Townships
Clitheroe

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Victoria County History

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Author

William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1911

Pages

360-372

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'Townships: Clitheroe', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6 (1911), pp. 360-372. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53132 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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CLITHEROE

Cliderhou, 1175, and common to 1600, with variants Gliderhou, Clederowe, &c.; Clithero, xv cent.

The town of Clitheroe stands upon a little hill rising from the comparatively level stretch of land which extends west to the Ribble, but is dominated itself by the great mass of Pendle to the east. Between the lower slopes of this mountain and the town flows a brook south-west to join the Ribble. The area of the township is 2,385 acres, (fn. 1) including 50 acres of inland water, and in 1901 it had a population of 11,414.

Clitheroe Castle, formerly extra-parochial—i.e. outside the parish of Whalley—was included in the township in 1895. (fn. 2)

The principal road is that which leads north from Whalley through Standen to Clitheroe town and to Yorkshire. Passing Little Moor to the east it crosses the brook above mentioned at Salford, and then as Moor Street goes forward to the centre of the town. The castle hill with the remains of the keep stands on the west side of the street. As Castle Street the road continues till the open space called Market Street is gained. There it divides; one branch, as Church Street, goes past the old parochial chapel and by Pimlico (the ancient Greenlache) towards Horrocksford, and then turns east to Chatburn; a second branch, at York Street, leads more directly to Chatburn, passing the workhouse by the way; while the third, Wellgate, goes south-east to Pendleton and Burnley.

From the north end of the castle inclosure a road descends to the west and south-west and leaving Low Moor to the north reaches the river at Edisford Bridge; further north another road turns off northwest to cross the river at Brungerley Bridge; yet more to the north there is a third bridge over the Ribble at Horrocksford. The Blackburn and Hellifield branch of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway runs north-east through the township, having a station on the western edge of the town.

The story of Clitheroe has little of interest apart from the great lordship of which its early Norman possessors made it the head. It is not mentioned by name in Domesday Book, though the castle appears to be referred to. (fn. 3) During the Scottish invasion in the summer of 1138 William son of Duncan was laying waste the country around Clitheroe when he was opposed by the English force arrayed in four bands. They were soon put to flight by him, and in great part either killed or taken prisoner. (fn. 4) At the rising of Adam Banastre in 1315 he seized the Earl of Lancaster's castle at Clitheroe and took the bows and spears found there—no great spoil, it would seem. (fn. 5) Some later records of disturbances of the fairs are found, (fn. 6) but on the whole the town's course has been quiet.

Henry VI, after the battle of Hexham, wandered about the Bowland district, finding a refuge at Bolton-by-Bowland and Waddington. At the latter place he was betrayed and captured by John Talbot of Salesbury and others in 1464. They assaulted the hall, but the deposed king escaped, and after crossing the Ribble by Brungerley Hipping-stones was overtaken and captured on the Lancashire side, less than a mile north of the castle. (fn. 7) He was thence carried bound to London and imprisoned in the Tower.

Ecclesiastically Clitheroe and the adjacent townships of Chatburn, Worston and Mearley formed a chapelry in the parish of Whalley, but the castle with the forest of Pendle formed a peculiar or extraparochial jurisdiction, known as the Castle Parish.

An occurrence in Clitheroe Church in 1520 caused some scandal. Nicholas Ranfurthe the miller, accused of excessive toll-taking, at the time of the elevation of the Body of Christ used to throw himself to the earth and bury his face and his eyes instead of looking up to it, whereby it appeared that he must be a heretic or schismatic, and the Pendleton jury presented that it would afford an evil and grave example if he were not punished. He was accordingly fined 6s. 8d. (fn. 8)

The Lancashire witches were connected with the adjacent Pendle Forest district, and Margaret Pearson, one of those brought to trial in 1612, was sentenced to stand in the pillory at Clitheroe and other towns.

The county lay of 1624, founded on the old fifteenth, shows that Clitheroe and the neighbouring townships paid as follows when the hundred was required to raise £100: Clitheroe, £3 11s. 6d.; Chatburn, 19s. 1½d.; Worston, £1 1s. 3d.; and Mearley, 12s. 0½d. (fn. 9) The borough was assessed at £7 10s. for ship money in 1635. (fn. 10)

The castle was held for the king for a brief space in 1644, (fn. 11) when Prince Rupert placed Captain Cuthbert Bradkirk of Wrea in charge, 'a man of small account and no good carriage,' who repaired it about the gateway and stocked it with provisions. (fn. 12) After Marston Moor he abandoned it, and the castle was then occupied by the Parliament and in 1649 in great part destroyed. (fn. 13)

Between 1666 and 1669 five halfpenny tokens were issued by Clitheroe traders. (fn. 14) The Revolution passed by without noteworthy incident. The parliamentary representation became degraded to that of a pocket borough.

The burning of lime was regulated by a decree made about 1600. (fn. 15) Quarrying and lime-burning continue to be among the chief trades of the district. The cotton manufacture was introduced about 1800, (fn. 16) and there are now several factories in the township. There are also paper mills, a bobbin turnery and breweries.

The agricultural land in Clitheroe, Heyhouses and Mearley is thus occupied: Arable, 2 acres; permanent grass, 2,617; woods and plantations, 36. (fn. 17)

The public hall was built by a company in 1874. The county police court-house in Lowergate was erected in 1864; the borough police court is in King Street. There is a company of volunteers.

There was formerly a sulphur spring or spa. (fn. 18) Races used to be held. (fn. 19) The old crosses have disappeared. (fn. 20)

The notabilities of the place include Dr. Walker King, Bishop of Rochester, who was born at Clitheroe in 1755; he died in 1827. His brother James (1750–84) was a friend of Captain Cook. (fn. 21) John Webster, master of the school, who died in 1682, wrote Metallographia, 1671, and the Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft, 1677; the former work records that silver ore had been found in the Clitheroe district. (fn. 22)

On the road from Clitheroe to Waddington, near Brungerley Bridge, once stood an inn known as the 'Dule upo' Dun,' (fn. 23) from its sign representing the Devil galloping madly along upon a dun horse. The story is that a poor tailor, having sold his soul for wealth, when his time came was allowed another wish, and then wished that his adversary was riding to hell on a dun horse standing near, and was never to return. He had his wish accordingly, thus saving himself.

Honor

The history of the great honor or fee of Clitheroe has been told already. (fn. 24) It passed from the Lacy family to the Earls and Dukes of Lancaster and so to the Crown. (fn. 25) In 1661 it was granted to General Monk (fn. 26) in reward for his aid in the Restoration, and descended to the Dukes of Buccleuch. In 1884 it was apportioned to Lord Henry Scott, second son of the fifth duke, who was soon afterwards (1885) created Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. (fn. 27) He transferred the whole to a limited company, the Clitheroe Estate Company, formed in 1898. (fn. 28) This company therefore holds the lordship of the honor, with its lands, copyhold rents, mines, and all rights. Manor courts are held. (fn. 29)


Lacy. Or a lion rampant purpure.


Earldom of Lancaster. England differenced with a label azure, charged with nine fleurs de lis or.


Monk, Duke of Albemarle. Gules a cheveron between three lions' heads erased argent.


Scott, Duke of Buccleuch. Or on a bend azure a mullet of six points between two crescents of the field.

The terms of the copyhold tenure were defined and made secure by an Act of 1609, (fn. 30) and the tenants compounded with the king by a large fine. A further Act was passed in 1650. (fn. 31) The old forms of transfer by delivery of a stick or straw are preserved.

Mr. F. D. Robinson, steward of the honor, has supplied the following particulars of its present condition: The honor consists of (1) the manor of Chatburn, Worston and Pendleton, with various messuages, &c., in those places; (2) the wapentake of Blackburn, with lands, &c., in Clitheroe, Chipping, Cliviger, Read, Simonstone and Blackburn (at Billinge Scar and Revidge); (3) the manor of Accrington Old Hold, with lands, &c., in Old Accrington, Huncoat, Oswaldtwistle and Haslingden; (4) the manor of Accrington New Hold, with lands, &c., in New Accrington, Baxenden, Cowhouses, Gambleside, Dunnockshaw, Higher Booths, Lower Booths, Loveclough, Goodshaw Booth, Crawshaw Booth, Constable Lee, Rawtenstall, Oakenhead Wood, Tunstead, Wolfenden Booth, Henheads, Deadwenclough, Wolfenden, Bacup, Rawcliffe Wood, Lenches, Cowpe, New Hall Hey and Hall Carr, Musbury, Pickup Bank, Yate Bank; (5) the manor of Tottington, with lands, &c., in Higher End and Lower End; (6) the manor of Ightenhill, with lands, &c., in Burnley, Habergham Eaves, Briercliffe with Extwistle, Little Marsden, Padiham and Heyhouses; (7) the manor of Colne, with lands, &c., in Colne, Foulridge and Great Marsden; (8) the forest of Trawden; (9) the forest of Pendle, with lands, &c., in Reedley Hallows, Filly Close, Higham with West Close Booth, Roughlee Booth, Barley Booth, Goldshaw Booth, Wheatley Booth, Barrowford Booth, Old Laund Booth, New Laund Booth and Wheatley Carr Booth. The honor formerly included also the forest of Bowland in the West Riding, but this was in 1835 sold by the then Duke of Buccleuch to the late Peregrine Edward Towneley of Towneley.

Court rolls from the 15th century are preserved at Clitheroe Castle; there are a few others in the Record Office in London. An inquiry into their number and condition was made in 1580. In one chest were found various rolls from Edward III downward; all were decayed through damp and could not be examined properly. In another chest were some wapentake court rolls. A list of the halmote rolls (Henry VIII—Elizabeth) is given. (fn. 32)

The wapentake of Clitheroe is sometimes spoken of, (fn. 33) but appears to be only an alternative name for the wapentake of Blackburn, the courts being held at Clitheroe.

In 1251 free warren was allowed to Edmund de Lacy in his demesne lands in Clitheroe, Haslingden, Padiham, Worston, Chatburn, Downham and Briercliffe. (fn. 34)

Castle

The castle was the seat of the honor, and was governed by a constable. (fn. 35) It was used as a prison (fn. 36) and the porter had certain fees assigned to him. (fn. 37)

The building stands on the summit of an isolated limestone hill at the south end of the town, but only the keep and a small portion of the rounded curtain wall, which skirts the edge of the rock on the north side inclosing an area of about 80 ft. by 90 ft., now remain. (fn. 38) After the Civil War the castle seems to have been abandoned but not dismantled, and Buck's drawing of 1727 shows that at that time there was a gate-house tower at the south end of the lower ward having a semicircular arched doorway, and a lofty embattled wall running round the brink of the hill, turning first at the back of the present steward's house, and secondly behind the present court-house to the keep. (fn. 39) All this outer walling, with the exception of the fragment mentioned, which is 6 ft. in thickness and stands about 30 ft. away from the keep, appears to have been demolished about the middle of the 18th century, probably when the steward's house was erected. (fn. 40) The castle was never of any very great size, the extent of the hilltop not being sufficiently large to admit of a spacious structure. There is no trace now of the chapel of St. Michael de Castro, which stood in the castle yard, nor is it indicated in Buck's drawing. Repairs and alterations were made in the castle in the 14th century, (fn. 41) the chief being carried out in 1324, when the great gate was repaired and a new room was added to the house. There were further repairs in 1480.

The keep is now in ruins, and is square on plan with flat pilasters at each corner, which give the appearance of square angle towers. The building, which is probably substantially the original Norman keep with later restorations, is externally 35 ft. 9 in. square, the pilasters or corner towers measuring 9 ft. 3 in. on the face each way, with a projection of 9 in. The length of the main wall on each side between the towers is therefore 17 ft. 3 in. externally. Internally the keep is 17 ft. square on the ground floor, with walls 8 ft. 9 in. thick setting back 12 in. at the present height of 8 ft. (fn. 42) The walling is of limestone rubble with ashlar quoins and dressings, and has been a good deal repaired in recent times at the north and east corners, where large buttresses have been built against the lower part of the towers. (fn. 43) The west corner tower contains a vice, starting from the first or principal floor, and rises to a height of 46 ft. from the ground, being some feet higher than any other part of the walls, the top of which is broken all round.

The ground floor was lit on three sides by a loophole in the middle of the wall set in a round-headed recess 5 ft. wide, the north-west wall being blank. Two of these loopholes have been converted into open breaches, the jambs and heads of which are now broken, and the third, on the south-west side, has been walled up and the recess covered with a flat lintel. The entrance seems to have been from the floor above by a trap-door.


Plan of Clitheroe Castle

The holes for the first floor joists remain in the north-east and south-west walls, but the floor itself, as well as that above, has gone. The room was 19 ft. square and 23 ft. high, and was lighted on the southwest and north-east by small square-headed loops in round-headed recesses 4 ft. 6 in. wide. The principal entrance to the keep was on this floor on the northwest side towards the town, close to the west angle, and reached by an external staircase built against the wall, (fn. 44) all trace of which has gone, but there was another door in the opposite wall which may have led on to the ramparts of the adjacent curtain, here only 11 ft. from the keep. This doorway, which is 8 ft. high by 2 ft. 10 in. wide, still remains and preserves its original semicircular head. In the south west wall at each side of the loop is a door, that near the west corner, which is 6 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in. and square-headed, leading through a small lobby 4 ft. 8 in. by 3 ft. 2 in. in the thickness of the wall to the staircase. The other doorway, which is 8 ft. high by 2 ft. 11 in. and round-headed, leads by a right-angled passage into a plain mural chamber 7 ft. by 5 ft., which seems to have had a loop at its south-east end, the wall being now broken, like those below, by a wide breach. Both the passage and chamber have barrel vaults.

The second or upper floor rests on a set-off of 2 ft., and is therefore 23 ft. square, but shows no signs of any wall opening. At the west angle the masonry is thickened to give space for the staircase, from which, no doubt, access to the floor was originally gained. The staircase, however, seems to have been repaired and the door done away with, probably after the castle was dismantled. The height of the top floor is now about 11 ft., and was probably not originally very much higher. The parapet perhaps added another 5 ft. or 6 ft. to the building, which probably had a turret at the west angle over the staircase, if not at all four corners. The upper part of the building is now overgrown internally with trees and other vegetation, forming a picturesque ruin open to the sky.

There are no fireplace openings or garderobes in any part of the keep, the character of which is very plain throughout, without plinth, string or ornament of any kind.

The lower ward has been altered and built over, and its extent is difficult to determine. It seems to have had an extreme breadth of 150 ft., and descended about 280 ft. down the slope of the hill. (fn. 45)


Rishton of Ponthalgh. Argent a fesse embattled sable, in chief two mullets of the second.


Gerard of Astley. Azure a lion rampant ermine, crowned or.

Manor

The manor of Clitheroe was held in demesne by the lord of the honor, (fn. 46) but the estate once owned by the Radcliffes of Astley and Winmarleigh was at one time known as the manor of Clitheroe. It arose from the most ancient feoffment recorded there, that of Ralph le Rous, viz. 2 oxgangs of land in Clitheroe, including the lands of Orm le Engleis inside and outside the bailey; this grant was made to him by Robert de Lacy in 1102 (fn. 47) and was confirmed later. (fn. 48) Its further descent is not fully known, but it was apparently the estate of 2 oxgangs of land held by the Heriz family in 1255. (fn. 49) The Heriz manor of Salthill is named in the borough charter of 1307. (fn. 50) The manor-house was afterwards called The Alleys. It appears to have belonged to the Rishtons of Ponthalgh in the 15th century, (fn. 51) and then to the Radcliffes of Winmarleigh, (fn. 52) thus descending to Sir Thomas Gerard, (fn. 53) who sold it in 1602 to Robert Hesketh of Martholme. (fn. 54) It afterwards passed through many hands. (fn. 55) No manor is claimed.

The Clitheroe family seated at Salesbury had a considerable estate in the town from which they derived their surname, (fn. 56) and it descended to the Talbots, (fn. 57) although the monks of Whalley claimed to hold all the messuages and lands which had belonged to Sir Hugh de Clitheroe. (fn. 58) Other families used the local surname. (fn. 59)

Wivers was the manor-house of the Dinelays of Downham. (fn. 60) HORROCKSFORD, part of the Talbot inheritance, was in the 16th century the residence of a family named Parker, (fn. 61) said to be the source of the Parkers of Browsholme; it was sold in 1618 to Christopher Anderton of Lostock, (fn. 62) and continued to be held by his descendants for a century or more. (fn. 63) Afterwards it was acquired by the Curzons, and sold by Earl Howe to — Ashton. (fn. 64) Various other estates occur in the records. (fn. 65) The Subsidy Rolls show that few of the inhabitants were assessed for land, though many paid on goods. In 1524 Robert Waddington was a landowner, (fn. 66) and he appears again in 1543 with Alice Radcliffe and John Dugdale (fn. 67) ; in 1600 the names were Robert Waddington, William Dugdale, the heirs of Nicholas Parker and the heirs of Brian Parker. (fn. 68) The heir of Christopher Anderton (in ward), William Dugdale, Edward Colthurst, Miles Baley and others are named in 1626. (fn. 69)


Anderton of Lostock. Sable three shack-bolts argent, a mullet for difference.

In the Civil War time the lands of Cuthbert Tyldesley (fn. 70) and Thomas Ryley (fn. 71) were sequestered by the Parliament. The Dugdale family, from which sprang the great antiquary Sir William Dugdale, deserves a more particular notice. (fn. 72)

The corn-mill of the manor is mentioned in charters and pleadings. (fn. 73)

In 1666 there were 198 hearths liable to the tax. The largest house was Mrs. Anderton's with eight hearths, William Hitm' had seven, Bridget Farrer six and others had five or less. (fn. 74)

An inclosure of the wastes was made in 1786. (fn. 75)

Borough

A borough was created by Henry de Lacy (1146–77), the liberties and customs of the free burgesses of Chester serving as the model. (fn. 76) The chief officers are often styled 'pretors' in Latin charters. (fn. 77) In 1258 there were sixty original burgages each rendering 16d. yearly to the lord, and six more had been made by the burgesses from the waste, so that the whole rent amounted to £4 8s. (fn. 78) The burgesses received a confirmation from Henry de Lacy about 1283, when the service was fixed at 10 marks a year. (fn. 79) The wood of Salthill was then excepted; but this wood with Parisourge and Balloclaw was allowed in 1307. (fn. 80) At Henry's death in 1311 the burgesses paid £6 13s. 4d. yearly. (fn. 81) Various confirmations were granted from time to time. (fn. 82) In 1343–62 burgages were acquired by Whalley Abbey. (fn. 83)

Fairs were held by custom at Whalley on the feasts of the Conception and Annunciation of our Lady, but in 1519 Henry VIII transferred them to Clitheroe. (fn. 84) In 1292, however, the lord claimed a Saturday market at Clitheroe by custom from the Conquest, and a fair on the day and morrow of St. Mary Magdalene by grant of King John. (fn. 85) In 1825 the weekly market was on Tuesday and the annual fairs on 24–5 March, 1–2 August (Old St. Mary Magdalene), Friday and Saturday after 29 September and 6–7 December. (fn. 86)


Borough of Clitheroe. Azure on a mount vert a castle with three domed towers or.

In 1593 the burgesses claimed the goods and chattels of one John Lawson of Edisford who had been convicted of felony at York but had saved his life by 'the privilege and allowance of his clergy.' The goods had been taken by the said Lawson and another, and the burgesses petitioned Sir Francis Walsingham as Chancellor of the Duchy to interfere. (fn. 87)

The borough returned two members to Parliament from 1559. (fn. 88) In 1694 it was decided by the House of Commons that the right of election was in the burgesses and freemen. The burgesses were such as had in any land or houses in the borough an estate of freehold or inheritance, and they were of two sorts—out-burgesses, who lived out of the borough, and in-burgesses who lived in the borough and had such an estate in houses or land there; and both these had a right of electing. The freemen were such as lived in the houses within the borough as tenants, and they had the right of election when the landlords did not vote for those houses; but when they did the tenants had no right of electing. (fn. 89) In 1825 the burgage-holds were held by only three proprietors, Earl Brownlow, Earl Howe and Mr. Starkie of Huntroyde, and they returned the members. (fn. 90) By the Reform Act of 1832 this abuse was terminated, but only one member was allowed to the borough (fn. 91) ; while by the Redistribution Act of 1885 Clitheroe ceased to be a parliamentary borough, but gave its name to a division of the county returning one member.

The borough used to be governed by two bailiffs chosen at the court leet, (fn. 92) and three courts were held—the court baron, court leet and court of inquiry. (fn. 93) By the Municipal Act of 1835 four aldermen and twelve councillors were elected and a mayor replaced the two bailiffs. There is no division into wards. The borough has a recorder, a com mission of the peace and a police force. (fn. 94) Gas and water works (fn. 95) were established by private companies, but were purchased by the Corporation in 1878. (fn. 96) The town-hall was built in 1879; a free library was established there. The market in King Street also was opened in 1879.

Clitheroe is the head of a rural district council.

Churches

The chapel of St. Michael within the castle of Clitheroe was sometimes called extra-parochial and sometimes described as the parish church of the castle and demesne, with the large forest districts of the honor. (fn. 97) In either case it was outside the parish of Whalley ecclesiastically, but the abbot and convent, after long contention, had it awarded to them, (fn. 98) and they treated the forest district of which it was the head as a peculiar jurisdiction, holding regular visitations for it in place of the bishop. (fn. 99) These courts were held sometimes in Whalley Church and sometimes in the castle chapel itself (fn. 100) ; the principal matters dealt with were marriage cases, proofs of wills, immorality, working on holidays, and minor offences, such as talking in church.

St. Michael's Chapel, no doubt coeval with the castle, (fn. 101) has long disappeared, and its various dependent chapels—Newchurch in Pendle, Newchurch in Rossendale, and Whitwell in Bowland —became parochial; the last-named is in Yorkshire.

Apart from the castle Clitheroe was in the chapelry of St. Mary Magdalene, this chapel existing as early as 1120. (fn. 102) But little is known of its history or of the chaplains who served it. (fn. 103) The ancient stipend of 4 marks was paid by the monks of Whalley. (fn. 104) A chantry was founded in 1473 by Richard Radcliffe of Winmarleigh, (fn. 105) and in 1547 the priest in charge was William Slater, who had been present at Flodden Field, and whose stipend was 66s. 10d. derived from scattered pieces of land. (fn. 106) In 1548 the visitation list shows four priests at Clitheroe and the same in 1554; but in 1562 there was only one, and he was a new-comer. (fn. 107) The castle chapel appears to have been maintained until the Civil War, and afterwards fell into ruin, an allowance of £6 to the chaplain being thenceforward annexed to the curacy of St. Mary Magdalene. (fn. 108) The curate of Clitheroe was in 1635 excused from any contribution to ship-money on account of the poverty of the chaplaincy; he had £4 from the vicar of Whalley and £3 from the auditor of the county, the parishioners contributing the main part of his income. (fn. 109) Soon afterwards the Archbishop of Canterbury must have increased this allowance from the vicarage, for the minister in 1650 had an endowment of £11 10s. from the rectory of Whalley and £3 10s. from the duchy rents; this last probably in respect of the old chantry. (fn. 110) About 1717 the income was £22 12s. 6d. For the £6 received from the castle chaplaincy the curate was bound to preach once a month at Whitwell. There were six chapelwardens. (fn. 111)

The vicar of Whalley used to present the curates, but in 1722 (Sir) Nathaniel Curzon augmented the endowment by £200, and the patronage was then assigned to him. (fn. 112) It descended in his family till about 1840, when it was sold. (fn. 113) It has passed through several hands and is now held by Mr. E. H. Jackson. The net annual value of the benefice, declared a vicarage in 1866, (fn. 114) is now £228. (fn. 115)

The church of ST. MARY MAGDALENE stands on high ground in a commanding position at the north end of the town and consists of chancel 12 ft. by 18 ft. with north vestry and south chapel, clearstoried nave 80 ft. by 18 ft. with north and south aisles 14 ft. 6 in. wide and western tower and spire 13 ft. square, all these measurements being internal. Only the east wall of the chancel with perhaps some parts of its north and south walls and the lower parts of the tower are ancient, the rest of the church having been rebuilt in the Gothic style of the day in 1828 (fn. 116) and the upper part of the tower, together with the spire, erected in 1844. Nothing, therefore, can be said about the development of the plan, the oldest parts of the structure now remaining dating only from the 15th century. There was, however, formerly a Norman arch between the nave and quire, (fn. 117) but this was removed in 1828, when the old building was taken down. The arch was preserved with the intention of erecting it as an entrance gateway to the churchyard, but this was never done and the arch itself has disappeared. (fn. 118) The extent of the 12thcentury building is entirely conjectural, and whether it was succeeded by a second building before the erection of the 15th-century church, which was evidently of much the same extent as the present structure, is also a matter of surmise. (fn. 119)

The chancel window is of five lights with cinquefoiled heads and tracery over, but the wall has been raised and a modern single-light window introduced above. Externally the extent of the old walling is plainly visible, including the angle buttresses, that on the north being set square and the southern one diagonally. In the south wall of the chancel is a piscina with trefoiled head, but all the fittings and decoration are modern. The chancel proper, which has blank walls on either side, is now the sanctuary, the quire stalls and modern chancel arrangement being continued westward into the first bay of the nave. In the south wall of the vestry to the north of the chancel is a mutilated piscina with cusped floreated bowl, now in a square opening, the vestry occupying the site of an earlier chapel. (fn. 120) It is separated from the north aisle by a stone arch under which, occupying portions of both vestry and aisle, the organ is now placed. On the south side of the chancel is a similar chapel.

The nave is very lofty and consists of six bays with an arcade of pointed arches on each side springing from tall octagonal piers, behind which, over each aisle, is a gallery carried on iron pillars. The clearstory has six two-light traceried windows on each side and is finished externally by an embattled parapet. The aisle walls terminate in a straight parapet.

The lower original part of the tower has square buttresses of five stages with a projecting vice in the south-east corner and pointed belfry windows of two trefoiled lights with tracery, hood moulds and stone louvres. The west door is pointed, of two hollow chamfered orders with external label, above which is a modern window of three lights with cinquefoiled heads. On the north and south the walls are plain except for a square window to the ringing chamber. The old embattled parapet was removed in 1844 and the tower carried up several feet in octagon form, with a clock in the four principal sides, (fn. 121) and the angles occupied by pinnacles from which spring flying buttresses supporting the spire. The tower arch is of two chamfered orders continued to the ground without impost. It is now filled in with a modern wood screen.

In the chapel at the east end of the south aisle are two mutilated effigies which were discovered at the time of the rebuilding, (fn. 122) being those of a man in armour and a lady in a kirtle. The man's head is covered with a basinet and rests on a helmet, that of the lady resting on cushions supported by angels. There is also a good 18th-century table tomb with an inscribed brass to John Harrison of Mearley, who died in 1718, and part of the old oak churchwardens' seat. A brass plate on one of the modern pew-ends in the first bay of the south aisle is inscribed 'The South Quire, the property of John Oddie 1787.'

Built into the north wall of the nave is an old stone with the arms of Radcliffe, inscribed below 'Radcliffe Maga Mearly' and on the opposite wall is a brass plate in memory of John Webster of Clitheroe, who died in 1682, which is engraved with a horoscope. (fn. 123)

There are some fragments of old glass preserved in the east windows of the vestry and south chapel. The modern glass of the chancel window contains the armorial bearings of the successive lords of Clitheroe. All the fittings are modern, the pulpit, which is of Caen stone, dating from 1909.

There is a ring of eight bells cast in 1844 by C. & G. Mears.

The plate consists of a chalice of 1681 inscribed 'poculum sacramentale Anno Dom. 1688. Willm. Bankes Minister. John Brigges, Robert Brennand, Tho. Law, Chr. Hargreaves, Ch. Wardens'; a chalice of 1828–9 'The gift of R. W. P. Earl Howe 22 Sept. 1829,' with his arms, supporters and coronet and the town's arms of Clitheroe; a paten of the same date also given by Earl Howe; and a flagon.

The registers begin in 1570. The first volume (1570–1626) is well preserved and newly bound.

The churchyard is principally on the south and west sides, the east end of the building standing close to the road some height above it. The entrance is at the south-east corner, the ground falling rapidly to the west.

The following have been curates and vicars:—

oc. 1541John Michcock (fn. 124)
oc. 1562John Bellet (fn. 125)
1569Edward Lawson (fn. 126)
1576Thomas Haworth (fn. 127)
1588Martin Dickson (fn. 128)
1612Edward Rostorne (fn. 129)
oc. 1622William Richardson (fn. 130)
1645Robert Marsden (fn. 131)
c. 1672James Watmough (fn. 132)
1675William Banckes (fn. 133)
1697Stephen More, B.A. (fn. 134) (Christ's Coll., Camb.)
1701Thomas Taylor, B.A. (St. John's Coll., Camb.)
1738James Cowgill, B.A. (fn. 135) (Emmanuel Coll., Camb.)
1739James Cowgill (fn. 136)
1743James King, M.A. (fn. 137) (St. John's Coll., Camb.)
1775Thomas Wilson, B.D. (fn. 138) (Trin. Coll., Camb.)
1813Henry Johnson, M.A. (fn. 139)
1814Robert Heath, M.A. (fn. 140) (Brasenose Coll., Oxf.)
1826John Taylor Allen, M.A. (fn. 141) (Brasenose Coll., Oxf.)
1835Joseph Heywood Anderton, M.A. (fn. 142) (St. John's Coll., Camb.)
1878Edward Hughes Thomas, M.A. (fn. 143) (Queens' Coll., Camb.)
1892Herbert Lafone Bellhouse, M.A. (Trin. Coll., Camb.)
1903 Joseph Henry Wrigley, M.A. (Manitoba)

At Edisford, on the Yorkshire side of the Ribble, but within the borough of Clitheroe, was an ancient hospital for lepers, known as St. Nicholas's. (fn. 144) It seems to have become useless as a hospital, but was retained as a chantry until the Reformation. (fn. 145) The lands were sold by the Crown in 1585. (fn. 146)

In recent times, in connexion with the Church of England, St. James's, at the south end of the town, was built in 1839, and St. Paul's, Low Moor, in 1870 (fn. 147) ; the former, declared a rectory in 1868, (fn. 148) is in the gift of five trustees, and the latter of the Bishop of Manchester.

The Methodists are well represented. The Wesleyans have two churches, the first of which was built in 1797, the Primitive Methodists one, and the Free Church one in Clitheroe (1837) and one at Low Moor.

The Congregationalists built a chapel in 1815, and a church was formed in 1817. A new chapel was erected in Castlegate in 1863, being one of the Bicentenary chapels. (fn. 149) The old chapel was sold to the Primitive Methodists, and was afterwards used by the Salvation Army. The Army now has a barracks in Shawbridge Street.

The Baptists have a place of worship in the same street; the cause was formed in 1888.

In 1665 and later Quakers were reported to the Bishop of Chester, (fn. 150) but no meeting-place is known.

Thomas Blakey and three women were convicted recusants in 1626, (fn. 151) and the Andertons of Horrocksford with four others about 1670. (fn. 152) Only twelve 'Papists' were known here in 1767. (fn. 153) Thirty years later mass was once more said in the town, the Jesuits of Stonyhurst serving the mission, and a small building, afterwards used as a schoolroom, was opened in 1799. A resident priest was not appointed till 1842. The church of SS. Michael and John the Evangelist was opened in 1850, and continues in charge of the Jesuits.

The Grammar School was founded by Philip and Mary in 1554, (fn. 154) but there is evidence that a school of some kind existed as early as 1283. (fn. 155)

Charities

An official inquiry into the charities of Clitheroe and Chatburn was held in 1901, and the report, including a reprint of the report of 1826, was issued in 1902. It shows that in addition to educational and Wesleyan endowments there are endowments for the poor in each of the townships named. For the aged poor of Clitheroe belonging to the Church of England or any Protestant Dissenting denomination Thomas Hyde in 1867 left £500, now producing £14 16s. 8d.; this is distributed equally among about a hundred recipients at Christmas time. Miss Susanna Constantine Robinson in 1862 left £100 to the poor of Chatburn; this is invested in railway stock and produces about £5 7s. a year, distributed by the vicar at Christmas time in money gifts to poor persons of all religious denominations.

Footnotes

1 Including Clitheroe Castle, 6 acres, 9 inhabitants.
2 Loc. Govt. Bd. Order, P 1079.
3 Engl. Hist. Rev. xix, 225, 451.
4 Simeon of Durham, Opera (Rolls Ser.), 291; in the continuation by John of Hexham.
5 Coram Rege R. 254, m. 52.
6 Assize R. 430 (1343), m. 22; 431 (1351), m. 2.
7 Abram, Blackburn, 57, citing Chron. of Warkworth (Camd. Soc.).
8 Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 58.
9 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 23.
10 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 114.
11 The prince reached Clitheroe on 24 June 1644 by way of Ribchester and went on to Skipton. Colonel Daniel was left as governor of the castle; Engl. Hist. Rev. xiii, 736.
12 Lancs. War (Chet. Soc.), 53.
13 Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 277; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1649–50, p. 73.
14 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 76.
15 Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 238.
16 The brief notice of the town in Aikin's Country round Manch. (1795) says nothing of any manufactures.
17 a Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
18 Capper, Topog. Dict. (1808).
19 Baines, Lancs. Dir. i, 612; 'reestablished on Salthill Moor in 1821.'
20 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xviii, 22.
21 Whitaker, Whalley (ed. Nichols), ii, 90, 92; Dict. Nat. Biog.
22 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 86; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 212; Dict. Nat. Biog. He has a memorial plate in the church; see below.
23 Others say the house was on the road from Clitheroe to Chatburn, near the latter village.
24 V.C.H. Lancs. i, 312–19; above in the account of Blackburn Hundred. It contained five knight's fees; Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 38. In 1294 the castles and lands of Henry de Lacy were regranted to him with remainder to his issue; Chart. R. 87 (22 Edw. I), m. 2, no. 3.
25 The honor was granted to Isabel, queen mother, in 1327, and there are many allusions to her tenure in the Patent Rolls. In 1348 she released to Henry Earl of Lancaster all her right in the same; Close, 22 Edw. III, pt. ii, m. 5; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xi, 11.
26 Pat. 13 Chas. II, pt. xxx, no. 3; to George Duke of Albemarle the demesne, castle and honor of Clitheroe, with the manors of Ightenhill, Colne, Pendleton, Worston, Chatburn, Accrington and Haslingden, with mills, mines, &c., in Trawden, Great Marsden and Pendle, courts and profits in Rossendale, &c. Various fee-farm rents were released to him in 1664; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxiv, 174, 155. See also ibid. xxv, 110d.
The following are references to fines, recoveries, &c., of the honor: 1695, Recov. R. Mich. 7 Will. III, rot. 228; 1696, Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 463, m. 2; 1699, Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 243, m. 110; 1701, Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 473, m. 2; also of a moiety of the same— 1760, ibid. 592, m. 8; 1766, Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 396, m. 14; 1768, Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 608, m. 7.
27 W. Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, p. vi. He died in 1905 and was succeeded by his son, the present Lord Montagu.
28 Debentures were issued.
29 The customs of the honor, as recorded in 1670, are printed in Whitaker, Whalley, i, 292–5.
30 7 Jas. I, cap. 3, private; 'an Act for the perfect creation and confirmation of certain copyhold lands in the honor, castle, manor or lordship of Clitheroe, or in the several manors or lordships of [West] Derby, Accrington, Colne and Ightenhill in the county of Lancaster.' It being observed that many of the tenants were unwilling to compound, it was suggested that a strict survey would soon change their attitude; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1611–18, p. 43.
31 Printed in Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 63–72.
32 Duchy of Lanc. Special Com. 289.
33 The title appears about 1500; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 101.
34 Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 357. The charter was produced and allowed in 1292; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 381. Free chase was claimed as from time immemorial.
35 The names of some are given in Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 72. The charges for making the great gate of the castle in 1324 and a new chamber in 1425 are printed ibid. 70, 71.
36 In 1292 complaint was made that Nicholas de Wardle had been seized and imprisoned at Clitheroe; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 387.
In 1323 William de Tatham was the keeper of the king's castle of Clitheroe and paid the porter 1½d. a day; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 185. Further allusions to the use of the castle as a prison are in Cal. Pat. 1330–4, pp. 185, 199; 1345–8, p. 378.
Sir William Atherton and others were imprisoned in the castle in 1423; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 25.
In 1522 a number of men were imprisoned there because they refused to serve the king in an expedition against the Scots; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 245.
37 There is a list of the porters in Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 73. Robert the Porter in 1258 rendered to the lord twelve barbed arrows yearly; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 213. In 1506 (or 1504) contradictory proclamations were made as to a muster of armed levies on Whalley Moor, in consequence of which John King, porter of the castle, took part in the assembly. For this he was examined and imprisoned by Sir Piers Legh, to the indignation of Sir Richard Shireburne; Duchy Plead. i, 24. Sir Piers had been appointed steward of the hundred in 1505; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 544.
Robert Rishton, porter, complained that he had in 1506 been expelled from his charge by Sir Piers Legh, who had taken the profits since; Duchy Plead. i, 36.
In 1540 Edmund Loud, gaoler or porter of the castle, complained that whereas certain lands called Castle dykes and Castle hill pertained to his office he had been ousted by John Dugdale, who pretended that Castle dykes had belonged to Whalley Abbey; ibid. ii, 123. See Whalley Couch. (Chet. Soc.), iv, 1217. A 'view' is mentioned in Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 25.
38 The curtain is about 12 ft. high inside and from 14 ft. to 20 ft. outside. It is broken on the east side for about 70 ft. The general plan of the castle, which had a lower walled court or bailey, to the south of the keep, has already been described under Ancient Earthworks (V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 523–4), where a plan and section of the hill are given. The top of the hill is about 130 ft. above the valley below, and the site is about ¾ mile from the River Ribble. A detailed description of the building, with a plan of each floor and section, is given in Clark, Mediaeval Mil. Archit. i, 397–402, where, however, the compass points are wrongly given.
39 Mackenzie, Castles of England, ii, 183–4. A view of the castle, dated 1801, is given in Pennant's Alston Moor.
40 'The modern dwelling-house is built upon the south-east curtain wall and no doubt represents and probably contains part of the old domestic buildings'; Clark, op. cit.
41 In 1304 a sum of 3s. 9d. was paid for 'covering and repairing houses within the castle'; De Lacy Compoti (Chet. Soc.), 97.
A survey of the castle in 1602 showed that £80 13s. 4d. was required for repairs. The building was 'very ruinous, but especially Mr. Auditor's chamber. The hall and buttery are in such great decay as that they are very like to fall down'; Duchy of Lanc. Special Com. 627. A later report, in 1608, shows that parts of the decayed buildings had actually fallen, and that £177 6s. 8d. would have to be spent on rebuilding and repairs; ibid. 785.
42 The ground has been raised.
43 It is said they were preceded by buttresses somewhat similar, though of much slighter character; Clark, op. cit. 400. The keep is not set four-square with the compass, the angles, not the sides, being approximately north, south. east and west. See V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 323.
44 Clark, op. cit. 401. The doorway opening is now broken away all round.
45 Clark, op. cit. 401.
46 Various early accounts have been published. In 1241–2 the value of Clitheroe was £25 10s. 6d.; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 156. In 1258 Clitheroe was held of the Earl of Lancaster by knight's service. There were 180 acres of arable land, 30 acres of meadow and 30 acres of demesne pasture, each worth 4d.; two barns at Standen were worth 7s., and a garden in Clitheroe 3s. Two tenants paid 2s. 6d., the mill £10, the borough £4 8s., a dye house 6s. 8d.; tolls yielded £5 13s. 4d. and pleas of the courts 13s. 4d.—£21 13s. 10d. in all; ibid. i, 213.
A number of details are afforded by the rolls of 1296 and 1305, where under Clitheroe receipts and expenses in many other parts of the honor are accounted for. Rents from Baldwin hill, Salthill, Sandwell and Salewell, Snelleshou (Whalley), the herbage of the ditches of the castle and a garden there were among the receipts. In 1296 from the goods of Ellis, a thegn beheaded for felony, £6 10s. was received. The expenses in that year included 32s. 4d. for the safe conveyance of £190 in money from Clitheroe to Buckby and five times to Pontefract; also 12s. for taking five colts from Clitheroe to Buckby, with fodder and other expenses; De Lacy Compotus Rolls (Chet. Soc.), 12–16. In 1305 there appear 6d. for a place beneath the hall of pleas, 12d. for a place for a forge under the castle, 20d. for the entry of five prisoners at the castle gate, £27 7s. 9d. for perquisites of the court of Clitheroe, 51s. 2d. from the chattels of a fugitive. Among the expenses were sums of 12s. 2d. spent on carrying seven loads of lead from Baxenden to Bradford, 20s. 5½d. on sixteen hawks at Clitheroe and on the grooms taking them to London, and 20d. on carrying the earl's bed to Denbigh; ibid. 109–15.
In 1311 the values were thus stated: Castle, nil; orchard, &c., 2s.; demesne lands, 6s. 8d.; meadow, 3s.; water-mill, £6 13s. 4d.; fair at St. Mary Magdalene's, 6s. 8d.; free court every three weeks, £5; borough, £6 13s. 4d.; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 3. Detailed accounts rendered in 1323 show that the profits were very much greater; thus the toll of the market, fairs and stallage came to £5 6s. 8d., the farm of the water-mill to £12, and the perquisites of the courts to £11 1s. 8d. There were minor receipts, including 1s. from a forge before the castle gate. The hire of a house in which to hold the courts was 6s.; ibid. 185.
The court rolls have been printed for the period 12 Nov. 1323 to 24 Sept. 1324. Fifteen courts were held. One of the most frequent offences was selling bad ale. In one case a reeve paid a small fine for leave to withdraw from office; in another a woman paid one 'for sweetness of the prison'; Lancs. Court R. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 48–63.
47 Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 385.
48 Ibid. 388; in 1135–41.
49 Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 118; Isabel de Heriz acknowledged the title of John de Heriz to 2 oxgangs of land in Clitheroe, which he held by her gift.
50 'Saving to William Heriz reasonable estovers for his manor of Salthill in the wood there.' Practically nothing is known of this family. Simon le Heriz was a burgess of Clitheroe about 1287, and he and his son John attested local charters; Add. MS. 32104, fol. 143, 124b, &c.
In 1292 Simon le Heriz complained that his workshop (fabrica) had been burnt down through the fault of Adam the Smith (Feure), but was unsuccessful; Assize R. 408, m. 98 d. He was killed the same year by his brother Henry, in interfering in a quarrel between Henry and Thomas de Standen; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 278.
William le Heriz attested a charter in 1331; Kuerden fol. MS. 370.
Thomas and Robert the Smiths (Fevre) were defendants in 1246; Assize R. 404, m. 2, 8.
51 Richard Rishton of Ponthalgh died in 1425 holding a messuage, &c., in Clitheroe of the king as duke in socage; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 14. A messuage called The Alleys in Clitheroe was the property of Roger Rishton of Ponthalgh in 1452–3; Pal. of Lanc. Writs of Assize, Lent, 31 Hen. VI.
It is possible that there were two messuages called The Alleys. In 1544 Sir Richard Shireburne of Stonyhurst released to Alice Radcliffe of Alleys, widow, his right in closes called Gaysgillcroft and Salthill Moor; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 65.
52 Sir Thomas Radcliffe (of Astley, &c.), who died in 1440, held 8 burgages, &c., in Clitheroe of the king as Earl of Lincoln in socage; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1492.
Richard son of Sir Thomas son of Sir Richard Radcliffe was described as 'of Clitheroe' in 1443; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 5, m. 12. There was also a George Radcliffe of the same place; ibid.
Richard Radcliffe of Astley held the eight burgages, &c., in 1476–7; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 103.
In 1500 there were six burgages, and the tenure was in socage, by 7s. 8d. rent; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 75. The estate is called the manor of Clitheroe in 1521 and later, the tenure being socage; ibid. v, no. 3; viii, no. 26.
53 Sir Gilbert Gerard held the manor at his death in 1593; ibid. xvi, no. 2. Sir Thomas was son and heir. Balden Hall had been in dispute between Gerard and Milward in 1584; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 260.
54 Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 81. From a fine of 1602 it would appear that the immediate purchaser of the manor was James Anderton of Lostock; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 64, no. 170. The sale of Baldwin Hill by Gerard to Hesketh is recorded in the Ct. Roll of 10 Jan. 1602–3.
Robert Hesketh of Rufford in 1651 compounded for an estate, including The Alleys, in Clitheroe lately come to him from his uncle George Hesketh; Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 205. Thomas Hesketh of The Alleys is named in 1670; Exch. Dep. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 47.
55 The Alleys came into the possession of the Oddie family in 1672, and they still retained it in 1872; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 79. 'It appears to have been a strong tower-built house, of which some remains exist at present (c. 1820) and more are remembered; and the whole, together with a large inclosure behind, has been surrounded by a deep moat. The demesne appertaining to this mansion consisted of 64 Lancashire acres, including a small park of 14 acres called Salthillhey Park'; ibid. John Oddie, the master of Blackburn Grammar School 1670–1703 (Abram, Blackburn, 347), was the second of his family to hold it. For a curious anecdote of another of them see Baines, Lancs. Dir. i, 610.
56 The first of this family known was one Karnwath, living about the time of King John. From an allusion in a charter he is supposed to have been a Bussel; Towneley MS. DD, no. 2035. He had several sons, of whom Ralph the Clerk was father of Hugh, whose son Hugh comes into notice in 1275. A number of the charters have been preserved by Towneley, and from them the following notes have been taken.
Thomas son of Karnwath granted his brother Richard the moiety of a third part of an oxgang of land in Clitheroe from the inheritance of his mother Lucy; Towneley MS. DD, no. 2004. The same Thomas, in marriage with his daughter, granted five plots in the town fields to Roger son of Hugh de Clitheroe; ibid. no. 2098.
Thomas also gave his brother Ralph various lands, the local names Salthill, Wang, Coppedlaw, Bathgreve, Crosshill, Moketlands, and Aldford being mentioned in the charter; ibid. no. 1102. Also the moiety of a third part of an oxgang of the inheritance of his mother Avice (Lucy above), with moieties of his assart at Standen and Hardhill, 3 perches between Aldfield and Brettestreet, 1½ perches between 'Soppederahhe' and Lathmers, and a selion at the fishery. A rent of 2d. was to be paid; Add. MS. 32104, fol. 152. Ralph obtained lands in Pendleton by his marriage with Quenilda, sister of Reginald de Pendleton; ibid. no. 654. Robert son of Richard the Receiver granted to Ralph son of Karnwath a messuage on the north side of the entry to grantor's capital messuage, and having 56 ft. frontage to the road called Mulnesgate (?); the stone bridge going to Bradford and Galtercroft are mentioned; Towneley MS. RR, no. 373. Alexander son of Roger de Clitheroe gave a fourth part of his land to his uncle Ralph son of Karnwath; ibid. DD, no. 1093. Walter son of Emma de Clitheroe granted to Ralph the Clerk son of Karnwath half an assart in Bradfordeghes, a perch thereby (half of a half acre), and half another assart by Edeston; ibid. no. 1100.
To Hugh son of Ralph de Clitheroe Cecily widow of Jordan son of John the Clerk of Clitheroe released her right in land sold by her husband to Ralph son of Karnwath; ibid. no. 1989. Emma daughter of Richard son of Karnwath gave Hugh 2 acres; ibid. no. 2094. Grants of land in Coldewelding and Bradford Heghes to Hugh de Clitheroe may have been made to the following Hugh; Towneley MS. RR, no. 351, 365.
Hugh son of Hugh de Clitheroe obtained an assart called Catteridding and other land; ibid. no. 353, 356. In 1275 Hugh son of Hugh de Clitheroe was one of a number of defendants to a claim put forward by Siegrith widow of Hugh son of John de Clitheroe to various parcels of land, mostly of 4 acres each; De Banco R. 10, m. 31. Ralph son of William the Porter in 1278 claimed a messuage and an oxgang of land against Hugh son of Hugh son of Ralph de Clitheroe; ibid. 27, m. 149 d. Thomas Bullay of Worston granted Hugh son of Hugh half an oxgang of land in Clitheroe, various rents, &c.; the place-names include Salthill, Gilderscroft, Maluesgate, Godwinridding, Lehalercarr, Hardhill and Coppetlauche; DD, no. 1082. Robert son of Richard de Skipton gave him a toft and meadow lying by Clitheroe Brook (to the south) and abutting to the west on the road between the castle and the said croft; ibid. no. 1230. Hugh made some exchanges; ibid. no. 1078, 1080. He granted to Adam de Dinelay a toft, &c., the description naming the king's way leading to the church of Clitheroe; ibid. no. 1071. To Adam the Janitor of the Castle, in marriage with his sister Avice, he gave a toft which had belonged to Richard son of Karnwath; ibid. no. 2010. Another sister, Isabel widow of Jordan de Winkley, also occurs; ibid. no. 2082.
Hugh de Clitheroe, perhaps the same, was plaintiff in 1312; De Banco R. 190, m. 5. In the following year Adam son of Hugh de Clitheroe was called to warrant Adam de Dinelay in the possession of 8 acres in Clitheroe claimed by Richard Paris; ibid. 195, m. 224 d.; 198, m. 90 d. Adam, who was a knight in 1331 (DD, no. 1084; De Banco R. 290, m. 116), had a number of disputes with Robert de Clitheroe of Bailey, rector of Wigan, as may be seen in the account of Aighton.
From this time the descent is clear and has been narrated in the account of Salesbury. See also Visit. of 1533 (Chet. Soc.), 42. In 1312–13 Adam the Harper of the Lea gave to Adam de Clitheroe son of Hugh various lands at the Waterswolghe, Hongandridding with meadow and wood towards Ribble, under Crosshill, Coldwedridding, and Bradford heies, in exchange for other pieces at Eghardhull, Chatbutts, Chokedrode by the Coppedlaw (beginning at the highway to Little Greenlache), Stockbridge, Bradford Bridge, and Claitteburn; DD, no. 2115. In 1324–5 Adam gave his messuage called The Hall, by the brook running below the vill of Clitheroe, 10 acres in Langcroft, &c., to John son of Adam Querderay of Pendleton; ibid. no. 1083. An extent of Sir Adam's lands was made in 1333; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 241.
Hugh son of Sir Adam de Clitheroe and Isabel his wife held eight messuages, &c., in 1361; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 168. Sibyl widow of Sir Robert de Clitheroe gave a burgage in the Kirkgate to her daughter Sibyl in 1382–3; DD, no. 1096.
57 Isabel widow of John Talbot, at her death in 1432, held seven burgages, &c., of the king in socage; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 41. In later inquisitions the tenure is described as free burgage; ibid. 143, 160. Isabel was the daughter of Richard brother of Sir Robert de Clitheroe; ibid. i, 105.
58 Whalley Couch. (Chet. Soc.), iv, 1108.
59 The earliest bearer of the surname known is Thomas de Clitheroe in 1175; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 32. Lambert the Physician of Clitheroe also occurs; ibid. 338. The descendants of these are not known.
Robert de Clitheroe, king's clerk and rector of Wigan, has been mentioned above. He died in 1334, and is said to have been son of the Jordan and Cecily also named already; Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 83. Jordan's father, John the Clerk, had other sons, Hugh and Ellis; Add. MS. 32104, fol. 152b. There are so many Jordans and Hughs that certainty is impossible, but the Henry de Clitheroe who was made heir of Rector Robert may have been the son of Hugh, and therefore Robert's cousin, for Hugh had sons Hugh, Alan and Henry; DD. The account of the descent of Henry's estate is given under Bailey.
Geoffrey son of Jordan de Clitheroe released to Alan the Baker land which he held of the Lady Agnes daughter of Stephen de Mearley lying between Thirebrook and the brook flowing on the west side of Aldfield, and between Brettestreet and the upper part of Stocking and across to the stony way going down to Thirebrook; Add. MS. 32104, fol. 151b. To this Jordan son of Adam was a witness. William son of Ralph de Clitheroe gave to Adam son of Robert son of Hamo de Bacsolf (Bashall), in free marriage with Eustachia his daughter, part of a toft in Clitheroe which Cecily de Euerby held as dower after the death of Ralph the Reeve her husband and grantor's father; Kuerden MSS. iii, C 27.
Alexander son of Alexander in 1235 claimed a toft against Ralph son of Roger by inheritance, and secured an acknowledgement of his right; Final Conc. i, 59.
Amice widow of Richard son of Alan de Clitheroe in 1280 claimed dower against Jordan de Clitheroe, Alan son of Hugh de Clitheroe and others; De Banco R. 34, m. 17 d.
In 1292 William de Kighley and Emma his wife (widow of Adam de Baudri) claimed dower in Clitheroe against Alan son of Hugh de Clitheroe, Alexander de Clitheroe, Alice his wife and others; Assize R. 408, m. 48 d., 61 d. Roger son of Alan son of Hugh in 1319–20 gave a toft in Maluaysegate, &c., to Richard son of Thomas de Standen; DD, no. 1088. In 1336 John son of Alexander de Clitheroe made a settlement of eight messuages, &c., the remainders being to his son John, to Thomas son of William son of Henry de Clitheroe and Emma his wife and to John son of Robert brother of Alexander; Final Conc. ii, 195.
Jordan son of Jordan son of Buband gave to Alexander the Clerk son of Hugh the Chaplain of Clitheroe a croft between the stone bridge and the wacellum which was called Mukedelandes syke; DD, no. 2095. Robert son of Richard the Receiver gave an oxgang of land, with various services, to Jordan son of Adam; ibid. no. 2121. To this Jordan Henry de Middleton gave the meadow in Clitheroe fields pertaining to an oxgang of land at ½d. rent; ibid. no. 1232.
Annota daughter of Ralph son of Jordan de Clitheroe was in 1292 nonsuited in her claim against her father; Assize R. 408, m. 5 d. Thomas de Bradehurst also was non-suited in a claim against Jordan son of Peter de Clitheroe; ibid. m. 48 d. The same Jordan was among the defendants to a claim for a messuage and toft successfully made by Maud daughter of Robert son of Richard de Skipton; ibid. m. 28.
An acre in Clitheroe was in dispute in 1287 between Robert son of Henry son of Paulin and his brother William; De Banco R. 67, m. 57. Agnes and Elizabeth, Robert's daughters, were defendants in 1303—when 'Paulin's son' had been abbreviated to 'Pawesson'—to a claim by Maud daughter of Ralph son of Ralph Peytevin and Isabel his wife; ibid. 145, m. 49 d.; 201, m. 38.
John son of William de Clitheroe was one of the defendants to a claim put forward in 1334 by Hugh de Whalley and Agnes his wife. It was shown that Hugh had granted the messuage in dispute to Richard de Morley in 1316; Coram Rege R. 297, m. 125 d.
60 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 79. For an account of the family see Downham Manor. To John de Dinelay Robert son of Adam gave the land in Salthill appertaining to the grantor's 4½ burgages in Clitheroe at a rent of 14d.; DD, no. 1075. In 1313–14 Adam de Dinelay gave lands in Clitheroe and other places to his son John and Margaret his wife; ibid. no. 1205. In 1340 Cecily de Dinelay obtained two messuages and 7 acres of land in Clitheroe against John Douenay and Agnes his wife; Final Conc. ii, 113. These messuages were in dispute in 1346; De Banco R. 349, m. 145. John de Dinelay in 1357 recovered a free tenement in Clitheroe against William Nowell, Margaret his wife, John de Greenacres, Maud his wife and others; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 6, m. 8 d.
Richard de Dinelay of Downham died in 1369 holding of the Duke of Lancaster in socage six messuages in Clitheroe, each with a burgage, 72 acres of land and 5¼ acres of meadow; Inq. p.m. 43 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 32. See also Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 121. Richard Dinelay died in 1511 holding two messuages there; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 5.
61 Whitaker, loc. cit. Horrocksford (Hurrocford) is named about 1330 in a lease by Adam son of Hugh de Clitheroe to Robert de Clitheroe, clerk; Assize R. 1404, m. 25. The s is of late introduction.
Among lands of John Hoghton of Little Pendleton in 1515 was a tenement in Bradford in Bowland called Horrocksford in the occupation of Giles Parker; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), H 434.
Giles Parker of Edisford obtained leases of Horrocksford from the Talbots in 1542 and 1546; his mother Elizabeth was the occupier in the former year; Anderton D. (Mr. C. J. Stonor). In 1566 he purchased the messuage, &c., from John Talbot and Mary his wife; ibid.; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 28, m. 73. In 1589 he purchased another from James Aughton; ibid. bdle. 51, m. 45. Hardhill was part of the Parkers' estate; Pal. of Lanc. Writs of Assize, 37 Hen. VIII.
Claverell Hey had in 1552 been in dispute between Giles Parker and Thomas Aughton; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 118. James Aughton in 1582 claimed land in Clitheroe against Thomas Walmsley, putting forward the following pedigree: Thomas Aughton -s. Thomas -s. John -s. James, plaintiff; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 251, m. 16 d.; Ducatus Lanc. iii, 91.
Nicholas son and heir-apparent of Giles Parker had land in Chatburn in 1558; Farrer, Clith. Ct. R. 190. He had a son Giles who matriculated at Oxford in 1599; Foster, Alumm.
In 1606 the Parkers seem to have sold part of their estate in Clitheroe, Giles Parker of Horrocksford, Anne his wife, Giles Parker of Chiterick and Richard his brother being concerned; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 297, m. 8 d.
62 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 163; the tenure was unknown. On the marriage of Christopher son of Christopher Anderton with Alethea Smith in 1638 Horrocksford was assigned as dower. She being a recusant had twothirds sequestered under the Commonwealth, and as a widow in 1653 asked leave to compound; Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 40, 52.
63 As the 'manor of Horrocksford' it was held by Francis Anderton of Lostock in 1715; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 500, m. 2 d. There is a rental among the Forfeited Estate Papers.
64 Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 16.
65 Roger de Lacy in the time of King John gave William son of Fulk, his marshal, all his demesne land in Clitheroe between Brook Street and Monkgate, &c.; Kuerden fol. MS. 231.
Walter de Waddington gave an oxgang of land in Clitheroe and a culture called Horteshole to his son Ellis at the rent of a pair of white gloves; DD, no. 2080. Isabel widow of Henry son of Walter de Waddington in 1322 claimed land in Clitheroe against Robert de Rishton; De Banco R. 244, m. 112.
Thomas Waddington purchased a messuage from Edmond Colthurst in 1569; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 31, m. 107. Robert Waddington and Isabel his wife sold land to Giles Dugdale in 1594; ibid. bdle. 56, m. 103.
Robert son of Hugh (formerly reeve) of Clitheroe gave land, &c., in Wolvetscholes to William de Grimshaw; Kuerden MSS. iii, C 27. Richard Hare granted Richard de Morley and Elizabeth his wife a tenement in Wolvetscholes; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), H 327. Alice widow of Robert de Shireburne in 1342 gave to John son of Adam del Clough Wolferichscales in Edisford in the vill of Clitheroe; ibid. S 246. See also Whalley Couch. iv, 1110–19.
Many of the neighbouring landowners had burgages, messuages, &c., in Clitheroe, the following appearing in the inquisitions: Shireburne of Stonyhurst, 1441 and later, two burgages held in socage; Greenacres of Worston, 1398 and later, burgages; Talbot of Bashall, 1500 onward, two burgages in burgage; Whitacres of Henthorn, Dodgson of Henthorn, Nowell of Little Mearley, Morley of Great Mearley, Hoghton of Pendleton, Walmsley of Showley and Aspinall of Over Standen. There is nothing noteworthy about the tenures.
With regard to the Dodgson holding it may be added that John Talbot of Salesbury and Anne his wife in 1475 granted a burgage adjoining the fabrica of Clitheroe to John Dodgson; DD, no. 1056.
The Clitheroe Court Roll of 1584 states that Thomas Walmsley of Showley had died holding a close called Orchard Ing or Aighton Ing, and that his son and heir Thomas transferred the same to his brother John Walmsley of Gray's Inn. The roll of 1587 records that Thomas Robinson deceased had held an acre of 'wapentake land' called Harryse Aker, and that his heirs were daughters Elizabeth and Alice, aged seven and four respectively. The roll for 1583 shows that the services due from 4 acres called Salthill Flat were 1d. rent, a day's 'shearing,' a day's mowing, a day's leading of turves, and a day's leading of coals.
Roger Nowell died in 1507 holding the moiety of two messuages, &c., by knight's service and 18d. rent. His wife was named Elizabeth and he left two daughters Grace and Anne, aged six and four respectively. The other moiety, held by the same services, had been the right of Sibyl (dead) wife of Thomas Holden and mother of James; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 22. Charles Radcliffe of Todmorden died in 1536, having a rent of 18d. from a close called Thistleridding; ibid. viii, no. 35. Henry Mawdesley of Over Darwen died in 1607 holding 15 acres in Clitheroe of the king in socage as of the manor of East Greenwich, paying 2s. 6d. rent; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 85. Thomas Lister of Twiston died in 1608 holding Colthurst in chief by knight's service and other messuages in burgage; ibid. 117. William Hartley died in 1621, leaving a son and heir Robert Henley, aged thirteen; also a widow Margaret and two daughters Alice and Hester; Chan. Inq. p.m. (ser. 2), cccxci, 70. James Marsden died in 1633 holding in Clitheroe of the king by burgage; his son and heir Hugh was fifteen years of age; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 860. John Tomlinson died the same year, his heir being a brother Thurstan, aged sixty; ibid. 1181.
The Folds MSS. afford the following rental of Clitheroe in 1617: Robert Hesketh, 26s. 8d.; Thomas Walmsley, 10s.; Richard Shuttleworth, 1 acre, 1s.; Richard Greenacres, 10s. 6d.; Richard Dawson, 7s. 6d.; John Charleton, 1s.
Thomas Clark of Clitheroe in 1631 compounded for having refused knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 216.
66 Lay Subs. Lancs. bdle. 130, no. 82.
67 Ibid. no. 125.
68 Ibid. bdle. 131, no. 274.
69 Ibid. no. 317.
70 Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3205; he forfeited a messuage in Clitheroe Castle, sold to Thomas Parker in 1654.
71 Ibid. ii, 1211. He compounded in 1646 by a fine of £50; he admitted having worn a sword 'for defence against the fury of soldiers on either side.'
72 The surname occurs frequently in the court rolls of the neighbourhood; see Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R.
In 1343 it was alleged that Richard de Greenacres had taken 40d. by extortion from Richard son of Richard Dugdale of Clitheroe; Assize R. 430, m. 23.
In 1363 John de Dinelay claimed land in Clitheroe against John Dugdale; De Banco R. 414, m. 100.
Henry Dugdale in 1569 purchased land and fishery from Edmund Colthurst and Eleanor his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 31, m. 115. Next year he was involved in disputes with Thomas Colthurst respecting the Woorowe fishery; Ducatus Lanc. ii, 381, 390. Dugdale sold to John Braddyll in 1577; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 39, m. 31. Nicholas Dugdale and Richard his brother occur in 1587; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 261, m. 13. Giles Dugdale in 1596 purchased a messuage from Richard Greenacres; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 59, m. 165.
Edmund Dugdale died in 1588 holding four burgages, &c., of the queen in free burgage as of her borough of Clitheroe, paying 5s. 3d. rent. His heirs were two daughters, Janet (aged twenty-seven) wife of William Dugdale and Elizabeth (aged fifteen); Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xv, no. 21. William Dugdale purchased a burgage from Thomas Talbot in 1593; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 55, m. 45. Family disputes are noticed in Ducatus Lanc. iii, 371. In 1600 Thomas Mercer claimed land in Marketgate against John Dugdale; ibid. 442, 426.
James Dugdale of Clitheroe is stated to have had a son John (1552–1624), who sold what he had in Lancashire and removed from the county. His son the famous William (1605–86) was born at Shustoke, published his Warwickshire in 1656, Monasticon 1655–72, Baronage 1675–6, and other works. See Life by Canon Raines prefixed to the Visitation of the county in 1664–5 (Chet. Soc.).
73 The king granted the mill to Henry Felongley for life in 1413; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xvi, 79 (pt. ii). In 1482 it was stated that John Talbot of Salesbury had made a new mill at Clitheroe, so that the king's mill there stood unoccupied; ibid. xix, 107 d. In 1557 Henry Colthurst, farmer of the mill, complained that various tenants had refused to grind their corn there; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 78. There were further disputes in 1594–5; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 321, 329. See also Lancs. and Ches. Rec. ii, 267.
74 Lay Subs. Lancs. bdle. 250, no. 9.
75 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vi, 123; with respect to 300 acres. In 1553–4 the queen issued a commission to inquire into encroachments; Ducatus Lanc. ii, 139.
76 This appears from the confirming charter, c. 1283; Harland, Clitheroe Chart. 6. The Chester liberties are recited ibid. 28–33.
It does not appear that a burgage had any fixed amount of land appurtenant, for in 1334 a burgage, seven ridges and meadow in Greenlache were transferred, and in 1447 a burgage with a croft, 2 acres of arable land and 2 acres of meadow; Towneley MS. DD, no. 676, 921.
77 The number seems to have varied from two to six; see Towneley MS. DD, no. 2030, 2095, 2098. John the clerk and Robert son of Ralph, the pretors, attested a grant of land in the town fields made by Walter son of Emma to Richard son of Karnwath; ibid. no. 2000, 2006. In another charter the same officers are called reeves; ibid. no. 1100. William son of Henry and William Tailor were bailiffs in 1324–5; ibid. no. 1083.
78 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 213. The names of twenty-six of the burgesses, acting for the whole, are recited in a charter (c. 1287) preserved by Towneley; Add. MS. 32104, fol. 143. A drawing of the borough seal is appended, showing a castle with three towers and the legend 's. comvnitat. evrgensivm de cliderhov.'
79 Harland, op. cit. 6, 7. The earl also granted to the burgesses the farm of the vill and the pleas of the court there with issues pertaining thereto, saving assaults by the burgesses upon the officers and household of the earl.
80 Ibid. 13; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 75. Turbary in Pendle was allowed in lieu of that in Bashall, granted by the former charter.
Common of pasture on the waste in respect of a burgage was in dispute about 1590; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 273–4, 287.
81 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 3.
82 By Edw. III in 1346; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxv, 25 d.; Cal. Pat. 1345–8, p. 124. By Hen. V in 1413–14; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 74 n. By Hen. VIII in 1542 and by Jas. I in 1604; ibid.
83 Inquiries as to whether or not it would be to the king's loss for the monks to acquire the burgages, &c., in mortmain, were held in 1343 as to one messuage held by a peppercorn rent, in 1346 as to a messuage, &c., held of Queen Isabel by 2s. 8d. rent; in 1362 as to thirteen messuages, &c., held of the burgesses by 11s. yearly; also as to ten messuages held of the burgesses by 7s. 8d. rent; the burgesses held the borough of the earl by 10 marks yearly; Inq. p.m. 17 Edw. III (2nd nos.), no. 48; 20 Edw. III (2nd nos.), no. 62; 36 Edw. III, pt. ii (2nd nos.), no. 39, 45.
For a further purchase in 1429 see Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 30, 31. This may be the same as that licensed in 1438; Cal. Pat. 1436–41, p. 178.
The charters regarding the earliest of these acquisitions are in the Whalley Couch. iv, 1098–1135. Adam son of John Brown of Clitheroe granted to Robert Querderey in 1316 a burgage and chamberplace by Clitheroe Cross, between two other burgages; ibid. 1100. Robert Querderey in 1343 transferred the same to trustees for the monks of Whalley, who thereupon gave it to the abbey; ibid. 1101–2. The king's licence for the acquisition is printed ibid. 1109. The monks acquired in Malveysgate eight messuages, in Wellgate two, in Kirkgate three, in Marketstreet three; also lands in the fields of Sydales, Withens, Crosshill and Cokewell butts, in Ribblehill, in Oldfield, under the castle, Lache Marsh, and all the lands and messuages which had belonged to Sir Hugh de Clitheroe; ibid. 1107. At the Suppression the abbey had eighteen houses and various lands in Clitheroe, yielding £16 3s. 10d. a year; ibid. 1215, 1236.
One of the charters preserved shows that a grantor had sold his land for 2 marks to help him to go on pilgrimage towards Jerusalem; ibid. 1126.
The reversion of messuages, &c., in Clitheroe lately belonging to Whalley Abbey was in 1560 sold by the Crown to Giles and Brian Parker; Pat. 2 Eliz. pt. iv.
84 Harland, op. cit. 19–22, where the date (from an old endorsement) is given as Hen. IV. The official record, however, is 11 Hen. VIII; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxii, 48, 48 d. The second document gives the proclamation in English which the sheriff was to recite: 'Whereas of late it has comed to the knowledge of our sovereign lord Henry, &c., that many and divers of his subjects of his county palatine of Lancaster. . . have had their assemblies and meeting at his monastery of Whalley in his said county, and there in the cemeteries and place near unto his said monastery, without any grant or other authority, have of late made commutations and used buying and selling of goods, cattles, and merchandises in semblable manner as there were or had been lawful fairs, whereby many inconvenientises have of late ensued to great displeasure of our said sovereign lord and contrary to his laws, and also to the great inquieting of the religious persons of the said monastery, which our said sovereign lord may neither will not in no wise any longer shall continue,' &c.
The people of the district objected to this arbitrary interference with their convenience, and in 1521 it was alleged that the Earl of Derby and his men had caused John Butler and others 'in the most riotous manner to keep the king's fair at Whalley, notwithstanding the king's command. . . The fair has been kept at Whalley time out of mind, but the earl has caused it to be laid away'; L. and P. Hen. VIII, iii (2), 1923 (2). There seems to be some selfcontradiction in this account.
85 Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 382. These claims were allowed; also the right of assize of bread, &c., infangenthief, waif, gallows, &c., in Clitheroe.
A fair at Clitheroe is named in a grant to Roger de Lacy in 1205; Duchy of Lanc. Royal Charters, class xxv, A 9.
The right to hold fairs was questioned by the attorney-general of the duchy in the time of Elizabeth; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. ccviii, A 64.
A decree concerning the market place was made in the time of James I; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 240.
86 Baines, Lancs. Dir. i, 612.
87 Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. cxlvii, S 1.
88 Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre. of Lancs. 246, &c. A list of the members is given. At the election in Sept. 1640 there was no contest, but fifty-seven names were recorded of voters for Ralph Assheton and fifty-two for Richard Shuttleworth. They are printed in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 133–4. In 1714 the House of Commons declared the election void and refused a new writ on account of corruption; Portland MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), v, 421, 428.
89 Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 247. There had been earlier decisions in 1660 to the effect that the election must be by the free burghers and not the freemen at large, and in 1662 that it must be by freeholders for life or in fee.
90 Baines, Lancs. Dir. i, 610. Earl Howe had his right by descent from Assheton and Earl Brownlow by purchase from Lister. The Starkie interest is usually unnoticed.
91 The boundaries were extended to include several adjacent townships, Downham, Whalley, &c.; Pink and Beaven, op. cit.
92 Baines, Lancs. Dir. i, 610. The bailiffs jointly exercised the power of one magistrate and were the returning officers and coroners of the borough.
93 Ibid. The courts were in 1825 held in the New Moot Hall, 'a neat modern structure of the Gothic order, ornamented with the borough arms cut in stone in the front, and [having] a spire 62 ft. high.'
James Nowell and Hugh Standen, late bailiffs, in the name of the 'whole commons' of the town in 1542 complained that Richard Shireburne and others had held a court in the town in contempt of the recently granted charter of Hen. VIII, which charter they had taken from the bailiffs and detained; Duchy Plead. ii, 171.
94 The gasworks were erected in 1837.
95 An Act respecting the water supply was passed in 1854; 17 & 18 Vict. cap. 27.
96 By Act 41 & 42 Vict. cap. 84.
97 Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 317–18.
The 'chapel of my castle of Clitheroe' is named in the grant of Whalley Church to Pontefract about 1120; Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 507; Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 109.
A note of the boundaries of the Castle parish in Kuerden MSS. (iii, C 27) refers to Bowland only.
98 Henry de Lacy, after giving the church of Whalley to the monks of Stanlaw, wished to except this chapel in his castle, and causing the abbot and convent to renounce their claim to it appointed William de Nunny to be chaplain there. In 1311 the advowson was held by the Earl of Lincoln; the chapel was worth £13 6s. 8d. a year; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 4. In 1334 the abbot's claim to the chapel was allowed, and in 1339 the Bishop of Lichfield decided that the vicar of Whalley was responsible for the parishioners of the Castle chapelry. In 1349 the Earl of Lancaster surrendered the advowson to the monks, and the king after ratifying withdrew his confirmation. It was not till 1365 that the monks finally obtained possession from John of Gaunt. They had to pay considerable sums. See Whalley Couch. i, 226–30; iv, 1064, 1169; Whitaker, op. cit. i, 258–62. The monks denied that it was a free chapel because it had no font or burial-ground and had no privilege from the apostolic see. There are references to the matter in Cal. Pat. 1330–4, p. 528; 1343–5, p. 425; 1345–8, p. 85; 1348–50, p. 469; Cal. Close, 1346–9, p. 95; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 362, 366; Inq. a.q.d. 19 Edw. III, no. 22; Coram Rege R. 342, m. 78 d.
The following incumbents occur:— William Chaillon, 'parson,' 1321; Richard Camel, pres. 1322; Roger de Lysewy, pres. 1322; John de Woodhouse, pres. 1331; Richard de Moseley, rector of Earl's Barton, pres. 1333, res. 1334; Henry de Walton, 1349; Cal. Pat.; Towneley MS. 'Fountains, &c.', fol. 210. John de Stafford claimed the incumbency in 1365; Lich. Epis. Reg. v, fol. 46b. The papal collector in England in 1373 in the pope's name ordered the Bishop of Lichfield to make inquiry as to the position of the chapel of Clitheroe; Whalley Couch. iv, 1172. This probably refers to the Castle chapel; see Cal. of Papal Letters, iv, 70.
99 The records 1500–38 are printed in Whalley Act Bk. (Chet. Soc. new ser.). The places under this jurisdiction were Pendle, Rossendale, Trawden, Bowland, Chatburn, Clitheroe (Castle), Ramsgreave and Hoddlesden.
100 Op. cit. 52. The following are named as chaplains of St. Michael's: 1521, Christopher Feyser; 1528, Robert Whitehead; 1532, John Hodgson, who was there in 1537. In 1521 the chaplain received £4 a year from the abbey; Whitaker, op. cit. i, 258. This payment was continued after the Dissolution, and in 1663 was increased by £2; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 318.
101 In 1717 nothing but the walls remained, and they were decayed; ibid. 319. The chapel is not named in the visitation lists.
102 It is mentioned in the Pontefract charter cited above. The tithes were worth £17 a year in 1298 and the altarage £4; Whalley Couch. i, 214.
103 Whitaker (ii, 91) gives: Hugh and Peter, c. 1190 (Whalley Couch. i, 286); John son of Henry, 1339; Hugh de Mitton, 1397.
About 1527 an acre of land was given to the church of Clitheroe by Richard Kendall 'for one priest to sing prayers for the health of his soul'; Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 79.
104 Whitaker, op. cit. i, 87. It seems to have been raised to £4, for this was the 'old allowance' afterwards paid by the Archbishop of Canterbury out of the rectory; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 10; Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 320.
105 Shireburne Abstract Book at Leagram. Elizabeth his wife was joined with the founder. The names of those for whom mass was to be said were to be set in a table of stone in the parish church of St. Mary Magdalene of Clitheroe.
106 Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 140. In 1535 Thomas Silcock was cantarist; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 230. The lands were at Edisford, near the bridge, at Ashley, Claughton, Clitheroe, Chatburn and Worston.
For sales of those lands see Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 165–6; Pat. 11 Jas. I, pt. viii.
107 Visit. Lists at Chester Dioc. Reg.
108 Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 317–19. Ralph Ryder was curate of the Castle parish in 1580–1; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 58. About 1610 it was called a donative; there was no minister; Hist. MSS. Com. Rec. xiv, App. iv, 10.
109 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 109.
110 Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 165. As nothing is said of the Castle chapel it may be assumed that it had ceased to be used by 1650.
111 Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 319–20. The Archbishop of Canterbury still paid £11 10s. and the duchy £3 0s. 1½d. net; £5 a year came from lands and the rest from fees.
112 Ibid.
113 Ibid. in notes; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 92.
114 Lond. Gaz. 27 Nov. 1866.
115 Manch. Dioc. Dir.
116 The architects were Rickman & Hutchinson of Birmingham; Whitaker, Whalley (ed. 4, 1876), ii, 83.
117 Ibid. (ed. 3), 284.
118 There is a representation of it on the title-page of 'An address delivered on the ceremony of laying the first stone of the parochial church of St. Mary Magdalene, Clitheroe, May 1 1828,' by the Rev. J. T. Allen. The capitals are illustrated in Whitaker, Whalley (ed. 4), ii, 84.
119 Illustrations of the church before 1828 show a building under one roof, there being no external distinction between chancel and nave. There was no clearstory, but dormer windows had been inserted on the south side.
120 'The north chapel was appropriated to Great Mearley, but has no monuments of the Radcliffes, many of whom are buried there'; Whitaker, Whalley (ed. 3), 284.
121 The clock was inserted at a later date, the spaces being originally left open. The spire was not completed till 1846.
122 They are illustrated in Whitaker, Whalley (ed. 4, 1876), ii, 84.
123 It is illustrated in ibid. (ed. 3), 284. Whitaker speaks of 'the judicious Webster, who though he had the sagacity to detect the absurdities of witchcraft, was yet a dupe to the follies of judicial astrology.'
124 Clergy List (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 18, as 'Mychotte.' He is named in the visitation lists of 1548 and 1554, but in the latter mortuus is added to his name.
125 Ibid. In 1563 he subscribed to the queen's supremacy in religion; Ches. Sheaf (Ser. 3), i, 34–5.
126 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 91. He became schoolmaster in 1594, and died a few years later, having left 40s. to the repairs of the church; Visit. Returns.
127 Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xx, 58.
128 Whitaker, loc. cit. Dickson was still curate in 1601, when he was presented for not wearing the surplice; so also in 1605; Visit. Returns. About 1610 he was reported to be 'no preacher'; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 10.
In 1592 Edward Lawson was named as curate; Raines, loc. cit.
129 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 92.
130 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 68. From the parish register it appears he was still there in 1638.
A Thomas Warriner is named in 1626 and 1629, but may have been at the Castle chapel.
131 Robert Marsden was approved in 1645 and had an augmentation of £25 allowed to him; Whitaker, op. cit. i, 221. In 1650 he still had this allowance and was considered 'an able divine'; Commonw. Ch. Surv. 165. He occurs again in 1657 and 1658; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 201, 227. He conformed at the Restoration and was curate in 1671; Visit. Lists.
132 Ibid. of 1674; Reg.
133 Visit. Lists, 1677, &c.; he was licensed to St. Michael in the Castle in 1683. He was 'conformable' in 1689; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 229.
134 with this curate begin the Clitheroe church papers at Chester Dioc. Reg.
135 Fellow of his college; B.D. in 1746.
136 Called James Cowgill the elder; incumbent of Downham.
137 Vicar of Guildford 1772; canon of Windsor 1774; Dean of Raphoe; d. 1795. He had several distinguished sons. For pedigree and epitaph see Whitaker, Craven (ed. Morant), 251.
138 A famous master of the grammar school 1775–1813; Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 88–9, 93. He was also for a short time rector of Claughton in Lonsdale. He is said to have written some uncomplimentary lines describing the town about 1775; N. and Q. (Ser. 4), ii, 33. He wrote a poem called The Birch; ibid. (Ser. 1), x, 432.
139 Master of the grammar school. He died by his own hand; Whitaker, op. cit. 95.
140 Master of the grammar school; complaint was made of his neglect of duty there from 1816 onward.
141 Master of the grammar school. He was promoted to the rectory of Alresford in 1834 and the vicarage of Stradbroke in 1841. He died in 1861
142 He became patron of the benefice.
143 Previously incumbent of St. James's, Latchford.
144 Whitaker cites early charters by Orm de Hammerton and John son of Ralph de Clitheroe; op. cit. ii, 96. The latter charter and one by Robert son of Richard the Receiver of Clitheroe are in Kuerden's fol. MS. 79. A grant by Roger de Lacy is in Harl. MS. 2077, fol. 322.
In 1376 it was alleged that a chantry had been founded at Edisford in the town of Clitheroe by the free burgesses to provide a chaplain to celebrate on alternate days and to sustain a leper house, but that the estate had passed into the hands of the Abbot of Whalley, who had discontinued the chantry. The abbot replied that the chantry had been maintained only by the devotion of the burgesses, and that he had had the lands on lease, but had surrendered them; Memo. R. (L.T.R.), 142, m. 5.
By another inquiry in 1386–7 it was found that Richard de Edisford, the warden, had no lepers in the hospital, because he was not bound to receive any unless they belonged to the vill of Clitheroe; Kuerden MSS. iv, E 4.
145 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 97; Raines, Chantries, 236–9. The chantry was void in 1547; its lands were worth £4 8s. 8d. a year. On the death of John Dinelay, the chantry priest, William Hurd was in 1508 presented to it; he was still there in 1535; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 230. For William Hurd's prayer see Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 247, and Colne Church below.
In 1550 an annual rent of £4 was allowed to Henry Couper, 'just as he had when incumbent of the chantry in the chapel of Edisford in the parish of Clitheroe'; Duchy of Lane. Misc. Bks. xxiii, 61.
146 Pat. 27 Eliz. pt. vi; to Walter Spendlow, &c.
147 For district see Lond. Gaa. 17 Jan. 1871. The late vicar of Low Moor, the Rev. J. B. Waddington (d. 1910), was of some note.
148 Ibid. 3 Apr. 1868.
149 Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. ii, 199– 207. Owing to a secession there was a second Congregational meeting-place, called Providence Chapel, from 1869 to 1879.
150 Visit. Returns.
151 Lay Subs. Lancs. bdle. 131, no. 317.
152 Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc.), v, 142.
153 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xviii, 216.
154 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 93–5; End. Char. Rep. 1902. For a disputed election of governors in 1586 see Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 510.
155 In attesting the age of John Tempest in 1304 Robert Buck said he remembered the year because just before John's birth, while at school (in scolis) at Clitheroe at the cost of Sir Henry de Kighley, he was so cruelly beaten that he left the school altogether; Yorks. Inq. (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), iv, 92.