Townships
Oswaldtwistle

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1911

Pages

404-409

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'Townships: Oswaldtwistle', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6 (1911), pp. 404-409. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53142 Date accessed: 22 November 2014.


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OSWALDTWISTLE

Oswaldtuisil, Oswaldtwisil, 1241. There are unimportant variants as Osewaldewysel, 1275; Osewaldestwysel, 1292. Oswaldtwistle is recent.

Ducworth, 1241.

This large township, having an acreage of 4,883, (fn. 1) occupies the northern slope of a moorland height attaining 1,236 ft. above sea level. The urban portion is in the north-west corner along the road leading south-west from Church. On the western side is Duckworth, and on the south-west boundary stand Belthorn and Rann. The population in 1901 was 14,192.

A number of important roads cross the township. Along the northern boundary goes the direct one from Blackburn to Church. Further south is a winding road between the same places, leading through Knuzden or Knuzden Brook, Stanhill and the town of Oswaldtwistle. Whitebirk is a hamlet near Knuzden. A road from Blackburn to Haslingden, by way of Duckworth and Cocker Brook, crosses the township diagonally, and in the south-west corner is part of another road between the same places. From the town a road leads south-east through Broadfield and Gaulkthorn to join the Haslingden road, while another goes south and west by Sough Lane Ends towards Darwen. The Blackburn and Accrington railway and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal pass through the north-east corner.

Though in 1666 there were 128 hearths liable to the hearth tax, only five houses had as many as four hearths and the next largest had two. (fn. 2)

James Hargreaves, the inventor, was born at Stanhill about 1741. By trade he was a weaver and carpenter, and without education. He invented a carding machine about 1760 and the spinning jenny about 1764. His machines were destroyed by his fellow spinners in 1768 and he then removed to Nottingham. He died in that town in 1778. (fn. 3)

A local board was constituted in 1863 (fn. 4) and became an urban district council in 1894; it has fifteen members chosen by the following wards: Foxhill Bank, Immanuel. St. Michael's, St. Oswald's, St. Paul's. The gas and water works belong to the council. The town hall was built in 1891.

Cotton spinning and printing have long been the chief industries. Coal-mines are worked, and there are also potteries and quarries. The soil is a loam, with clay or peat subsoil; the agricultural land is practically all in permanent grass, viz. 3,454½ acres, only 5 acres being returned as arable and 19½ as occupied by woods and plantations. (fn. 5)

Near White Ash was a cross called Hippings Cross. (fn. 6)

Manors

The whole of OSWALDTWISTLE, which with Duckworth was assessed as two plough-lands, was within the honor of Clitheroe, and in 1258 was held of Edmund de Lacy by a rent of 10s. (fn. 7) It was granted to the Radcliffes of Radcliffe at an early time, but the charter has not been preserved, (fn. 8) and in 1340 it was recorded that Richard de Radcliffe held two ploughlands in Oswaldtwistle and Duckworth of Queen Isabel as of the castle and honor of Clitheroe by knight's service and a payment of 15d. a year for ward of Clitheroe Castle. (fn. 9) In 1485 John Radcliffe of Radcliffe held the manor of the king by knight's service and a payment of 10s. (fn. 10) The manor was sold by Henry Radcliffe Earl of Sussex to Andrew Barton of Smithills in 1548, (fn. 11) and descended to Lord Fauconberg, (fn. 12) who in 1722 sold it to James Whalley of Sparth and Christopher Baron of Knuzden, after which it was held in moieties. (fn. 13) The former moiety, or perhaps the whole, was acquired by the first Sir Robert Peel, and descended to his son the more famous Sir Robert (fn. 14) ; but it does not appear that any manor is now claimed, and the land is held by a number of proprietors.

The Peels are said to have come to Blackburn from Craven (fn. 15) about 1600 and engaged in the cloth trade. (fn. 16) Robert Peel in 1731 purchased an estate in Oswaldtwistle, known then as Oldham's Cross, (fn. 17) and since as Peel Fold. His grandson Robert (1723–95), while farming in Blackburn, was led to join a calico-printing business, and invented a process of block-printing; he made other improvements and greatly extended his business. Riots and factory-wrecking caused him to move to Burtonon-Trent, but on retiring he lived at Ardwick. The descendants of his eldest son William still own Peel Fold. The third son was the above-named Sir Robert Peel, created a baronet in 1800. (fn. 18)


Peel of Peel Fold. Argent three sheawes of as many arrows proper banded gules, on a chief azure a bee volant or.

The Barons had long had an estate in the township and neighbourhood. (fn. 19) William son and heir of George Baron of Aspden is named in a lease of 1601. (fn. 20) William Baron died in 1618 holding messuages and lands in Oswaldtwistle and Church and leaving a son and heir George, aged forty. (fn. 21) Christopher Baron, the purchaser of a moiety of the manor, died in 1733, (fn. 22) and was succeeded by a son Henry. (fn. 23)

A minor Radcliffe family had land in Oswaldtwistle as in Church about the end of the 13th century. Richard son of Roger de Oswaldtwistle granted to Adam de Radcliffe for 15 marks an oxgang of land in Oswaldtwistle and three quarters of an oxgang in Duckworth. (fn. 24) Peter son of Adam de Radcliffe granted to Richard son of Robert de Radcliffe all right in the Boothroyds in the vill of Oswaldtwistle together with the homage of John son of Richard de Whitaker, who held a moiety. (fn. 25) Roger son of Adam de Radcliffe gave his brother Robert land called Hall in return for a pair of white gloves yearly. (fn. 26) Robert de Radcliffe by exchange with Alexander son of Ellis de Church obtained land in Haworth. (fn. 27) Alan de Kenyon and Alice his wife in 1301 and later claimed various tenements in Alice's right, she being a daughter of the above-named Roger de Radcliffe. (fn. 28)

The Radcliffes of Winmarleigh (fn. 29) and Todmorden also had lands in Oswaldtwistle; in 1563 Charles Radcliffe of Todmorden and Henry his son and heir sold lands in the township to Ottwell and Alexander Hindle. (fn. 30)

Adam de Clitheroe in 1333 had land in Oswaldtwistle occupied by Adam de Haworth (fn. 31) ; it descended to Sir Henry de Hoghton in right of his wife Joan (fn. 32) and then to Talbot of Salesbury. (fn. 33)

A family named Parker was of importance in the 15th century, (fn. 34) but in 1482 Thurstan son of Edmund Parker (fn. 35) sold his lands to John Radcliffe of Radcliffe. Oliver Parker, who had lands in Knuzden and elsewhere, (fn. 36) in 1478 gave Jack Place in Aspden to his son Gilbert. (fn. 37)

ASPDEN gave a surname to a family noticed in the account of Church. In 1276 Richard de Radcliffe and Adam de Aspden claimed a tenement in Oswaldtwistle against Henry de Lacy and others. (fn. 38) Later a family named Grimshaw were in possession. Elizabeth widow of John Grimshaw received lands in Oswaldtwistle in 1408 with remainder to their son Roger (fn. 39) ; and Roger Grimshaw died in or before 1434 (fn. 40) holding Aspden of Richard Radcliffe and having for heir his sister Alice widow of Peter Marsden. (fn. 41)

CATLOW (fn. 42) was probably the half oxgang of land granted by Roger de Oswaldtwistle to William son of Richard de Rishton at a rent of 2s. (fn. 43) The Cattlow or Catlow family appears from time to time in this township (fn. 44) and in Church. The estate about 1500 became divisible among a number of co-heirs—Riding or Ridding, Cunliffe, Greenwood, Rishton and others. (fn. 45) One Catlow Hall was in 1538 sold by Peter Fielden and Margaret his wife to Charles Towneley, (fn. 46) and John Towneley of Cornfield in 1566 sold it to John Woodroff of Bank Top in Burnley. It descended to the Shireburnes and was sold in the 18th century. (fn. 47) Robert Riding died in 1631 holding a messuage, &c., of Thomas Barton by knight's service; his heir was a sister Ellen, aged forty. (fn. 48) Thomas Greenwood of Foxhole Bank was a freeholder in 1600. (fn. 49) He died in 1618 holding a messuage of Sir Thomas Barton by knight's service, suit of court and mill and 1d. rent. His heir, a daughter Susan, aged twenty-five, was wife of Nicholas Rishton. (fn. 50) Gilbert Rishton of Dunnyshope had a Catlow Hall in 1556. (fn. 51)

Other branches of the Rishton family also had estates in Oswaldtwistle (fn. 52) ; thus in 1619 Ralph Rishton of Ponthalgh had the messuage called White Ash, occupied by William Rishton. (fn. 53) Nicholas son of one Ralph Rishton died in 1596 holding two messuages, &c., which descended to his son William, then fourteen years of age. (fn. 54) Ralph Rishton of Oswaldtwistle about 1630 compounded for the part of his estate liable to sequestration for recusancy by an annual fine of £5. (fn. 55) Ralph Rishton the elder of Stanhill and Ralph Rishton the younger in the time of the Commonwealth had their estate of White Ash sequestered for recusancy. The elder Ralph was a 'delinquent' also and his estate was finally confiscated in 1652 and sold; the younger Ralph was allowed to compound for his recusancy by a fine of £57 10s. (fn. 56)

John Ainsworth (of Knuzden), who had lands also in Pleasington and Livesey, died in 1607 holding his messuages, dove-house, &c., in Oswaldtwistle of Randle Barton by the fortieth part of a knight's fee. His son George, the heir, was ten years of age. (fn. 57) George Ainsworth was a 'delinquent' in the Civil War. (fn. 58)

A few other families occur in pleadings and inquisitions. (fn. 59)

The following contributed for their lands to various subsidies: 1524—George Ainsworth, William Oldham, Hugh Baron and John Riding; 1543—the widow of Hugh Baron and John Riding; 1600— William Oldham, George Ainsworth, Thomas Greenwood, William Baron and William Rishton (in ward). (fn. 60) The roll of 1626 records William Rishton, George Ainsworth, George Baron, William Oldham and Robert Riding; James Feilden and four others were non-communicants. (fn. 61)

An inclosure award made in 1774 is preserved at Lancaster. (fn. 62)

The chief landowners in 1787 were Thomas Baron, Mr. Whalley and Dr. Starkie. (fn. 63)

DUCKWORTH was once considered a separate vill. (fn. 64) It was in part the property of the Knights Hospitallers and in part held of the lords of Oswaldtwistle. The former estate is named in the list of the Hospitallers' lands in 1292, (fn. 65) and Ralph Holden of Holden in Haslingden died in 1571 holding lands in Duckworth of the queen as of her manor of Staincliff, parcel of the possessions of the late priory of St. John of Jerusalem in England, by a rent of 2s. (fn. 66) The Holden estate appears to have been acquired in the time of Edward II by the marriage of Adam son of Robert de Holden with Alice de Holland, (fn. 67) releases being obtained from her sister Margery daughter of William son of Margery de Duckworth (fn. 68) and others. (fn. 69) Other parts were purchased in 1328–31 from members of the Duckworth family, (fn. 70) and perhaps other acquisitions were made, for the abovenamed Ralph Holden in 1571 held lands in Duckworth and Oswaldtwistle of Robert Barton by a rent of 2s. 9d. (fn. 71) His grandson and heir, Thomas Holden, in 1582 sold his estate in Duckworth, Oswaldtwistle and Eccleshill, including a water-mill, dovecote, &c., to Randle Barton. (fn. 72) There had been various disputes concerning the Holden land in Duckworth and Oswaldtwistle. (fn. 73)

Richard son of Robert de Radcliffe obtained from Roger son of William de Duckworth three-fourths of an oxgang of land held by Hawise the widow, (fn. 74) and he granted to Adam and Robert sons of William de Radcliffe 2 oxgangs in Duckworth at a rent of 2s., together with part of his land in Oswaldtwistle. (fn. 75) This may have been the origin of the estate of the Radcliffes of Todmorden in the township (fn. 76) ; Charles Radcliffe died in 1536 holding lands in Duckworth of the king as duke by knight's service and a rent of 12d. (fn. 77) ; but though the same statement appears in the inquisition after the death of his son Edward in 1557, (fn. 78) Edward Radcliffe had in 1546 sold his lands there to Gilbert Holden, (fn. 79) and so they became merged in the Holden estate. In 1553 Gilbert Holden was said to hold the 'manor' of Duckworth of the queen by a rent of 2s., (fn. 80) but this probably refers to the Hospitallers' share.

Keeping pace with the growth of the population a number of places of worship have been erected during the last century. In connexion with the Church of England, Emmanuel, (fn. 81) centrally placed on the eastern side of Duckworth, was built in 1837, and a district was then assigned; it has three chapels of ease: St. Mary's, Cocker Brook; St. Andrew's, Hippings; and St. Michael's, Belthorn. The patronage is vested in five trustees. St. Paul's, Foxhill Bank, was built in 1884, and a district was assigned to it in the following year; in this case also five trustees present to the benefice. St. Oswald's, Knuzden, was built in 1878, a district being assigned to it in 1879 (fn. 82) ; it has a school chapel, St. Matthew's, at Stanhill. The Bishop of Manchester collates to it.

There is also a Free Church of England called Holy Trinity. (fn. 83)

The Wesleyan Methodists have two churches; that at Mount Pleasant was built in 1845–6. The Primitive Methodists had a chapel at Foxhill Bank as early as 1836, and have now a second one in the township. The Methodist Free Church are also doubly represented.

The Congregational chapel at the remote hamlet of Belthorn was opened in 1818 and rebuilt in 1848 and again in 1884–5. (fn. 84) In Oswaldtwistle itself services were begun from Accrington in 1870 and a church was formed, the chapel in Albert Street being opened in 1877. (fn. 85)

The Baptist chapel in New Lane was opened in 1820 and rebuilt in 1851; more recently a mission chapel has been built at Cocker Brook.

The Swedenborgians or New Church have long been represented.

For Roman Catholics St. Oswald's school-chapel, served from Accrington, was used till the present church of St. Mary was founded in 1894–8.

Footnotes

1 The Census Rep. 1901 gives 4,885 acres, including 62 of inland water.
2 Lay Subs. Lancs. bdle. 250, no. 9.
3 Dict. Nat. Biog., Abram, Blackburn, 204.
4 Lond. Gaz. 12 May 1863. Various powers as to gas, &c., were conferred by 32 & 33 Vict. cap. 66.
5 a Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
6 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xviii, 11.
7 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 217. In 1311 William de Radcliffe held two ploughlands in thegnage of Henry de Lacy, rendering 10s. a year and doing suit to the court of Clitheroe; ibid. ii, 11.
8 Adam de Radcliffe benefited by the disafforesting of Oswaldtwistle in 1225; Cal. Pat. 1216–25, p. 576.
In the first part of the 13th century, Roger rector of Blackburn being a witness, Philip de Oswaldtwistle granted to Adam de Radcliffe for 20 marks 1⅓ oxgangs of land in Oswaldtwistle, excepting Wolfsykes and Foxhole, which the grantor's brother Henry held; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1659. The Adam of this charter was probably the lord of Radcliffe; a later Adam is mentioned below and in the account of Church. Adam de Radcliffe gave Robert his son all his land in Oswaldtwistle and Duckworth at a rent of two spurs; ibid. no. 1661. This charter was attested by the steward of the Earl of Lancaster, Alan the clerk.
In 1241 William son of Henry—probably the brother of Philip—acknowledged the right of Robert son of Adam de Radcliffe to 22/3 oxgangs of land in Duckworth and 2½ oxgangs in Oswaldtwistle, Robert allowing him 1¾ acres on the east side of Duckworth adjoining Dunnyshope; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 85. The same William son of Henry acknowledged the right of Roger son of Henry—apparently his brother—to 4 oxgangs and 24 acres of land in Oswaldtwistle, receiving 1¾ acres as above; ibid. 81. Roger de Oswaldtwistle was a juror in 1258; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 213.
Oswaldtwistle was among Richard de Radcliffe's manors in 1309; Final Conc. ii, 5. Somewhat earlier as Richard lord of Radcliffe he had granted all his land in Oswaldtwistle and Duckworth to William his son. The following tenants were named: Adam de Aspden, William the Ward, Richard de Cockersley, William son of Roger, Thomas son of William, John de Blackburn, Adam and Robert sons of William de Edgeworth, Richard de Duckworth, and John de Whitaker. A rent of 8 marks was to be paid during the grantor's life and a rose later; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1666–7. William de Radcliffe gave the manor of Oswaldtwistle with a rent of 6s. 8d. to his son Richard in 1342; ibid. no. 1668.
9 Inq. p.m. 14 Edw. III (2nd nos.), no. 31.
10 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 121.
Isabel widow of John Radcliffe complained in 1486 that George Ainsworth and others had cut down 200 thraves of her oats at Oswaldtwistle; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 63, m. 4.
In 1498 Richard Radcliffe of Radcliffe was summoned to prove his title to waif and stray, &c., at Oswaldtwistle, and to free warren in his demesne lands; Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton. 13 Hen. VII. In 1500 Oswaldtwistle is again named among the Radcliffe manors; Final Conc. iii, 148.
Robert Lord Fitz Walter in 1527–8 disputed common of pasture and right of way on Oswaldtwistle Moor with Gilbert Holden and others; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 135.
11 Towneley MS. OO, no. 1678, recites that Robert Earl of Sussex by will of 17 Oct. 1542 had given to Henry Northey, then his secretary, the manors of Oswaldtwistle and Folds for fifty years, but had charged them with certain annuities, and that Henry Earl of Sussex had sold the reversion to Andrew Barton of Smithills. The deed of sale is enrolled in the Com. Pleas, Trin. 2 Edw. VI, m. 9 d.
A few years later (1554–5) Roger Rishton, entering through Henry Northey by lease in 1545, claimed various tenements, suit of court and mill, &c., against a number of persons, including John Radcliffe bastard son of John Radcliffe of Radcliffe, who had various messuages by his father's will, confirmed by Robert Earl of Sussex in 1524. It was stated that Roger Rishton had kept divers courts, and that it was the custom for all tenants of the manor to do their suit at the courts and to grind their corn; Duchy of Lanc. Dep. Phil. and Mary, lxxiii, R. 16.
12 See the account of Smithills in Halliwell.
Robert Barton had various disputes with tenants and others. Sir John Southworth in 1566 purchased lands from Anne and Margery daughters and heirs of Edward Cottam; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 28, m. 132. Afterwards Sir John in conjunction with Robert Elston alias Holden had disputes as to the waste called the moor with Robert Barton; Ducatus Lanc. iii, 3, 37, 53. At his death in 1595 Sir John Southworth was said to hold messuages, &c., in Oswaldtwistle of Ralph Barton as of his manor of Oswaldtwistle; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 3.
Robert Barton was plaintiff in 1562 respecting lands in Duckworth; Ducatus Lanc. ii, 251. In 1575 he claimed Stanhill hey against John Ainsworth and others; ibid. iii, 40. He died in 1580, without issue, holding the manor of Oswaldtwistle, messuages, water-mill, &c., of the queen as of her duchy by knight's service and a rent of 10s. 3d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvi, no. 44.
His widow Margery (Legh), who had this manor for life, afterwards married Sir Richard Shuttleworth, and had many disputes with Ralph Barton, Robert's brother and heir; for he entered the manor, gave trees to various persons, and took sea-coals for his own use; ibid.; Ducatus Lanc. iii, 514. She died 1592. Ralph Barton died a few days before her, but the inquisition names the manor among his possessions; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 50. His son Randle died in 1611 holding the manor as before, by knight's service and 10s. 3d. rent; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 211. The manor was named in fines, &c., respecting the Bartons' estates; e.g. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 152, m. 67.
13 Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 290. In a recovery of a moiety of the manor in 1772 John Whalley was vouchee; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 615, m. 14. In a fine of the same time the deforciants of the manor, messuages, two pot houses, mill, kiln, courts baron, &c., were Robert Master, Elizabeth his wife, James Bradshaw, Anne his wife, John Whalley, Thomas Baron, James Fishwick and Henry Heaton; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 387, m. 154. Elizabeth and Anne were grand-nieces of James Whalley, and John Whalley, afterwards Sir John Whalley Smythe Gardiner, was a grandnephew; see Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 18. The last-named sold his moiety for £16,000.
14 Raines in Gastrell's Notitia (Chet. Soc.), ii, 323.
15 John and William Peel of Craven in 1426–7 gave to feoffees land in Salesbury and Wilpshire, of the gift of Roger Bolton and Cecily his wife; Kuerden fol. MS. 313, 314.
16 This account is from Abram, Blackburn, 212–23; a view of Peel Fold is given. See also the account of Little Harwood.
17 See the Subsidy Rolls quoted in the text. An Oldham was a freeholder in 1600; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 235. Lawrence Oldham died in 1636 holding two messuages, &c., of Sir Thomas Barton as of his manor of Oswaldtwistle by the fortieth part of a knight's fee and doing suit to the manor court and the mill. His heir was his son William, aged seventeen; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, no. 28.
18 See the account of Bury; Dict. Nat. Biog.
19 In 1482 was annulled the child marriage of Hugh son of Thomas Baron of Church with Ellen daughter of John Radcliffe of Radcliffe, the parties having come of age and desiring to be released. They had never cohabited; Dunkenhalgh D.
In 1512 there was a partition of lands between Hugh Baron, Henry Boyes and Richard Whithalgh, the inheritance of a certain —, wife of John Grimshaw. She had two daughters, Margaret and Joan. The former married Hugh Baron and had a son Thomas and a grandson Hugh (living 1512). The latter married — Sherrock and had a son John and grandson William. The last-named was dead in 1512, his daughters and co-heirs Alice and Isabel having married John Boyes and James Whithalgh, whose sons respectively were the Henry and Richard above-named; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, ii, 189.
20 Add. MS. 32104, no. 1261.
21 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 172.
22 His will, which mentions the purchase of the manor, is printed in Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), iii, 105. It has an armorial seal.
23 For the family see Abram, Blackburn, 388, where the descent is thus given: Christopher Baron, d. 1733 -s. Henry, d. 1767 -2nd s. Thomas, d. 1801 -nephew Roger, d. 1820 -niece.
24 Towneley MS. OO, no. 1660.
25 Ibid. OO, no. 1662; Var. Coll. (Hist. MSS. Com.), ii, 12. Henry son of Richard de Derden in 1346 released his right in the Boothroyds to his brother John, who gave it to his eldest son John, with remainders to younger children Robert and Margery and to Nicholas Holden; DD, no. 818, 820.
26 Ibid. OO, no. 1670. Roger gave his daughter Margaret, with remainder to her sister Alice, land formerly held by William de Foxholes; ibid. no. 1669.
27 Ibid. OO, no. 1671–2. Uctred de Church was a witness, so the charter may be one by Robert Radcliffe of Radcliffe.
28 In 1301 they had a suit with Nicholas de Meadowcroft as to two messuages, &c., in Oswaldtwistle, but Nicholas did not prosecute his claim; Assize R. 419, m. 3. They claimed a messuage, &c., from Thomas son of Henry de Catlow in 1307 and later, Alice being sister and heir of Agnes, to whom their father Roger de Radcliffe had given it. The defendant, who was under age, alleged that the gift to Agnes was in fee simple; De Banco R. 162, m. 104; 179, m. 249 d.; 193, m. 72.
29 Thomas Radcliffe died in 1521 holding a tenement in Oswaldtwistle of the heirs of Radcliffe of the Tower in socage; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 3. In 1561 the tenure was by knight's service of Robert Barton; ibid. xi, no. 7. The estate descended to Sir Gilbert Gerard; ibid. xvi, no. 2.
30 Towneley MS. OO, no. 1042.
31 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 241.
32 Final Conc. iii, 82; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 43.
33 Lancs. Inq. p.m. ii, 41 (held of the king in socage), 55.
34 Edward Parker was judge for Oswaldtwistle at Clitheroe wapentake court in 1408; Dunkenhalgh D. Edmund Parker occurs in 1445; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 7, m. 2b, 8; 9, m. 11.
35 Towneley MS. RR, no. 1471–3.
36 Ibid. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), P 51.
37 Ibid. P 42.
38 Assize R. 405, m. 2 d. Peter de Chester, provost of Beverley, released to Adam de Aspden land in Oswaldtwistle which he had purchased from William de Foxholebank; DD, no. 836. In 1326 Adam son of Roger de Aspden gave his brother John the hey of Broadfield and other land; John married Alice daughter of Thomas de Catlow; ibid. no. 845.
Edmund Aspden of Oswaldtwistle occurs in 1445; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 7, end. Isabel Aspden daughter and co-heir of Ellen, lately wife of James Aspden, in 1512 gave to Richard Rishton her messuages, &c., in Oswaldtwistle, but was to have a rent of 13s. 4d. payable also to her son; Add. MS. 32104, no. 807, 1157. Another Isabel Aspden is said to have married Ralph Rishton of Antley; Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 299.
39 Towneley MS. HH, no. 1501.
40 For writ of diem cl. extr. see Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 34.
41 Ibid. 35; he also held Oakenshaw in Clayton.
In 1563 Ralph Rishton claimed lands in Aspden Manor and waste in Oswaldtwistle Moor against a number of persons; Ducatus Lanc. ii, 269, 270.
42 Cattelow, 1307.
43 Add. MS. 32104, no. 1160.
44 In 1326 Thomas son of Henry de Catlow granted to Roger de Catlow a messuage in the vill of Oswaldtwistle which he had had by gift of Agnes his mother; Add. MS. 32104, no. 1137. The feoffee of Robert son of Henry de Catlow in 1343 regranted to him lands in Oswaldtwistle with remainders to his sister Margery and to Margery's brother Thomas; ibid. no. 425.
45 See the account of Church. Catlow Hall was in 1527 held by Ralph Hyanson, Richard Lache, John Riding and Piers Feilden, paying 9s.; Duchy of Lanc. Rentals, bdle. 5, no. 12.
46 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 11, m. 7.
47 These particulars are from the Shireburne Abstract Book at Leagram.
48 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxviii, no. 84. In 1581 John Riding of Oswaldtwistle released to Lawrence Duxbury of Great Harwood a messuage in the former township; Add. MS. 32104, no. 1263, 1265. Lawrence Duxbury and Nicholas his son in 1609 sold the tenement called Riddings to Robert Riding; ibid. no. 1264, 1266. In 1621 Robert granted the Riddings to feoffees to fulfil his will, and in 1631 he made his will, naming Elizabeth his wife and Ellen his sister, but making Edmund Rishton, rector of Earnley in Sussex, the ultimate beneficiary; ibid. no. 1268, 1267, 1269. Edmund Rishton, who married Anne daughter of Geoffrey Rishton of Antley (ibid. no. 1257), made his will in 1640, leaving daughters Mary, Jane, Anne and Susan; ibid. no. 1262.
49 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 237. See the account of Church. In 1518 John Greenwood of Foxhole Bank in Oswaldtwistle and Margaret his wife gave a rent of 6s. 8d. for life to Alice Holker; Towneley MS. C 8, 13, R 55.
50 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 244.
51 From the account of Church it will be found that Gilbert Rishton married Elizabeth Catlow before 1500. In 1556 another Gilbert Rishton (of Accrington) obtained Catlow Hall and a messuage in Read from Ralph Rishton with reversionary rights after the death of Ellen widow of Henry Rishton of Dunkenhalgh; Add. MS. 32104, no. 1246, 1251. It thus appears that Catlow had been held by the Dunkenhalgh Rishtons. Richard Rishton of Dunkenhalgh held land in Oswaldtwistle of the king in socage in 1530, and Henry Rishton held it in or before 1549; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 9; ix, no. 30. Gilbert Rishton of Dunnyshope in 1575 granted Catlow Hall to his son Robert; ibid. no. 1258. By William Rishton of Dunnyshope Catlow Hall was in 1597 assigned for the benefit of Richard Assheton of Middleton and Margaret his wife, widow of Robert Rishton and mother of the grantor; ibid. no. 799, 1244, 801, 804. In 1601 William Rishton son and heir of Robert Rishton gave a lease of Catlow Hall for three lives to Ralph Ayanson; ibid. no. 1261. He in 1616 sold land in Oswaldtwistle to John son of Nicholas Haworth; ibid. no. 1252. The before-mentioned Edmund Rishton was in possession of Catlow Hall in 1632, when he gave a new lease of it to Christopher Jackson and Lettice his daughter; ibid. no. 1259– 60.
52 Ralph Rishton of Ponthalgh held in Oswaldtwistle of Richard Radcliffe in 1417; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 14. A later Ralph held of the king by a rent in 1527, and his grandson William held after him in 1589; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 24; xv, no. 55. The estate was no doubt White Ash, as in the next note.
53 Towneley MS. DD, no. 1400. In 1571 Elizabeth Parker, as widow of Ralph Rishton of Ponthalgh, had had a dispute with Roger Kenyon and George Ainsworth respecting White Ash; Ducatus Lanc. iii, 59; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 258. Again in 1579 there was contention about it between Roger Rishton and William Rishton; Ducatus Lanc. iii, 84.
54 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 20. Alice widow of Ralph had a third part in dower. The whole was held of the queen as of her duchy.
Ralph Rishton in 1549 gave his messuages in Oswaldtwistle to Elizabeth daughter of Robert Rishton of Accrington with remainder to his son John; Add. MS. 32104, no. 798. From another deed by Ralph in 1568 it appears that John was illegitimate, and then had sons Ralph, Nicholas and Robert; ibid. 796. In a fine of 1578 relating to the estate the first Ralph is called Ralph Rishton of Jack House; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 40, m. 24.
55 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxiv, 174.
56 Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3077; Index of Royalists (Index Soc.), 44 (both senior and junior).
57 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 89, 154. George Ainsworth of Knuzden was a freeholder in 1600; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 237.
58 Cal. Com. for Comp. iii, 2333. His 'supposed delinquency' is not recorded in detail.
59 Thomas Hesketh of Rufford held a messuage in Oswaldtwistle in 1523, but the tenure was unknown; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 16; vii, no. 14.
Henry Boyes (already named) had land in Oswaldtwistle in 1527; Towneley MS. C 8, 13, B 458. John Boyes died in 1551 holding of Robert Barton; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 64. The marriage of Grace the heiress with John Dewhurst led to a claim for compensation by Robert Barton, who said the wardship and marriage belonged to him; Add. MS. 32104, no. 705. Lawrence Hindle purchased in 1572; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle 34, m. 124.
The Whitehalgh family occur here, for in 1499 the trustees gave lands in Oswaldtwistle and Mellor to Richard Whitehalgh and Isabel daughter of Lawrence Ainsworth; Towneley MS. DD, no. 2218. James Whithalgh of Livesey died in 1568 holding a messuage in Oswaldtwistle of Robert Barton; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 22.
Of John Ward's tenement in 1592 no particulars are recorded; ibid. xvi, no. 25.
Edmund Robinson, who died in 1634, held of Thomas Barton by the onehundredth part of a knight's fee. His heir was his son John, aged forty-six; Towneley MS. C 8, 13, p. 999.
Ellen Crossley, widow, and John her son were plaintiffs in 1548; Ducatus Lanc. i, 223. John Crossley had land in 1581; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 43, m. 184.
Robert Ryley, Beatrice his wife and his sons Richard and Thomas occur in 1582; ibid. bdle. 44, m. 119, 126.
60 Lay Subs. Lancs. bdles. 130, no. 82, 125; 131, no. 274.
61 Ibid. 131, no. 317.
62 Lancs. and Ches. Rec. i, 56.
63 Land tax returns at Preston.
64 Robert son of Adam de Childe (? Chedle) released to Richard de Radcliffe all his right in an oxgang of land in the vill of Duckworth; OO, no. 1663.
65 Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 375; it is called Oswaldtwistle. About 1540 Ralph Holden held 'the vill of Duckworth' of the Hospitallers by a rent of 2s.; Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 84b.
66 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xii, no. 3.
67 Lands in Duckworth were settled on Adam son of Robert de Holden and his wife Alice de Holland and their issue; DD, no. 815.
68 Ibid. no. 780; she released all her right in lands of her sister Alice in the hamlet of Duckworth in the vill of Oswaldtwistle to Adam son of Adam (? Robert) de Holden. This deed is undated, but in 1325 Margery made grants in Duckworth to Richard de Billington, Adam de Holden and Thomas son of John de Holden; ibid. no. 781, 784, 785.
69 Richard son of Ralph de Billington in 1325 transferred to Adam de Holden the land he had acquired from Mary (Margery) de Duckworth; ibid. no. 773. Roger son of William de Duckworth released his right in 1327; ibid. no. 772.
70 In 1328 Adam de Holden acquired all the lands in Duckworth belonging to Richard de Duckworth; ibid. no. 782, 837. Two years later he acquired the lands of Robert de Duckworth, whose son William afterwards confirmed the sale; ibid. no. 775, 787. Richard son of Robert de Duckworth also confirmed it; Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 118, no. 40. In 1358 Henry son of Richard son of Robert de Duckworth gave a release of his right in the same lands to Robert son of Adam de Holden; DD, no. 774.
It appears that the heir of Robert de Duckworth was an idiot. He died in April 1364, when possession was given to Margery and Cecily her sister; Cal. Close, 1364–8, p. 31.
71 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xii, no. 3.
72 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 44, m. 184.
73 Ducatus Lanc. iii, 21, 67, 113; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. ii, 253.
74 Towneley MS. OO, no. 1664–5; grants by and to Richard de Radcliffe.
75 Ibid. DD, no. 776; 1 oxgang had been held by Roger son of William and the other by Ellis de Duckworth.
William son of Roger de Duckworth gave lands there to Peter de Church; ibid. no. 783.
76 In 1381 William de Radcliffe of Todmorden demised an oxgang of land in Duckworth to Adam de Holden of Haslingden for nineteen years at a rent of 13s. 4d.; Towneley MS. DD, no. 810.
77 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. viii, no. 35.
78 Ibid. x, no. 24.
79 Towneley MS. DD, no. 1546.
80 Ibid. no. 809.
81 The name is often spelt Immanuel.
82 For district see Lond. Gaz. 4 Mar. 1879.
83 Licensed for marriages in 1872; ibid. 8 Oct.
84 Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. ii, 120.
85 Ibid. 138.


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