OLDLAND, a hamlet, in the parish of Bitton,
union of Keynsham, Upper division of the hundred of
Langley and Swinehead, W. division of the county
of Gloucester, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Bristol; containing 5708 inhabitants. It comprises 5233 acres; the
navigable river Avon and the Julian way pass in the
vicinity. Coal is plentiful; and the manufacture of hats
and pins is carried on to a considerable extent. Here
is a chapel of ease. The Duke of Monmouth encamped
on Sydenham meadow, in the hamlet, a few days before
the battle of Sedgemoor.—See Kingswood.
OLDMOOR, a township, in the parish of Bothal,
union of Morpeth, E. division of Morpeth ward, N.
division of Northumberland, 4 miles (N. E. by E.)
from Morpeth; containing 58 inhabitants. It is mentioned in 1240 as a member of the manor of Bothal,
and has been held in part, at various periods, by the
families of Lumley, Fitzhugh, Widdrington, Pearson, and
Lawson. By the last-named family, lands here were
lately sold for £11,500 to A. J. Cresswell Baker, Esq.,
to whom, and to the Duke of Portland, the whole of
Oldmoor now belongs. The township comprises 911a.
2r. 17p., of which 769 acres are in tillage, 122 grass,
and 20 woodland; the soil is clayey. The hamlet is
situated about two miles northward of the village of
Bothal. The tithes have been commuted for £156.
OLD-PARK, a township, in the parish of St. Andrew Auckland, union of Auckland, S. E. division
of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of
Durham, 3¾ miles (N. E. by N.) from Bishop-Auckland;
containing 30 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 420 acres: the road from St. Andrew Auckland to
Durham passes eastward of the hamlet. The mansionhouse was built in its present form by Dr. Warton
assisted by the advice of Gray, the poet, with whom he
lived upon terms of the most intimate friendship.
OLDRIDGE, a chapelry, in the parish and union of
St. Thomas the Apostle, hundred of Wonford, Wonford and S. divisions of the county of Devon, 3 miles
(S. by W.) from Crediton; containing 65 inhabitants.
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £60;
patron and impropriator, J. W. Buller, Esq. The chapel
was erected at the expense of James Buller and the late
Giles Yarde, Esqrs.
OLDSTEAD, a township, in the parish of Kilburn,
wapentake of Birdforth, union of Helmsley, N.
riding of the county of York, 7 miles (N.) from
Easingwould; containing 125 inhabitants. The township comprises 1361 acres, of which 400 are laid out in
woodland, and 284 are common or waste. Oldstead
Hall is an ancient stone mansion, pleasantly situated.
On the summit of a rock, in an elevated part of a thick
wood, is an observatory, a strong pile of stone, forty
feet high, 1146 feet above the level of the sea, and nearly
the same height above the vale of York; it was erected
by John Wormald, Esq., as appears by an inscription on
the north side, to commemorate the first year of the
reign of Her present Majesty. The village, which is of
ancient date, is within a mile of Byland Abbey, and is
romantically situated at the opening of a richly-wooded
valley with lofty acclivities; a small stream runs through
the dale. The tithes have been commuted for £139.
OLLERSET, a hamlet, in the township of Newmills, parish of Glossop, union of Hayfield, hundred
of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby;
containing 257 inhabitants.
OLLERTON, a township, in the parish of Knutsford, union of Altrincham, hundred of Bucklow,
N. division of the county of Chester, 2½ miles (S. E.)
from Nether Knutsford; containing 283 inhabitants.
It comprises 932 acres of land, of which the soil is
chiefly sand and clay: the cultivation is for the dairy.
There is a school with some small endowments.
OLLERTON, a market-town and chapelry, in the
parish of Edwinstowe, union of Southwell, Hatfield
division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division
of the county of Nottingham, 18½ miles (N. N. E.)
from Nottingham; containing 777 inhabitants. The
chapelry consists of 2409 acres: the town is situated in
the Forest of Sherwood, on the banks of the little river
Maun, near its confluence with the Rainworth water.
The market, which is of trifling importance, is held on
Friday; and there is a fair for cattle and sheep on the
1st of May. The chapel is modern. Here is a place of
worship for Wesleyans. Colonel Thomas Markham, of
Ollerton, a distinguished soldier in the royal cause during
the civil war, was drowned in the Trent in 1643, after
engaging the parliamentary forces near Gainsborough.
OLLERTON, a township, in the parish of Stokeupon-Terne, union of Drayton, Drayton division of
the hundred of North Bradford, N. division of the
county of Salop, 7¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Newport;
containing 145 inhabitants.
Olney (St. Peter and St. Paul)
OLNEY (St. Peter and St. Paul), a market-town
and parish, in the union of Newport-Pagnell, hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham, 19 miles
(N. E.) from Buckingham, and 55 (N. W. by N.) from
London; containing, with the hamlet of Warrington,
2437 inhabitants, of whom 2362 are in the town. This
place is situated on the northern bank of the Ouse, and
consists of one long street, which is paved. Most of the
houses were thatched until the occurrence of a destructive fire, in 1786, but those erected since are covered
with tiles; they are in general built of stone, and some
of them are of very respectable appearance. The inhabitants enjoy an abundant supply of water. Over the
Ouse is a handsome stone bridge with five large arches
and five flood arches, replacing an ancient structure.
The principal branch of manufacture is that of bonelace; but in consequence of the general use of machinery,
the profits arising from it are much less than formerly.
The market is held on Thursday; and there are fairs on
Easter-Monday, June 29th, and October 21st. The
parish is of level surface; its situation is low, and the
soil gravelly. The living is a vicarage, valued in the
king's books at £13. 6. 8.; patron and impropriator,
the Earl of Dartmouth; net income, £125, including
9 acres of glebe. The church is a large ancient edifice
in the English style, with a tower, and a spire which
was partially rebuilt in 1807: in the churchyard was
once a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, with a
chantry founded by Lord Basset. There are places of
worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, and Independents; also national and Lancasterian schools, the
room of the former of which has been licensed for the
performance of divine service. Almshouses for twelve
widows and single women have been erected and endowed by the Misses Smith. Moses Brown, author of
Piscatory Eclogues and other works, and the Rev. Henry
Gauntlett, who wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse,
were vicars of Olney; and the Rev. John Newton, a
popular preacher and writer, and the Rev. Thomas Scott,
the Biblical commentator, and author of various other
theological works, were curates. Cowper the poet resided here for some time.
Olveston (St. Mary)
OLVESTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of
Thornbury, Lower division of the hundred of Langley and Swinehead, W. division of the county of
Gloucester; containing, with the tythings of Cote and
Upper Tockington, 1725 inhabitants, of whom 939 are
in Olveston tything, 3¼ miles (S. W.) from Thornbury.
The parish is situated a little to the east of the river
Severn, and comprises 4787 acres. The surface is diversified, and the soil exhibits the several varieties of
limestone, red marl, sand, and black clay; 163 acres
are or were common. The living is a vicarage, with
that of Alveston annexed, valued in the king's books at
£24; net income, £749; patrons and appropriators,
the Dean and Chapter of Bristol. There are places of
worship for the Society of Friends, and Wesleyans.
Ombersley (St. Ambrose)
OMBERSLEY (St. Ambrose), a parish, in the union
of Droitwich, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Worcester and W. divisions of the county
of Worcester, 6 miles (N.) from Worcester; containing 2267 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the
west by the river Severn, and contains about 7000 acres
of rich land, of which about two-thirds are arable: the
scenery is beautifully varied, and the park of Ombersley,
the seat of Lord Sandys, forms an interesting feature in
the view. The roads from Worcester to Kidderminster,
and from Droitwich to Tenbury, cross each other at this
place. The Severn is here crossed by a bridge, constructed under an act of parliament passed in 1826; it
consists of one gigantic iron arch, with stone piers, and
cost £8000: tolls are paid both by foot-passengers and
carriages passing over, in liquidation of the debt incurred. A market, granted by Edward III., has been
long disused. Courts baron and courts of survey, with
view of frankpledge, are held twice in the year. The
living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books
at £15. 7. 3½., and has a gross income of £400, with a
good house; the patronage and impropriation belong to
Lord Sandys, whose tithes have been commuted for
£483, and who has a glebe of 292 acres. The church,
rebuilt in 1829 at a cost of £17,000, is in the later
English style, and is one of the most elegant churches
in the county: in the burial-ground are the remains of
an ancient cross. There is an Independent place of
worship. A charity school was founded in 1701 by
Thomas Tolley, to which Thomas Baker in 1722 bequeathed £100, and Richard Lloyd in 1723 gave a farm
in the parish of Suckley, and two copyholds in Ombersley. In 1826, another school was established out of the
funds of this charity, in a distant part of the parish
called Brookhampton, for the reception of younger
children. A sum of about £70 per annum, arising from
bequests, is distributed to the poor; and there is a fund
of £200, left in 1730 by William Barnesley, for clothing
and apprenticing a boy. The Romans had a camp here;
relics of Roman pottery-works have been discovered,
and remains of intrenchments are yet to be seen on
OMPTON, a township, in the parish of Kneesall,
union of Southwell, South-Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 2¾ miles (S. E. by E.) from Ollerton; containing 109 inhabitants, and consisting of 604 acres.
ONECOTE, a township and a chapelry, in the parish
and union of Leek, N. division of the hundred of Totmonslow and of the county of Stafford, 5 miles (E.
by S.) from Leek; containing 427 inhabitants. It comprises 4957 acres, nearly the whole of which is grassland. This township and that of Bradnop form the
manor of Bradnop, of which William Sneyd, Esq., is
lord. There are rich copper-mines at Mixen, and small
portions of copper and lead are found imbedded among
limestone in most of the hills in the neighbourhood.
The village, which is scattered, lies on the road from
Cheadle to Longnor. Within the chapelry is a deep
valley surrounded by rocks, called Narrowdale, to the
inhabitants of which the rays of the sun are invisible,
during several months in the year. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £99; patron, the Vicar of
Leek. The chapel is a small structure of stone.
One-House (St. John the Baptist)
ONE-HOUSE (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in
the union and hundred of Stow, W. division of Suffolk, 2¼ miles (W.) from Stow-Market; containing 303
inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 800
acres. The Hall, which is partly moated, belonged in
the reign of Edward III. to Bartholomew Burghersh,
one of the twelve noblemen to whose care the Prince of
Wales was committed at the battle of Cressy. The
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at
£7. 2. 6.; net income, £200; patrons, Lady Hotham's
Trustees: there is a parsonage-house, with a glebe of
about 30 acres. The church, which is situated near the
Hall, is in the early and decorated styles, with a round
tower at the west end: the chancel was rebuilt by the
late Rev. Dr. Pettiward; the font is very ancient. There
is a mineral spring. The Rev. Charles Davy, author of
Letters upon the Subjects of Literature, was rector of the
parish, and lies buried in the chancel.
ONELY, a hamlet, in the parish of Barby, union of
Rugby, hundred of Fawsley, S. division of the county
of Northampton, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from the town
of Daventry; containing 19 inhabitants.
Ongar, or Chipping-Ongar (St. Martin)
ONGAR, or Chipping-Ongar (St. Martin), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Ongar, S. division of Essex, 12 miles (W. by S.)
from Chelmsford, and 21 (N. E.) from London; containing 870 inhabitants. Its name is derived from the
Saxon aungre, "the place," or, as Morant supposes, from
the old word hangre, a hill; the addition of chipping, or
ceping, signifying a market. It was anciently denominated Ongar ad Castrum, on account of its castle, and to
distinguish it from High Ongar, a village in the vicinity.
The town is of considerable antiquity, and was probably
founded by the Saxons soon after their settlement in
England. At the time of the Norman survey, the manor
was held in demesne by Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, and
after passing through several families, came into the
possession of Richard de Lucy, chief justice of England
under Henry II. De Lucy procured a market and fairs
for the town as the head of the barony, and built the
castle on a high circular eminence to the east of it, surrounded by a moat and some earthworks, of which there
are still vestiges; the castle itself was destroyed in the
reign of Elizabeth. The town occupies an elevated site
on the bank of the river Roden, and consists principally
of one long street, within the area of an extensive intrenchment, which may be distinctly traced; it is partially paved, lighted with gas, and amply supplied with
water. A market for corn and cattle is held on Saturday;
and there is a fair on September 30th, for hiring servants. The magistrates hold a petty-session for the
division, on the market-day. The parish comprises about
500 acres, nearly equally divided between pasture and
arable land. The living is a discharged rectory, valued
in the king's books at £6, and in the patronage of Lady
Swinburne and Lady Gordon: the tithes have been
commuted for £144, and the glebe comprises 4½ acres,
with a house. The church is a small structure with a
steeple covered with lead; it is partly built of Roman
bricks, and is remarkable for the castellated loop-hole
appearance of its windows. There is a place of worship
for Independents, of which the learned Dr. Doddridge
was minister. A free school was founded in 1678,
pursuant to the will of Joseph King, who bequeathed to
certain trustees five houses, the rents of which amount to
£70 per annum: any one of the scholars that may be
eligible for the university is entitled annually to £5 for
four years from the fund. The poor-law union of Ongar
comprises twenty-six parishes or places, containing a
population of 11,804. Richard Vaughan, Bishop of
Bangor, was formerly rector.
Ongar, High (St. Mary)
ONGAR, HIGH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union
and hundred of Ongar, S. division of Essex, ¾ of a mile
(N. E.) from Ongar; containing 1240 inhabitants. The
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £39. 10. 5.;
net income, £1282; patron and incumbent, the Rev.
Henry John Earle. The church is lofty and spacious,
with a handsome doorway.
Onibury (St. Michael)
ONIBURY (St. Michael), a parish, in the union
of Ludlow, hundred of Munslow, S. division of Salop,
5 miles (N. W.) from Ludlow; containing 368 inhabitants. It consists of the townships of Onibury, Walton,
and Wootton, and comprises by computation 1992 acres,
of well-wooded land, two-thirds arable and the remainder
pasture. The river Oney, and the road from Ludlow to
Shrewsbury, run through the parish. There are several
quarries of good stone for building, some of which also
produce excellent stone for burning into lime. The
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 17. 8½.,
and in the gift of the Earl of Craven, owner of the principal part of the parish: the tithes have been commuted
for £330, and there is a glebe-house, with 90 acres of
land. William Norton, in 1593, left a rent-charge of
£6. 6. 8. for teaching children.
ONSTON, a township, in the parish of Weaverham,
union of Northwich, Second division of the hundred
of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester,
5 miles (W. by N.) from the town of Northwich; containing 85 inhabitants, and comprising 279 acres of land,
the soil of which is clay.
OPENSHAW, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish
of Manchester, union of Chorlton, hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire, 3 miles (E. by S.)
from Manchester, on the road to Ashton-under-Lyne;
comprising the townships of Beswick, Bradford, and
Openshaw; and containing 3536 inhabitants; of whom
2280 are in Openshaw township. The area of Openshaw
is about 500 Lancashire acres. Here is an excellent
clay for fire and other bricks, and the lands have a coal
substratum. The extensive dye-works of Messrs. George
Whyatt and Sons employ 250 hands; there are a cottonmill, and a small bleaching concern. The Sheffield and
Manchester railway and the Stockport canal run through
the township. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the
patronage of Trustees; net income, £175, with a house.
The church, dedicated to St. Barnabas, was erected in
1839, at a cost of £4500; and is in the early English
style, with a square tower and a spire. The Wesleyans
and the New Connexion of Methodists have places of
worship. Some Church schools here are endowed with
£30 per annum, the rent of five houses left by John
Neden, in 1845.