Wrea, Lancashire.—See Ribby.
WREA, Lancashire.—See Ribby.
WREAY, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Mary,
union of Carlisle, Cumberland ward, E. division of
the county of Cumberland, 5¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from
Carlisle; containing 151 inhabitants. The Lancaster
railway passes here, and has some heavy cuttings between the village of Wreay and the house of Woodside,
the residence of Miss Losh. The living is a perpetual
curacy; net income, £86; patrons and appropriators,
the Dean aud Chapter of Carlisle. The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, has been rebuilt, at the expense (with
the exception of a small donation from the Dean and
Chapter) of Miss Losh, who has had it profusely decorated with stained glass. The reading-desk is formed of
an eagle, on whose spread-out wings the chesnut-bound
Bible and prayer-book are retained by chains; the sermon is preached from the butt of a black oak, cut in
imitation of the sigilaria or antediluvian palm-tree; and
the clerk's desk, on the opposite side, is the figure of a
pelican; all very boldly carved. There are numerous
figures and ornaments in and about the communiontable, and other parts of the chapel. A school, erected
by subscription in 1760, was endowed by John Brown
in 1763 with £200, which were laid out in land now
producing £15 a year.
WRECKINGTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Gateshead-Fell, union of Gateshead, N. division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 3½
miles (S.) from Gateshead. This place takes its name
from its situation near the Roman road called WreckenDyke, which here crosses the old turnpike-road from
Newcastle to Durham. Wreckington Hall is a handsome mansion of stone. The village forms the southern
extremity of the borough of Gateshead, and is chiefly
inhabited by persons engaged in the adjoining collieries,
one of which, formerly called the King's pit of Sheriff
Hill, but now the Stormount Main colliery, has been
sunk to a greater depth, and is wrought as a separate
work. An extensive flour-mill has been erected, which
is driven by steam. Statute-fairs for hiring servants,
established in 1832, are held in April and November.
Wrecklesham and Bourn
WRECKLESHAM and BOURN, tythings, in the
parish and hundred of Farnham, W. division of Surrey, 1¾ mile (S. W. by S.) from Farnham; containing
991 inhabitants. A district church was erected on a site
given by W. P. Paine, Esq., in 1840; it is dedicated to
St. Peter, is a neat cruciform structure, and contains
400 sittings, of which 200 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patron, the Bishop
WREIGH-HILL, a township, in the parish and
union of Rothbury, W. division of Coquetdale ward,
N. division of Northumberland, 5¼ miles (W.) from
Rothbury; containing 29 inhabitants. The township is
bounded on the south by the river Coquet, and takes
its name from the stream of the Wreigh or Wreath. It
comprises about 395 acres, of which two-thirds are
arable, and the remainder fine pasture land. There are
strata of limestone and freestone, and a limestone-quarry
is in operation. In 1665 almost the entire population
was swept off by the plague, and great quantities of
human bones have been since discovered on the spot
where the victims were interred. George Coughran, the
celebrated youthful mathematician, was born here.
WRELTON, a township, in the parish of Middleton, Pickering lythe and union, N. riding of York,
2¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Pickering; containing 216
inhabitants. It comprises about 1230 acres: the village
is situated on the road from Pickering to Kirkby-Moorside, and eastward of the river Seven.
Wrenbury (St. Margaret)
WRENBURY (St. Margaret), a parish, in the
union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the
county of Chester; containing, with the townships of
Broomhall, Chorley, Woodcott, and parts of Dodcottcum-Wilkesley, Newhall, and Soond or Sound, 2300 inhabitants, of whom 527 are in the township of Wrenbury with Frith, 5½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Nantwich.
In Wrenbury township are 2073 acres, the soil of which
is partly clay and partly sand. A branch of the Chester
canal passes through the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patron, the Vicar of
Acton. The church has a fine carved-oak ceiling, and
an elegant tower. A school is endowed with the interest of £230; and a second school with the interest
of about £500, to which additions are likely to be made,
and a house built for the master.
Wreningham, Great and Little (All Saints)
WRENINGHAM, GREAT and LITTLE (All
Saints), a parish, in the union of Henstead, hundred
of Humbleyard, E. division of Norfolk, 4¼ miles (E.
S. E) from Wymondham; containing 487 inhabitants.
The living is a rectory, annexed to that of Ashwellthorpe, and valued in the king's books at £10: the tithes
have been commuted for £400, and the glebe comprises
44 acres. The church is a neat structure in the later
English style, with an embattled tower: that of Little
Wreningham, which was dedicated to St. Mary, has
been long demolished.
Wrentham (St. Nicholas)
WRENTHAM (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union
and hundred of Blything, E. division of Suffolk, 4½
miles (N. by W.) from Southwold; containing 1020 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 2280 acres, and
the road from London to Yarmouth intersects the eastern portion of it. The living is a rectory, valued in the
king's books at £21. 6. 8., and in the gift of Sir T. S.
Gooch, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £580,
and the glebe comprises 23 acres. The church, a handsome structure in the early and later English styles,
with a lofty square embattled tower, was repaired in
1832, at an expense of £700, of which £250 were a grant
from the Incorporated Society, £200 a contribution
from the Rev. S. Clissold, the rector, who also presented
an organ, and the remainder was raised by a rate.
There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. Wrentham Hall, a mansion in the Elizabethan
style, for many ages the seat of the Brewster family, was
taken down by the late Sir Thomas Gooch. William
Wotton, a learned divine, was born at Wrentham in
1666; and William Ames, another learned divine, was
rector of the parish.
Wrenthorp, with Stanley.—See Stanley.
WRENTHORP, with Stanley.—See Stanley.
Wressel (St. John of Beverley)
WRESSEL (St. John of Beverley), a parish, in
the union of Howden, Holme-Beacon division of the
wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York; containing, with the hamlets of Brind and Newsham, 373 inhabitants, of whom 154 are in the hamlet of Wressel
with Loftsome, 3¾ miles (N. W.) from Howden. The
parish comprises by measurement 2908 acres, of which
2502 are arable, and 406 pasture: the village is pleasantly situated, near the Hull and Selby railway. Wressel Castle was built by Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester,
who was made prisoner at the battle of Shrewsbury, and
afterwards beheaded; this once princely mansion continued to be a seat of the family till the reign of Charles
I., when it was dismantled by order of the parliament.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's
books at £5. 13. 9.; patron and impropriator, Colonel
Wyndham. The great tithes have been commuted for
£550, and the small for £143: the vicar has a glebe of
26 acres. The church is a modern brick building: for
many years, divine service was performed in a private
chapel at the castle, but the castle was burned down in
1797, when the present church was raised on the site of
the old parochial church. There are still some remains
of the castle.
Wrestlingworth (St. Peter)
WRESTLINGWORTH (St. Peter), a parish, in the
union and hundred of Biggleswade, county of Bedford, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Biggleswade; containing
487 inhabitants. This parish, which is intersected by
the road from Cambridge to Biggleswade and Bedford,
comprises by measurement 1654 acres. The living is a
rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 6. 8., and in
the patronage of the Crown; net income, £135. The
tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in
1801; the glebe altogether comprises 118 acres. The
church is an ancient structure.
Wretham, East (St. Ethelbert)
WRETHAM, EAST (St. Ethelbert), a parish, in
the union of Thetford, hundred of Shropham, W. division of Norfolk, 6½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Thetford; containing 194 inhabitants. It is bounded on
the east by a Roman road, near which is a large tumulus;
and comprises 2777a. 2r., the property of Wyrley Birch,
Esq.: the lands are chiefly arable. The living is a rectory, with that of West Wretham annexed, valued in the
king's books at £11. 12. 3½., and in the gift of Mr.
Birch: the tithes have been commuted for £536, and
the glebe comprises 19 acres, with a house, erected by
the patron. The church is an ancient structure, with a
tower and low spire, and a handsome Norman arch at
the south entrance.
Wretham, West (St. Lawrence)
WRETHAM, WEST (St. Lawrence), a parish, in
the union of Thetford, hundred of Shropham, W. division of Norfolk, 5½ miles (N. N. E.) from Thetford;
containing 103 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3366
acres, wholly the property of Wyrley Birch, Esq.; the
land is chiefly arable, with some wood and plantations,
and a considerable extent of heath. Wretham Hall, the
seat of Mr. Birch, is an ancient and handsome mansion,
and, being thickly clothed with ivy, has a beautifully
picturesque appearance. In the park is a large sheet of
water called Micklemere, near which has been discovered
a Roman urn, containing ashes and bones. The living
is a rectory, annexed to that of East Wretham, and valued in the king's books at £12. 11. 3.
Wretton (All Saints)
WRETTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of
Downham, hundred of Clackclose, W. division of
Norfolk, 1 mile (W.) from Stoke-Ferry; containing
533 inhabitants. It comprises 1197a. 39p., of which
837 acres are arable, and 359 pasture and meadow. The
living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Wereham; impropriator, E. R. Pratt, Esq., whose tithes have
been commuted for £255. 10. The church is in the
later English style, with a square embattled tower. At
the inclosure, 20 acres of land were allotted to the poor;
who have also a house and 6 acres, bequeathed by Mrs.
Jane Forty in 1736.
WRIBBENHALL, a hamlet, in the parish and union
of Kidderminster, Lower division of the hundred of
Halfshire, Kidderminster and W. divisions of the
county of Worcester, situated on the left bank of the
Severn, immediately opposite Bewdley, and connected
with that town by a noble bridge of three arches over
the river. The village is of respectable appearance. The
district church here, formerly a chapel of ease, erected
in 1701, is a neat brick edifice, which has undergone
several repairs and improvements since that time: in
1822 a gallery was added, by subscription, at the west
end; and the present number of sittings is about 300.
The living is in the gift of the Vicar of Kidderminster.
A day and Sunday school is supported in connexion with
WRIGHTINGTON, a township, in the parish of
Eccleston, union of Wigan, hundred of Leyland, N.
division of Lancashire, 5 miles (N. W.) from Wigan,
on the road to Ormskirk; containing 1771 inhabitants.
This was a member of the extensive barony of Manchester. The lordship was given by Albert de Gresley
to Orm, son of Ailward or Edward, progenitor of the
Ashtons, of Ashton; and his descendants were called
de Wrightington. Robert Dicconson, of Eccleston,
married Anne, daughter of John Wrightington, and was
grandfather of William, who was convicted of high
treason in the reign of William III. The Dicconsons
held the property until 1812, when Capt. Edward Dicconson died without issue, and was succeeded by a
nephew, Thomas Eccleston, of Eccleston and Scarisbrick. His son Charles, on succeeding to this estate,
assumed the name of Dicconson, while his other son,
Thomas, to whom the Scarisbrick estate fell, assumed
the name of Scarisbrick; on the demise of the latter in
1833, Charles Dicconson, Esq., became possessed of the
Scarisbrick estate also, and adopted the name and arms
of Scarisbrick. The township is the largest and most
important division of the parish, comprising 3876a. 1r.
15p., of which about one-half is grass-land, and 200
acres wood. It stands elevated about 300 feet above
the level of the sea; the soil is generally of a clayey
nature, the scenery picturesque, and the views extensive.
There is an abundance of excellent coal, and also stone.
The river Douglas passes on the south, separating the
township from Up-Holland; and the Leeds and Liverpool canal runs through. Wrightington Hall, one of
the seats of Charles Scarisbrick, Esq., is a handsome
stone structure with two small wings; the park abounds
with deer and game: on the west side of the mansion
are the remains of a more ancient Hall. Harrock Hall,
the seat of the Boulton family, was purchased in 1839
from the Rigbys, of whom, in 1567, it had already been
the residence for four generations: the house, around
which are 420 acres, has been restored by the present
possessor. At Mossy-Lee and in Carrhouse-lane are
places of worship for dissenters; and at Wrightington
Hall is a small Roman Catholic chapel.
Wrinehill, Cheshire.—See Checkley.
WRINEHILL, Cheshire.—See Checkley.
Wrington (All Saints)
WRINGTON (All Saints), a parish, and formerly
a market-town, in the union of Axbridge, hundred of
Brent with Wrington, E. division of Somerset, 7
miles (N. N. E.) from Axbridge; containing, with the
tything of Broadfield, 1589 inhabitants. This parish is
situated near the Mendip hills, and comprises 5786 acres.
The inhabitants are principally employed in agricultural
pursuits, especially in the cultivation of teasel, of which
great quantities are produced in the neighbourhood, for
the supply of the clothiers in the adjoining districts, and
those of Yorkshire, who use it in dressing the cloth.
The town consists chiefly of two streets, intersecting obliquely, with other houses irregularly built in detached
situations. The county magistrates hold petty-sessions
here. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books
at £39. 9. 4½., and in the gift of the Duke of Cleveland:
the tithes have been commuted for £600, and the glebe
comprises 54 acres. The church, situated at the southwest extremity of the town, is a spacious and handsome
structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by angular turrets crowned
with pinnacles; a very handsome monument has been
erected in it by public contribution, to the memory of
Mrs. Hannah More and her four sisters, who are interred in the churchyard. At Redhill is a church dedicated to Christ: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the
Rector's gift. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. In 1704 George Legg devised nine acres of land, now producing £20 per annum,
for instruction. Dr. John Rogers, a learned divine,
held the rectory. John Locke, the eminent philosopher,
was born in an old thatched house on the north side of
the churchyard, in 1632; and Mrs. More resided for
twenty-five years in a cottage built by herself and her
sisters, at Barley Wood, in the parish.
Writhlington (St. Mary Magdalene)
WRITHLINGTON (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Frome, hundred of Kilmersdon,
E. division of Somerset, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from
Frome; containing 301 inhabitants. It comprises 720
acres, partly arable, and partly meadow and pasture.
The soil is chiefly clay; the surface is hilly, and the lower
grounds are watered by a stream abounding with trout
and eels, and forming the northern boundary of the
parish. There are extensive coal-mines, and quarries of
white freestone; and fullers'-earth is abundant. The
living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books
at £5. 7. 8½., and in the gift of the Prebendary of Writhlington in Salisbury Cathedral: the tithes have been
commuted for £138; the glebe comprises 26 acres.
Writtle (All Saints)
WRITTLE (All Saints), a parish, and formerly a
market-town, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford,
S. division of Essex, 2½ miles (W. by S.) from Chelmsford; containing 2521 inhabitants. Morant and other
writers have placed here the Cæsaromagus of Antoninus.
The remains of a royal palace, built by King John in
1211, and which occupied an acre of ground surrounded
by a deep moat, are still visible. The place has been
long divested of the greater part of its trade by the rising
importance of the town of Chelmsford; but malting
and brewing are still carried on, and there is an oil-mill
in the vicinity. Courts leet and baron are held, and the
inhabitants have the privilege of appointing their own
coroner. The parish is the most extensive in the county,
comprising 8410 acres, of which 163 are common or
waste. It abounds with every variety of surface and
scenery; the soil is generally fertile, much of it adapted
for wheat, and hops of good quality are grown in several
parts. The living is a vicarage, with the donative of
Roxwell annexed; net income, £718; patrons and impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of New College,
Oxford. The great tithes have been commuted for
£2300, and the vicarial for £572. 10. The church is
an ancient and spacious structure, with a massive square
tower surmounted by a lantern turret, and contains numerous elegant and interesting monuments. A chapel
was erected in the Highwood Quarter, and consecrated
in Oct. 1842: it is built of red brick, is in the early
English style, and cost £1200. There is a place of
worship for Independents. Almshouses for six people
were endowed with land now producing £55 per annum,
by Thomas Hawkins, in 1607; and John Blencowe, in
1774, founded a school with an income of £82 per annum,
of which two-thirds are given to the parish of Writtle,
and the remainder to that of Roxwell. About four miles
north-east of the church, in the middle of a wood, a
hermitage was founded in the reign of Stephen, which
in that of Henry II. was attached to St. John's Abbey,