The parish of Blackburn

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

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1911

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235-244

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'The parish of Blackburn', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6 (1911), pp. 235-244. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53106 Date accessed: 23 July 2014.


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BLACKBURN

Blackburn; Little Harwood; Ramsgreave; Salesbury; Clayton-Le-Dale; Mellor; Witton; Pleasington; Over Darwen; Lower Darwen; Eccleshill; Yate and Pickup Bank (Ex.-Parochial); Tockholes; Livesey; Walton-Le-Dale; Cuerdale; Samlesbury; Balderston; Osbaldeston; Billington; Wilpshire; Dinckley; Great Harwood; Rishton

The parish of Blackburn occupies a central position in the county. The River Darwen, anciently named Derwent, rises on Darwen Moor, at the southern border, and, flowing through the south-western part of the parish, joins the Ribble a short distance below Walton Bridge. A tributary called Knuzden Brook, rising on Oswaldtwistle Moor, and in its lower course known as the River Blackwater, which gave name to Blackburn, flows through that town to join the Darwen at Finniscliffe Bridge in Witton Park. At the head of the River Darwen and its tributary Hoddlesden Brook are the highest elevations in the parish, White Hill on Darwen Moor, rising 1,320 ft., and Hoddlesden Moss 1,087 ft., above mean sea level. From these hills the land falls towards the River Ribble, which forms the north-western boundary of the parish. The Yoredale Rocks occur in the centre of the parish, the New Red Sandstone or Trias and the Permian in the valley of the Ribble; elsewhere the subsoil consists of the Millstone Grit and the Coal Measures. The parish contains 48,281 acres, (fn. 1) with a population in 1901 of 235,702 persons, chiefly engaged in the cotton-spinning and weaving industries.

The early history of the parish is not marked by any great events. The presence of the Romans is shown by the station at Walton-le-Dale, (fn. 2) and the battle of Whalley in 798 may have taken place at Langho. (fn. 3) The great hoard of coins found at Cuerdale may point to another battle in the neighbourhood about 930. (fn. 4) Before the Conquest Blackburn was a royal manor and gave its name to the hundred, but this headship was lost afterwards, the Norman lord of the district fixing his seat at Clitheroe. Blackburn then seems to have become a retired agricultural community. Edward II passed through it on 12 October 1323 on his way from Yorkshire to Liverpool. (fn. 5) The Wars of the Roses led to the forfeiture of Balderstone in 1487, and 'lusty lads' from Blackburn fought at Flodden in 1513, according to the old ballad.

The suppression of the minor monasteries appears to have been resented in Blackburn, just as elsewhere in the north, (fn. 6) but there were no leaders, and, apart from the suppression of Whalley, which involved considerable changes in the tenure of land in the parish, no one seems to have suffered, though the vicar was under suspicion. How a population so disposed had a century later become quite Puritan in tone is a matter which deserves some attention. There was no disposition towards religious alterations before the Reformation, (fn. 7) and in the time of Elizabeth the parish had numerous recusants (fn. 8) ; still, even then there was little open refusal to conform outwardly to the new services, though the vicar of Blackburn in 1559 was quickly deprived of his benefice. The local gentry in many cases remained attached to the old religion, but the imprisonments and fines incurred by Sir John Southworth in the persecution of the latter part of Elizabeth's reign seem to have deterred others from open opposition. The mass of the people were probably neglected altogether, the new vicar of Blackburn resigning, after a tenure of eighteen years, on the ground, as is supposed, of his inefficiency. (fn. 9) By that time new conditions were effective. A fresh generation, knowing little of Roman Catholicism except that it was proscribed by law, had grown up; the Archbishop of Canterbury appointed a pastor who showed himself a sturdy Puritan, (fn. 10) and the missionary priests who then began to appear from the colleges at Douay and Rome had to minister in secret where they found friends willing to risk the entertaining of them, (fn. 11) and the best they could do was to encourage those who remained faithful.

This seems the explanation of the change. The old, to a great extent, died away under the repression of the law; and the new, encouraged by the State and fostered by a zealous vicar, grew into strength. Passing by minor incidents recorded (fn. 12) —the visits of Camden the antiquary, (fn. 13) the witchcraft trials of 1612 involving the Southworth family, (fn. 14) the working of an alum mine at Pleasington, (fn. 15) and visitations of the plague in 1623 and later (fn. 16) —the Civil War shows the disposition of the people. (fn. 17) For the Royalists Sir John Talbot and Radcliffe Assheton of Cuerdale were collectors for the hundred. (fn. 18) In October 1642 Sir Gilbert Hoghton, while conveying away the arms which had been stored at Whalley, was set upon at Blackburn by the clubmen of the hundred and his purpose defeated. (fn. 19) The town was then made a garrison for the Parliament, and an attack upon it by the same Sir Gilbert on the Christmas Day following was repulsed. (fn. 20) About the same time it was supposed that Sir John Talbot had prepared a trap for the local leaders for the Parliament, inviting them to a friendly conference, but having 100 armed men at hand to fall upon them. About 300 of 'the Manchester men' thereupon set upon his house, put him to flight and killed or drove into the river many of his men, and in the house itself 'they found good pillage.' (fn. 21)


BLACKBURN PARISH.

BLACKBURN PARISH.

In March 1643 the Royalists took Blackburn and rifled it, but were quickly compelled to give it up. (fn. 22) For more than a year it seems to have been left at peace, but in June 1644, when Prince Rupert was marching into Yorkshire after the relief of Lathom and the capture of Liverpool, he passed through the town, and some fighting took place, Colonel Shuttleworth being defeated by him. (fn. 23) Walton-le-Dale, from its position at the passage of the Ribble, saw a little more of the war in 1644 (fn. 24) and 1648. (fn. 25) The Parliamentary rule was accompanied by the sequestration or sometimes confiscation of the estates of those who had taken the king's side (fn. 26) or were Roman Catholics in religion (fn. 27) ; the number of these cases is larger than might have been expected, including not only some of the greater landowners, such as Sir John Talbot, but many of the smaller men, one case being dismissed because the 'delinquent's' estate was less than £200 value. (fn. 28)

The county lay of 1624, founded on the old fifteenth, required this parish to pay £29 19s. 7½d. when the hundred had to raise £100. (fn. 29) Meantime the foundations of the local manufacturing industry were being laid. In the time of Elizabeth Blackburn was one of the places where an alnager for certifying the woollen stuffs was needed (fn. 30) ; a linen manufacture is traced to the time of Charles I, (fn. 31) and the characteristic 'checks,' a combination of linen warp and cotton woof, are supposed to have been made first about 1650–60. (fn. 32) A fortnightly fair was begun about the same time. (fn. 33)

After the Restoration local affairs went on smoothly. The hearth tax returns of 1666 give some indication of the condition of the people. Apart from the houses of the local squires few had more than two hearths to be taxed, except in the leading townships of Blackburn and Walton-le-Dale. In the town of Blackburn itself there were 285 hearths liable. Mrs. Fleetwood's house had ten, those of Lawrence Haworth, Leonard Clayton, Randle Sharples and Richard Elston had six each, two houses had five, nine four and twenty-three three. (fn. 34)

Only one curate (fn. 35) was ejected in consequence of the Act of Uniformity, but Nonconformity was strong and a number of licences were taken out during the temporary Indulgence of 1672. It may be assumed, therefore, that the Revolution was welcomed here, and in 1715 the people appear to have been zealous for King George. (fn. 36) One of the local gentry, William Walmsley of Showley, was captured at Preston among the Jacobites, but he was acquitted. His father, Richard Walmsley, and a large number of 'Papists' registered their estates in 1717. (fn. 37) In the second half of the century Methodism was introduced and spread, but it was not till 1780 that Wesley himself preached in the town of Blackburn, and then he appears to have been welcomed by the townsmen in a body, all the chief men being present to hear him. (fn. 38) Cotton manufacture and calico printing were introduced about 1770. (fn. 39) Thomas Pennant thus describes Blackburn in 1773:—

The town is seated in a bottom surrounded by hills; it is at present rising into greatness, resulting from the overflow of manufactures in Manchester, for the artificers retreat to cheaper places and less populous. The manufactures are cottons: con siderable quantities are printed here; others are sent to London. The fields around are whitened with the materials which are bleached on them; the thread, which must be ranked with them, is brought from Ireland. The streets are irregular; but some good houses, the effect of wealth, begin to appear here and there in several places. . . . The ground about the town is very barren, and much of it sandy; coal is found in plenty in the south end of the parish, and in several parts much stone slate, which is used for a cover for the houses. (fn. 40)

The town grew rapidly and about 1793 contained the parish church and its chapel of ease and five places of worship for different persuasions of Dissenters. There was also a poor-house. The market was on Monday, but the chief supply of provisions was from Preston. 'Shelled groats' were bought by the townspeople about Michaelmas, ground to meal, and stowed in arks, where they were trodden down hard while new and warm to serve for the year's bread, which was chiefly oat cakes. There were an annual fair on May Day and a fortnightly cattle fair. Darwen, to the south, was a populous district manufacturing a large quantity of cotton goods. (fn. 41) The extension of trade led to a growth of buildings, facilitated by the leasing of the vicar's glebe, (fn. 42) and to the improvement of the roads, which went on rapidly from 1789 to 1825 (fn. 43) ; the Leeds and Liverpool Canal reached this place 1810–16. (fn. 44) The first railway, that from Blackburn to Preston, was opened in 1846. (fn. 45)

The introduction of machinery led to the usual disturbances. Hargreaves, the inventor, was born not far from Blackburn, and several of his 'jennies' were wrecked in a riot of 1768. (fn. 46) The Radical agitation of a century ago strongly affected Blackburn, and some of the local leaders were tried in 1820 for having taken part in a great meeting near Burnley. (fn. 47) In 1826 there was a loom-breaking riot, (fn. 48) and 'plugdrawing ' marked 1842. (fn. 49) The severe cotton famine of 1862–3, due to the Civil War in the United States, caused great distress in the district, and it is stated that in the town alone 30,000 persons were dependent on charity at the end of 1862. (fn. 50)

Under the Reform Act Blackburn became a Parliamentary borough, returning two members. The boundaries have been enlarged. The remainder of the parish is chiefly in the Darwen division of the county; a small part on the east is in the Accrington division.

Church

The parish church of ST. MARY CHURCH THE VIRGIN (fn. 51) stands on rising ground in the centre of the town close to the railway station. Since the covering in of the River Blackwater on the south side and the formation of a boulevard on the east the appearance of the churchyard, which is now grass-covered and planted with trees, has been much improved. It was formerly bare and neglected. The church is a modern Gothic stone-built structure, erected at the beginning of the 19th century, the foundation stone having been laid in 1820 and the consecration having taken place in 1826. The architect was John Palmer, (fn. 52) and considering the period at which it was built the design, which follows more or less the style of the 14th century, is not without merit. The building stands on the site of the old grammar school. The former church, which stood more to the north, (fn. 53) seems to have been a building originally of the 14th century, but much altered and renovated in the 16th. (fn. 54) A drawing from the south-east made by the Rev. S. J. Allen a few years before the demolition of the structure shows it to have consisted of a long chancel with north and south chapels, nave with south (and presumably north) aisle, south porch and west tower. The roofs of the chancel and nave had overhanging eaves, and the clearstory windows (six to the chancel and seven to the nave) were square-headed and of two lights. The east window was of four lights with tracery under a pointed head. The tower had an embattled parapet and short spire, and the walls of the chapel south of the chancel, known as the Walmesley chapel, (fn. 55) were also embattled. The north chapel belonged to the family of Osbaldeston of Osbaldeston, and was used as a private oratory and mortuary. A list of the principal monuments in these two chapels has been preserved. (fn. 56) The church probably took the place in the 14th century of a still older building, some of the materials of which were used in its erection; fragments of them, described as 'portions of arcuated stones with dog-tooth ornaments, the remains of a doorway, and sculptured Norman capitals,' were brought to light in 1820 when the fabric was demolished. (fn. 57) Whilst the new church was building a portion of the east end of the old church was left standing and used for baptisms, marriages and funerals. (fn. 58) The old tower stood in the churchyard till 1870. (fn. 59)

The present building consists of a short chancel with north and south vestries, nave with north and south aisles and west tower with north and south porches having stairways to the galleries. (fn. 60) The tower has a pierced parapet with angle pinnacles and the walls of both nave and aisles are embattled. The nave consists of six bays, the easternmost of which is now used as part of the chancel, the original chancel being little more than a recessed portion of the nave flanked by nine shafts receding towards the east window and carrying a similarly constructed pointed arch of nine orders. There are side galleries and the organ is in a separate gallery at the west end. In 1831, the roof being destroyed by fire, a reconstruction was necessary. The church was renovated and reseated in 1875, and a further renovation took place in 1905.

In the west porch, under the tower, are eight oak quire stalls from the old church with carved misericordes. Two of these have good leaf patterns, and the others represent an ape hunt, the fox preaching to geese, the temptation of Adam and Eve and the emblems of three of the evangelists—SS. Matthew, Mark and Luke. (fn. 61) In the galleries are preserved a number of old oak benches with shaped ends.

There is a ring of ten bells, six by Abel Rudhall of Gloucester, cast in 1737 from a former ring of five, (fn. 62) and four by Mears & Co., 1852. The tenor bell, being cracked, was recast in 1747. The curfew bell used to be rung at 8 p.m. (fn. 63)

The church plate consists of a chalice of 1630, with the inscription 'Ex dono Thome Smithe 1630'; another chalice, inscribed 'Ex dono Ed. Gellibrand. Dat. in us. Eclie Blackborne. Ano Dni. 1645'; a cylindrical cup, inscribed 'Ex dono Edwardi et Roberti Bolton Dat: Eclis: Blackburne. Anō. D[omi]ni 1653'; a breadholder of 1685–6, inscribed on foot '1686. Ad usum Eccl. de Blackburn in Com. Lancastriae. Ex dono Thurstani Maudsley de Ousbough'; another chalice without inscription but ornamented all over the bowl with arabesque chasing; a flagon of 1764–5, inscribed 'God knows who gave this'; a breadholder of 1807, and a modern Gothic chalice. There are also two small plated patens.

The registers begin connectedly in 1600, but there are a few detached entries for the year 1568. There is a gap between 1637 and 1651, but from this date onward the entries are continuous to the present time.

Advowson

In 1066 the church of Blackburn had an endowment of 2 oxgangs of land. (fn. 64) The lords of the manor, according to the tradition of Whalley, recorded at the beginning of the 14th century, then held the rectory also, this descending by hereditary right; these rectors would have to nominate priests to serve the church. (fn. 65) About 1170 more accurate testimony begins, but it is far from satisfactory. At that time Henry de Lacy, lord of Clitheroe, held the patronage of Blackburn Church, and granted the church in its integrity, viz. with the chapel of Walton and all rights and liberties, to Henry the clerk of Blackburn. (fn. 66) This was probably an innovation, though in what manner does not appear, for the new rector judged it necessary to obtain confirmation not only from the Bishop of Lichfield, (fn. 67) but also from the Archbishop of Canterbury. (fn. 68) In spite of the declaration as to the 'integrity' of the grant, Henry de Blackburn may have had but a mediety of the church, for Robert de Lacy, who died in 1193, granted to his clerk Adam de Blackburn that mediety of the church which Richard, his predecessor (antecessor), had held together with the benefice in the church of Whalley which belonged to Blackburn. (fn. 69) The 'benefice' refers to a fourth part of the revenues of the rectory of Whalley, which had been conferred on Blackburn.

The church thus appears to have been held in medieties from far back in the 12th century. In one place three rectors are named—Henry, Roger and Adam—but that is perhaps a mistake of copying. (fn. 70) The matter is involved in much confusion, owing to the similarity of names in undated charters, but the probability is that Henry was succeeded in his mediety by a son Adam, who is named as its holder about 1230 and as a recent holder about 1238 (fn. 71) ; while the former Adam was succeeded in his mediety by a son Roger, which Roger is likewise named as a late holder about 1238. (fn. 72) A local charter, which may be dated about 1213, was attested by Roger and Adam, rectors of Blackburn, (fn. 73) and somewhat later occurs Henry rector of Blackburn, (fn. 74) but it is difficult to see how he comes in.

These family arrangements probably offended the conscience of the time. Surrenders were made, and in 1238 both medieties were granted by John de Lacy to the monks of Stanlaw, so far as a layman could grant them, (fn. 75) and his son Edmund in 1251 confirmed the mediety formerly held by Roger de Blackburn. (fn. 76) With the latter mediety a moiety of the manor appears to have been joined, so that from that time the rectory has had half the manor. (fn. 77) Confirmations were obtained from the Bishops of Lichfield (fn. 78) and Pope Alexander IV in 1259–61, (fn. 79) and the abbey of Whalley remained in possession till the Suppression in 1536. The value in 1291 was £33 6s. 8d. (fn. 80) ; the ninth of sheaves was worth 2s. 3d. more in 1341 (fn. 81) ; in 1478 £89 16s. 9d. was received, (fn. 82) and in 1521 the value was £133 1s. (fn. 83) ; but in 1535 the rectory was returned as worth only £74 6s. 8d., out of which £10 13s. 4d. was paid to the vicar. (fn. 84)

The rectory was vested in the Crown till 1547, when by exchange it was granted to the Archbishop of Canterbury, (fn. 85) from whom it was held on lease by various farmers; of these the chief were the Fleetwoods in the 17th century and the Feildens later. (fn. 86) Surveys were made from time to time, (fn. 87) and Archbishop Sancroft, finding that the chapels of ease were badly served owing to the trifling stipends appropriated to them, purchased lands in Thornley, the rents of which he gave to the curates in 1688. (fn. 88) In 1853 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners obtained possession of the rectory estates, then called Audley and Brookhouse. (fn. 89) Some of the lands had been sold before this time, and further sales have since been made. Audley Hall, the seat of the rectory, was allowed to fall into decay. (fn. 90)

A vicarage was ordained when the rectory was appropriated to Stanlaw Abbey in 1259–60, (fn. 91) and in 1277 the Bishop of Lichfield decreed an augmentation; the vicar was to have a suitable dwelling-house, 2 oxgangs of land—the ancient endowment of the church—and a stipend of 40 marks. (fn. 92) The vicars afterwards complained that this allowance was too small, considering the due maintenance of hospitality and other burdens; but in 1289 William de Lench, who had threatened to appeal to Canterbury and to Rome, agreed to withdraw all claims in consideration of the benefits the monks had bestowed on him. (fn. 93) In 1535 the vicar's stipend, as above stated, was £10 13s. 4d., but it was reduced by various charges to £8 1s. 6d. (fn. 94) Afterwards the normal pension of £26 13s. 4d. was paid. In addition the vicar had the vicarage-house and 30 acres of land worth £20 a year in 1650, and other tenements then yielding £2 16s. 10d. of old rent. (fn. 95) The Committee of Plundered Ministers in 1649 granted an augmentation of £50 a year out of the Bishop of Chester's sequestered rectory of Bolton. (fn. 96) In 1651 a further grant of £50 was made to provide a weekly lecture at Blackburn, Mr. Michael Briscoe, a godly minister, being appointed. (fn. 97) These additions would cease at the Restoration, but Archbishop Juxon gave the vicar an additional £70 a year. (fn. 98) The income was about £150 a year in 1717. (fn. 99) An Act of Parliament obtained in 1796 enabled the vicars to grant leases of the glebe lands, which, being in the centre of the town, were desirable building sites. (fn. 100) At that time the value of the benefice was only £275 a year; the net value is now £1,452. (fn. 101)

The Abbot and convent of Whalley as rectors used to appoint the vicars, who were later appointed by the Archbishops of Canterbury. The patronage was in 1859 transferred to the Bishop of Manchester, (fn. 102) in whom it is now vested.

The following is a list of the vicars:—

InstitutedNamePatronCause of Vacancy
? 1260John de Habindon (fn. 103)
oc. 1289William de Lench (fn. 104)
16 June 1317Adam de Wallbank (fn. 105) Whalley Abbeyd. W. de Lench
6 July 1320Simon de Chester (fn. 106) "
26 May 1328John de Gresthwaite (fn. 107) "d. Simon
15 Oct. 1362John de Lindley (fn. 108)
27 Oct. 1369William de Wetherby (fn. 109) Whalley Abbeyd. J. de Lindley
3 June 1419Geoffrey Banastre, J.U.B. (fn. 110) "
8 Oct. 1458Bro. Robert Salley (fn. 111) "d. G. Banastre
16 Dec. 1489Bro. Henry Salley (fn. 112) "d. R. Salley
12 Mar. 1535–6Randle Linney (fn. 113) "res. H. Salley
24 Oct. 1555James Hargreaves (fn. 114) King and Queenres. R. Linney
18 June 1562John Hulton, B.D. (fn. 115) Abp. of Canterburydepr. J. Hargreaves
10 Nov. 1580Edward Walsh (fn. 116) "res. J. Hulton
23 Feb. 1606–7John Morres, M.A. (fn. 117) ["][depr. E. Walsh]
20 June 1628Adam Bolton, B.A. (fn. 118) "d. J. Morres
— May 1647Leonard Clayton, M.A. (fn. 119) Election of the people The Kingd. last incumbent
6 Nov. 1662
5 Dec. 1677Francis Price, B.A. (fn. 120) Abp. of Canterbury d. L. Clayton
The King
30 Apr. 1706John Holme (fn. 121) Abp. of Canterburyd. F. Price
25 Aug. 1738John Potter, M.A. (fn. 122) "d. J. Holme
16 Aug. 1742John Woollin, B.D. (fn. 123) "res. J. Potter
7 Aug. 1772John White, B.A. (fn. 124) "d. J. Woollin
27 Nov. 1780Thomas Starkie, M.A. (fn. 125) "d. J. White
12 May 1813
7 Nov. 1818Thomas Dunham Whitaker, D.D. (fn. 126) "d. T. Starkie
16 Feb. 1822John William Whittaker, D.D. (fn. 127) "d. T. D. Whitaker
9 Aug. 1854John Rushton, D.D. (fn. 128) Bp. of Manchesterd. J. W. Whittaker
2 Apr. 1868Edward Birch, M.A. (fn. 129) "d. J. Rushton
— Mar. 1887Francis Alexander Randal Cramer-Roberts, D.D. (fn. 130) "d. E. Birch
13 Apr. 1901Samuel Thornton, D.D. (fn. 131) "d. Bp. Cramer-Roberts
1910Thomas Rawlinson Sale, M.A."res. Bp. Thornton

The earlier vicars are unknown men, and it will be noticed that the monks of Whalley appointed members of their own body in the century before the Reformation and seem to have paid a much lower stipend than was due. Randle Linney's sympathy with the Pilgrimage of Grace does not seem to have led to any penalty, and he remained vicar all through the time of Edward VI, though he was induced or compelled to resign in 1555. The proper service of the church, chantries and chapels of ease would require a large staff of priests, and the list of 1541–2 affords six names in addition to the vicar and cantarists, two being paid by the vicar and others by neighbouring landowners. (fn. 132) The visitation list of 1548 gives the vicar and thirteen others, three being marked mortuus by the registrar, two (or three) at Harwood and three (or two) at Walton-le-Dale, giving a staff of fifteen at least. (fn. 133) The confiscation of the chantries and the religious changes of the time naturally led to a considerable reduction, but in 1554 there were left at Blackburn the vicar and six others, at Harwood one (or two), and at Walton three (or four). The Roman Catholic revival, probably led by the new vicar, James Hargreaves, caused the erection or repair of chapels at Langho, Samlesbury and perhaps Darwen.

Hargreaves does not seem to have refused to appear before the queen's commissioners in 1559, but he soon made up his mind and in 1561 or early in 1562 he was deprived of his benefice (fn. 134) and spent the rest of his life in ministering in secret to those who remained constant to the old religion, (fn. 135) or in prison; it is supposed that he died in Salford gaol about 1584. (fn. 136) The visitation record of 1562 is defective for Blackburn and Harwood, but at Walton the old curate kept his place, (fn. 137) subscribing to the queen's supremacy in 1563, together with a new curate of Blackburn and the old curate of Harwood. (fn. 138) These with the vicar probably constituted the clerical staff that year as for long afterwards. (fn. 139) It is obvious that four ministers could do little to serve the large parish, and it is probable that the new statutory services were maintained fully at the parish church only, the chapels being visited in turn. Pilkington, Bishop of Durham, has provided a description of the state of things about 1564. Writing to the Archbishop of Canterbury, he says:—

Among many other things that be amiss here in your great cures ye shall understand that in Blackburn there is a fantastical (and as some think a lunatic) young man which says he has spoken with one of his neighbours that died four years since or more. Divers times he says he has seen him and talked with him and took with him the curate, the schoolmaster and other neighbours, which all affirm that they see him too. . . . It is too lamentable to see and hear how negligently they say any service there and how seldom. . . . The old vicar of Blackburn, Roger [Randle] Linney, resigned for a pension and now [liveth with Sir John Byron]. (fn. 140)

The lack of suitable ministers at the time is strikingly shown by the failure of a man like Archbishop Parker to place one at Blackburn. The vicars as a rule appear to have resided in the town. (fn. 141) Little is known of the story for some time, but in 1580 Hulton was induced or compelled to resign (fn. 142) and a strong Puritan was presented to the vicarage, (fn. 143) who refused to wear the surplice and was at last deprived in 1606. (fn. 144) From the later history he had probably the full sympathy of the Protestant population of the parish. His successor was more compliant, but in 1611 was censured for not wearing a hood and for receiving persons of other parishes to the communion at his church. (fn. 145) The next vicar's tendencies are shown by his acceptance of the Presbyterian discipline in 1646, when Blackburn became the head of a classis embracing the parishes in the hundred. (fn. 146) During the Commonwealth the various chapelries were fully served, stipends being provided out of royalist or episcopal sequestrations, but on the Restoration the old neglect returned. (fn. 147) This led to curious incidents in 1687, the chapel at Darwen being seized by the Protestant Nonconformists and that at Langho by the Roman Catholics. The vicar recovered possession, but appears to have taken more care afterwards for the serving of them, though it was not for a long time that each of the chapels of ease had its own curate. (fn. 148) The first additional church was built in 1789 in Blackburn, and since then with the growth of population church-building has gone on rapidly, both in renewing the old and in providing fresh places of worship. Most of the later vicars have been men of some distinction.

A Blackburn archdeaconry was formed in 1877 out of the archdeaconry of Manchester. (fn. 149)

Before the Reformation there were two endowed chantries in the parish church. A chapel of St. John Baptist 'le Soth' is named in the will of Henry Rishton of Dunkenhalgh, 1427; he desired to be buried there under his father's tomb. (fn. 150) The earlier of the chantries was founded at the high altar in 1454 by Geoffrey Banastre, then vicar, and in 1547 the incumbent, William Rishton, was celebrating according to his foundation statutes. His stipend of £4 13s. 4d. was derived from a charge on the rectory of Preston. (fn. 151) The second chantry was founded in 1514 by the Earl of Derby and the parishioners at St. Mary's altar in the south aisle of the church. The chaplain was to celebrate for the souls of the founders and others, 'to maintain the one side of the choir to the uttermost of his power every holy day,' and to keep a free grammar school or song school. Thomas Burgess was incumbent in 1547 and duly fulfilling his trust. His clear income was £5 8s. 8d., derived from lands in Burnley and elsewhere. (fn. 152) About the same time there was a 'rood service' before the principal crucifix in the church, lands in Ribchester being assigned for its maintenance in 1516–17. (fn. 153)

The grammar school is traced back to the chantry of 1514; it was refounded in 1567. (fn. 154)

Charities

Official inquiries were made concerning the charities in 1826 and 1904, but on the latter occasion the county borough of Blackburn was excluded. (fn. 155) The following details are taken from the reports:—

For the whole parish, apart from the school, there are few endowments. An ancient poor's stock of £30 and a gift of £2 from Widow Duckworth for bread on Good Friday for poor communicants, both existing in 1826, have been lost since. A gift of £10 for books, made by Vicar Woollin, has been lost or merged in Sarah Livesey's charity. This lady left £100 for binding poor children of Blackburn, Livesey and Pleasington to be apprentices. This form of charity having become useless, the income (£28) is, under a scheme made in 1887, devoted to providing 'Livesey exhibitions' tenable at higher-grade schools. Miss Nancy Derbyshire in 1893 founded six almshouses, building them and providing an income of about £220. There are twelve inmates, to be chosen from poor or infirm persons residing within 7 miles. An allowance of 4s. or 6s. a week is made to each; any surplus income is spent on out-pensions. The persons chosen are usually aged widows.

In 1826 the township of Blackburn had various benefactions for the poor invested in the purchase of estates called Lang House in Yate Bank and Southworth Green Farm in Mellor; the gross income was £64, out of which a distribution of money and blankets was made to the poor on New Year's Day. The vicar and two others were the trustees, and the estates were called the Poor's Lands. There was also a girls' charity school, founded by William Leyland in 1763. There were no endowments for Little Harwood, Ramsgreave, Witton and Clayton-le-Dale. At Pleasington there was a school; the township now shares in the Livesey exhibitions and has a small additional school endowment. At Salesbury Lady Bulkeley in 1823 left £500 for the poor; under a scheme of 1876 one moiety of the income (over £15 in all) was to be given in scholarships for poor children and the other moiety in various forms of relief, but most of the money continued to be given in money doles. At Mellor 7s. 6d. is given yearly to two aged widows, apparently from a gift by Thomas Guest in 1830. Miss Nancy Hargreaves left £1,000 for the poor; the interest (£31 10s.) is distributed by the vicar and churchwardens in money as occasion requires. There is an endowment for the Wesleyan chapel.

The charities belonging to the other townships are described under the several chapelries.

Footnotes

1 Ordnance Surv. 1848; but 48,259 acres, of which 730 are inland water, according to Census Rep. 1901.
2 Watkin, Roman Lancs. 202–5.
3 Abram, Blackburn, 27.
4 Ibid. 30.
5 Cal. Pat. 1321–4, p. 343, &c.
6 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xii (1), 7.
7 None of the earlier Protestants of distinction came from it, but a missionary priest, the Ven. William Thomson alias Blackburn, executed by Elizabeth, was a native. He was born probably about 1560, educated at Rheims and sent to England. After labouring a short time in the mission he was captured and executed for his priesthood at Tyburn, 20 Apr. 1586. The cause of his beatification was allowed to be introduced at Rome in 1886; Pollen, Acts of Martyrs, 379; Stanton, Menology, 171. His contemporary Edward Osbaldeston of Osbaldeston suffered similarly at York in 1594.
8 Abram, Blackburn, 78; a list of 1576 is printed, the principal being Sir John Southworth of Samlesbury and John Talbot of Salesbury.
9 See the account of the parish church.
10 Robert Bolton, the Puritan divine, born 1572, may have been one of his disciples.
11 Two are named in a list of 1586; Abram, op. cit. 82.
In 1591 it was reported that no house in the county was worse than that of Mr. Yates, the schoolmaster of Blackburn, his wife, daughter and maid being recusants; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1591–4, p. 150.
12 In 1587 there was a dearth of corn; ibid. 1581–90, p. 407.
13 His second visit was in 1603; Brit. (ed. 1695), 750. He found little to interest him, and just mentions Blackburn (a market town) and Walton-leDale as standing on the Darwen; ibid. 752.
14 Abram, op. cit. 88.
15 Ibid. 96.
16 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 97, 99. In 1631 the plague was prevalent in the neighbourhood, but the town of Blackburn remained free; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 48.
17 In 1629 and a little later the following compounded for the two-thirds of their estates liable to sequestration for recusancy, paying the annual fines appended: Billington — Elizabeth Speke, £2 13s. 4d.; Thomas Winckley, £4; Thomas Hothersall, £5 10s.; Harwood— Thomas Hesketh the elder, £2; Robert Squire, £2; Rishton—Katherine Rishton, £3 6s. 8d.; Walton—Robert Langton, £2; Thomas Osbaldeston, £6 16s.; Wilpshire — John Talbot of Carr, £6 13s. 4d.; Witton—Henry Fielden, £4. Ewan Berry of Rishton had conformed; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxiv, 174.
18 War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc.), 17.
19 Ibid. 12.
20 Ibid. 21; Sir Gilbert marched from Preston on 24 Dec. to Mellor Lane head, on the north side of the town, and during the night and next day played upon it with a small piece of ordnance; no noteworthy damage seems to have been done on either side, the Royalists retiring without having come nearer than ¼ mile from the town. The Parliamentary garrison consisted of 400 of the militia; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 126.
21 Ibid. 70. Sir John is described as 'a great Papist, but one that hath all this while stood as a neuter betwixt the king and Parliament.'
22 Ibid. 96, 132.
23 Abram, op. cit. 146, quoting Dugdale, Short View of the late Troubles, 195.
24 War in Lancs. 55; some prisoners were brought to Blackburn.
25 Ibid. 65.
26 Some of the cases are more particularly noticed in the accounts of the several townships, as those of John Southworth of Samlesbury, Sir John Talbot of Samlesbury, and Edward Walmsley of Banastre Hall.
In Blackburn itself the only case was that of Richard Hoghton, who in 1649 was allowed to compound for his 'delinquency' in assisting the king's forces in 'the first engagement,' he having submitted long since. His fine was £60; Cal. Com. for Comp. iii, 1883; v, 3289.
The other sequestrations were, with scarcely an exception, in the northern townships along the Ribble bank. Ralph Shorrock of Walton, while a servant to Sir Gilbert Hoghton, took part in the attack on Blackburn in 1642, but afterwards 'lived peaceably' and took the National Covenant; he compounded in 1646 for £60; ibid. ii, 1493. Thomas Blacoe of Roacher in Samlesbury had his messuage sequestered for delinquency, and it so remained at his death in or before 1655; ibid. 3237. Thomas Sowerbutts and Hugh Welchman were two other Samlesbury delinquents; the former's estate was declared forfeit and sold; ibid. iv, 3075; iii, 2043; Index of Royalists (Index Soc.), 44. Two other estates in the neighbourhood were also forfeited, those of Lawrence Park of Cuerdale and James Ward of Osbaldeston; ibid. 41.
William Radcliffe of Balderston compounded in 1649 for a fine of £15; Cal. Com. for Comp. iii, 2056. William Winckley of Billington, 'for delinquency in the first war,' compounded in 1651 for £26; ibid. iv, 2722. Three others of the same township forfeited their estates: John Barker of Southwell, who lost Weetley House, having been in Newark at its surrender; Robert Foole or Fowle (deceased), whose widow Janet in 1652 was a recusant; and Robert Craven; ibid. ii, 1389; iv, 3025, 3131; Index of Royalists, 41, 42. Craven was allowed to compound for a small fine.
27 These were almost all in the district above defined, where sequestrations took place for taking the king's side in the war. At Walton-le-Dale there were a number of cases: John Ainscoe alias Martin (dead), Thomas Baldwin, Anne Blackburn (died about 1647), William Blackburn, Evan Catterall, Elizabeth Dowson and Thomas Walton; Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, v. The case of William Blackburn is the only one needing further notice. He complained in 1652 that his estate had been wrongly seized, but afterwards confessed that he had been a recusant, but having been 'brought to see his errors, frequented church and took the oath of abjuration'; ibid. iv, 3059.
Henry Wright of Samlesbury having died, his heirs in 1651 petitioned for the two-thirds of the estate sequestered for his recusancy. 'Being conformable' it was allowed them on their taking the oath of abjuration; ibid. iv, 2847. The daughters of Roger Smalley in Balderston and Robert Sharples (deceased) of the same place had suffered for the same reason; ibid. v, 3199, 3219. The recusancy of John Shaw, an assignee, caused the sequestration of Sharples House in Osbaldeston before 1652; ibid. iv, 3013. John Cross in 1652 complained that his small estate in Mellor and Showley, inherited from his father, had been sequestered about 1645, when he was only ten years old, 'on pretence that he was educated in Popery'; in 1652, being seventeen, he took the oath of adjuration, and the tenement was restored to him; ibid. iv, 3041. Robert Catterall of Clayton-le-Dale desired to compound for his sequestered two-thirds in 1653; ibid. iv, 3174. Alexander Bleasdale (deceased) had two-thirds sequestered, his sister and her husband desiring discharge in 1655; ibid. v, 3236. Robert Squire of Great Harwood in 1654 asked to be allowed to contract for the two-thirds sequestered. There had been a dispute, for this part had been granted by the authorities to Robert Feilden on lease, and he had complained that the division made was unfair to him; ibid. iv, 3128.
28 William Knight of Samlesbury; ibid. ii, 1541.
29 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 23. The following are the details: Blackburn, £2 9s. 6¾d.; Balderston, 12s. 9d.; Billington, £1 18s. 11¼d.; Clayton-leDale, £1 5s. 5¾d.; Cuerdale, £1 4s. 5d.; Over Darwen, £1 9s. 8¾d.; Lower Darwen, £1 1s. 11¼d.; Great Harwood, £2 8s. 10¼d.; Little Harwood, 14s. 10½d.; Livesey and Tockholes, £1 18s. 3d.; Mellor with Eccleshill, £1 5s. 5¾d.; Osbaldeston, 9s. 11d.; Pleasington, £1 3s. 4½d.; Rishton, £1 5s. 5¾d.; Salesbury, 12s. 9d.; Samlesbury, £4 7s. 9½d.; Walton-le-Dale, £3 19s. 3½d.; Wilpshire and Dinckley, 17s.; Witton, 13s. 9d.
30 Act 8 Eliz. cap. 12.
31 Abram, op. cit. 201.
32 Ibid.
33 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 91; they ceased during the winter.
34 Lay Subs. Lancs. bdle. 250, no. 9.
35 Great Harwood.
36 Abram, op. cit. 195. A party of raiders from Preston is said to have made its way as far as Darwen.
37 Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 100. In the same work will be found details regarding the following who registered: Balderston—John Wilcock, John Jackson of Preston, John Alker, Alexander Osbaldeston of Sunderland, William Harrison, John Gregson, Catherine Gregson, Henry Darwen; Billington—Anne Blackburn, Richard Craven, John Rowbotham of Bloomsbury, Thomas Bolton of Ribchester; Clayton-le-Dale— John Jackson, Thomas Riding; Cuerdale —Richard Coope, Edward Osbaldeston; Dinckley—Richard Almond, Richard Craven; Great Harwood—Richard Cunliffe; Osbaldeston—Richard Osbaldeston of Wilpshire, Richard Wilson; Rishton— Elizabeth Duckworth; Salesbury—Elizabeth Bolton; Samlesbury—Robert Brindle, James and Margaret Turner, Hugh Walmsley, William Gregson, Thomas High, John and William Moulden, Anne Cocker, Hugh Heatley, Anne Hoole; Walton-le-Dale—George Connell, John Gerard, Edmund Eastham, James Cowpe Thomas Catterall, John Sherington, James and John Woodcock, William Oram, John Burscough, Matthew Worthington, John Adkinson of Cuerdale, Evan Darwen, John Jackson, George Gregson; Wilpshire—James Catterall.
38 Abram, op. cit. 200.
39 Ibid. 211, 230.
40 Pennant, Tour to Alston Moor, 65–7. The congregation of the parish church consisted of about 2,000. The alum mines were not then worked.
41 Aikin, Country round Manch. 270–3.
42 Abram, op. cit. 298.
43 Ibid. 237. A list of bills 1776–97 is given; ibid. 241.
44 Ibid. 243; the section from Blackburn to Wigan was the last to be constructed.
45 Ibid. 244; the line was extended from Blackburn to Accrington in 1848. Another railway, from Blackburn to Darwen and Bolton, was opened in 1847–8, and was extended to Clitheroe and Yorkshire. A line from Blackburn to Chorley was opened in 1869.
46 Ibid. 205. There was another disturbance in 1779; ibid. 217.
47 Abram, Blackburn Characters, 19.
48 Ibid. Blackburn, 233. It was a time of acute distress, and some relief work was provided by cutting a road through the rock on the summit of Revidge Hill.
49 Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 79.
50 Abram, op. cit. 236.
51 Adam son of Gilbert de Salesbury early in the 13th century gave a rood of land by Healey Spring in Salesbury to God and the Blessed Mary of Blackburn for the souls of his ancestors; Towneley MS. RR, no. 297.
John de Blackburn again in 1321 left 4 lb. of wax a year for two torches to be lighted at the high altar of St. Mary of Blackburn at the time of the Elevation; Whalley Couch. iv, 1168.
Peter Chorley of London in 1464 left 6s. 8d. to the church of the Blessed Mary of Blackburn: Kuerden MSS. iv, C 10b.
52 Palmer was also architect for various restorations at Manchester Cathedral (then Collegiate Church) in the early years of the last century. As a Gothicist he was in advance of his time.
53 'The site of the old church was but a few paces in the rear of the houses on the south side of Church Street'; Abram, Hist. of Blackburn, 302.
54 'The church of the time of Edward III had become impaired with age in the reign of Henry VIII, when by the overturn of the monastery to which it was attached it passed under new authority, and shortly after that change, about 1540, the upper portion of the church walls and the roof were extensively renovated. The nave and chancel were covered with handsome roofs of timber with transverse beams and panelled compartments and the tracery and moulded heads of some of the windows were replaced. With these new features the main structure of the former church was retained and lasted until the final demolition of the ancient fabric;' Abram, op. cit. 301.
55 Ibid. 305. Originally the chantry of Our Lady.
56 Ibid. 308–10. Pennant (Tour from Downing to Alston Moor, 66–7) in 1773 mentions the monuments in the Osbaldeston chapel. There were two brasses, one to Sir Edward Osbaldeston, 'a charitable, courteous and valiant knight,' died 1636, and another to a member of the same family, died 1689.
57 Abram, op. cit. 301.
58 Burnett, Blackburn Parish Church, 44.
59 Abram, op. cit. 306.
60 The internal dimensions are: chancel 11 ft. long, nave 103 ft. by 28 ft., aisles 19 ft. wide, tower 15 ft. square. The height of the tower to parapet is 86 ft. and to the top of pinnacles 112 ft.; ibid. 308.
61 The stalls were restored in 1906, but the carvings were not interfered with. They are described at length in Burnett, op. cit. 212.
62 There were five bells after 1690. Originally there was a ring of six with Latin inscription (given in Abram, op. cit. 308). The inscriptions on the existing six older bells are: (1) 'When we ring we merrily sing'; (2) 'Peace and good neighbourhood'; (3) 'May the Church of England ever flourish'; (4) 'We were all cast at Gloucester by Abel Rudhall, 1737'; (5) 'The Rev. John Holme, vicar'; (6, tenor) 'Thomas Martin, John Cross, Henry Drewitt, Robert Whitacre, churchwardens, 1747.' These bells remained in the old tower till 1832. Of the later bells the fourth is a memorial with the inscription: 'John Turner Hopwood, Esq., Barrister-at-law, Rockliffe House, Blackburn, March 2nd, 1849.'
63 N. and Q. (ser. 4), vi, 525.
64 V.C.H. Lancs. i, 286b.
65 Whalley Couch. i, 187–8. An old list gives Adam as rector, then John his son, then the Henry of the text, without parentage named; Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 310.
66 Whalley Couch. i, 75. Henry de Lacy (d. 1177) also included 'a certain benefice in the church of Whalley' which his predecessors had granted to Blackburn Church, and which John, a previous rector, had had. Charles, Abbot of Stanlaw, gave Uctred, clerk of Whalley, the plot of land in Whalley belonging to the church of Blackburn; that, namely, which Henry de Blackburn had held before the abbey of Stanlaw had acquired a mediety of the said church; Kuerden MSS. iii, W 20.
The above-named John may have been the John, clerk of Blackburn, tenant of land in Bolton in Bowland, which he granted to Adam son of Henry de Blackburn; Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 528.
It will be noticed that Henry de Blackburn was a 'clerk,' and therefore capable of holding an ecclesiastical benefice. It appears that he was or had been married, for Gilbert and Adam sons of Henry the rector of Blackburn attested deeds to which Henry himself was a witness; Whalley Couch. 296, 1069. Adam seems to have succeeded his father without difficulty, so that his legitimacy may be presumed. Gilbert is supposed to be the ancestor of the Rishton family.
67 Ibid. i, 78. Gamaliel and Gilbert are here named as predecessors in the rectory.
68 Ibid. i, 79. Archbishop Richard followed St. Thomas in 1174, so that the date of the grant to Henry lies between 1174 and 1177.
69 Ibid. 76. Adam de Blackburn attested an ecclesiastical charter in 1193; Roper, Lanc. Ch. (Chet. Soc.), i, 111. His antecessor was probably the Richard clerk of Blackburn who with Orm Dean of Whalley attested an early Sawley charter, circa 1146; Towneley MS. 'Fountains, Whalley, Sawley' (in possession of W. Farrer), p. 684. Henry de Blackburn might have divided his rectory soon after receiving it, but, if the suggested identification be correct, its date shows that Richard's tenure was earlier than that of Henry de Blackburn. Hence the partition of the rectory was earlier.
70 Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 6b.
71 Whalley Couch. i, 73–4. He gave up the chapel of Walton-le-Dale to the monks of Stanlaw; ibid. 83. This had been part of the grant to Henry de Blackburn.
Henry and Roger, co-rectors of Blackburn, attested a grant by Adam de Salesbury quoted above; Towneley MS. RR, no. 297.
In proof of the descents in the text are alleged undated charters to which in one case the witnesses included Henry rector of Blackburn and Gilbert his son, Adam rector of Blackburn and Roger his son, and in another case Henry rector of Blackburn and Adam his son; ibid. DD, no. 1953, 1968.
72 Whalley Couch. i, 74. Adam, Richard, William and Roger, sons of Roger the rector of Blackburn, were in 1246 presented for having burned the Abbot of Stanlaw's grange at Staining; Assize R. 404, m. 21.
73 Whalley Couch. iv, 1071.
74 Ibid. 1073. The charter refers to the 'sixth year after the interdict of England ' as some time past. This lasted from 1208 to 1214.
75 He granted first the mediety which Adam son of Henry held by two charters (as above) before and after Adam's death or resignation about 1235; ibid. 73–4. He afterwards granted the mediety which Roger son of Adam had held, desiring to be buried at Stanlaw; ibid. 74.
Richard de Hulton released to John de Lacy all his claim in one mediety (probably that of Adam); ibid. 89.
76 Ibid. 77. He also wished to be buried at Stanlaw.
77 This is not clear from the grants recorded in the Coucher, but appears from later accounts. The rectory glebe afterwards amounted to about 500 customary acres, increased by allotment from the waste in 1618 to 731 acres; Abram, op. cit. 275.
78 Bishop Alexander de Stavenby in 1230, and again in 1239, confirmed one mediety, which was that previously held by Adam; Whalley Couch. i, 82, 78. Bishop Roger de Meuland in 1259; ibid. 80. The consents of the chapter of Lichfield and the convent of Coventry were also secured; ibid. 81–3.
79 Ibid. 171–2. From these confirmations it may be gathered that the rector of the first mediety died about 1236, his place being taken by a chaplain, and the rector of the second about 1259, when a vicarage was ordained.
On the other hand, one mediety was said to be vacant in 1242, when the king as guardian of the Lacy estates presented Martin de Littlebury; Cal. Pat. 1232–47, p. 269.
80 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 249.
81 Inq. Nonarum (Rec. Com.), 38. The townships contributed thus: Blackburn, 28s. 8d.; Walton, £6 11s. 6d.; Cuerdale, 26s. 6d.; Samlesbury, £5 7s. 6d.; Balderston, 43s.; Osbaldeston, 28s. 8d.; Clayton, 21s. 6d.; Salesbury, 10s. 9d.; Dinckley with Wilpshire, 28s. 11d.; Great Harwood, 32s. 2d.; Rishton, 21s. 6d.; Little Harwood, 13s. 4d.; Mellor with Eccleshill, 24s. 10d.; Livesey, 28s. 8d.; Pleasington, 7s. 8d.; Witton, 7s. 2d.; Over Darwen, 17s.; Billington, 57s. 4d.; Nether Darwen, 32s. 4d. This should amount to £33 8s. 11d., but is 1d. more. There were no merchants or others liable to contribute the fifteenth of their goods.
82 Abram, op. cit. 273.
83 Ibid.
84 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 229; the rents of glebe lands came to £10, the tithe corn and hay produced £44, other tithes £4, oblations and Easter Roll £16 6s. 8d. The vicar's proper pension was £26 13s. 4d. and this was paid in 1538; Abram, loc. cit.
85 Pat. 1 Edw. VI, pt. ii.
86 Abram, op. cit. 275, 284.
87 About 1536; Whalley Couch. iv, 1222–4. In 1616, 1650, 1684; Abram, op. cit. 275–8.
88 Ibid. 279–82. There is an account of this and other ecclesiastical charities in the End. Char. Rep. for Blackburn, 1904.
89 Capt. Feilden of Witton Park is the present lay rector.
90 Abram, op. cit. 284–5.
91 This appears by a decree of Alexander IV in 1261; Whalley Couch. i, 173.
92 Ibid. 85. Confirmations were obtained from the convent of Coventry and the chapter of Lichfield (ibid. 86–7); also from the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1280 (ibid. 88).
93 Ibid. 96–8.
94 Valor Eccl. v, 230; he paid 8s. 10d. to the Bishop of Chester, 23s. to the archdeacon for synodals and procurations and 20s. as rent.
In 1618 on the division of the waste the vicar received an addition of 22 acres to the glebe; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 276.
95 The list is given in Abram, op. cit. 288.
96 Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 159; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 70. The augmentation does not seem to have been paid till 1656; ibid. ii, 116 129, 289.
97 Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 96, 116, 234. The stipend was provided out of the sequestered estates of Sir Thomas Tyldesley and Lord Morley and then out of the rectory of Blackburn. Briscoe held the lectureship till the Restoration; he was also minister of Walmesley in Bolton.
98 Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 275. A terrier made in 1663 is printed in Abram, Blackburn, 291. A new vicarage was built in 1680. A list of tenants in 1706 is printed ibid. 293.
99 Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 274. The vicar nominated to all the chapelries. The Osbaldestons, and then the Claytons of Little Harwood, had the right of appointing the parish clerk. The four churchwardens were appointed by Livesey, Osbaldeston, Warren of Dinckley and the rector. There were four assistants.
100 Abram, op. cit. 297.
101 Manch. Dioc. Dir.
102 Lond. Gaz. 5 Aug. 1859. The Bishop of Manchester presented in 1854.
103 Whalley Couch. i, 95.
104 Ibid. 96–7. In 1309 he had the bishop's licence to go on pilgrimage for a year; Lich. Epis. Reg. i, fol. 57.
105 Ibid. fol. 85; he is described as a chaplain.
106 Ibid. fol. 87; a chaplain.
107 Ibid. ii, fol. 104; a priest. This vicar appears a number of times as trustee or otherwise; Whalley Couch. iv, 949, 1034 (1337), 1082 (1342); also Towneley MS. DD, no. 1210 (1349). He is said to have been vicar in 1356.
In 1345, being styled Dean of Blackburnshire, he was accused of having taken fines by extortion; Assize R. 430, m. 28. Lawrence son of John the vicar of Blackburn was charged with assault; ibid. m. 25 d.
108 The date of institution is from Whitaker; Whalley, ii, 312. This vicar has been confused with his namesake, Abbot of Whalley, 1342–77.
109 Lich. Epis. Reg. iv, fol. 85. On 10 Oct. 1387 the bishop granted the vicar licence to absolve his parishioners; ibid. vi, fol. 123. Wetherby's name occurs a number of times in local deeds. In 1404 he was trustee for Thomas Livesey of Feniscowles; Whitaker, loc. cit.
110 Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 152. He is called Geoffrey Hesketh in a deed of 1424–5 in Towneley MS. HH, no. 1712. He occurs in 1425 and 1429; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), ii, 46; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 30.
In 1451 the Bishop of Lichfield sent word to the vicar of Blackburn that he had received the Peter's pence which had been in arrears in Blackburn parish, by the hands of William Starkie and Henry Grimshaw; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1638.
111 Lich. Epis. Reg. xi, fol. 43b; a monk of Whalley.
112 Ibid. xii, fol. 122b; a monk of Whalley.
113 Ibid. xiii-xiv, fol. 35. He compounded for first-fruits 12 Feb. 1535–6; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. ii, 407. He was said to have sympathized with the risings of 1536–7, promising to bear the cross before the insurgents should they come into Lancashire; L. and P. Hen. VIII, xii (1), 853. He resigned for a pension and afterwards lived with Sir John Byron; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 312. For the 'ornaments' of the church in 1552 see Ch. Goods (Chet. Soc.), 119.
114 The church papers at Chester Dioc. Reg. begin with this institution.
115 The presentation is dated 20 Mar. 1561–2, so that Hargreaves must have been deprived earlier. John Hulton was of the Farnworth family; the name is also spelt Hilton or Hylton. His degree of B.D. is given in the record of his successor's appointment. His will, dated and proved in 1582, ordered burial at Blackburn and provided numerous legacies for relatives, including a Geneva Bible to Roger Grundy, one of his executors. He left half his books to his nephew John Grundy (a student) and the other half to John Hulton.
116 In 1590 he was reputed to be 'a preacher,' but 'not painful'; S. P. Dom. Eliz. xxxi, 47. He was buried at Blackburn 18 Apr. 1628.
117 Act Bks. at Chester Dioc. Reg.; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 313, quoting Add. MS. 6094, fol. 59. He was buried at Blackburn 22 May 1628
118 Act Bks. The entries in the Institution books, P.R.O., begin here; they have been printed in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes. Adam Bolton was educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; B.A. 1626; Foster, Alumni. He readily adopted the Presbyterian discipline in 1646, becoming a member of the classis. He died soon afterwards.
On 26 Mar. 1647 it was ordered that Robert Worthington, ' a godly and orthodox divine,' should act as vicar; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 51. It is not known whether he was instituted, for on 21 May Leonard Clayton was appointed to the vicarage, 'void by death'; ibid. i, 54.
119 He was educated at St. Mary Hall, Oxford; M.A. 1642; Foster, Alumni. He was described as 'godly and orthodox' at his appointment in 1647, but the appointment of a lecturer soon afterwards may indicate that Clayton was not found sufficiently zealous, or was otherwise unequal for the place. In 1649, however, he was considered 'an able and painful divine'; Abram, op. cit. 288. In Aug. 1660 the parishioners sent a petition to the king, asking for the confirmation of Clayton's title, stating that he was 'a man of able parts . . . very industrious and painful in his calling and pious in his conversation, as also one that is faithful and hath testified good affection to your Sacred Majesty'; ibid. 289. He was confirmed, and retained the benefice till his death in Oct. 1677. In 1674 he was appointed to the rectory of Stockport also; Earwaker, East Ches. i, 392.
120 Two separate presentations were made, on 25 Oct. and 23 Nov.; no reason is assigned for the king's interference. Francis Price was educated at University Coll., Oxf.; B.A. 1662. He rebuilt the vicarage 1680.
121 Abram, op. cit. 294.
122 Educated at Christ Church, Oxf.; M.A. 1734, D.D. 1745; Foster, Alumni. He was son of Archbishop Potter, who in 1739 procured for him the sinecure rectory of Elme with Emneth, and in 1742 presented him to the vicarage of Lydd and rectory of Chiddingstone, he resigning Blackburn. He became Dean of Canterbury in 1766 and died in 1770; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 313–14.
123 Rector of Elmley. He was educated at Merton and Oriel Colls., Oxf.; M.A. 1722, B.D. 1735; Foster, Alumni.
124 Brother of Gilbert White of Selborne, and himself a naturalist. He died 21 Nov. 1780, aged fifty-three, and was buried under the communion table; M.I.
125 Educated at St. John's Coll., Camb., of which he was elected fellow, graduating as senior wrangler in 1771; M.A. 1774. There is a full memoir of this vicar in Abram, op. cit. 297–9.
126 The historian of Whalley, Craven, &c. Also vicar of Whalley (q.v.) 1809–22.
127 Educated at St. John's Coll., Camb., of which he was elected fellow; M.A. 1817, D.D. 1830. He won fame as a Hebraist, and was one of the founders of the Astronomical Society. In 1852 he was appointed hon. canon of Manchester. For a notice of his life and works see Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 314–16; Dict. Nat. Biog.
128 This vicar has been noticed already as rector of Prestwich, 1847–54; on being appointed to Blackburn he resigned the archdeaconry of Manchester.
129 Educated at St. John's Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1844. He was rector of St. Saviour's, Manchester, 1836–68. In 1878 he was appointed Archdeacon of Blackburn. He was 'decidedly Evangelical'; see notice in Baines, Lancs. (ed. Croston), iv, 12.
130 Educated at Trinity Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1868, D.D. 1878. He held several benefices before being appointed Bishop of Nassau in 1878, and on resigning in 1885 became vicar of Milford, Hants. He died 9 Feb. 1901.
131 The date is that of induction. Dr. Thornton was educated at Queen's Coll., Oxf., of which he was fellow; M.A. 1858, D.D. 1874. Formerly incumbent of St. Jude, Whitechapel, 1860; rector of St. George, Birmingham, 1864; and Bishop of Ballarat 1875–1900.
132 Clergy List (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 17.
133 These and later details are from the visitation lists preserved at Chester.
134 See the list of vicars, and Gee, Elizabethan Clergy.
135 He was named with Vaux, Allen and others of the obnoxious clergy in 1568; Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 200, 208, quoting S. P. Dom. Eliz. xlviii, 367. He occurs again in 1570; ibid. 212. In 1576 the Bishop of Chester reported him as 'obstinate'; Abram, op. cit. 78. Robert Singleton of Brockholes was in 1583 charged with having given notice to James Hargreaves, priest, to hide himself, as his arrest was determined on; Exch. Dep. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 2.
136 Vaux's Catechism (Chet. Soc.), Introd. p. lxxvii; Gibson, op. cit. 237.
137 He afterwards took sides with his former chief; Gibson, loc. cit.
138 Ches. Sheaf (Ser. 3), i, 34–5.
139 The visitation list gives another name, Edward Bolton, but the note 'in France' is added. The same four names occur in the list of 1565, so that the old staff of fifteen had been effectually reduced.
140 Parker Corres. (Parker Soc.), 222. It is not clear that by 'curate' Pilkington meant the vicar.
141 The registers show baptisms of their children, &c.
142 Dr. Halley states that he resigned on account of his 'ignorance, negligence, and utter incompetence,' but gives no reference; Lancs. Puritanism, i, 114.
143 He signed the address of the preachers of Manchester to the Archbishop of York in 1590, counselling great tenderness in dealing with the Puritan extremists; Chet. Misc. (Chet. Soc.), v.
144 At the 1592 visitation it was reported that he did 'not use to wear the surplice at any time,' and he was ordered to conform himself. 'On 16 Sept. 1596 he personally appeared before the commissioners at Chester, when he answered that he neither did nor would refuse to wear the surplice if the same was fit and tendered to him in good sort'; Baines, Lancs. (ed. Croston), iv, 9. Whatever may have been the meaning of this excuse or evasion, he was again prosecuted in 1604 and 1605 for not wearing the surplice; Visit. Records at Chester.
145 Ibid.
146 Some extracts from the minute book are printed in Whitaker's Whalley (ed. Nichols), i, 220–2.
147 Archbishop Sancroft's endowment to provide a remedy is mentioned in the text.
148 In 1717 there were seven chapels, served by three curates: one each for Harwood and Langho, Darwen and Tockholes, Walton and Samlesbury; Balderstone was served once a month by the same curates in turn; Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 281–2.
149 Lond. Gaz. 17 Aug. 1877.
150 Dunkenhalgh D.
151 Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 152; the name of the priest is wrongly given as Usherwood. The chantry is noticed in Valor Eccl. v, 230; William Rishton was then incumbent, but his stipend is wrongly given as 66s. 8d.
Robert Shuttleworth of Hacking in 1509 had the right of nominating a fit person to the chantry in the parish church of Blackburn; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, 69.
152 Raines, op. cit. 154; Valor Eccl. loc. cit. (66s. 8d. income).
The foundation deed is printed in full in Whitaker's Whalley, ii, 322–5. Edmund Bolton was to be the first cantarist, and his successors were to be secular priests, able to 'sing both prick song and plain song,' and having a 'sight in descant.' They were bound to say mass every holiday and 'to sing mass of Our Lady to note' every Saturday; and once a quarter were with their scholars to sing a solemn dirge, with Requiem mass next morning; every Wednesday or Friday they were to say mass of Jesus or of the Five Wounds, and to say mass on other days of the week if 'well disposed thereto.'The time of service was to be 8 a.m. from Easter to Michaelmas and 10 a.m. the rest of the year.
Part of the lands were sold by the Crown in 1591; Pat. 33 Eliz. pt. xi. A division of the 'quire' on the south side of the chancel was made by arbitration in 1612; the southern half was assigned to Sir Thomas Walmesley and the northern half to John Talbot; Towneley MS. HH, no. 2230.
153 This grant was made by the daughters and co-heirs of Christopher Catlow of Oswaldtwistle; Kuerden fol. MS. 154, 387.
154 Abram, op. cit. 312–49, gives a full account. A report on its state in 1675–6 is printed in Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. ii, 116. See also Records of Blackburn School (Chet. Soc., new ser.).
155 In 1718 the charitable endowments amounted to about £240, all invested in landed security, except £25 in the vicar's hands and £13 in John Sudell's; Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 280. See the account of the Poor's Land.