Pevensey (St. Nicholas)
PEVENSEY (St. Nicholas), a parish, and a member of the town and port of Hastings, in the union of
Eastbourne, locally in the lowey and rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 6 miles (S. E. by E.) from
Hailsham, and 60 (S. E. by S.) from London; containing 323 inhabitants. Somner considers this to have
been the Anderida of the Romans; by the Saxons it was
called Peofensea, by the Normans Pevensel, and at present its name is vulgarly pronounced Pemsey. It was
anciently much resorted to as a sea-port, and various
historical circumstances connected with it occur so
early as the invasion of England, by Sweyn, King of
Denmark: in the reign of Edward the Confessor, in
1049, Godwin, Earl of Kent, is stated to have taken
several ships from it. Pevensey is also distinguished as
the place of landing of the Conqueror, who hence proceeded to Hastings, previously to the decisive conflict at
Battle. On ascending the throne, William gave Pevensey to his half-brother, Earl Robert, who protected it
with a noble castle, now in ruins. It subsequently reverted to the crown, and was bestowed by Henry I. on
Gilbert de Aquila, from whom the district afterwards assumed the name of the "Honour of the Eagle," the castle
being esteemed the head of that honour. Henry I., in
1101, encamped here with a large army, to oppose his
brother Robert, Earl of Normandy, who was supposed
to design an invasion of the kingdom. In the 14th
century John of Gaunt had a grant, in tail general, of
the castle and leucata of Pevensey, and from him the
lordship descended to the king, in the person of his son
and heir, Henry IV. It was given by the latter to Sir
John Pelham, and continued in that family till 1415,
since which period it has been in various hands: in
1730 it was purchased by the Hon. Spencer Compton,
ancestor of the present proprietor, the Earl of Burlington. The lordship lies in the parishes of Pevensey,
Hailsham, and Westham.
Pevensey is now a small village, standing on a rivulet
which runs into Pevensey bay. Its decline from the
importance it once possessed, like that of other places
in the neighbourhood, has been principally owing to the
receding of the sea, from which it is now a considerable
distance. Sessions for the liberty are held quarterly:
over the prison, which is a small building, is the townhall. The parish contains 4351 acres, whereof 225 are
common or waste; the surface is level, and was much
subject to inundation previous to a late improvement in
the drainage, but the tract over which the sea formerly
flowed, called Pevensey Level, now comprises some of
the richest fattening pastures for cattle in England.
The village has still a corporation, consisting of a bailiff,
jurats, and commonalty. A fair for live-stock is held on
the 5th of July. The living is a vicarage, valued in the
king's books at £18. 7. 8½.; patron, the Chancellor of
the Cathedral of Chichester: the vicarial tithes have
been commuted for £1153, and there are 80 acres of
impropriate glebe, and 10 of vicarial. The church is
chiefly in the early English style, and has three aisles, a
chancel covered with ivy, and a large and low tower;
in the chancel is a handsome monument to John Wheatley, Esq.
The remains of Pevensey Castle, an interesting relic
of antiquity, are situated on a craggy steep, commanding a beautiful view of the adjacent country. The external walls are circular, and inclose an area of nine acres,
being, with the towers, tolerably entire for the height of
twenty-five feet; they display throughout an abundance
of Roman bricks, affording the strongest presumption of
there having originally been a Roman fortress on the
spot. Tradition informs us, that the rock on which the
castle is built was once on a level with the sea; and
from fossils and shells of various sorts, being occasionally met with, the account is probably true. The Duke
of York, in the reign of Henry IV., was for some time
confined within the walls of this castle; as was also
Joan of Navarre, widow of Henry IV., who, with her confessor Friar Randal, was accused of a design to destroy
the king, Henry V. James I. of Scotland likewise
suffered captivity here. In 1840, on removing some
earth within the castle, a great many brass coins, in a
series extending over the reigns of six or seven Roman
emperors, were discovered. Andrew Borde, physician
to Henry VIII., and who, from his jocularities, is
thought to have given origin to the appellation of
"Merry Andrew," was a native of the village.
Pevington, Kent.—See Pluckley.
PEVINGTON, Kent.—See Pluckley.
Pewsey, in the hundred of Ganfield, county of Berks.—See Pusey.
PEWSEY, in the hundred of Ganfield, county of
Pewsey (St. John the Baptist)
PEWSEY (St. John the Baptist), a small markettown, a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of
Kinwardstone, Everley and Pewsey, and S. divisions
of Wilts, 6½ miles (S. by W.) from Marlborough; containing 1825 inhabitants. A market for corn takes
place every Tuesday, and the petty-sessions for the
division are held here. The living is a rectory, valued in
the king's books at £26. 16. 8., and in the gift of the
Earl of Radnor: the tithes have been commuted for
£1200, and the glebe comprises 131 acres. The church
has been enlarged. The union comprises twenty-three
parishes or places, with a population of 12,259.
PEWSHAM, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union
and hundred of Chippenham, Chippenham and Calne,
and N. divisions of Wilts, 1½ mile (S. E. by S.) from
Chippenham; containing 480 inhabitants.
Pexall, with Henbury.—See Henbury.
PEXALL, with Henbury.—See Henbury.
PEYTON, a chapelry, in the parish and hundred of
Bampton, union of Tiverton, Collumpton and N.
divisions of the county of Devon, 4 miles (N. E.) from
Bampton; containing 315 inhabitants.
Phillack (St. Felix)
PHILLACK (St. Felix), a parish, in the union of
Redruth, E. division of the hundred of Penwith, W.
division of Cornwall, 9 miles (W. by S.) from Redruth; containing 4055 inhabitants. This parish comprises about 2575 acres, of which 872 are common or
waste; it is situated on the shore of St. Ives bay in the
Bristol Channel, and includes a portion of the town of
Hayle, and several villages. The northern parts of the
parish are overwhelmed with sand, supposed to have
drifted from the bay in the twelfth century. The Great
Wheal Alfred, a copper-mine which formerly yielded
1000 tons of ore per month, and some other mines, are
within the parish; but none are at present in operation,
except the North Wheal Alfred, and even that is barely
productive. Here is an iron factory, in which the
largest steam-engines are made; and at Angarrack is a
smelting-house for tin: a canal has been formed from
the iron-works to the sea. The living is a rectory, with
that of Gwithian annexed, valued in the king's books
at £45. 10. 10., and in the patronage of the Rev. William
Hockin: the tithes of the two parishes have been commuted for £619. 19. 6., and there are 25 acres of glebe,
of which part is common. On the northern extremity
of the Towan was formerly a chapel. There is a place
of worship for Wesleyans. An ancient cemetery was
discovered a few years since, on enlarging the churchyard; and several stone graves, in which were perfect
skeletons, were found on the removal of a sand bank,
together with stone basins, and some stags' horns.
There was a castle at Hayle Bar Riviere, in the parish,
and another called Castle Kayle; the moat of the latter
is still visible.
Philleigh or Filley (St. Felix)
PHILLEIGH or Filley (St. Felix), a parish, in
the union of Truro, W. division of the hundred of
Powder and of the county of Cornwall, 6 miles
(S. W.) from Tregoney; containing 456 inhabitants.
This parish, which comprises 2376a. 1r. 9p., is bounded
on the west and north by the navigable river Fal; the
shore is enriched with wood to the water's edge. Stone
for building is quarried, and much of it conveyed to
Truro by the river. The living is a rectory, valued in
the king's books at £15. 6. 0½., and in the gift of the
Heir of the Rev. Bedford Kenyon: the tithes have been
commuted for £350, and the glebe comprises 22 acres.
The church is of Norman architecture, very ancient, and
in a tottering state. There are places of worship for
Wesleyans. Within the limits of the parish are two or
three beacons, and some vestiges of encampments.
PHILLYHOLME, a tything, in the parish of Hawkchurch, union of Axminster, hundred of Uggscombe,
Bridport division of Dorset; with 453 inhabitants.
PHOSIDE, a hamlet, in the parish of Glossop,
union of Hayfield, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 4 miles (N. by W.) from
Chapel-en-le-Frith; containing 656 inhabitants.
Pickenham, North (St. Andrew)
PICKENHAM, NORTH (St. Andrew), a parish, in
the union of Swaffham, hundred of South Greenhoe, W. division of Norfolk, 3½ miles (S. E. by E.)
from Swaffham; containing 269 inhabitants. It comprises 1589a. 3r. 14p., of which 1100 acres are arable,
and the remainder chiefly meadow and pasture. The
living is a discharged rectory, with that of Houghtonon-the-Hill annexed, valued in the king's books at
£5. 14. 2., and in the gift of the Rev. Henry Say: the
tithes have been commuted for £471. 10., and there are
110 acres of glebe. The church is an ancient structure,
with a square tower.
Pickenham, South (All Saints)
PICKENHAM, SOUTH (All Saints), a parish, in
the union of Swaffham, hundred of South Greenhoe, W. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (S. E. by S.)
from Swaffham; containing 170 inhabitants. It comprises 1830 acres, of which 1262 are arable, 390 meadow
and pasture, and 113 woodland. The Hall, the seat of
E. T. Applewhaite, Esq., lord of the manor, is a handsome mansion. The living is a discharged rectory,
valued in the king's books at £8. 1. 5½., and in the gift
of Mr. Applewhaite: the tithes have been commuted
for £303. 12.; the glebe comprises 62 acres. The
church is an ancient structure, with a circular tower, and
contains several monuments to the Chute family: on
the north side of the nave are the remains of a chapel
in which Sir Henry Hobart, Knt., lord chief justice of
the common pleas, was interred, in 1638.
Pickering (St. Peter)
PICKERING (St. Peter), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in Pickering lythe, N.
riding of York; containing, with the chapelries of
Goadland and Newton, and the townships of Kingthorpe and Marishes, 3901 inhabitants, of whom 2992
are in the town, 26 miles (N. N. E.) from York, and
222 (N. by W.) from London. The origin of this place
is said to be very remote, being dated by tradition 270
years before the commencement of the Christian era,
and ascribed to Peridurus, a British king, who was
interred here, on the brow of a hill called Rawcliff.
According to local tradition, also, its name is derived
from the circumstance of a ring having been lost by the
founder whilst washing in the river Costa, and subsequently found in the belly of a pike. An ancient castle,
of great strength, which occupied an eminence near the
northern extremity of the place, was the prison of
Richard II. after his deposition, and previously to his
removal to Pontefract, where he was murdered. During
the great civil war this fortress was dismantled by the
parliamentary forces. The town is long and straggling,
and situated on a declivity, at the bottom of which, and
through part of the town, flows a stream named Pickering beck. The castle hill commands a fine view of the
fertile vale of Pickering, and on one side is a mountainous district called Black or Blake Moor, which extends to a considerable distance, and furnishes materials
for making brooms. On the river Costa, which rises at
Keldhead, and on the Old Beck stream, are several
flour-mills. The Whitby and Pickering railway, twentyfour miles long, was opened in 1838, and has since been
extended from Pickering to the York and Scarborough
line near Malton. The market is on Monday; and
fairs are held on the Mondays before February 14th
and May 13th, on September 25th, the Monday before
November 23rd, and the second Monday in all the
other months, principally for cattle.
Pickering was formerly of more importance than it is
at present, and was the chief town in the district; in
the 23rd of Edward I. it sent members to parliament.
It is still the head of an honour in the duchy of Lancaster having jurisdiction throughout the lythe and
wapentake, which are co-extensive, including two market-towns and forty-six townships. A manorial court,
for all actions under 40s. arising within the honour,
takes place on Monday in the first whole week after
Easter-Monday, and on the first Monday after Old
Michaelmas-day, at the court-house in the castle. The
township comprises 12,152 acres, of which 4500 are
common or waste land. The living is a discharged
vicarage, in the patronage of the Dean of York, valued
in the king's books at £8. 3. 9.; net income, £158.
The great tithes have been commuted for £1181; the
vicarial glebe consists of 38 acres. The church is an
ancient and spacious edifice, with a lofty spire. At
Newton is a chapel of ease, and at Goadland a separate
incumbency. There are places of worship in the parish
for the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans. The free school is supported by the interest of
various endowments, amounting to about £80, with
some small legacies. The union of Pickering comprises
twenty-eight parishes or places, and contains a population of 10,251. On Pickering Moor are vestiges of two
Roman encampments of great strength, and there are
several others between the barrows and the town, as
well as on the western moors.
Pickhill (All Saints)
PICKHILL (All Saints), a parish, in the union of
Thirsk, partly in the wapentake of Allertonshire,
but chiefly in that of Hallikeld, N. riding of York,
7 miles (W. N. W.) from Thirsk; containing, with the
townships of Ainderby-Quornhow, Holme, Howe, Sinderby, and Swainby with Allerthorpe, 696 inhabitants,
of whom 356 are in the township of Pickhill with
Roxby. This parish, called by Spelman in his "Villare
Anglicum" Pickhall, is bounded on the east by the
river Swale, and on the west by the old Roman road
now called Leeming-lane. It comprises an area of
4991a. 1r. 12p., of which 2131a. 38p. are in Pickhill with Roxby. The surface is undulated, and the
scenery pleasingly varied; the soil in some parts is
a strong clay, in others a sandy loam, and the lands
generally are in good cultivation. The villages of Pickhill and Roxby are contiguous, and now form one village
under the former appellation; they are seated on both
sides, and near the source, of a rivulet tributary to the
Swale. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in
the king's books at £5. 13. 4.; net income, £152;
patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of
Trinity College, Cambridge. The tithes have been commuted for £1360. 8., and the glebe comprises 21 acres
in this parish and 13 acres in that of Wensley. The
church is an ancient structure, for the repair of which
22 acres of land at Sinderby were bequeathed by William
Grant and William Byerley, in 1590. Here is a place
of worship for Wesleyans. A castle anciently existed
at Pickhill, though not a vestige is now remaining, except the moat with which it was surrounded; and there
are some fields in the parish which still retain the name
of the Roman fields.
PICKLESCOTT, a township, in the parish of
Smethcott, union of Church-Stretton, hundred of
Condover, S. division of the county of Salop; containing 143 inhabitants.
PICKMERE, a township, in the parish of Great
Budworth, union of Altrincham, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 3½ miles
(N. E.) from Northwich; containing 241 inhabitants.
It comprises 996 acres, of which the soil is partly clay
and partly sand, and cultivated for the dairy.
PICKTON, a township, in the parish of Plemonstall, union of Great Boughton, Lower division of
the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of
Chester, 4¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Chester; containing
113 inhabitants. The township comprises 770 acres of
cultivated land, and 117 in roads and waste: the soil is
clay. The tithes have been commuted for £80.
PICKTON, a township, in the parish of KirkLeavington, union of Stockton, W. division of the
liberty of Langbaurgh, N. riding of York, 4 miles (S.)
from Yarm; containing 58 inhabitants. This place,
sometimes written Pyketon (Peak-town), belonged in the
reign of Edward I. to a family of the same name, and
was afterwards the property of the Thwengs: it is now
in the hands of various persons. The township comprises about 870 acres: the hamlet consists of a few
houses scattered irregularly on a gently rising eminence,
and commands a pleasing prospect to the south.
Pick-Up-Bank, with Yate.—See Yate.
PICK-UP-BANK, with Yate.—See Yate.
Pickwell (All Saints)
PICKWELL (All Saints), a parish, in the union
of Melton-Mowbray, and forming a detached portion
of the hundred of Gartree, locally in the hundred of
East Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester,
5¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Melton-Mowbray; containing,
with the hamlet of Leesthorpe, 163 inhabitants. This
parish, which is situated to the south of the road from
Melton, through Oakham and Bedford, to London,
comprises by measurement 2363 acres. The soil is of
various qualities; near the village it is a light red earth,
in some parts clay and sand mixed, and in others clay
only: the surface is varied with hill and dale. Stone of
an inferior kind is quarried for the repair of roads, and
fossils have been found. The living is a rectory, valued
in the king's books at £16; net income, £519; patron,
the Earl of Gainsborough: the glebe consists of about
60 acres of fine land. Dr. William Cave, the Church
historian, was born here in 1637.
Pickworth (St. Andrew)
PICKWORTH (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union
of Grantham, wapentake of Aveland, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 2¾ miles (W.) from Falkingham; containing 265 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 12. 3½.; patron,
the Duke of St. Alban's.
Pickworth (All Saints)
PICKWORTH (All Saints), a parish, in the union
of Stamford, hundred of East, county of Rutland,
4¾ miles (N. W. by N.) from Stamford; containing 132
inhabitants. The living is a rectory, annexed to that of
Great Casterton, and valued in the king's books at £4.
The church was demolished in the seventeenth century,
and the living united to the rectory of Great Casterton
in 1734, from which time the inhabitants resorted to the
church there till the year 1823, when a church was built
here, at the expense of the late rector, the Rev. Richard