and in the patronage of the
Rector. The district church dedicated to St. James was
built in 1829, by the parliamentary commissioners, at
an expense of £8905, and is a neat edifice in the later
English style, with a tower and campanile turret: the
living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; also
in the gift of the Rector. In 1835, the three ecclesiastical districts of Hollinwood, Royton, and Shaw, were
formed out of the chapelry; and at the close of 1844,
seven other districts were formed, viz. Chadderton St.
John, Chadderton St. Matthew, Coldhurst, East Crompton, Glodwick, Waterhead, and Werneth, under the act
6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents,
Kilhamites, Moravians, Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics.
The free grammar school was founded in 1611, by
James Assheton, Esq., of Chadderton Hall, who endowed
it with an acre of land in the town, which has been let
for building, and produces about £50 per annum. In
1747, Samuel Scholes gave £16 per annum, for which
children of the township of Oldham are instructed.
Thomas Henshaw, Esq., a native of the town, by will
dated the 14th November, 1807, bequeathed £20,000
for the endowment of a Blue-coat school at Oldham, and
a like sum for an asylum for the blind at Manchester;
and having subsequently added a codicil, by which he
gave the further sum of £20,000 for the endowment of
the school, with liberty to his trustees to establish it
either at Oldham or Manchester, on condition that the
inhabitants of the town chosen provided a site and suitable buildings for the institution, the trustees determined
upon founding the school here. In consequence of
delay, the three sums thus left accumulated to nearly
£100,000. At length three acres of land being given
for the purpose by R. Radcliffe, and Joseph Jones,
Esqrs., the first stone of an edifice for the school was
laid at Oldham-Edge, in April, 1829; and the school
was opened on the 25th June, 1834, with 50 boys,
which number was increased in 1846 to 130. The
building is handsome, commodious, and substantial; is
built of stone, in the early English style, with two
wings; and cost £9000, which were raised by subscription in the township of Oldham. There are a head
master and two ushers: the boys are admitted at nine
years of age, and remain till they are fourteen, when
they are apprenticed to trades. To all the churches
in the chapelry are attached national schools; that in
connexion with St. Mary's is a stone building, erected
at a cost of £3000, in 1842. Three benevolent relieving societies are maintained; and a savings' bank has
been established, the depositors in which, in 1845,
amounted to 763, and the sum deposited to £17,374.
The poor-law union of Oldham comprises eight townships in the parishes of Prestwich and Middleton, containing a population of 72,058. Hugh Oldham, Bishop
of Exeter, was a native of the town.