Westmancoate - Weston

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Samuel Lewis (editor)

Year published

1848

Supporting documents

Pages

519-524

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'Westmancoate - Weston', A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848), pp. 519-524. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=51391 Date accessed: 24 November 2014.


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Westmancoate

WESTMANCOATE, a hamlet, in the parish of Bredon, union of Tewkesbury, Middle division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4¾ miles (N. E.) from Tewkesbury; containing 340 inhabitants, and comprising 871 acres. There is a place of worship for Baptists.

Westmeston (St. Martin)

WESTMESTON (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Chailey, hundred of Street, rape of Lewes, E. division of Sussex, 5¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Lewes; containing, with the chapeliy of East Chiltington, 533 inhabitants, of whom 262 are in Westmeston hamlet. A charter for a fair on Martinmas-day was granted by Edward II. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 4. 2., and in the gift of G. Courthope, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £585, and the glebe comprises 17 acres. The church is principally in the early English style, with a plain Norman arch between the nave and chancel; it contains a rudely-constructed circular stone font, and at the east end of the south aisle is an ancient chapel, the burial-place of the Marten family. At East Chiltington is a chapel of ease. A school is partly supported by an endowment of £577. 15. 7. three per cents. Anthony Shirley, who acquired some celebrity as a traveller and writer in the time of James I., was born here.

Westmill (St. Mary)

WESTMILL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Buntingford, hundred of Braughin, county of Hertford, 1½ mile (S. by E.) from Buntingford; containing 425 inhabitants. It comprises 2000 acres, the principal portion of which is arable; the soil is a chalky clay, and the surface generally flat. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20, and in the gift of the Countess of Mexborough: the tithes have been commuted for £540, and the glebe comprises 39 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the later English style. A national school is partly supported by an endowment of £20 per annum.

Westminster, Middlesex.—See London.

WESTMINSTER, Middlesex.—See London.

Westmorland

WESTMORLAND, an inland county, bounded on the north and west by Cumberland, on the south-west and south by Lancashire, on the south-east and east by Yorkshire, and on the north-east by the county of Durham. It extends from 54° 11' 30 to 54° 42' 30 (N. Lat.), and from 2° 20' to 3° 12' (W. Lon.), and includes an area of 763 square miles, or 488,320 statute acres. There are 10,849 inhabited houses, 875 uninhabited, and 39 in course of erection; and the population amounts to 56,454, of whom 28,213 are males, and 28,241 females. The ancient British inhabitants of the territory included within the limits of this county were of two tribes of the Brigantes, called the Voluntii and the Sistuntii, the former occupying the eastern parts of it, the latter the western. Under the Roman dominion it was included in the division called Maxima Caesariensis; and, at the period of the Saxon heptarchy, formed part of the extensive and powerful kingdom of Northumbria. From its Saxon ' conquerors it received the name of West-moringa-land, or "land of the western moors," since contracted into Westmorland. The county is partly in the diocese of Chester, and partly in that of Carlisle, in the province of York, but under the act 6th and 7th of William IV., cap. 77, will be wholly included in the latter diocese. The total number of parishes in it is thirty-two. Its great civil divisions are the two baronies of Kendal and Westmorland, the former including the wards of Kendal and Lonsdale, and the latter, which has in later ages been occasionally styled the "barony of Appleby," and is often called the "Bottom of Westmorland," comprising the East and West wards. In the county are the newly-enfranchised borough and market-town of Kendal, the small market-town and seaport of Milnthorpe, the thriving town of Bowness, and the market-towns of Ambleside, Appleby, Brough, Burton-in-Kendal, Kirkby-Lonsdale, Kirkby-Stephen, and Orton. Two knights are returned to parliament for the shire, and one representative for the borough of Kendal. It is included in the Northern circuit: the assizes, and the Easter and Michaelmas quarter-sessions, are held at Appleby, and the Epiphany and Midsummer sessions at Kendal.

The county is in general so mountainous, that the soil of a great portion of it must necessarily for ever remain undisturbed by the plough. The mountains are separated by pleasant and fertile valleys, requiring only a greater number of trees and hedge-rows to compete the beauty of their appearance. The most extensive vales are, that of the Eden, reaching from about ten miles south-east of Kirkby-Stephen, north-westward by Appleby, towards Penrith; and that of Kendal, more particularly southward and westward of that town. Loose masses of rock, of various sizes and descriptions, are scattered over all the lower hills and the champaign parts of the county; and on the southern side of Shap, along the road towards Kendal, different streams, and especially Wasdale-beck, force their passage amidst stupendous blocks of rounded granite. Cross-fell, at the north-eastern extremity of the county, which is the highest of the chain of mountains extending along the eastern borders of Westmorland and Cumberland, rises to the height of 2901 feet above the level of the sea. The other greatest elevations, included wholly or partly within the county, are Helvellyn, 3055 feet high; Bowfell, 2911 feet high 3 Rydal-head, about the same height as the last-mentioned; and the High-street, about 2730 feet high, which derives its name from an ancient road along its summit, and on which the people of the neighbourhood have horse-races and other sports, on July 10th. All these mountains command magnificent prospects; from Rydal-head are seen Windermere, Elterwater, Grasmere, and Rydal-water.

The beautiful lakes that adorn the numerous romantic and sequestered dales of Westmorland and Cumberland, have afforded an abundant theme for description, and have been the subjects of some of the finest efforts of landscape painting. The principal in Westmorland are, Ullswater, Windermere, Grasmere, Hawswater, Elter-water, Broad-water, and Rydal-water. Ullswater, on the north-western side of the county, and of which the higher part is wholly within the limits of Westmorland, while its lower part is divided between it and Cumberland, is about nine miles long, its breadth varying from a quarter of a mile to two miles, and its depth from six to thirty-five fathoms: the lower end is called Ousemere. The shores of the lake are extremely irregular, and from its making different bold sweeps, only parts of it are seen at once. The lower extremity is bordered by pleasant inclosures, interspersed with woods and cottages, scattered on the sides of gently rising hills; advancing upwards towards Patterdale, the inclosures are of smaller extent, and the hills more lofty and rugged, until their aspect becomes wholly wild and mountainous. In its highest expanse are a few small rocky islands. Place-fell, on the east, projects its barren and rugged base into the lake; and on the west rise several rocky hills, one of which, called Stybarrow Crag, is clothed with oaks and birches: these and the other surrounding hills are furrowed with glens and the channels of torrents, causing remarkable echoes. When the sky is uniformly overcast and the air perfectly calm, this lake, in common with some others, has its surface overspread by a smooth oily appearance, provincially called a keld, which term is also applied to the places that are longest in freezing. It contains abundance of fine trout, perch, skellies, and eels; some char; and a species of trout, called grey trout, almost peculiar to it, which frequently attains the weight of 30lb.

Windermere, is ten miles and a half long, and lies on the western border of the county, which it separates, for the greater part of its length, from Lancashire, in which county its lower extremity is wholly included. Its breadth is from one to two miles, and its area is computed at 2574 acres, including thirteen islands occupying a space of about 40 acres, the largest of which, called Curwen's Isle, contains 27 acres. The Westmorland margin of the lake is bordered by inclosures rising gently from the water's edge, adorned with numerous woody and rocky knolls of various elevations and sizes; the Lancashire shore is higher and more abrupt, and is clothed with wood, though not to the summit. A simple magnificence is the chief characteristic of the surrounding scenery. The fisheries, which are rented of the crown, are for common and grey trout, pike, perch, skellies, eels, and more especially for char, the most remarkable produce of the lake, of which there are two sorts, called, from the difference of their colour, silver char and golden char; the former is considered the more delicious, and is potted for the London market. Great numbers of water-fowl resort to this lake, and to a few of the smaller ones.

Grasmere is a particularly beautiful lake, at the lower end of a valley bearing its name; in the middle of it is a small island, and its head is adorned by the church and village of Grasmere. Hawswater, situated in a narrow vale called Mardale, is three miles long, and from a quarter to half a mile broad. About the centre it is nearly divided into two parts by a low inclosed promontory, and the mountains which environ its head are steep, bold, and craggy, but are skirted at their feet by inclosures. On its northern side is Naddle Forest, a steep mountainous ridge in the form of a bow, in which rises Wallow Craig, a mass of upright rocks. The other portions of its scenery are equally interesting. The char and trout of the lake are in great esteem; and besides these, it produces perch, skellies, and eels. Elter-water, at the bottom of Great Langdale, and which is rather larger than Grasmere, is inferior to none of the smaller lakes in the variety and beauty of its scenery. Broadwater, about a mile above the head of Ullswater, is environed by high and rugged mountains, and is viewed to great advantage from a spot called Hartsop-high-field. Rydal-water, on the course of the Rothay, is shallow, and has several picturesque woody islands; it is about a mile in length. The principal of the smaller lakes, commonly called tarns, are, Ais-water, a mile south-west of Hartsop, and about a mile northward of which is Angletarn; Grisedale-tarn, at the head of Grisedale; Redtarn, under the eastern side of Helvellyn, and westward of which lies Kepel-cove-tarn; Red-tarn and Smallwater, at the head of Riggindale, the highest branch of Mardale; Skeggles-water, in the mountains between Long Sleddale and Kentmere; Kentmere, in the valley of the Kent; Sunbiggin-tarn, in the parish of Orton; and Whinfell-tarn, in the parish of Kendal. Along the chain of mountains extending from Cross-fell, in a southern direction, to Stainmore near Brough, a distance of about twenty miles, occurs a singular phenomenon called the Helm Wind, which blows at various times of the year, but generally from October to April.

Notwithstanding the inclosures and improvements that have taken place since the commencement of the present century, the cultivated lands hardly amount to one-half the whole extent of the county. The greater part, amounting to about three-fourths, of the inclosed lands, are always under grass, particularly in high situations; and as the farmers, during the summer months, can keep almost any quantity of cattle on the commons, &c, at a very little expense, their chief object is to get as much hay as possible from their inclosed lands against the approach of winter. There are few counties where, in proportion to their size, more milch-cows are kept than in this, and where the produce of the dairy is an object of greater importance: large quantities of butter are sent to the London market, in firkins containing 561b. net. Not less than 10,000 Scotch cattle are annually brought to Brough Hill fair, whence great numbers are driven towards the rich pastures of the more southern portions of England, though many are retained and fattened in Westmorland.

In some parts, considerable tracts are covered with coppices, consisting chiefly of oak, ash, alder, birch, and hazel. These underwoods, particularly in the barony of Kendal, are usually cut every sixteenth year, hardly any trees being left for timber; and their produce is converted partly into hoops, which are made in the county, and sent coastwise to Liverpool; and partly into charcoal, which is in demand for the neighbouring ironworks. Timber is chiefly found in the plantations, which are numerous and, at Whinfield Forest and around Lowther Hall, extensive: the larch is generally the most flourishing tree, though indeed most of the woods spring with a degree of vigour hardly to be expected from the bleak and exposed situations which many of them occupy. The extensive wastes are partly subject to common right, constituting a great part of the value of many farms, to which they are attached; and partly in severalties and stinted pastures. A few of them consist of commons in low situations, possessing a good soil; but by far the greater number are mountainous tracts, called by the inhabitants fells and moors, which produce little besides a very coarse grass, heath and fern, provincially called ling and brackens: the soil of these is generally a poor hazel-mould and peat-moss. The higher wastes are principally applied to the pasturage of large flocks of sheep, which, during the winter, are all brought down to the inclosures: by the end of April they are sent back to the wastes. Numerous herds of black-cattle are likewise to be seen on the lower commons: a few are of the breed of the county; the rest are Scotch.

The mineral productions are various, and some of them valuable. They consist chiefly of lead, coal, marble, slate (the finest in England), limestoue, freestone, and gypsum; and every part of the county presents an interesting field of study to the geologist. The principal Lead mines are those at Dunfell, which are considered to be nearly exhausted; at Dufton, where they are unusually rich; at Eagle Crags, in Grisedale, a branch of the vale of Patterdale; and at Greenside, near Patterdale. A small quantity of this metal is also procured in the hills above Staveley, and large loose masses of ore have been found in different other situations: a very rich and productive vein at Hartley ceased to be worked about the commencement of the last century. Copper has been wrought to a limited extent at Limbrig, Asby, and Rayne, and is obtained in small quantities in many other parts. Coal is neither abundant nor of good quality; it is wrought only in the south-eastern extremity of the county, on Stainmore heath, and in the neighbourhood of Shap. In the vale of Mallerstang a kind of small coal, chiefly used for burning limestone, is procured. Bordering upon the river Kent, about three miles below Kendal, a bed of beautiful Marble, of a white colour, veined with red and other tints, was discovered in 1793, and quarries were immediately opened. Near Ambleside, and between that town and Penrith, is found a marble of a dusky-green colour, veined with white; a black sort is obtained near Kirkby-Lonsdale, and another species at Kendal Fell.

The western mountains produce vast quantities of Slate, various kinds of which are used in the surrounding districts for covering buildings, while the best slates are conveyed by sea to Liverpool, London, Lynn, Hull, &c, and by land into Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham, and Lancashire. The general colour is blue of many different shades, sometimes having a greenish cast: one kind is purple; and another, used to make writing slates, is nearly black. The best sorts are obtained at the greatest depth. The prevailing strata in the southern and eastern parts of the county are Limestone and Freestone, together with a soft laminous schistus, horizontally stratified. The western and northwestern mountains, besides the slate before mentioned, consist of masses of the trap genera, chiefly basalt, commonly called Whinstone. Around the head of Windermere, and for some distance eastward of it, lies a straturn of dark grey limestone, which is occasionally burned into lime, or polished for tomb-stones and chimneypieces. Wasdale Crag is a mass of coarse flesh-coloured granite; and higher up the dale, a greenish-coloured granite, of a finer and harder texture, is found: a very coarse species of granite appears in many other parts of the county. A vein of red porphyry crosses the road between Kendal and Shap; and at Acorn-bank, near Kirkby, is one of gypsum, which is used for laying floors. In many parts are detached round pieces of blue ragstone, of granite, and of a very hard composite stone, called by the masons callierde. In Knipe Scar are found talky fibrous bodies, opaque and of an ash colour, which burn for a considerable time without any sensible diminution. Fossil remains exist only in the strata of the southern and eastern parts of the county: coralloid bodies are very common, some of them beautifully variegated.

The manufactures are of minor importance, consisting chiefly of coarse woollen-cloths, called Kendal cottons (supposed to be corrupted from coatings), linseys, knitstockings, waistcoat-pieces, flannels, and leather. Nor is the commerce extensive: the principal exports are, the coarse cloths manufactured at Kendal, stockings, slates, tanned-hides, gunpowder, hoops, charcoal, hams, bacon, wool, sheep, and cattle; and the imports, grain, and Scotch cattle and sheep. Much fish from the lakes is sent to Lancaster and Liverpool. The principal rivers are the Eden, Eamont, Lowther, Lune, and Kent. The county derives considerable benefit from the Lancaster canal, which, commencing at Kendal, proceeds for some distance parallel with the course of the Kent, and afterwards across that of the Betha, to the vicinity of Burton, where it enters Lancashire, in the southern part of which county it communicates with the Leeds and Liverpool canal. The Lancaster and Carlisle railway runs the whole extent of the county, from south to north; it enters at Burton-in-Kendal, passes by Milnthorpe, Kendal, Orton, and Shap, and quits the county at Brougham, near Penrith, where it crosses the river Eamont. Near Kendal a branch commences, which terminates at Windermere.

A singular collection of huge stones, called Penhurrock, now nearly destroyed, and a Druidical circle of stones near Oddendale, both in the parish of CrosbyRavensworth, are supposed to be British. To the Britons are also referred, the rude circle of stones at the head of the stream called the Ellerbeck; that on the waste of Moorduvock, called the Druid's Cross; that of Mayborough, on a gentle eminence on the western side of Eamont bridge; and that about a mile north-eastward of Shap, called the Druid's Temple. Other relics of this people exist, including several cairns and encampments. Westmorland was traversed by a variety of Roman roads of minor importance, and contained the stations of Verteræ, which has been fixed at Brough; Brovacum, at Brougham Castle; Galacum, at the head of Windermere; and another at Natland, the name of which is uncertain. A branch of the great Watling-street ran through it from Stainmore to Brougham Castle, and several parts of the road, between Brough and KirkbyThore, are still tolerably perfect. From this, the Maidenway branched off at Kirkby-Thore, and passed over the lower extremity of Cross-fell, by Whitley Castle, into Northumberland: the road may still be clearly traced, being uniformly about seven yards broad, and composed of large loose stones. Other vestiges of Roman occupancy are very numerous, including altars, urns, coins, bricks, tessellated pavements, foundations of buildings, &c, which have been found on the sites of the stations, and elsewhere. In the county are, a Roman camp, about 100 yards southward of Borrowbridge, in Borrowdale, now called Castlehows; other camps called Castlesteads and Coney-beds, near the station at Natland; and several between Crackenthorpe and Cross-fell; besides Maiden Castle, upon Stainmore, a very strong square fort, about five miles from Brough; and some other remarkable intrenchments. Near Shap is a stupendous monument of antiquity called Carl-lofts, supposed to be Danish, consisting of two long lines of huge obelisks of unhewn granite, with different other masses of the same material, arranged in various forms.

The religious houses were, the Præmonstratensian abbey of Shap, and a monastery of White friars at Appleby, with an hospital for lepers near Kirkby-inKendal: there are some remains of Shap Abbey. The remains of fortified buildings are numerous and extensive, comprising the ruins of the castles of Appleby, Beetham, Brough, Brougham, Bewley, Howgill, Kendal, and Pendragon; Arnside Tower, Helsback Tower, and several other ancient castellated buildings. Of ancient mansions, the most remarkable specimens are Sizergh Hall and Levens Hall, together with the ruins of Old Calgarth Hall and Preston Hall. Of the more modern seats of the nobility and gentry, those most worthy of notice are, Lowther Castle, the residence of the Earl of Lonsdale, lord-lieutenant of the county; and Appleby Castle, that of the Earl of Thanet, hereditary high sheriff. The small freeholds are very numerous. The inhabitants, owing to their secluded situation, have, until recently, been distinguished for their adherence to several antiquated customs. There are mineral springs of various qualities; the principal being that near the village of Clifton, at which a great number of people assemble on the 1st of May, to drink its waters; that called Gonsdike, a little south of Rounthwaite, which continually casts up small metallic spangles; Shap wells, much resorted to in the summer season by persons afflicted with scorbutic complaints, and by lead-miners from Alston and Arkingarthdale; the numerous petrifying springs on the borders of the river Kent; and a petrifying well in the cave called Pate-hole. The most remarkable cascades on the many mountain streams are, Levens Park waterfall, on the Kent; another on the Betha, below Betham—the Caladupæ of Camden; and Gillforth spout, in Long Sleddale, which has an unbroken fall of 100 feet. Pate-hole is a very curious and extensive cavern in a limestone rock near Great Asby, from which, in rainy seasons, issue powerful streams of water. Westmorland gives the title of Earl to the Fane family; and Baron Vipont of Westmorland is one of the titles borne by the noble family of Clifford.

Westoe

WESTOE, a township, in the parish of Jarrow, union of South Shields, E. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham; containing 13,990 inhabitants. This township, which comprises an area of 1795 acres, forms elevated ground commanding fine views of the sea and the adjacent country, with Tynemouth Abbey and other interesting objects. It is the favourite residence of the wealthy merchants and ship-owners connected with South Shields, to which it forms a pleasant suburb, containing within its boundaries the market-place and some of the principal streets of that town; the vicinity is enlivened with numerous handsome mansions and elegant villas. The substratum is chiefly coal, of which an extensive mine is in operation to the south of Westoe chapel; freestone of good quality is also abundant, and quarried to a considerable extent. The chapel was erected in 1818, at an expense of £2400, of which £1000 were given by the Dean and Chapter of Durham, £500 by the trustees of Lord Crewe, and the remainder was raised by subscription. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £220; patrons, Trustees, subject to the approval of the incumbent of St. Hilda. The tithes have been commuted for £236.—See Shields, South.

Weston

WESTON, a tything, in the parish of Welford, union of Newbury, hundred of Faircross, county of Berks; containing 268 inhabitants.

Weston

WESTON, a township, in the parish and union of Runcorn, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 1½ mile (S. S. W.) from Runcorn; containing, in 1841,626 inhabitants. It is situated at the junction of the rivers Weaver and Mersey, and comprises 880 acres, whereof about one-half is arable and one-half pasture, of fertile soil, and picturesque aspect. Splendid views are obtained of a portion of North Wales, and of Liverpool, Chester, and the surrounding country. There are three excellent red-freestone quarries, called respectively the North, East, and South, capable of employing 600 or 700 men, and of raising annually one million cubic feet of stone; they are the property of John Tomkinson, Esq., of Liverpool and Runcorn, and the stone is sent to all parts of the kingdom by the Weaver canal, which adjoins the estate. The traffic consists chiefly in salt, salt-rock, and coal. A white and black ash manufactory, established about fifteen years ago, employs about 200 men and boys. A church, dedicated to Christ, was erected at Weston Point in 1841: it was commenced in the spring of that year, the first stone being laid by Sir Richard Brooke, Bart., one of the trustees of the Weaver navigation; and is the first of a number of churches built and endowed by that body for the benefit of the bargemen. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop of Chester; net income, derived from the Weaver trust, £150. A titherent-charge of £180 is paid to the vicar of Runcorn. There are two places of worship for dissenters; and a Weaver-trust school. Here is an old building anciently occupied by monks; also a village cross.

Weston

WESTON, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Wybunbury, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 6 miles (E.) from Nantwich; containing 722 inhabitants, of whom 496 are in the township of Weston. The district comprises the townships of Weston, Basford, and Chorlton. In Weston are 1831a. 3r. 9p.: it is distant two miles from the Crewe station on the Liverpool and Birmingham railway. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rev. Sir Delves Broughton, Bart.; net income, £53, with a parsonage-house. A school is partly supported by £10 per annum from the patron.

Weston

WESTON, a tything, in the parish of Stalbridge, union of Sturminster, hundred of Brownshall, Sturminster division of Dorset; with 241 inhabitants.

Weston (Holy Trinity)

WESTON (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Hicthin, hundred of Broadwater, county of Hertford, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Baldock; containing 1123 inhabitants, and comprising 4370a. 1r. 15p. A pleasurefair is held on the 11th of June. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 6. 8.; net income, £197; patron and impropriator, William Hale, Esq. The glebe consists of 179 acres. The church is an ancient structure, of which the tower and chancel are of Norman architecture, and the nave in the later English style. The vicarage-house occupies the site of a religious house, whose foundations may still be traced. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A Roman road passes through the parish, and several coins have been found.

Weston (St. Mary)

WESTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Spalding, wapentake of Elloe, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 3¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Spalding; containing 681 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Spalding to Holbeach, and comprises 5403a. 11p.; the soil is chiefly clay, with a good depth of vegetable mould, and the surface generally level. The living is a vicarage not in charge, in the patronage of the Crown; impropriator, Sir J. Trollope, Bart. The great tithes have been commuted for £970, and the vicarial for £163. 10.; the glebe comprises nearly two acres. The church is a small neat structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.

Weston, Norfolk.—See Weston-Longville.

WESTON, Norfolk.—See Weston-Longville.

Weston

WESTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Loys-Weedon, union of Towcester, hundred of Green's-Norton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Towcester; containing 293 inhabitants. There is a place of worship for Baptists. A chalybeate spring in the neighbourhood was formerly much esteemed.

Weston (All Saints)

WESTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Southwell, N. division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 3 miles (S. E.) from Tuxford; containing 402 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 1660 acres, of which the soil is chiefly clay, and in good cultivation. It is divided into north and south, the parts being situated on the opposite acclivities of a narrow vale in which the Laxton and Egmanton unite, and form one small stream tributary to the river Trent. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 2. 11., and in the gift of Earl Manvers, with a net income of £468: the tithes were commuted for 315 acres of land in 1814. The church exhibits specimens of various styles. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Richard Hawksworth, in 1736, bequeathed £50 for erecting a school, and £100 towards its endowment.

Weston, with Nash and Tilsop

WESTON, with Nash and Tilsop, a chapelry, in the parish of Burford, union of Tenbury, hundred of Overs, S. division of Salop, 6 miles (E. S. E.) from Ludlow; containing 381 inhabitants, of whom 40 are in Weston, 115 in Nash, and 226 in Tilsop. The chapel is at Nash, and is annexed, with Buraston chapel, to the first portion of the rectory of Burford. In the chapelry are a daily and a Sunday school.

Weston (All Saints)

WESTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Bath, hundred of Bath-Forum, E. division of Somerset, 1¾ mile (N. W.by W.) from Bath; containing 2899 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the south by the river Avon, and comprises 2413 acres, of which 1901 are meadow and pasture, 495 arable, and 15 woodland; the pastures are chiefly grazed by cows kept for the supply of Bath with milk. The higher lands, forming part of the plain of Lansdown, rest on a bed of inferior oolite, and the substratum of the lower is blue lias, which is quarried for burning into lime and for the roads; the quarries contain many fossil remains, among which are bones of the ichthyosaurus. The upper road from Bath to Bristol passes through the parish; and a stream tributary to the Avon has its source in Lansdown Hill, and flows through the village, near which it is crossed by a stone bridge of one arch. The scenery is finely varied, and includes some interesting objects; near the spot where Sir Bevil Granville fell at the battle of Lansdown, is a monument inscribed to his memory by Lord Clarendon. The river Avon affords facility of conveyance, and the Great Western railway passes within a mile. Lansdown fair, for cattle, sheep, pigs, cheese, and toys, is held on the 10th of August. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at £10. 1. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £468. The church was rebuilt, with the exception of the tower, in 1832, and is a handsome structure in the later English style, containing 630 sittings. Another church, dedicated to St. John, was erected in 1836; and the chapel attached to Partis' College, noticed in the article on Bath, is also in Weston parish. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Lady Huntingdon's Connexion. Lansdown Plain confers the title of Marquess on the Petty family.

Weston

WESTON, a tything, in the parish of Buriton, union of Petersfield, hundred of Finch-Dean, Petersfield and Southern divisions of the county of Southampton, 1¼ mile (S. S. W.) from Petersfield; containing 315 inhabitants. John Goodyer, in 1664, bequeathed premises now let for £79 a year for purposes of education, and the relief of the poor.

Weston

WESTON, a tything, in the parish of St. Mary, Southampton, hundred of Mainsbridge, union of South Stoneham, Southampton and Southern divisions of the county of Southampton; containing 1263 inhabitants.

Weston (St. Peter)

WESTON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of Wangford, E. division of Suffolk, 2¾ miles (S.) from Beccles, on the road to Halesworth; containing 211 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £260. The church is in the early English style, with a square embattled tower. Weston Hall, the ancient seat of the family of Rede, a handsome mansion in the Elizabethan style, was partly taken down within a few years, and the remainder converted into a farmhouse.

Weston, with Ember, Surrey.—See Ember

WESTON, with Ember, Surrey.—See Ember.

Weston

WESTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Bulkington, union of Nuneaton, Kirby division of the hundred of Knightlow, Northern division of the county of Warwick, 3½ miles (S. S. E.) from Nuneaton; containing 140 habitants.

Weston

WESTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Long Compton, union of Chipping-Norton, Brailes division of the hundred of Kington, S. division of the county of Warwick; containing 41 inhabitants.

Weston (All Saints)

WESTON (All Saints), a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 2 miles (N. W. by W.) from Otley; containing, with the township of Askwith, 526 inhabitants, of whom 128 are in Weston township. The parish comprises by computation 4460 acres, of which 1280 are in the township. The inclosed lands are fertile; the surface is varied, and the scenery of pleasing aspect, and improved by Weston Hall, the seat of William Vavasour Carter, Esq. The village is situated on the north side of Wharfdale, and is irregularly built. There is a corn-mill in the parish. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6.11. 5½.; net income, £51; patron and impropriator, Mr.Carter. The church is a small ancient structure.