Summercotes - Sustead

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis (editor)

Year published

1848

Supporting documents

Pages

261-271

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'Summercotes - Sustead', A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 261-271. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51318 Date accessed: 27 November 2014.


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Summercotes

SUMMERCOTES, a hamlet, in the parish of Alfreton, union of Belper, hundred of Scarsdale, N. division of the county of Derby, 2 miles (S. E.) from the town of Alfreton; containing 1526 inhabitants. This place forms part of the ecclesiastical district of Riddings, and its population is principally employed in the iron-works and collieries of the neighbourhood. Many houses were lately built; and in 1845 a corn-mill, called the Alfreton Steam-Mill, was erected by Mr. Chadborn. The road from Alfreton to Nottingham, and a branch of the Cromford canal, pass through the hamlet. At the intersection of the road and canal is Pye Bridge, where are some wharfs. The Methodists have a place of worship.

Summerhouse

SUMMERHOUSE, a township, in the parish of Gainford, union of Darlington, S. W. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 6¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Darlington, on the road to Staindrop; containing 165 inhabitants. This place is supposed to derive its name from having been anciently the summer residence of the lords of Raby, of whose mansion, surrounded by a moat, some vestiges still remain in the southern part of the village. The township comprises 779a. 3r. 8p., of which 509 acres are arable, 263 grass land, and 2½ wood; the soil is generally fertile, and there are some good limestonequarries. The impropriate tithes, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge, have been commuted for £115. 15. 8½., and the vicarial tithes for £51. 2.

Sunbury (St. Mary)

SUNBURY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Staines, hundred of Spelthorne, county of Middlesex, 15 miles (S. W. by W.) from London; containing 1828 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2580 acres, of which about 1600 are arable, 800 pasture and meadow, and 180 in homesteads aud gardens. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8.; net income, £336; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, London. The impropriation belongs to Mrs. Fish, and Messrs. Edwards and Taylor.

Sunderland

SUNDERLAND, a township, in the parish of Isell, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, 6 miles (N. E.) from Cockermouth; containing 81 inhabitants.

Sunderland (Holy Trinity)

SUNDERLAND (Holy Trinity), a sea-port, newlyenfranchised borough, and parish, and the head of a union, in the N. division of Easington ward and of the county of Durham, 13 miles (N. E.) from Durham, and 269 (N. by W.) from London; the parish containing 17,020 inhabitants. This town, which is situated on the south bank of the river Wear, was anciently included in the parish of Bishop-Wearmouth, of which it continued to form a part till the year 1719, when it was separated, and erected into an independent parish. Soon after the Conquest, Malcolm, King of Scotland, in one of his predatory incursions, traversing the Durham coast, met with Edgar Atheling, heir to the English crown, with his sister Margaret, afterwards Queen of Scotland, and a numerous retinue of distressed Saxons, who, fleeing from the victorious Normans, were waiting in the harbour here for a wind favourable for their escape into Scotland. About the close of the 12th century, the inhabitants of Sunderland, of which the history up to that time is identified with that of Wearmouth, received from Bishop Pudsey a charter of free customs and privileges similar to those exercised by the inhabitants of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and in this deed appears the first authentic notice of Sunderland as a distinct maritime and commercial town and port. Its present name, which it acquired under the charter, is supposed to have been derived from its peninsular situation, being almost separated from the main land by the influx of the river Wear on the north, and by Hendon Dene, a deep ravine on the south, formerly capable of floating vessels of considerable burthen. Under the privileges of its charter, the town gradually increased in extent and importance, and in the reign of Henry VIII. had become a place of considerable trade. At the commencement of the 17th century, several Scottish families and many foreign merchants established themselves in the town, which by a charter of Bishop Morton had acquired a municipal corporation. During the war in the reign of Charles I., the inhabitants embraced the cause of the parliamentarians, by whom the town was garrisoned in 1642, in consequence of the seizure of Newcastle by the royalists, and the prohibition of supplies of coal from that place. A parliamentary commissioner was sent to take up his residence here. Repeated skirmishes occurred in the vicinity between the contending parties, during 1644 and 1645, and the resident Scottish families suffered greatly from want of provisions, owing to the wreck of some vessels laden with supplies from Scotland, and the capture of others by the royalists in the river Tyne, whither they had been driven by adverse winds.


Corporation Seal.

The town, exclusively of Bishop-Wearmouth, consists of one principal street called High-street, which is spacious and well built, extending more than half a mile in length, and of several smaller streets in various directions. The main street is well paved, and the footpaths flagged; the houses, with the exception of a few in the lower part, are generally of handsome appearance. Considerable improvements have been made under the provisions of an act of parliament obtained in 1809, and the streets are lighted with gas, partly from works erected at an expense of £8000, by a company formed in 1823. The inhabitants are partly supplied with water from a copious well at the head of BishopWearmouth, raised by steam, at the rate of 150 gallons per minute, into two ample reservoirs, from which it is conveyed by pipes to the houses; the works were constructed by a body of shareholders, at an expense of £5000. In 1846 two acts were passed, one for better supplying the town with gas, and the other for better supplying it with water. A newsroom was opened about 1800, at the George inn, and, on the subsequent erection of the Exchange, was removed to that building. The assemblies were formerly held in Church-street, but since the erection of the Athenæum in Fawcet-street, Bishop-Wearmouth, a handsome and commodious suite of rooms in that edifice has been appropriated to the purpose. A neat theatre has been erected in Drurylane. Barracks were built on the town moor in 1794, and in 1828 a portion of the building was taken down, and the remainder new fronted with brick; they contain accommodation for 800 men, with stabling for 10 horses, an hospital for 20 patients, and a good ground for parade.

The increase and prosperity of the town to an extent, and with a degree of rapidity, almost unprecedented, may be attributed to its advantageous situation on the coast, near the mouth of a navigable river, which has its source in the western part of the county, and flows through a district abounding with coal, limestone, and freestone. The staple trade is the exportation of coal, which appears to have commenced in the reign of Henry VII. The coal is sent chiefly to London and the western coast of England, but large quantities are also shipped to Holland, France, and other parts of the continent; among the principal coal-staiths are those of the Earl of Durham and the Hetton Coal Company. The quantity shipped from the port in a recent year was 1,205,332 tons. Next in importance to the coal-trade is that in lime, with which the neighbourhood abounds, and of which, upon an average, 30,000 chaldrons are annually shipped for the ports of Yorkshire and the eastern coast of Scotland, employing numerous vessels averaging from 30 to 130 tons' burthen. The remainder of the export trade consists mostly of the produce of the extensive manufactories in the town and neighbourhood, for which the abundant supply of coal, suitable for their use, though too small for being shipped, affords ample encouragement. The chief imports are flour, wine, spirituous liquors, timber, tallow, iron, flax, and various articles of Baltic produce. The number of vessels registered as belonging to the port in a recent year was 876, of the aggregate burthen of 174,983 tons; the number of men and boys employed in navigating them was 7365, and the amount of duties paid at the custom-house during the same year was £119,681. The value of shipping insured by the mutual insurance companies in the town was £850,000, exclusively of vessels which were either uninsured, or insured at other places.

The estuary of the Wear was formerly exposed to all winds from the south to the north-east, and the entrance of the river was rendered dangerous by shifting sand-banks; but certain dues, now amounting to about £16,000 per annum, have been applied by commissioners appointed under successive acts of parliament, to the cleansing and improvement of the harbour. The entrance is formed by two piers, by which the depth has been so increased, that ships drawing from 15 to 20 feet water can at any time enter or leave the port in perfect safety. The south pier was begun in 1723, and has been successively extended into deep water till it has attained a length of 1950 feet. Its eastern portion, for about 600 feet, is 40 feet in width, and of solid ashlar masonry, forming a fine promenade; the western portion lately showing symptoms of decay, 850 feet have been removed, and with a view of diminishing the swell of the sea, the line has been placed farther back, under the superintendence of Mr. Murray, engineer to the commissioners. The north pier, which was begun in 1787, has during the last fifteen years been gradually extended to 1770 feet in length, in an equally substantial manner; and on its eastern head is placed an elegant octagonal lighthouse. This lighthouse was originally built in 1802, at a distance of 450 feet from its present site, to which it was removed in one entire mass, without the slightest appearance of a crack, in 1841, at the suggestion and under the superintendence of Mr. Murray. It is 78 feet in height, 15 feet in diameter at the base, and 9 feet at the cornice; and the entire weight is 338 tons. On the completion of this arduous undertaking, Mr. Murray received the thanks of the commissioners, and was presented with a piece of plate valued at £100. In 1846 an act was passed for constructing a wet-dock and other works, of which the first stone was laid by George Hudson, Esq., M. P., in February 1848. The old customhouse, which was situated in Silver-street, was lately abandoned, and a commodious edifice for the purpose erected on a more eligible site, fronting the river, at an expense of £5600, by a company of subscribers; the building was taken by government on a renewable lease of 21 years, and was opened in 1837.

Ship-building is carried on here to a greater extent than at any other port in the empire. There are not less than 30 yards for building ships, and 5 for building boats, with 11 floating and 4 dry docks; and frequently from 100 to 200 vessels are on the stocks at one time. In the year 1846, 151 ships were built, of 43,937 tons' burthen. The salmon-fishery was formerly extensive, and a few salmon are still found occasionally at the mouth of the harbour, but that source of trade has been abandoned, and the fish now taken are cod, ling, turbot, haddock, skate, herrings, and crabs. The manufactures carried on in the town and neighbourhood are numerous and important. There are four large iron-foundries, one of which affords employment to 300 persons; several brass-foundries; some sailcloth manufactories; a factory for making blocks, which is worked by steam; some roperies, also worked by steam, in which patent machinery has been introduced; manufactories for chain-cables and anchors, and alkali and copperas works. Large potteries are carried on, in which earthenware of every description is made; and the town contains considerable manufactories of glass bottles, and of flint, crown, and window glass. Two paper-mills are also at work, and several flour and saw mills which are impelled by steam.

The exchange, situated in High-street, was erected in 1814, at an expense of £8000, by a proprietary. It is a handsome structure, comprising on the basement story kitchens and vaults, and on the ground floor an area surrounded with a piazza for the accommodation of the merchants, behind which are apartments for the use of the magistrates, for public sales, and offices for brokers. The principal story contains a newsroom, 68 feet long and 28 wide, in which is a full-length portrait of Sir Henry Vane Tempest, presented by the Marquess of Londonderry; and there are various rooms for the different public boards. The market, formerly on Friday, is now on Saturday, and is abundantly supplied with provisions of all kinds; fairs, chiefly for pedlery, wares, and toys, are held on May 13th and 14th, and October 12th and 13th, and a statute-fair twice in the year. The market-place, the site of which was purchased in 1830, for £4200, is a commodious area with ranges of shambles, and stalls for butchers' meat, poultry, butter, eggs, and other articles; the. entrance from High-street is under a handsome arcade, over which is a spacious room for auctions, exhibitions, and other uses. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads, and by the Durham and Sunderland railway, which commences at Sunderland moor, near the town, and is 13½ miles in length.

The government, under the charter of Bishop Pudsey and his successors, was vested in a bailiff appointed by the bishops, till the year 1634, when Bishop Morton granted the inhabitants a charter, by which the "New Borough of Sunderland" was placed under the control of a mayor, twelve aldermen, and a commonalty. This form of government was not, however, practically continued for any length of time. By the act 5th and 6th of William IV., c. 76, the corporation at present consists of a mayor, fourteen aldermen, and forty-two councillors; and the total number of magistrates for the borough, which is divided into seven wards, is eighteen. Pettysessions are held daily at the new police court in BishopWearmouth, where also the magistrates for the division hold petty-sessions every Saturday. The powers of the county debt-court of Sunderland, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Sunderland. The various properties of the borough are held on two leases under the bishop, one of which includes the boroughcourts, fairs, market-tolls, anchorage and beaconage, and the office of water-bailiff; and the other, the ferryboats, metage, and tolls of fruit, herbs, and roots. By the act of the 2nd of William IV., Sunderland was constituted a parliamentary borough, with the privilege of returning two members to parliament, the right of election being vested in the resident £10 householders of a populous district comprising 4761 acres: the mayor is the returning officer. The municipal borough includes the parish of Sunderland, the townships of Monk-Wearmouth, Monk-Wearmouth-Shore, Bishop-WearmouthPans, and so much of the parish of Bishop-Wearmouth as is included within a circle of one mile radius from the centre of the bridge. The parliamentary borough contains, in addition to these, the parish of Southwick, and the remainder of the parish of Bishop-Wearmouth.

The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Bishop of Durham, with a net income of £241. The church, which is situated in the upper part of the town, was erected in 1719, and repaired in 1803, and is a neat structure of brick, with a square tower; the altar is placed in a recess between two fluted pilasters of the Corinthian order. The chapel of St. John, which stands at the head of Barrack-street, on a site given by Marshall Robinson, Esq., was built in 1769, chiefly at the expense of John Thornhill, Esq.; it is a spacious edifice of brick, with a square tower, and contains sittings for the soldiers in the barracks. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop; net income, £288. A school for girls was endowed in 1764, by Mrs. Elizabeth Donnison, who bequeathed a sum for its support, now vested in the three per cents., and producing £120 per annum. A national school in Vine-street, instituted in 1822, is supported by the proceeds of £1000 three and a half per cents, given in 1823 by Mrs. Elizabeth Woodcock, by £20 from Bishop Crewe's trustees, and contributions from the Marchioness of Londonderry and the rector; the building was erected at a cost of £1750. Some almshouses in Assembly Garth, for 38 inmates, superannuated seamen or their widows, belonging to the "Muster Roll," were purchased in 1750, by the trustees of the "Seamen's fund," appointed under an act of the 20th of George II. This act compels all masters of vessels to levy sixpence per month from each sailor towards the support of the institution, from which more than 700 individuals derive benefit. A new building, called Trafalgar-square, at the east end of the churchyard, is appropriated to the same benevolent purpose. In Church-street are houses for eight widows; and there are numerous societies for the relief of the sick and indigent. The poor-law union of Sunderland comprises eleven townships and chapelries in the parishes of Sunderland, and Bishop and Monk Wearmouth, containing a population of 56,226. The town confers the inferior title of Earl upon the Duke of Marlborough.—See Wearmouth.

Sunderland-Bridge

SUNDERLAND-BRIDGE, a township, in the chapelry of Croxdale, parish of St. Oswald, union of Durham, S. E. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 3½ miles (S. S. W.) from Durham. It is a scattered village, stretching along the south side of the deep ravine that separates it from Croxdale; and is remarkable for a bridge over the Wear on the great north road, which consists of four handsome arches; and for another bridge, of one arch, half a mile nearer Durham, over the Browney, a stream tributary to the Wear. The date of the earliest bridge here is unknown, but it existed before 1346, when a bridge is mentioned in the account of a skirmish in the vicinity between Douglas and the English. Both structures are noticed by Leland. The common lands were divided in 1669. The tithes have been commuted for £90. 15. per annum, payable to the perpetual curate of Croxdale chapelry. On the manor of Butterby are saline and sulphureous springs.

Sunderland, North

SUNDERLAND, NORTH, a township, in the parish, and N. division of the ward, of Bambrough, union of Belford, N. division of Northumberland, 8½ miles (E. by S.) from Belford; containing 1103 inhabitants. The township comprises about 1040 acres of rich land, mostly arable. It has the sea on the east, and possesses a small port, subject to Berwick, whence corn, fish, and lime are exported, considerable quantities of the last article being burned at kilns in the neighbourhood: coal is also wrought. Here is a large establishment for curing herrings. A church in the purest Norman style, with a parsonage-house, was built in 1833, at a cost of £3500, and endowed by the Trustees of Lord Crewe's charities, who are patrons; net income of the incumbent, £220. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians.

Sunderland-Wick

SUNDERLAND-WICK, a township, in the parish of Hutton-Cranswick, union of Driffield, BaintonBeacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 2½ miles (S. S. W.) from Driffield; containing 41 inhabitants. This was anciently a considerable village: the township comprises about 810 acres of fertile land, on the road from Driffield to Watton. The Hall is a neat mansion, in pleasant grounds.

Sundon (St. Mary)

SUNDON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Luton, hundred of Flitt, county of Bedford, 4¾ miles (N. W. by N.) from Luton; containing 449 inhabitants. It comprises 2071a. 15p., of which about 250 acres are meadow and pasture, 66 woodland, and the remainder arable; the soil is clay, alternated with chalk and gravel. A market and a fair were formerly held, by charter granted in 1316. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 6. 8.; net income, £83; patron and impropriator, Sir G. P. Turner, Bart.: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1769. The church is partly in the decorated style.

Sundridge

SUNDRIDGE, a parish, in the union of SevenOaks, hundred of Codsheath, lathe of Sutton-atHone, W. division of Kent, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Seven-Oaks; containing 1254 inhabitants. It comprises 4030 acres, including 1150 in wood and 46 common or waste. The river Darent flows through the lands, parts of which lie below the great ridge of sandhills in the Weald. The manufacture of paper is carried on. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury, valued in the king's books at £22. 13. 4.: the tithes have been commuted for £815, and the glebe comprises 19 acres, with a house. The church has some fine windows in the later English style. At Ide-Hill is a separate incumbency. Bishop Porteus resided in the parish, to which he bequeathed £1600 for charitable uses, and in the churchyard of which he was buried. Sundridge gives the title of Baron to the Duke of Argyll.

Sunk Island

SUNK ISLAND, an extra-parochial district, in the union of Patrington, S. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 4 miles (S. W.) from Patrington, and 20 (S. E. by E.) from Hull; containing 264 inhabitants. This island, which is situated near the mouth of the Humber, has been gradually recovered from that river; it comprised a century since only 800 acres, but now contains 6000, of which 4000 are arable and 2000 meadow and pasture, all in a high state of cultivation. The isle was originally two miles from the opposite shore, and vessels passed through the channel, which is now so narrow as to be crossed by a bridge to the main land: at the western extremity of the island is a small creek for vessels and sloops. The surface is level, and the soil produces excellent wheat and beans. Here is a chapel, of which the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £250. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.

Sunninghill (St. Michael)

SUNNINGHILL (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Windsor, hundred of Cookham, county of Berks, 8 miles (W. by N.) from Chertsey; containing 2062 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3213a. 3r. 16p., of which 562 acres are arable, 875 meadow and pasture, 907 woodland, 595 heath, 206 in homesteads, and 66 road. The soil is chiefly sand, with some portions of peat mould; the surface is much undulated, and the scenery pleasingly varied. Two chalybeate springs in the gardens of an inn called Sunning Wells, were formerly in great repute, and adjoining them is a room which was provided for the accommodation of visiters. The noted race-course of Ascot Heath is situated in the vicinity. The living is a vicarage; net income, £328; patrous and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of St. John's College, Cambridge. The church was lately rebuilt, at an expense of £3000: in the churchyard is a yew-tree, supposed to have been planted before the Conquest. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a national school is supported partly by an endowment of £43 per annum, of which £40 were given by Augustus Schutz, Esq. At a place called Bromehall was a small convent of Benedictine nuns, founded before the reign of John, and which was deserted by the sisters in 1522.

Sunningwell (St. Leonard)

SUNNINGWELL (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union of Abingdon, hundred of Hormer, county of Berks, 2½ miles (N.) from Abingdon; containing, with the hamlet of Bayworth, and part of the chapelry of Kennington, 332 inhabitants, of whom 191 are in Sunningwell township. The parish comprises 1313a. 5p. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 14. 7., and in the gift of Sir G. Bowyer, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £308, and the glebe contains 19½ acres. The church is an ancient structure, of singular form. At Kennington is a chapel of ease.

Sunnyside

SUNNYSIDE, a hamlet, in the parish of Whickham, union of Gateshead. W. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 5 miles (S. W.) from Gateshead; containing about 30 inhabitants. It is situated east of the river Derwent, and on the road from Gateshead to Medomsley.

Surfleet (St. Lawrence)

SURFLEET (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union of Spalding, wapentake of Kirton, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 4 miles (N.) from Spalding; containing 951 inhabitants. It comprises 3730a. 3r. 4p. The surface is generally level, and is intersected by a canal conveying the waters of Pinchbeck to the Welland river, and by the Grand Sluice, which conducts the waters of the fen to Boston. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £11; net income, £65; patrons and impropriators, J. and T. Pickworth, Esqrs.: the tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1777. The church is partly in the later English style, and partly of earlier date, with a tower and spire. There are two endowed schools. Fourteen cottages, and some land producing £82 per annum, with £10. 13. a year for providing blankets and clothing, have been appropriated to the use of the poor. In the parish is one of the largest heronries in England.

Surlingham (St. Mary)

SURLINGHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Henstead, E. division of Norfolk, 5½ miles (E. S. E.) from Norwich; containing 446 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the north and east by the navigable river Yare, over which is a ferry; and comprises about 1750 acres, including 100 acres covered by a fine sheet of water. The living is a vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of St. Saviour's annexed, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £40; patrons, the Bishop of Norwich and the Rev. W. Collet, the latter of whom is impropriator: the tithes have been commuted for £410, and the glebe comprises 34 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a circular tower, and was thoroughly repaired in 1840. A national school is partly supported by an appropriation of £10 from the rents of an estate of 33 acres, left for the repair of the church and other uses. At the inclosure, 23 acres of land, producing £16. 10. per annum, were allotted to the poor for fuel. There are some remains of the church of St. Saviour, forming a picturesque ruin.

Surrendral

SURRENDRAL, a tything, in the parish of Hullavington, union of Malmesbury, hundred of Chippenham, Chippenham and Calne, and N. divisions of Wilts, 5¾ miles (S. W.) from Malmesbury; containing 41 inhabitants.

Surrey

SURREY, an inland county, bounded on the north by the river Thames, which separates it from Middlesex and the south-eastern extremity of Bucks; on the northwest, by Berkshire; on the west, by Hants; on the south by Sussex; and on the east, by Kent. It extends from 51° 5' to 51° 31' (N. Lat.), and from 3' (E. Lon.) to 51' (W. Lon.), and comprises an area of 758 square miles, or about 485,120 acres. Within its limits are 95,372 houses inhabited, 3982 uninhabited, and 1203 in course of erection; and the population amounts to 582,678, of whom 278,203 are males, and 304,475 females. The most ancient inhabitants of this district of whom we have authentic information, were the Segontiaci, or, as they are called by Ptolemy, the Regni, a people who had been expelled from Hampshire by the invading Belgæ. Cæsar, in his exploratory invasion of Britain, crossed the north-eastern part of Surrey, from the county of Kent, to the river Thames, which he is supposed to have passed at a place now called Cowey Stakes, at Walton, the Britons endeavouring to prevent his passage by driving stakes into the bed of the river. Under the Roman dominion, Surrey was included in the division Britannia Prima. On the complete establishment of the Saxon kingdom of Wessex, it appears to have included the greater part of this county. In the year 568, Ethelbert, in defence of his own kingdom, having invaded the territories of Ceawlin, King of Wessex, a great battle was fought between them at Wimbledon, in Surrey, in which the former was defeated with considerable loss: this was the first battle between Saxon kings. The county suffered severely from the ravages of the Danes, who entered it in 852, after sacking London, but were defeated with great slaughter at Ockley, near its southern border, by Ethelwulph and his son Ethelbald.

Surrey is chiefly included in the diocese of Winchester, and is within the province of Canterbury. Under the ecclesiastical arrangements provided by the act 6th and 7th of William IV., cap. 77, the parish of Croydon remains in the diocese of Canterbury, to which also the parish of Addington, and the district of Lambeth Palace, have been annexed; the parishes of St. Mary Newington, Barnes, Putney, Mortlake, and Wimbledon have been assigned to the diocese of London. The large remaining portion, subject to the Bishop of Winchester, forms an archdeaconry, in which are the deaneries of Ewell, Southwark, and Stoke. The total number of parishes in the county is 141. For purposes of civil government, Surrey is divided into the hundreds of Blackheath, Brixton, Copthorne and Effingham, Elmbridge, Farnham, Godalming, Godley, Kingston, Reigate, Tandridge, Wallington, Woking, and Wotton, all having first and second divisions, except Brixton, which is divided into east and west, and Farnham, which has no division. It contains the borough and market towns of Southwark, Guildford, and Reigate; the newly-enfranchised borough of Lambeth, with the populous suburban parishes of Rotherhithe, Bermondsey, Newington, Camberwell, Clapham, and Battersea; the market-towns of Chertsey, Croydon, Dorking, Farnham, Godalming, Haslemere, and Kingston; and the large and elegant town of Richmond. By the act 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, the county was divided into the Eastern and Western divisions, each to send two members to parliament; and two representatives are returned for each of the boroughs, except Reigate, which sends only one. Surrey is included in the Home circuit: the lent assizes are held at Kingston, and the summer at Guildford and Croydon alternately; the winter assizes have been discontinued since the establishment of the Central Criminal Court at the Old Bailey. The county gaol is in Horsemonger-lane, in the parish of Newington. The winter quarter-sessions take place at the sessions-house, Newington; the spring sessions, at Reigate; the summer, at Guildford; and the autumn, at Kingston.

The form of the county is oblong, except that the northern border is rendered extremely irregular by the devious course of the Thames. The scenery, celebrated for its beauty, possesses also great variety, presenting in some parts wild and naked heaths, which form a powerful contrast to the adjoining highly cultivated and ornamented districts. The surface, for the most part, is gently undulated. The Weald, a district about 30 miles in length, and varying from three to five in breadth, extends along the whole southern border, and forms, with the Wealds of Kent and Sussex, an immense plain, whose flat surface is of very inferior elevation. The middle of the county is crossed from east to west by the Downs, which rise with a gentle acclivity from the north, but on the south are broken into precipitous cliffs of great height and romantic irregularity. Southward of the Downs are the hills that overhang the Weald, in the vicinities of Oxted, Godstone, Reigate, and Dorking. Approaching the western side of the county, this range becomes of greater extent, and near Wonersh, Godalming, and Peper-Harrow, is adorned with rich woods, and intersected by pleasing valleys watered by streams tributary to the Wey; the whole forming one of the most picturesque portions of the county. The largest tracts of heath lie in the western part. From Egham, on the bank of the Thames, south-south-westward as far as the village of Ash, the district consists, with little exception, of heath and moor; as likewise does that stretching in a transverse direction from Bagshot, on the north-western confines, by Chobham and Byfleet, to Cobham,. Ripley, and Oatlands. The whole south-western angle is of the same barren character, from Haslemere to Farnham in one direction, and from Elstead to Frensham in the other.

The soils, which are extremely various, are by no means so clearly discriminated as in many other counties, the different species lying in small patches much intermixed; they may, however, be reduced under the four general heads of clay, loam, chalk, and heath. The portion of arable land greatly exceeds that of meadow and pasture: the corn and pulse crops are wheat, barley, oats, beans, and peas, of which the first is raised in large quantities. The cultivation of turnips and cabbages is successfully carried on, partly for the supply of the metropolitan markets, and partly for the consumption of cattle; great quantities of carrots are grown in the northern part of the county, west of the river Mole, and parsnips on the rich deep lands between Wandsworth and Kingston. Red clover has for a considerable period been in general cultivation; trefoil, white clover, and rye-grass are occasionally sown; and large tracts of chalky soil are occupied by sainfoin, most of which is made into hay. The Farnham hops have long been celebrated for their excellent quality, always bringing- a higher price than any others in the kingdom; the number of acres occupied in the county as hop plantations, is 1170. Woad flourishes on the chalk hills about Banstead Downs, where it is generally sown along with barley. By far the most valuable tracts of meadow are situated on the banks of the Thames, in the northwestern part of the county, and on the banks of the Wey, near Godalming; there is also a small quantity of meadow in its north-eastern angle, near the metropolis. Of dairy pastures there are scarcely any: the greatest extent lying together is on the estate of the Duke of Norfolk, in the parishes of Newdigate and Charlwood, on the southern border. The quantity of garden-ground employed in raising vegetables for the London market is very considerable, and it is thought that more land is employed in the cultivation of medicinal plants in this county, than in any other in England; those chiefly grown are peppermint, lavender, wormwood, chamomile, aniseed, liquorice, and poppies.

The part most remarkable for its woods is the Weald, on the southern side of the county, and there is every reason to believe that this district was formerly wholly covered with wood, much of which was cleared away at no very remote period. The coppices consist chiefly of oak, birch, ash, chesnut, sallow, hazel, and alder, which are formed into hoops, poles for the hop plantations, hurdles, and fagots; great quantities are also made into charcoal for gunpowder and other purposes. The woodlands in the other parts of the county, particularly on the chalk hills, have a greater proportion of coppice, and fewer timber trees, than those in the Weald. The box in the county, which is chiefly to be found on Box Hill, near Dorking, attains a considerable size; and its wood is bought principally by the mathematical instrument makers, and by the turners in London and Tonbridge. Surrey is noted for the number of yew-trees scattered in a wild state over its chalk hills, and for the size which some of those that have been artificially planted have attained. Besides forming a portion of the underwoods, the birch flourishes on the heaths, and great quantities of brooms are made of its small branches, and sold chiefly in Southwark. Extensive plantations of fir and larch, have been made on the heathy lands in the western part of the county. In the western and northern parts the osier and willow are much cultivated, particularly about Byfleet, Chertsey, &c.; and the common furze is grown in different places for fuel. It appears surprising, that a county so near the metropolis should contain so large a quantity of waste land. About the commencement of the present century it was computed that one-sixth lay in a wild and uncultivated state; and though this extent has been lessened by numerous inclosures, there yet remain in heaths about 48,000 acres, and in commons about 17,000.

A sandstone, commonly called ragstone, containing oxyde of iron, abounds along the line of junction of the Weald with the sand hills which skirt that tract on the north. At Purbright, and in many parts of the surrounding country, are found loose blocks of stone bearing a strong resemblance, both in quality and appearance, to those termed the Grey Wethers, on the downs of Berkshire and Wiltshire. In the neighbourhoods of Godstone, Gatton, Merstham, Reigate, and Bletchingley, are quarries of a peculiar kind of stone, in great demand for fire-places; on the white hills near Bletchingley this stone is softer than elsewhere, and is chiefly dug for glass manufacturers, who, by means of it, have been enabled to produce plate-glass of much larger dimensions than they formerly could. Limestone of a blueish-grey colour, containing a very small portion of flint, is extensively quarried near Dorking, and affords lime of great purity and strength; limestone is also dug and burned at Guildford, Sutton, and Carshalton. The sand about Tandridge, Reigate, and Dorking, is in great request for hour-glasses, writing, and a variety of other purposes; that about Reigate is considered unequalled in the kingdom for purity and colour. Fullers'-earth is found in very extensive beds about Nutfield, Reigate, and Bletchingley to the south of the Downs; it is of two kinds, blue and yellow, of which the latter and more valuable is chiefly employed in fulling the finer cloths of Wilts and Gloucestershire, while the former is sent into Yorkshire, for coarser manufactures. Brick-earth, also, is found in most parts.

Though Surrey cannot be regarded as a manufacturing county, yet its vicinity to the metropolis, and the convenience of its streams for turning mills, have caused several manufactures of importance to be established in it. On the Wandle is a great number of flour, paper, snuff, and oil mills, with mills for preparing leather and parchment, and for grinding log-wood; upon its banks also, chiefly in the parishes of Croydon and Mitcham, are large calico, bleaching, and printing works. This river, which is usually not more than three feet deep and eight broad, is remarkable for turning ninety mills in a course of only ten miles. On the Mole are several flour-mills, some iron-mills at Cobham, and flatting-mills at Ember. There are extensive mills for powder near Malden, to the north of Ewell; and several for paper on the different tributaries of the Wey. At Godalming are considerable factories for weaving all kinds of stockings, and making patent fleecy hosiery; also establishments for combing wool, and the manufacture of worsteds, blankets, tilts, and collar-cloths. At Stoke, near Guildford, is a sawing-mill for staves, ship-pins, &c.; and at Mortlake a manufacture of delft and stone ware. The manufactures carried on in Southwark, and its immediate vicinity, are of different kinds, but chiefly such as are connected with the varied trade of the port of London; and this north-eastern extremity of the county has a very large share in the vast commerce of the port. Besides its numerous wharfs and quays on the banks of the Thames, it possesses various large commercial docks, among which may be noticed, more especially, the Grand Surrey docks (Outer and Inner), connecting the Grand Surrey canal with the river.

The principal rivers are the Thames, the Wey, and the Mole. The Thames, forming the entire northern boundary of the county, first touches it at its north-western extremity, above Egham, whence it takes its course by Chertsey, Richmond, Kew, Mortlake, Barnes, Putney, Wandsworth, and Battersea, and pours its majestic stream through the spacious arches of the bridges which connect the cities of London and Westminster with the borough of Southwark and the southern suburbs of the metropolis: it quits Surrey between Rotherhithe and Deptford. The Wey, which enters Surrey on its southwestern border, near Frensham, becomes navigable at Godalming, and falls into the Thames at Ham Haw, near Weybridge. The Mole is famed for, and is supposed to derive its name from, the circumstance of a part of its waters pursuing a subterraneous passage; which is occasioned by the porous and cavernous nature of the soil over which the river runs during several miles of its course below Dorking. When its waters are at their ordinary height, no particular irregularity in the stream is observable, but in seasons of drought its current in this part is wholly carried through the swallows, as the subterraneous passages are called, and its ordinary channel, similar to that of any other river of the same size, is left dry, except here and there a stagnant pool. By the bridge at Thorncroft it rises again, and thenceforward the current is uninterrupted.

Under the head of canals it may be proper to observe that the navigation of the Wey is artificial, and has locks upon it, which are supposed to have been the first constructed in the kingdom. The bill for forming the navigation up to Guildford was passed in 1651, but the work was not carried into execution until towards the close of the century: it was extended to Godalming in 1760. The Basingstoke canal, completed in 1796, under an act passed in 1778, enters Surrey from Hampshire near Dradbrook, crossing the river Loddon, whence it derives its chief supply of water: from Dradbrook to its junction with the navigable channel of the Wey, is a distance of about fifteen miles; and at Hook Common a branch six miles long extends to Turgis-Green. The Grand Surrey canal, the act for which was obtained in 1801, commencing a little to the west of the road from London to Camberwell, is carried eastward across the Kent road, and then northward to the Grand Surrey docks. The Surrey and Sussex canal forms a junction between the navigable channel of the Arun, in Sussex, and that of the Wey, a little above Guildford.

The Croydon canal, the act for making which was obtained in 1801, was sold to the London and Croydon Railway Company, who formed their line along the greater portion of its bed. The tramway connecting Croydon with the river Thames at Wandsworth, for which an act was obtained in 1801, is nine miles and a half in length; it has been sold to the London and South-Western Company. There is a railway from London-bridge to Greenwich, in Kent: the London and Croydon railway branches off from the Greenwich line, and at Croydon is joined by the Brighton railway; the Brighton railway takes its course to Reigate, and afterwards quits the county for Sussex, The London and South-Western railway has its station near Waterloo Bridge, and proceeds through the north-western portion of the county into Hampshire; it has a branch to Richmond, and another to Guildford. The South-Eastern railway branches from the Brighton railway at Reigate, and proceeds in an eastern direction to Crowhurst, where it quits the county for Kent. The Epsom railway branches out of the Croydon line, to the north of Croydon.

Surrey contained the Roman station of Noviomagus, situated at Woodcote, near Croydon, besides two others, supposed to have been respectively at Kingston and Walton-on-the-Hill; and it was traversed by the roads leading from the capital to the southern and eastern coasts. These roads diverged from St. George's Fields, near Southwark, and the principal were, the Ermin-street, that ran nearly parallel to, and at a very short distance eastward of, the present road through Clapham, Tooting, Merton, Ewell, and Epsom, to Ashtead, thence proceeding, nearly in a south direction, to Dorking, where it took a western course, about a mile southward of Guildford, to Farnham, beyond which town it soon entered Hampshire; the Stane-street, which, branching from the Ermin-street at Dorking, proceeded southward, through the parish of Ockley, into Sussex; and another Stane-street, which from the metropolis passed through Streatham, Croydon, Coulsdon, Caterham, and Godstone, also into Sussex. The Watling-street, from Dovor, crossed the north-eastern extremity of Surrey to London. Remains of ancient encampments, supposed to be Roman, may be seen at Bottle Hill, in the parish of Warlingham; on Castle Hill, in that of Hascomb; near Chelsham; on Holmbury Hill, in the parish of Ockley; at Ladlands and Oatlands; and on St. George's Hill, near Walton-onThames. Foundations of Roman edifices have been discovered at Walton-on-the-Hill, and on Blackheath in the parish of Albury, both surrounded by intrenchments. Other remains of buildings, thought to be of like origin, have been traced in the vicinities of Wallington, Carshalton, and Beddington. Near Kingston, Roman sepulchral urns, coins, earthenware, and foundations of buildings, have been found; and many Roman coins and pavements also in St. George's Fields, Southwark. Different ancient encampments, the date of which is uncertain, exist in various places, besides those abovementioned: that at the south western angle of Wimbledon Common is supposed by Camden to mark the site of the battle fought in 568; and those of Hanstie Bury, on a projection of Leith Hill, and War Coppice Hill, in the parish of Caterham, are attributed to the Danes.

The number of religious houses of all denominations, prior to the general dissolution, was about twenty-eight; remains yet exist of the abbeys of Chertsey and Waverley, and of the priories of Merton, Newark or Newstead, and Southwark. There are extensive remains of the castles of Farnham and Guildford: the most remarkable ancient residence is Lambeth Palace; and remains also exist of the old mansion of the Archbishops of Canterbury at Croydon. Few counties in England can vie with Surrey in the number and elegance of its seats, and certainly none not exceeding it in size; a circumstance owing chiefly to its vicinity to the metropolis, and the superiority of its scenery. The mineral springs are numerous, and were formerly in high repute and much frequented, particularly those of Epsom. On the northern side of the chalk hills, and in the valleys by which they are traversed, in the eastern parts of the county, copious streams of water, in the shape of remarkably powerful springs, provincially called bourns, are periodically discharged. Surrey gives the inferior title of Earl to the family of Howard, Dukes of Norfolk.

Sussex

SUSSEX, a maritime county, bounded on the west by Hampshire, on the north by Surrey, on the northeast and east by Kent, and on the south by the English Channel. It extends from 50° 44' to 51° 9' (N. Lat.), and from 50' (E. Lon.) to 57' (W. Lon.), and comprises an area of upwards of 1463 square miles, or about 936,320 acres. Within its limits are 54,069 inhabited houses, 3650 uninhabited, and 251 in progress of erection; and the population amounts to 299,753, of whom 147,604 are males, aud 152,149 females.

At the period of the invasion of Britain by the Romans, Sussex formed part of the territory of the Regni. Its reduction was effected by Flavius Vespasian, who was commissioned by the Emperor Claudius, about the year 47, to establish the Roman dominion in the maritime provinces, which he accomplished without much difficulty, fixing his head-quarters near the site of the present city of Chichester: this county was included in the division called Britannia Prima. No particular mention of it occurs in history until after the departure of the Romans from Britain, when, in 477, a Saxon chieftain named Ælla landed with his three sons and a considerable number of followers, at West Wittering, a village about eight miles south-west of Chichester. They soon made themselves masters of the adjacent coasts, but were too weak to penetrate into the country, which was vigorously defended by its inhabitants. Hostilities appear to have been carried on for several years between Ælla and the Britons, the former occasionally receiving reinforcements; and in 485, a sanguinary but indecisive battle was fought near Mecreadesbourne, in the vicinity of Pevensey. At length, in 490, Ælla's forces having been recruited by fresh arrivals of his countrymen, he undertook the siege of Anderida, the capital of the Regni (the precise situation of which has not been ascertained), and succeeded in taking it by assault; as a punishment for the obstinacy of its defenders, he ordered them all to be put to the sword. From this period may be dated the foundation of the South Saxon kingdom, called Suth Seaxe, of which the name Sussex is a contraction.

Sussex is co-extensive with the diocese of Chichester, in the province of Canterbury, and is divided into the two archdeaconries of Chichester and Lewes, the former containing the deaneries of Arundel, Boxgrove, Chichester, Midhurst, Storrington, and Pagham; and the latter those of Dallington, Hastings, Lewes, Pevensey, and South Mailing. The number of parishes is 300. The great civil divisions are six rapes, each of which contains several hundreds; and the county includes the city and port of Chichester; the following members of the cinqueports, viz., Hastings, Rye, Seaford, and Winchelsea, all which have markets except Seaford; the borough and market towns of Arundel, Brighton, Horsham, Lewes, and Midhurst; the borough, market-town, and sea-port of Shoreham; and the market-towns of Cuckfield, East Grinstead, Hailsham, Petworth, Steyning, and Worthing. Under the act 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, the county was divided into the Eastern and Western divisions, each sending two members to parliament. Two citizens are returned for Chichester; two barons for Hastings, and one for Rye; and two burgesses for each of the boroughs, except Midhurst, Horsham, and Arundel, which return one each. This is one of the counties forming the Home circuit: the Lent assizes are held at Horsham, and the summer and winter assizes at Lewes; the county gaols are at Lewes, Petworth, and Horsham. The quarter-sessions take place at Petworth, Horsham, and Chichester, for the western division, and at Lewes for the eastern.

The most remarkable feature in the surface and scenery is the bold and open range of chalk hills, called the South Downs, extending into the county from Hampshire, and stretching in nearly an eastern direction for the greater part of its length, gradually approaching the sea. Their northern declivity is precipitous, but on the south their descent is gradual, except in the vicinity of Brighton, where they form a shore broken into stupendous cliffs, terminated on the east by the bold promontory of Beachy Head, which rises perpendicularly above the strand to the height of 564 feet, and is the most elevated point on the southern coast of England. The rest of the coast is flat, excepting the vicinity of Selsea Bill, where a few rocks present themselves, and the rocks of Hastings. The district generally understood to constitute the South Downs consists only of the chalk hills lying to the east of Shoreham: many parts of the Downs westward of the river Arun are overgrown with much beech wood, chiefly of a dwarf size, furze, &c., so that the herbage is much inferior to that covering them further eastward. Southward of the chalk hills, extending from their base to the sea, lies a fertile and richly-cultivated vale, which, towards its eastern extremity, between Brighton and Shoreham, is, for the most part, less than a mile in breadth. Proceeding westward, between the rivers Adur and Arun, this is increased to three miles; and from the Arun to the borders of Hampshire its breadth varies from three to seven miles. Its length is about thirty-six. Extensive tracts of marsh land lie adjacent to the coast, between the eastern extremity of the South Downs at Beachy Head, and the confines of Kent, in the vicinity of Rye; others are situated on the lower part of the course of the rivers Ouse, Adur, and Arun. The Weald of Sussex comprises nearly the whole of the level tract lying to the north of the Downs, together with the range of hills running the whole length of the county, at a short distance from its northern and north-eastern boundaries. Such is the quantity of timber and other trees in the low plains of the Weald, that, when viewed from the chalk hills, they present to the eye the appearance of one mass of wood; this is, in part, owing to the common practice, at the period when the tract was first reclaimed from a wild forest, of leaving a "shaw" of wood, several yards in width, around each inclosure, as a nursery for timber.

The different soils of chalk, clay, sand, loam, and gravel, are found in this county. The rich arable lands lying south of the Downs, and at the foot of their northern declivity, amount to about 100,000 acres; of down land there are about 68,000 acres, of which a great portion is under its native green sward. The arable and the grass lands of the Weald, which are of nearly equal extent, amount together to about 425,000 acres. The corn and pulse crops commonly grown are wheat, barley, oats, and peas. Oats are raised in large quantities in the Weald. Peas are extensively cultivated, especially on the South Downs and in the maritime districts: beans are very little grown. Cole-seed, barley, and rye are in great esteem among the flock-masters of the Downs, as green food for their sheep. Potatoes are very successfully grown, particularly in the vicinities of Battle, Eastbourne, and Chichester. In the eastern and north-eastern parts, hops are cultivated. The principal artificial grasses are, red and white clover, trefoil, and rye-grass; the meadow lands are mown every year, and afterwards grazed. It is only in the western part of the county that there are any extensive tracts of irrigated meadows, and these are chiefly on the course of the small river Lavant. The marshes, which may be classed among the finest and most profitable of their kind, having undergone great improvement, occupy about 30,000 acres, and are wholly employed in feeding cattle and sheep. The great extent of down land having its native green sward is applied to feeding numerous flocks of sheep; the herbage is short, sweet, and aromatic, of a kind peculiar to these hills, which is supposed to give to the flesh of the sheep that firmness and exquisite flavour for which it is so remarkable. In the western parts of the county are some considerable orchards, from which cider is made. Sussex has, from the remotest period, been celebrated for its fine growth of timber, chiefly oak; and the present extent of its woodlands cannot be estimated at less than 170,000 acres, nearly all included within the Weald, the timber produced in which is preferred by the navy contractors to that of any other district. In the Saxon times there appears to have been one continued forest, stretching from Hampshire into Kent. The waste lands are mostly situated on the northern side of the county, occupying an area of about 100,000 acres; their principal value is as rabbitwarrens.

The chief mineral productions are the various descriptions of limestone obtained in the Weald; one of these, the Sussex marble, is found in the highest degree of perfection in the neighbourhood of Petworth, and, when cut and polished, is equal in beauty to most marbles. The limestone, and the ironstone in contact with it, often rise to within a very few feet of the surface. Alternate strata of sandstone and ironstone occur every where in the Weald; and under these, at a considerable depth, are numerous strata of limestone which, when burned, makes the finest cement in the kingdom. The ironstone of this district was very extensively worked as ore, until the successful establishment of the great iron and coal works in the midland and northern districts of the kingdom occasioned the works in the Weald, the fuel of which was supplied by the surrounding woodlands, to be wholly abandoned. Fullers'-earth is found at Tillington, and used in the neighbouring fulling-mills; red ochre is obtained at Graffham, Chidham, and several other places on the coast. The manufacture of charcoal, chiefly for gunpowder, has been of considerable importance in the county, from which large quantities have been annually sent to London over land.

At Chichester a small woollen manufacture is carried on; and sacks, blankets, linen and worsted yarn, cotton and stuff goods, and other articles, are made in the workhouses. There are paper-mills at Iping and a few other places. Potash is made at Bricksill Hill, near Petworth, for the soap-makers of that town; brick-making is common in many parts of the county, and near Petworth are kilns for burning bricks and tiles to be exported to the West Indies. Ship and boat building is carried on in some of the small harbours of Sussex; yet, notwithstanding the great extent of sea-coast, its maritime commerce is of nearly as little importance as its manufactures. A considerable quantity of timber is exported; as are charcoal, cord-wood, and oak-bark; and horned-cattle, sheep, hides, and wool, are among its agricultural exports. There are several fisheries upon the coast, chiefly of herrings, mackerel, and flat-fish, and much of the produce is sent to London. In the Weald are numerous ponds for feeding fresh-water fish for the London markets, principally carp, though tench, perch, eels, and pike are also kept: many of the ponds were originally formed for working the machinery of the iron-manufactories, long since abandoned. The fashionable places of resort for sea-bathing in the county are Brighton, Worthing, Hastings, St. Leonard's, Bognor, Littlehampton, and Eastbourne.

The principal rivers rise in the Weald, within the limits of the county, and take a tolerably direct course to the English Channel, so that their length is not great: they are, the Arun, with its tributary the Rother; the Ouse; and the Adur. The Arun, with the aid of several artificial cuts, has been made navigable up to Newbridge, near Billinghurst; and the Rother, with the like assistance, to the town of Midhurst. A small canal branches from the Rother to the village of Haslingbourne, within half a mile of Petworth. The largest barges navigating these rivers are of thirty tons' burthen; the tide flows up the Arun, a distance of seventeen miles, to the vicinity of Amberley. The Ouse is formed by the junction of two streams, one of which rises in the forest of Worth, and the other in that of St. Leonard, uniting near Cuckfield; it has been made navigable beyond Lewes to within five miles of Cuckfield. The Adur, sometimes called the Beeding, is navigable for ships of considerable burthen to Shoreham, and for barges to the neighbourhood of Ashurst. The Lavant, a much smaller stream than any of the above, becomes navigable for ships some distance below Chichester, and expands into an estuary, which opens into the sea between the village of Wittering and the south-eastern point of Hayling Island in Hampshire: remarkably fine lobsters are bred in this river, near its mouth. The shores of the south-western part of the county are rendered very irregular by several other arms of the sea, one of which separates Thorney Island from the body of the county. The Portsmouth and Arundel canal, the act for which was obtained in 1815, commencing from the river Arun, a little below the latter town, proceeds westward, in nearly a direct line, to the broad estuary of the Lavant, below Chichester, to which city is a short branch northward. From the Lavant the navigation is continued through the channels that separate Thorney and Hayling Islands from the main land, to the eastern side of Portsea Island, where the artificial navigation recommences, and proceeds westward to Portsmouth. The London and Brighton railway enters the county at Black Corner, and proceeds in a southern direction past Baleomb, and east of Cuckfield, to Brighton, whence a branch diverges westward to Shoreham, Worthing, Arundel, and Chichester, and a branch eastward to Lewes, Pevensey, and Hastings.

The county is supposed to have contained the Roman stations of Anderida Civitas, at Seaford or Eastbourne; Anderida Portus, at Pevensey; Cilindunum, at Slindon; Mida, at Midhurst; Mantuantonis, or Mutuantonis, at Lewes; Portus Adurni, at Aldrington; and Regnum, at Chichester. The present roads from Portsmouth, from Midhurst, and from Arundel, to Chichester, are considered to have been originally of Roman formation; and from this city, the Roman road commonly called the Stane-street proceeded in a north-eastern direction towards Dorking, in Surrey, where it fell into the Erminstreet. Various Roman domestic remains have been dug up in different places, particularly at Chichester, Bognor, and Eastbourne, including tessellated pavements and baths; and coins of the Lower Empire have been found. The number of ancient encampments upon the Downs and elsewhere near the sea, evince that the county has been frequently the scene of conflict: some of these fortifications are supposed to have been made by the Romans, and others by Saxon and Danish invaders; one on Mount Caburn, about a mile and a half from Lewes, on the northern edge of the Downs, is thought to be British.

The number of Religious houses in the county before the general dissolution, including hospitals and colleges, was about fifty-eight: there are yet extensive remains of the magnificent abbey of Battle, and of that of Bayham on the confines of Kent; also considerable relics of the priories of Boxgrove, Hardham, Lewes, Michelham, and Shelbred about four miles north of Midhurst. The chief remains of ancient castles are those of Amberley, Arundel, Bodiham, Bramber, Eridge in the parish of Frant, Hastings, Hurstmonceaux, Ipres at Rye, Lewes, Pevensey, Scotney, and Winchelsea; and the most remarkable ancient mansion is Cowdray House, now in ruins. Several of the modern seats of the nobility and gentry are magnificent; those most worthy of notice are, Petworth Park, Arundel Castle, the episcopal palace of Chichester, Eridge Castle, Goodwood, Parham Park, Penshurst Place, Sheffield Park, Slindon House, and Stanmer Park. There is a chalybeate spring at Brighton, and another at Eastbourne: near Hastings is a singular dropping well, and in the same vicinity, a fine waterfall forty feet perpendicular. The title of Duke of Sussex was borne by the late Prince Augustus Frederick, sixth son of George III., upon whom it was conferred in 1801.

Sustead (St. Peter and St. Paul)

SUSTEAD (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of North Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 4¼ miles (S. W.) from Cromer; containing 143 inhabitants. It comprises 516 acres of land, chiefly arable, and is the property of W. H. Windham, Esq., who is lord of the manor. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £34; patron and impropriator, Mr. Windham. The church is chiefly in the decorated and later English styles, with a circular tower.