Sandhoe - Sapperton

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis (editor)

Year published

1848

Supporting documents

Pages

15-20

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'Sandhoe - Sapperton', A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 15-20. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51255 Date accessed: 23 August 2014.


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Sandhoe

SANDHOE, a township, in the parish of St. John Lee, union of Hexham, S. division of Tindale ward and of Northumberland, 2½ miles (E. N. E.) from Hexham; containing 273 inhabitants. The township contains some good houses, commanding prospects of a richly-diversified country; and the village is pleasantly situated about two miles north-west of Corbridge. Near the gardens of Beaufront is a Roman Catholic chapel, now in disuse. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £95.

Sandholme

SANDHOLME, with Hive and Owstrop, a hamlet, in the township of Gilberdike, parish of Eastrington, union of Howden, wapentake of Howdenshire, E. riding of York; containing 278 inhabitants, of whom 151 are in Sandholme. The village is situated about half a mile north of Gilberdike, and about a mile and a half east of Eastrington.

Sandholme.—See Storkhill.

SANDHOLME.—See Storkhill.

Sandhurst (St. Michael)

SANDHURST (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Easthampstead, hundred of Sonning, county of Berks, 5¼ miles (S. by E.) from Wokingham; containing 562 inhabitants. It comprises 4413a. 30p., of which 1812 acres are common or waste land. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £72; patron, the Bishop of Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £150, and there is an impropriate glebe of 39½ acres.

In this parish is the Royal Military College for the scientific instruction of cadets intended for the army, and of officers already possessing military commissions. The two branches of the institution were first temporarily placed at High Wycombe in 1799, and transferred to Great Marlow in 1802 by their founder, the late Duke of York, on a plan furnished by Major-General J. G. Le March ant, who fell gallantly fighting at the battle of Salamanca. In 1812, the establishment was removed to the present magnificent structure, which had been erected at the national expense, and in which, since the year 1820, both divisions of the institution have been concentrated. The senior department is a school for the staff, where officers of all ranks already in the service are admitted to study; the junior branch is appropriated to the professional education of young gentlemen intended for the cavalry and infantry. Since its foundation the college has afforded instruction to above 3000 young men for the service, besides qualifying above 450 other officers for the staff. It is controlled by a board of commissioners under the presidency of the commander in chief, consisting of the secretary-at-war, the mastergeneral of the ordnance, and the principal general officers on the home staff of the army; but the immediate government is vested in a general, a colonel as lieutenantgovernor, and other officers.

The college stands in the midst of extensive and picturesque grounds, with a fine sheet of water in front, and surrounded by many thriving plantations. The edifice, which has a fine Doric portico of eight columns, is of a simple but majestic character, and calculated for the reception of 400 gentlemen cadets, and 30 students of the senior department. The length of the main building is 434 feet, and of the whole principal façade not less than 900. The house of the governor stands in its own grounds: that of the lieutenant-governor closes the western extremity of the front range; and the quarters of the officers of the establishment form, with the main building, a square in its rear; while the masters' houses, at the distance of about a quarter of a mile in front, are built on a terrace overlooking the high western road. There are a well-situated observatory, and a riding-house 110 feet by 50, both detached; and the principal edifice, besides the halls of study, dininghalls, dormitories, and servants' offices, contains a handsome octagonal room in which the public examinations are held, and a neat and chastely decorated chapel.

Sandhurst (St. Lawrence)

SANDHURST (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the Upper division of the hundred of Dudstone and King's Barton, union, and E. division of the county, of Gloucester, 3 miles (N.) from Gloucester; containing 540 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the eastern bank of the Severn, between that river and the road from Gloucester to Tewkesbury; and comprises 2227a. 1r. 1p. The living is a discharged vicarage; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. The great tithes have been commuted for £480, and the vicarial for £205; the glebe comprises 12 acres of land.

Sandhurst (St. Nicholas)

SANDHURST (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Cranbrooke, hundred of Selbrittenden, Lower division of the lathe of Scray, W. division of Kent, 7 miles (S. W. by W.) from Tenterden; containing 1402 inhabitants. The parish is separated from the county of Sussex by the river Rother, and comprises 4382 acres, of which 160 are in wood. A fair for cattle and pedlery is held on May 25th. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20, and in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury: the tithes have been commuted for £880, and the glebe comprises 9 acres. The church is principally in the later English style. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans,

Sand-Hutton.—See Hutton, Sand.

SAND-HUTTON.—See Hutton, Sand.

Sandiacre (St. Giles)

SANDIACRE (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Shardlow, hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, S. division of the county of Derby, 9½ miles (E.) from Derby; containing 996 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the river Erewash, and on the road from Derby to Nottingham; and comprises an area of about 1100 acres, chiefly arable and pasture, with a very small portion of woodland. The village is in a valley, nearly surrounded with hills; the inhabitants are partly employed in a starch manufactory, and in the manufacture of lace by power-looms. The Erewash and Derby canal, communicating with the Grand Junction line, passes through the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Prebendary of Sandiacre in the Cathedral of Lichfield; net income, £120. The church, which is noticed in the Domesday survey, and is of great antiquity, now exhibits an admixture of various styles, the decorated predominating: it is on an eminence, and forms a conspicuous feature in the landscape. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.

Sandon (St. Andrew)

SANDON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford, S. division of Essex, 9, miles (W. by S.) from Danbury; containing 531 inhabitants. This place, shortly after the Conquest, belonged to the descendants of Hardwin de Scales, a Norman warrior; and among subsequent owners, occur the families of de Valence and Beauchamp. The lands afterwards passed to the crown, and in the time of Henry VIII. were given to Cardinal Wolsey; on his fall they reverted to the crown, and they have since been possessed by various families, including those of Goodey, Everard, Maynard, Abdy, Wiseman, and Collins. The parish comprises by computation 1943 acres; the soil in the lower parts is chiefly a stiff wet loam, resting on clay. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 16. 8., and in the gift of Queen's College, Cambridge: the tithes have been commuted for £700, and the glebe consists of 24 acres. The church is a small edifice with a tower, and near it is the rectory-house, a neat residence. The learned Dr. Brian Walton, author of the Polyglot Bible, was rector.

Sandon (All Saints)

SANDON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Buntingford, hundred of Odsey, county of Hertford, 4¾ miles (N. W. by N.) from Buntingford; containing 804 inhabitants. It is situated in the northern part of the county, west of the road from Buntingford to Royston. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9; net income, £227; patron, the Dean of St. Paul's, London.

Sandon (All Saints)

SANDON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Stone, S. division of the hundred of Pirehill, N. division of the county of Stafford, 4½ miles (N. N. E.) from Stafford; containing 586 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 3376 acres; the surface rises gradually from the north bank of the river Trent, and the scenery is beautifully diversified. The Hall is the seat of the Earl of Harrowby, who bears the inferior title of Viscount Sandon, of this place: on the south side of it is a fine Doric pillar, 75 feet high, erected by the late earl in 1806, to the memory of William Pitt; and in the grounds is an elegant structure in the later English style, with two tablets inscribed to Spencer Perceval. Stone of good quality for building is found, and in Sandon Park is an excellent quarry. The Trent and Mersey canal passes through the parish. Fairs, chiefly for cattle, are held on the Thursday in Easterweek, and the 14th of November. The living is a vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £7. 10.; patron, and owner of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, the Earl of Harrowby. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £366, and the incumbent's for £356; the glebe comprises 8 acres. The church is situated in the middle of the park, and is an ancient and venerable structure, restored by the late earl, in strict harmony with its original character; it contains an elegant monument to the memory of the well-known genealogist and antiquary, Sampson Erdeswicke, the last of the Erdeswickes, formerly proprietors of the manor, who was born here, and died in 1603. In the vicarage gardens adjoining the churchyard, is a monumental cross dedicated to the late Bishop Ryder, erected by the curate out of the old pinnacles and other materials left from the repairs of the church. There is a place of worship for Methodists. In a meadow near the boundary of the Sandon estate, is a petrifying spring.

Sandon-Fee

SANDON-FEE, a tything, in the parish and union of Hungerford, hundred of Kintbury-Eagle, county of Berks, 1¾ mile (S. W. by S.) from Hungerford; containing 718 inhabitants, and an area of 1261a. 3r.

Sandridge (St. Leonard)

SANDRIDGE (St. Leonard), a parish, in the poorlaw union of St. Alban's, hundred of Cashio, or liberty of St. Alban's, county of Hertford, 2¾ miles (N. E.) from St. Alban's; containing 851 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £200; patron and impropriator. Earl Spencer.

Sandwich

SANDWICH, a cinqueport, borough, and markettown, having separate jurisdiction, in the union, and locally in the hundred, of Eastry, lathe of St. Augustine, E. division of Kent, 39 miles (E.) from Maidstone, and 68 (E. by S.) from London; containing 2913 inhabitants. This place, which appears to have risen into reputation on the decline of the Portus Rutupensis, derived its Saxon name Sondwic, signifying "a town on the sands," from its situation on a point of land which had been gained from the sea, on its retiring from that ancient Roman port. Most antiquaries suppose it to have been also the Lunden-wic noticed in the Saxon Chronicle as the principal resort for merchants trading with the port of London, and to have been at a very early period of considerable importance. In 851, Athelstan defeated a large party of the Danes, who had landed on this part of the coast, and destroyed nine of their ships: soon after, an army of those invaders landed from 350 ships, and plundered this place and Canterbury; and in 993, Anlaf, another Danish chieftain, arrived with a fleet of 90 sail, and laid waste the town. In 1011, a Danish fleet having landed here, ravaged the coast of Kent and Sussex, besieged Canterbury, massacred its inhabitants, and set fire to it. In 1014, Canute, on leaving England, touched at Sandwich, and sent on shore his English hostages, barbarously mutilated: when established on the throne of England, he granted the port, and all its revenues, to Christ Church, Canterbury, for the support of the monks; and partly rebuilt the town. From this period the place began to flourish, and subsequently attained such eminence as to be made one of the principal cinque-ports of the kingdom by Edward the Confessor, who resided here for some time. In 1052, Earl Godwin and his sons entered the harbour, whence they sailed for London.


Arms.

In the Norman survey Sandwich is described as a borough held by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and as a fort rendering to the king the same services as Dovor, yielding then a rent of £50, and 40,000 herrings for the monks' food. In the reign of Henry III., the French having effected a landing, burnt the town; but from the opulence of the inhabitants, it was soon rebuilt in a more substantial manner, and received from that monarch the grant of a weekly market and other privileges. Edward I. fixed the staple of wool here for a short time; and in the same reign, the monks of Canterbury, in exchange for other lands in Kent, surrendered to the king all their rights and customs in the town, with the exception only of their houses and quays, a free passage across the ferry, and the privilege of buying and selling in the market free of toll; which reservations were afterwards abandoned in exchange for lands in Essex. At this time, Sandwich contributed to the armament destined for the invasion of France 22 ships and 504 mariners, and was the general place of rendezvous for the fleets of the king, who usually embarked here on his several expeditions. Richard II., in the seventh year of his reign, issued an order for inclosing and fortifying the town, which, from its naval importance, had become a principal object of attack with the French. That people, preparing to invade England, constructed a wall of wood, 3000 paces in length and 20 feet in height, with towers at short intervals, to protect their troops from the English archers; and it was their intention to fix this wall upon the coast after they had effected a landing: parts of it being found on board of two large ships which were taken in the following year were used in strengthening the fortifications of the town. In 1416, Henry V., while waiting to embark for Calais, took up his residence here in the monastery of the Carmelite friars. In the 16th and the 35th of Henry VI., the French plundered the greater part of the town, which, however, in the reign of Edward IV. was in a very prosperous state, its trade having greatly increased. In 1456, the French made another attempt on the place; and in the following year, Marshal de Breze landed a force of 5000 men, and, after a sanguinary battle, succeeded in obtaining possession of the town, which he plundered and set on fire. It was subsequently pillaged by the Earl of Warwick, in his insurrection against the king. To guard against similar assaults, Edward IV. fortified the town with a wall strengthened with bastions, and surrounded it with a fosse, appropriating £100 per annum of the customhouse dues towards its restoration. These measures, together with the advantages of its haven, soon enabled it to regain its former prosperity; and its trade so much increased, that the net amount of the customs was £16,000 per annum, and there were 95 vessels belonging to the port.

The harbour soon after this began to decay, from the quantity of light sand which was washed into it by the sea; and this detriment was further increased by the sinking of a large vessel at its mouth. In 1493 a mole was constructed-; and many attempts were made during the time of Henry VIII. and of Elizabeth, to remove the obstructions and improve the harbour; but they were not attended with success, and so much did the trade decline in consequence, that in the 8th year of the latter reign only sixty-two seamen belonged to the port. The persecutions on account of religious tenets in the Netherlands drove away many artisans, who, with their families, sought an asylum in England; Elizabeth encouraged these refugees, and not less than 400 of them settled here, to whom she granted two weekly markets for the sale of their manufactures. They introduced the weaving of silk, and the manufacture of baizes and flannels, which they brought in a short time to great perfection; and by their industry and good conduct they became a flourishing and opulent community. Among them were some gardeners, who finding the ground favourable, employed themselves in the cultivation of esculent plants, to the great benefit of the landholders, and also introduced the growth of flax, teasel, and canary-seed, which shortly after were propagated with success in every part of the neighbouring Isle of Thanet. Elizabeth paid a visit to the town in 1573, and was hospitably entertained by the corporation for three days; in 1670, Queen Catherine, with a large retinue, was entertained by the mayor. In the reign of James I., the trade of the port had in some degree revived, the amount of the customs being £3000 per annum; the descendants of the Flemish refugees had laid aside their original employment, and were intermingled with the rest of the inhabitants.

The town is situated on the navigable river Stour, about two miles from its influx into the sea, near the commencement of the Roman Watling-street, and is surrounded on all sides by a considerable extent of low ground. The houses, many of which are of very ancient appearance, are irregularly built, and the streets are narrow, but some improvements have been effected under the provisions of an act passed in 1787; the town has been recently lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. Considerable portions of the walls are still remaining, and till the year 1784 five of the ancient gates were entire, but the only one now standing is Fisher's gate, a plain structure, facing the quay. In 1845 an act was passed for a branch railway, from the Canterbury and Ramsgate line, to Sandwich and Deal. The foreign trade is principally with Norway, Sweden, and the Baltic, for timber and iron; and the home trade with London, Wales, Scotland, and the north, to which parts corn, coal, flour, seeds, hops, malt, fruit, &c., are shipped. There are several large establishments of fell-mongery and woolstapling, some extensive breweries, malt-houses, and tan-yards; and the manufacture of coarse towelling and sackcloth is pursued. The importance of forming a great harbour at this place has at various periods attracted the attention of government, but this important national and local object has not been carried into effect, and the harbour is at present so choked up with sand that only vessels of very small burthen can enter it with safety. An act, however, for improving the haven was passed in 1847. The market is on Wednesday, for corn, with which it is abundantly supplied; a large cattle-market is held every alternate Monday, and a fair commences on December 4th, which generally continues a week.


Old Corporation Sent, now disused.
Obverse.
Reverse.

By a succession of charters, the last of which was granted by Charles II. in the 36th year of his reign, the government was vested in a mayor, high steward, recorder, twelve jurats, twenty-four common-councilmen, and others. Since the passing of the Municipal act, the corporation has consisted of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors: the number of magistrates is eight. Among the privileges possessed by Sandwich as a cinque-port, is that of sending three barons to assist in supporting the canopy over the king at coronations; and when a queen consort is crowned, six are present, who enjoy the favour of dining at the feast, at a table placed on the right of their Majesties. The borough first exercised the elective franchise in the 42nd of Edward III., since which time it has regularly returned two members to parliament, who are styled barons. In 1832, the right of election was extended to the £10 householders of an enlarged district, including Deal and Walmer, comprising by estimation an area of 2867 acres. The mayor is returning officer. The old corporation had the power of inflicting capital punishment, which originally was by drowning; and a document of the date of 1315 is extant, in which a complaint is preferred against the prior of Christ-Church, "for that he had diverted the course of a certain stream called the Gestling, so that the felons could not be executed for want of water." The recorder holds quarterly courts of session for the trial of all offences within the town and liberties, extending to the town of Ramsgate, the ville of Sarr, and the parish of Walmer; he also presides at a court of record every three weeks, for debts to any amount. The guildhall, usually called the court-hall, was erected in 1579. and contains, on the basement story, the several rooms for holding the courts, and on the first story, the council-chamber, and the offices in which the public business of the corporation and liberties is transacted; in the upper story are kept the ancient cucking-stool and wooden mortar, for the punishment of scolds. The old borough gaol and house of correction being found inadequate for the classification of prisoners, a larger and more appropriate edifice was erected in 1831, at an expense of £6000.


New Corporation Seal.

The town comprises 721 acres, and consists of the parishes of St. Clement, containing 879 inhabitants, St. Mary the Virgin with 886, and St. Peter the Apostle with 1094; also the extra-parochial liberty of the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, containing 54 inhabitants. The living of St. Clement's is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £13. 16. 10½.; net income, £310; patron, the Archdeacon of Canterbury. The church is an ancient and spacious structure, combining various styles, with a massive central tower of Norman character, enriched with several series of arches of very fine composition; the interior has portions in the early and later English styles, and contains some monuments, and an octagonal font. The living of St. Mary's is a discharged vicarage, also endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued at £8. 1.; net income, £117; patron, the Archdeacon. The church consists of a nave, north aisle, and chancel, and has some interesting remains of the early style. The living of St. Peter's is a discharged rectory, valued at £8, and in the alternate patronage of the Crown and the Corporation; net income, £144. The south aisle of the church was destroyed by the fall of the steeple in 1661; the latter was rebuilt with the materials of the former as high as the nave, and finished with bricks made from the mud in the harbour. There was anciently a chapel dedicated to St. James, the cemetery of which is still used. The Calvinists, Independents, and Wesleyans have places of worship.

The free grammar school was established by subscription, in the reign of Elizabeth, and in 1563 was endowed with lands by Sir Roger Manwood, then recorder of the borough; the revenue is £43. 16. per annum. Mrs. Joan Trapps, of London, in 1568 founded four scholarships in Lincoln College, Oxford, of which two are in the appointment of the governors of this school, and two in that of the college; and Sir Roger Manwood, in 1581, founded four in Caius College, Cambridge, in the alternate nomination of the governors and the college. St. Thomas' Hospital was instituted about the year 1392, by Thomas Ellis, a wealthy draper of the town, who endowed it for eight aged men and four women, each of whom receives £25 per annum. St. Bartholomew's was founded prior to 1244, when Sir Henry de Sandwich made a considerable addition to its original endowment; the gross annual income is £766: the buildings occupy a spacious triangular area, and include a small chapel. St. John's Hospital, supposed to have been erected about the year 1287, has been taken down, and six small houses have been erected on its site, for the reception of six aged men and women; the gross income is £139. 10. Sir John Manwood, chief baron of the exchequer, and author of the Forest Laws; and Richard Knolles, master of the grammar school, and author of the History of the Turkish Empire, were natives of Sandwich. It gives the title of Earl to the family of Montagu.

Sandwith

SANDWITH, a township, in the parish of St. Bees, union of Whitehaven, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 2¼ miles (S. by W.) from Whitehaven; containing 316 inhabitants. It extends to St. Bees' Head, where is a lighthouse. Upon the adjacent cliffs grows an abundance of samphire. The tithes of the township have been commuted for a yearly rent-charge of £260.

Sandy (St. Swithin)

SANDY (St. Swithin), a parish, in the union of Biggleswade, partly in the hundred of Wixamtree, but chiefly in that of Biggleswade, county of Bedford, 3¾ miles (N. by W.) from Biggleswade; containing, with the hamlet of Girtford and part of Beeston, 1906 inhabitants, of whom 921 are in the township of Sandy. The parish is situated on the river Ivel, and comprises 4026 acres, of which 1838 are arable. The soil is good, and from its sandy nature, cucumbers are cultivated in the open air in such abundance that Covent-Garden market, London, is chiefly supplied with that vegetable from this place; carrots and other vegetables are also grown. The wood is chiefly elm and fir. The substratum contains a curious coarse sandstone, resembling in some degree a conglomerate, and containing a considerable portion of iron and fossil-wood, with small pebbles, in which yellow quartz predominates. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £32. 2. 11.; net income, £769; patron, F. Pym, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land and money payments, under acts of inclosure, in 1789 and 1798; the glebe altogether comprises 323 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style. Galley Hill, here, is the site of the Roman station Salinæ, which commanded another station at Chesterfield, a piece of ground still so called near the village, through which passed the great road from Baldock, in Herts, across this county into Cambridgeshire. The ramparts, which inclose an area of 30 acres, are surrounded by a deep fosse, and in the centre is a mount, probably thrown up for the preetorium. At some distance, on the other side of the valley, are the remains of what is called Cæsar's camp. Several Roman urns, some coins, and fragments of beautiful red pottery, have been discovered at Chesterfield; the pottery, which was ornamented with figures, has been deemed to be the ancient Samian ware.

Sankey, Great

SANKEY, GREAT, a chapelry, in the parish of Prescot, union of Warrington, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 2¾ miles (W.) from Warrington; containing 567 inhabitants. The manor, sometimes called Much Sankey, was vested in the lords of Warrington; it was afterwards held by Thomas Botiler, who inherited from his father, Sir Thomas, and who died in possession, 22nd Elizabeth. The property passed to the Bolds and the Irelands early in the 17th century, and from the last named family, about 1622, to the Athertons; and is now held by Lord Lilford. The township comprises 1909a. 25p., and is bounded by Sankey brook. The first canal navigation in modern times, originated here in 1755. From the time of the Romans, when they cut their fosse-dyke, or at least from the reign of Henry II., when that medium was re-opened, no water conveyance for the purpose of trade, cut out of the solid land, existed in England until the Sankey Brook navigation was commenced. The original intention of the undertakers was to deepen Sankey brook; but instead of this being the channel of communication, the navigation runs entirely separate from it, except that it crosses and mixes with that water in one place, about two miles from Sankey bridge. The canal, closely accompanying the course of the brook, descends from the collieries about St. Helen's to the Mersey. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £103; patron, Lord Lilford; impropriators, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge: the tithes belonging to the college have been commuted for £130, those of the rector of Warrington for £65, and those of the vicar of the parish for £75, per annum. The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, was rebuilt by subscription about a century since. There is a Sunday school in the chapelry.

Santon

SANTON, a township, in the parish of Irton, union of Bootle, Allerdale ward above Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 4½ miles (N. N. E.) from Ravenglass; containing 173 inhabitants. This place is supposed to derive its name from the drifting sands which abounded in the vicinity and laid waste most of the adjoining district. A Roman pottery was discovered in these sands, with numerous fragments of urns, and at the bottom of one of the furnaces a large cross of brass, on which probably the urns were placed for baking or drying them. Several Roman coins have been found; and opposite to the village are the remains of a Roman road, on the east of which are the foundations of an Augustine priory said to have been established by King Stephen.

Santon (St. Helen)

SANTON (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Thetford, hundred of Grimshoe, W. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Thetford; containing 27 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the Lesser Ouse, separating it from the county of Suffolk; and contains 1500 acres, of which 800 are common or waste land. The living is a discharged rectory, in the patronage of the Mayor and Corporation of Thetford: the tithes have been commuted for £80. The church is a small ancient structure.

Santon-Downham (St. Mary)

SANTON-DOWNHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thetford, hundred of Lackford, W. division of Suffolk, 2¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Brandon Ferry; containing 68 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the north by the navigable river Ouse, which separates it from the county of Norfolk. It suffered greatly in the 17th century from the sands overspreading a considerable portion of the soil. The living is a perpetual curacy; income, £59; patron, Lord William Poulett. The church, which is situated in the demesne of SantonDownham Hall, is a handsome structure in the early English style, with a square embattled tower, and a southern porch of Norman character; the chancel is divided from the nave by an oak screen finely carved, and there are monuments to the first Earl Cadogan and his son Lieut.Col. Cadogan.

Sapcote (All Saints)

SAPCOTE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Hinckley, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 4¼ miles (E. by S.) from Hinckley; containing 773 inhabitants. This place was formerly the property of the family of Bassett, whose mansion was built on the site of an ancient castle, of which the only remaining vestige is the moat that surrounded the eminence whereon it stood. The parish comprises 1465a. 2r. 18p.: the surface is varied, and the lower grounds are watered by the river Soar; the soil is chiefly adapted for dairy-farms, and cheese of fine quality is made in large quantities. A spring of water here, called Golden Well, has been found efficacious; baths were erected in 1806, at an expense of £600, by J. F. Turner, Esq. About 200 frames are employed in the manufacture of hosiery. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 11. 10½.; net income, £485; patron, Thomas Frewen, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1778; the glebe altogether comprises 270 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A house of industry, and a common mill for grinding corn, were built by subscription, in 1806, the expense of each amounting to £1300. In a field called Black Piece, a curious tessellated pavement was discovered in 1770.

Sapey-Pritchard (St. Bartholomew)

SAPEY-PRITCHARD (St. Bartholomew), a parish, in the union of Bromyard, Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Hundred-House and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 11 miles (W. N. W.) from Worcester; containing 252 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the border of Herefordshire, and consists of 1606 acres of land, in equal portions of arable and pasture, producing hops, apples, &c. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 4. 2., and in the patronage of the Executors of the late Rev. W. S. Rufford: the tithes have been commuted for £228. 10., and there are 67 acres of glebe, with a house.

Sapey, Upper (St. Michael)

SAPEY, UPPER (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Bromyard, hundred of Broxash, county of Hereford, 6½ miles (N. N. E.) from Bromyard; containing 338 inhabitants, and consisting of 2161 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 5. 7½., and in the gift of Sir T. Winnington, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £287. 10., and the glebe comprises 41 acres. A school is endowed with £10 per annum. In the neighbourhood are the remains of a Roman camp.

Sapiston (St. Andrew)

SAPISTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Thetford, hundred of Blackbourn, W. division of Suffolk, 3¼ miles (N. by W.) from Ixworth; containing 255 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Thet, and comprises by measurement 1195 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £78; patron, the Duke of Grafton. The church is chiefly in the early English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains some remains of Norman architecture.

Sapley

SAPLEY, an extra-parochial district, in the hundred of Hurstingstone, union and county of Huntingdon, 2 miles (E.) from Huntingdon; with 8 inhabitants.

Sapperton

SAPPERTON, a hamlet, in the parish of ChurchBroughton, union of Burton-upon-Trent, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 12 miles (W.) from Derby; containing 83 inhabitants.

Sapperton (St. Kenelm)

SAPPERTON (St. Kenelm), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, hundred of Bisley, E. division of the county of Gloucester; comprising 3710 acres, and containing, with Frampton tything, 585 inhabitants, of whom 315 are in the tything of Sapperton, 5¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Cirencester. The railway between Gloucester and Swindon intersects the parish; and the Thames and Severn canal, in its course through the parish, is conducted by a tunnel, 4180 feet long, underneath Hagley wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17; net income, £367; patron, Earl Bathurst. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1778. Two schools are supported by endowment. Sir Robert Atkins, lord chief baron of the exchequer in the reign of William III., was born at Sapperton in 1621, and died here in 1709.

Sapperton (St. Nicholas)

SAPPERTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Grantham, wapentake of Winnibriggs and Threo, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (E. by S.) from Grantham; containing 62 inhabitants. It comprises about 700 acres, and is the property of Sir W. E. Welby, Bart.: the village is situated on a bold eminence. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 9. 9½.; net income, £190; patron, Sir W. E. Welby: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1780. The church was formerly much larger than it is at present, the north aisle having been taken down.