Townships
Burnley

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Victoria County History

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Author

William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1911

Pages

441-454

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'Townships: Burnley', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6 (1911), pp. 441-454. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53152&strquery=burnley Date accessed: 01 August 2014.


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BURNLEY

Bronley, 1241; Brunley, 1251 and commonly; Brumleye, 1294.

In addition to Burnley and Habergham Eaves, always closely associated, the chapelry of Burnley included Briercliffe, Worsthorne and Cliviger, while the adjacent extra-parochial places of Ightenhill Park and Reedley Hallows were practically attached to it.

The historical township of Burnley lies on the lower slopes of land descending from Cliviger in the south-east and Marsden in the north-east towards the River Calder, flowing north-west, west and again north-west towards the Ribble. Between the two slopes the Brun, augmented by the Don, turns round to join the Calder. The town of Burnley grew up in the level tongue of land formed at this junction. The church was built in a central position near the Brun, and this stream divides the township into two nearly equal parts. The market place, with its cross, and the older part of the town stood near the church. From Cliviger, as stated, Burnley Ridge extends north-west into the township; it attains 630 ft. above sea level at the south-east boundary; from Marsden, where 775 ft. is attained, the surface descends gradually to the south and west; the height above the sea is 350 ft. at the junction of the Brun and Calder, and about 315 ft. near Royle. The area is 1,996 acres.

In the southern half of the township stands Fulledge, with Brunshaw and Towneley Park to the south-east. In the northern half Heysandforth, Swinless (fn. 1) and Saxifield lie to the north-east of the church; Bank Hall, Danes or Dancer House, the Old Hall and Barden to the north; Crowwood and Royle to the north-west; near the junction of the Brun with the Calder is Salford, which gave a name to the district around it. The old township does not extend to Pendle Water, part of New Laund and Reedley in Pendle Forest intervening. The boundaries have been greatly altered recently, as will be recorded in the account of the borough.

Roads from Padiham and Accrington join outside the west boundary, cross the Calder by the bridge, and go east through the centre of the town as St. James's Street; after passing through the town the road divides again, one branch going east into Yorkshire and the other south-east to Todmorden and Rochdale. A cross road from Bury and Rawtenstall unites with the other at the centre of the town, turns north as Church Street, and after crossing the Brun proceeds to Brierfield, Nelson and Colne. (fn. 2) As in other towns there are numerous minor roads and streets to serve the populous area, which had in the last century extended itself on all sides. The Accrington and Colne branch of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company passes north through the western side of the town, where there is a station (Bank Top); it was opened 18 September 1848, and in 1849 another branch was formed from Burnley to Todmorden, but this lies south and outside of the old township. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal goes north through the town on the eastern side, crossing the Calder and Brun by aqueducts. A tramway system with electric traction connects Burnley with Nelson, Padiham and suburban districts. (fn. 3) There are also mineral railway tracks. The population of Burnley proper in 1901 was 44,045; that of the enlarged township was 97,043.

In addition to the churches and municipal buildings there are several noteworthy buildings, as the Mechanics' Institute and Exchange (1851–88), some banks and the Church Institute. The Victoria Hospital on the north of the town was built 1884–6 and enlarged in 1890. The workhouse is near it; it has an infirmary attached.

The weaving of cotton goods is the staple industry of the town; there is a little spinning. There are also important manufactures of weaving machinery and other mill requisites, some iron foundries, paper works, breweries and brick-making works in the town itself or the immediate neighbourhood. Coal, stone and slate are found in and around Burnley. Two newspapers are issued on Wednesday and Saturday each week, the Express and the Gazette. The barracks are outside the township. There are a Territorial Battalion of the East Lancashire Regiment and also Territorial Artillery.

Though a church existed in 1120 and a market and fair were established at Burnley in 1294, its history till recent times has been the uneventful one of a small country town. The neighbourhood contains many remains of the ancient inhabitants, such as the earthworks and burial mounds at Cliviger and Worsthorne. (fn. 4) Roman interments and coins have been discovered at Burnley and places to the east and south. (fn. 5) The ancient cross testifies to the introduction of Christianity, possibly in the 7th century. (fn. 6) The church was probably a parish church, which was reduced to a parochial chapel in the 12th century. The Reformation, (fn. 7) Civil War and Revolution affected the place chiefly through the fortunes of the great Towneley family, who adhered to the proscribed causes in religion and politics. Three Burnley men were executed in 1716 for having taken part in the Jacobite rising of the previous year, their names being William Harris, Joseph Porter and Stephen Segar. Burnley had some woollen trade, which has died out. Then about 1780 the cotton manufacture was introduced (fn. 8) and made rapid progress, the population of the town doubling between 1801 and 1821, and requiring the changes in the government of the town which are related below. Apart from the manufactures, the land is mostly occupied for pasturage, the distribution in the chapelry being as follows (fn. 9) :—

Arable land ac.Permanent grass ac.Woods and plantations ac.
Burnley161,569½
Brunshaw3993
Habergham Eaves½1,942106
16½3,910109½
Briercliffe½2,86842
Worsthorne11,25615
Cliviger24,428289½
2012,462456

Early last century it was regarded as a peculiarity of the people that 'wakes, rush-bearing and annual feasts' excited little attention. Horse-racing had been a favourite amusement, but the races held at Old Hall Postern about 1790 had been discontinued for lack of support. (fn. 10)

To the county lay of 1626 this chapelry contributed as follows: Burnley, £2 2s. 5¾d.; Briercliffe and Extwistle, £1 11s. 10¼d.; Worsthorne, £1 0s. 2¼d.; Cliviger, £1 11s. 10½d.; Ightenhill Park, 15s. 11¼d.; or in all £7 2s. 4d., when the hundred had to raise £100. (fn. 11)

The town has few names of prominence to record. The most famous is the Ven. Thomas Whitaker, seminary priest, born at Burnley in 1611, his father being schoolmaster; he was educated at Valladolid, and returning in 1638 to serve the Lancashire mission was arrested in 1643 and confined in Lancaster Castle till his trial in 1646. He was executed for his priesthood on 7 August with great cruelty. (fn. 12) The Rev. Henry Halliwell, B.D., a classical scholar, was also son of the schoolmaster and was born at Burnley in 1765; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, he became fellow and tutor, and was rector of Clayton in Sussex from 1803 till his death in 1835. (fn. 13) Of recent times may be mentioned Thomas Turner Wilkinson, who died in 1875, (fn. 14) and William Angelo Waddington, who died in 1907 (fn. 15) ; both of them were students of the local history and published essays and volumes on the subject.

In addition to the ancient cross already mentioned, which is now near the grammar school, there were crosses in the market place by the church and the Foldys cross (1520) in the churchyard. The stocks and whipping-post were formerly placed near the market cross. (fn. 16) Two Crimean guns given to the town are placed near the grammar school.

Manors

Though BURNLEY has been called a manor, (fn. 17) it was and is properly speaking a member of the manor of Ightenhill, in the honor of Clitheroe; the manor courts have long been held at Higham for Pendle Forest and at Burnley for the rest of the manor. The tenure was to a large extent copyhold, but much of it has now been enfranchised. In 1242 the yearly value was given as £16 4s. 2d. (fn. 18) Burnley is named in the grant of free warren to Edmund de Lacy in 1251. (fn. 19) In 1258 it was found that Edmund held Burnley in demesne, Burnley here perhaps including Briercliffe as well as Habergham Eaves. There were 13 oxgangs of land, the oxgang containing 9 acres worth 4d. each; the occupiers of each oxgang had to do a day's ploughing each year and three days' reaping each autumn. These works having been commuted were valued at 3d.; the total value thus came to 42s. 3d. In addition seven small cottages were worth 6d. a year to the lord, and an eighth 12d. Of assarted land there were 793 acres, each worth 4d. There were five freehold estates held by charter, having 139 acres in all, the tenants being the Abbot of Whalley, William de Swillington, Adam, William de Ryland and Robert son of William. (fn. 20)

Henry de Lacy in 1294 obtained from the king a charter allowing a market every Tuesday and a three days' fair yearly, 28–30 June. (fn. 21) A market cross was then set up, at a cost of 9s. 1d. (fn. 22) Two years later the lord's accounts showed £13 8s. 5½d. for farm of Burnley, 12d. increment from a toft held by Robert the smith, 3s. 4d. for works remitted, £10 from the corn-mill and 6s. 8d. from a fulling-mill newly erected, (fn. 23) on which 52s. 6½d. had been spent. (fn. 24) By 1305 the farm of the fulling-mill had been advanced to 24s., but other receipts remained much the same. (fn. 25) The inquisition made after the death of Henry de Lacy in 1311 records 354½ acres in Burnley alone, demised to tenants at will at 4d. an acre, 10 oxgangs of land held in bondage at 5s. each, and 4d. each for works remitted, twelve cottages at 1s. each, a watermill worth £5 a year and a fulling-mill worth 5s. These were nominal values. There were seven free tenants. (fn. 26) The accounts of 1323–4 showed a net receipt of £21 8s. 10½d. (fn. 27)

HEYSANDFORTH (fn. 28) was regarded as a manor. Robert de Marsden gave to Robert de Swillington, son of Hugh, 40 acres in Burnley, which the grantor had received from Ralph son of Norman, and which had formerly been held by Henry the clerk of Burnley; the land was situated between the river flowing through the midst of the town of Burnley and the field called Saxifield. The forest and chase of John de Lacy Earl of Lincoln were reserved, and a rent of 6s. 8d. was to be paid to the earl. (fn. 29) William de Swillington held the 40 acres in 1258, paying 6s. 8d. (fn. 30) Afterwards it was acquired by Oliver de Stansfield, (fn. 31) who also obtained from Henry de Lacy a grant of the manor of Worsthorne, and in 1311 Oliver held 50 acres in Burnley by rendering 1d. yearly, the rent having been altered. (fn. 32) Heysandforth continued to descend like Worsthorne, (fn. 33) and was by Joan daughter and heir of Giles Stansfield conveyed in marriage to Simon Haydock, (fn. 34) said to have been of the Cottam family.

Evan Haydock the son of Simon died in 1596 holding the manor or capital messuage called Heysandforth, and messuages, water-mill, &c., in Burnley and Briercliffe of the queen as of her duchy of Lancaster in socage by 1d. rent. Simon his son and heir was forty years of age. (fn. 35) Simon Haydock was returned as a freeholder in 1600, (fn. 36) and died in 1607, leaving a son and heir Evan, ten years old. (fn. 37) Evan Haydock was a convicted recusant in 1626, paying double to the subsidy, (fn. 38) and soon afterwards he sold the manor of Worsthorne. He died in 1634 holding the capital messuage called Heysandforth, with other messuages in Burnley and Briercliffe, of the king as duke in socage by 1d. rent; Simon, his son and heir, was seven years of age. (fn. 39) The family subsequently conformed, and retained Heysandforth for some time. (fn. 40) It was in 1834 purchased from Miss Henrietta Harrison of Lancaster by John Hargreaves of Bank Hall, and has descended to Sir John O. S. Thursby, bart.

The old house at Heysandforth stands in a low situation on the north-east side of Burnley at a little distance from the north bank of the River Brun, between which and the building, however, there is a small brook running westward. The road passes close to the south and east sides of the building, which is now divided into four separate dwellings and has been so much altered and modernized as to possess little or no architectural or antiquarian interest. It forms, however, a rather picturesque group with stone slated gabled roofs at different levels, and with a long projecting wing at the south-west, originally the stable buildings, but now converted into a dwellinghouse. Nearly all the windows are modern sashes and the walls are for the most part stuccoed. Over the door of what is now one of the middle houses are the arms and crest of the Haydocks, and in the interior is a 17th-century stone staircase with good turned balusters and newels.

BANK HALL, formerly Bank Head or Bank Top, was in the time of Elizabeth and later the residence of a recusant family named Woodroffe. (fn. 41) It descended through an heiress to the Shireburnes of Stonyhurst, and was sold by Thomas Weld to the Rev. John Hargreaves, who built the house in 1796 and from whom it passed to his nephew, the above-named John Hargreaves, high sheriff of the county in 1825. (fn. 42) He died in 1854, leaving two daughters as co-heirs. Eleanor Mary, the elder, married the Rev. William Thursby; their son, John Hardy Thursby, was created a baronet in 1887, and at his death in 1901 was succeeded by his son Sir John Ormerod Scarlett Thursby, the present owner of Bank Hall. The younger daughter, Charlotte Anne, married General Sir James Yorke Scarlett, a Balaclava hero, (fn. 43) but there was no issue of the marriage.


Thursby, baronet. Argent a cheveron between three lions rampant sable.

BANK HOUSE was formerly the property of a branch of the Halstead family, (fn. 44) but was in 1732 sold to the trustees of the rectory; the house was for a long time used as the parsonage, (fn. 45) but has disappeared. The site is now occupied by the County Court House. Dancer House, or Danes House, for several centuries the home of the Folds family, (fn. 46) was taken down in 1886, the site being occupied by a factory. It stood on the north side of the town, and was a small two-story gabled gritstone building F-shaped in plan, probably of 16th-century date, (fn. 47) the shorter arm forming the porch, which went up the full height of the building. The plan in the main followed the old arrangement of house-place or hall with through passage; the windows were of the usual low square-headed mullioned type and the roofs were covered with stone slates. Fulledge, another yeoman's estate, belonged at one time to the family of Ingham; over the entrance were the initials and date Y / R E 1576. (fn. 48) The site is now occupied by a council school.

ROYLE was not styled a manor. It is named with Filly Close in 1324 (fn. 49) and again in 1340 (fn. 50) and 1418. In the last-named year the herbage there was demised to John Parker and Richard Briches for ten years at £12 a year, of which only £2 6s. 8d. was the share of Royle. (fn. 51) In 1440 John Parker held a close called Royle to the behalf of John Clerke of Burnley, who seems then to have secured a copyhold estate in it, rendering 6d. an acre for the 40 acres the close was estimated to contain. (fn. 52) The estate has long been freehold. Margaret Clerke, the heiress of Royle, married Richard Townley before 1518, in which year there was an arbitration between him and John Clerke of Warley. (fn. 53) Richard, who said he was forty-four in 1526, (fn. 54) was about 1537 involved in a dispute with a neighbour, Nicholas Harger, tenant of the Earl of Derby. (fn. 55) He was succeeded by his son Nicholas, who acquired Greenfield in Colne in 1541. (fn. 56) Edmund Townley son of Nicholas, aged one year at his father's death in 1546, died at Royle in 1598, but the inquisition does not record the tenure of this part of his estate. His heir was his son Nicholas, aged twenty-four, (fn. 57) who has been mentioned already as husband of Isabel Woodroffe. (fn. 58) For a time he adhered to the Roman Church, but about 1630 conformed to that established by law, (fn. 59) and so became qualified to act as sheriff in 1631–2. (fn. 60) He died in 1645, when his daughter Margaret, who married John Ingleby (fn. 61) and left the above-named daughter Isabel wife of Richard Shireburne, (fn. 62) became heir to her mother's estate, Royle and Greenfield having been bequeathed to Nicholas son of his brother Robert. (fn. 63) Robert Townley was living, aged seventy, in 1665, when a pedigree was recorded, (fn. 64) and the estate descended in his line. (fn. 65) Edmund Townley, his great-great-grandson, died in 1796, and Royle then went to the representative of his niece Anne wife of Robert Parker of Extwistle, viz. Robert Townley Parker of Cuerden and Astley in Chorley, whose descendant, Mr. R. A. Tatton, is the present owner.

ROYLE HALL stands about 1½ miles to the north of Burnley on a site, originally defensive, at the junction of the Calder and Pendle Water, the Calder flowing northward past the house on the west side and Pendle Water westward on the north. The house stands high above the Calder, the ground falling steeply on the west side, and advantage has been made of the situation in the laying out of the gardens on the south side to form a double terrace with flights of steps and grass banks. The building thus appears to great advantage from the garden proper, which is entered from the lower level of the adjoining fields on the east side.

The oldest part of the house is of 17th-century date, but this is said to be a rebuilding of an older dwelling, parts of which may have been incorporated with it. The principal front, which faces south, is 90 ft. in length and has three equal and flush gables, the western one of which, however, is modern. So many alterations and repairs have been made during the last century that it is rather difficult to determine exactly the appearance of the original 17th-century house, there having apparently been buildings to the west of the present central gable entirely different in character from the modern addition, which is more or less of a sham, reproducing as it does in every particular the detail of the earlier work on the south elevation, but in no way representing the actual building behind, the width of which is nearly 4 ft. less than that of the front wall and gable. Part of the older 17th-century building, however, remains at the back of the modern west wing, and a drawing of the front of the building made c. 1835 by the Rev. S. J. Allen (fn. 66) shows two narrower gables to the west of the present central one, forming a rather more picturesque front with four gables differing in size. The house is stone built, of two stories, with attics in the gables and mullioned windows, the upper ones having the two middle lights raised and a stepped hood mould over. All the windows on the ground floor, however, are new and have been lengthened by bringing the sills to the floor level. The roofs are covered with stone slates and the gables have ball terminations; the middle one contains a clock. The old stone walling is in irregularly squared courses with angle quoins, but in the later work, which dates from about the middle of the 19th century, it is of regularly squared sandstone blocks. There is a small stone porch to the west of the present middle gable, but the modern entrance is now in the east end. On one of the spout heads on the front elevation is the date 1771 with the initials T. T., probably indicating some alterations to the house in that year. The back is more irregular and picturesque in appearance with an old two-story wing over 90 ft. in length running northward. The interior has been almost wholly modernized, but in the attics are several oak roof principals with moulded braces. On the lawn, to the south-west, is an octagonal 17th-century stone sundial shaft; the plate is missing.

Brunshaw was in 1311 held with Towneley. (fn. 67) Hollins, in its south-east corner near the Brun, formerly the property of the Holden and Hamerton families, is now the residence of Lady O'Hagan, the Towneley heiress.

Henry de Lacy granted a messuage and an oxgang of land in Burnley, formerly held by Michael de Picop, to John de Burnley, clerk, at a rent of 7s. (fn. 68) Adam son of John de Burnley in 1302 granted the same, including the reversion of his mother's dower, to Oliver de Stansfield, (fn. 69) but this was probably in trust, for Adam son of the Clerk was tenant in 1311 at the rent named, (fn. 70) and his three daughters Alice, Ellen and Matilda in 1342–4 granted their estate to Whalley Abbey. (fn. 71) The rental of 1537 shows that the abbey's lands at Burnley were occupied by a number of tenants at will. (fn. 72)

The inquisitions record holdings in Burnley by Tattersall, (fn. 73) Grimshaw of Clayton (fn. 74) and Towneley of Towneley. (fn. 75) The Towneleys were usually farmers of the mills, (fn. 76) and numerous disputes occurred as to the suit to these mills. (fn. 77) In 1548 the copyholders of Burnley complained that whereas they had had from time immemorial unlimited right of common on Saxifield and Marsden Edge for pasture and turbary, various inhabitants of Pendle Forest had lately sent horses, cattle and various 'kind of nawte' to feed there; when these had been impounded, Sir Richard Towneley's servants had broken the pound and sent the animals back to the waste. In reply, Henry Nutter of Pendle Chase, Thomas Ryley of Hapton and others asserted rights of pasturage on Saxifield. (fn. 78) By a survey made in 1594 it was found that in Burnley and Habergham Eaves there were 378 acres of freehold land and 1,575½ acres of ancient copyhold; there were eight freeholders and fifty-five copyholders who had no freehold land. (fn. 79) Twenty-seven copyhold tenements were recorded in a survey of 1617. (fn. 80) In accordance with the decree of inclosure in 1618 the whole has long been divided. (fn. 81)

The following landowners contributed to the subsidy of 1524: Richard Townley, Simon Haydock, Hugh Habergham, Lawrence Shuttleworth, John Woodroffe, Richard Tattersall, Richard Towne and William Folds. (fn. 82) To that of 1564: Alexander Radcliffe and John Woodroffe in Burnley; and Lawrence Habergham, Hugh Shuttleworth and Jennet Barcroft in Habergham Eaves. (fn. 83) To that of 1597: Nicholas Townley and Katherine his mother, Simon Haydock, William Folds, Robert Ingham, Lawrence Habergham, Hugh Halsted, James Bancroft, John Whitaker, John Haworth, James Tattersall, Richard Pollard. (fn. 84) To that of 1626: Richard Towneley, Richard Shuttleworth, Nicholas Townley, John Habergham, Evan Haydock, Hugh Halsted, Nicholas Bancroft, Robert Tattersall, Robert Whitaker, Robert Ingham, William Folds and George Halsted. Towneley and Haydock, being convicted recusants, paid double, and a number of others paid 8d. each for other defiance of the laws concerning religion. (fn. 85)

In 1666 in Burnley there were 171 hearths to be taxed. The largest dwellings were the following: Nicholas Townley, nine; Mrs. Isabel Townley, eight; William Tarleton, John Ridihalgh, John Ingham and Simon Haydock, six each; Thomas Boulton, William Boulton, Thomas Jackson, John Clarkson and James Walmsley the younger, five each. (fn. 86)

Borough

With the growth of the town a century ago some change in its government became necessary. An Act was obtained in 1819 giving the control of the watching, lighting, cleansing and general regulation of the town to a body consisting of the chief constable, deputy constables and sixteen commissioners chosen from the inhabitants. (fn. 87) In the same year a Private Act was obtained for waterworks (fn. 88) ; in 1824 gas-works were established (fn. 89) ; a market place, also owned by shareholders, was opened near the centre of the town in 1831. (fn. 90) By a further Improvement Act in 1846 the number of commissioners was increased to sixty, the boundary being a circle drawn round the town three-quarters of a mile from the centre. (fn. 91) At the same time the water works were purchased by the town, (fn. 92) the gas-works being acquired in 1854. (fn. 93) The cemetery at Rose Grove was opened in 1856.


Borough of Burnley. Or a cheveron engrailed gules between in chief two lozenges sable and in base a lion rampant of the third, on a chief wavy of the last a dexter hand appaumy argent between two bees volant of the field.

In 1861 a charter of incorporation was granted, the government being vested in a mayor, eight aldermen and twenty-four councillors. (fn. 94) A coat of arms was granted at the same time. The market and market rights were purchased by the corporation in 1866, (fn. 95) and a new market hall was erected in 1868–70. (fn. 96) An attempt had been made in 1832 to erect Burnley and part of Habergham Eaves into a parliamentary borough, (fn. 97) but it was not till the Reform Act of 1867 that this was effected, one member being assigned. (fn. 98) The boundaries of the municipal borough were extended in 1871, (fn. 99) and the area was divided into eight wards. (fn. 100) A school board was in that year formed for the borough. (fn. 101) The borough was further extended in 1889 to include parts not only of Habergham Eaves as before, but also of Briercliffe, Ightenhill Park and Reedley Hallows; and a division into twelve wards (fn. 102) was made, so that the council now consists of a mayor, twelve aldermen and thirty-six councillors. It was declared a county borough in 1889, and in 1894 the old township boundaries were obliterated and new townships formed; thus the borough area became the township of Burnley, (fn. 103) the small rural part of the old township which lay outside it to the south-east becoming independent under the name of Brunshaw township. (fn. 104) The parliamentary borough is somewhat larger than the municipal borough, the boundaries differing in many places. The borough has a commission of the peace, and quarter sessions were granted in 1893.

The municipal buildings include town hall, police court (fn. 105) and baths; they were erected in 1885–8. The buildings previously used became the Technical School, which continues and develops the work begun by the Mechanics' Institution, established in 1834. A new Technical Institute building was opened in 1909. Electric lighting and power works were opened in 1893, (fn. 106) and an ice factory with cold storage accommodation in 1901. There are three parks—Queen's Park, Scott Park and Townley Park—and twelve gardens and recreation grounds.

Burnley is the head of a Poor Law Union, (fn. 107) comprising Burnley, Padiham, Nelson, Colne and a wide district extending north-east and east to the border of the county. It is also the centre of the rural district council for the same part of the county.

Church

The church of ST. PETER (fn. 108) stands at the north-east end of the town in a low situation on the south bank of the River Brun, here flowing in a series of curves and partly inclosing on three sides the neck of land on which the building is situated. The church consists of chancel with north and south chapels and south vestry, nave with north and south aisles, south porch and west tower, but only the tower, which is of 15thcentury date, is ancient. Of the former church which stood on the same site little is known, but in 1532–3 it was evidently in a state of dilapidation, as in an agreement of that date Thomas Sellars and Nicholas Craven undertook within four years 'to rebuild the north and south hylings with 18 buttresses, every buttress having a funnel upon the top according to the fashion of the funnels upon the new chapel of Our Lady at Whalley.' The said 'hylings' were to be battled after the battling of the said chapel, and the cost of the whole was to be £60. At this time the present tower was standing, but whether the rest of the building was of 15th-century date or older can only be conjectured. (fn. 109) Instead of the north and south aisles being rebuilt, however, as agreed upon in the contract, the north aisle and nave were actually reconstructed and the south aisle remained in its original state, 'low and narrow, indeed a disgrace to the rest of the church,' (fn. 110) till 1789. A gallery had been erected at the west end in 1735, the population of the town having undergone a considerable increase; the south aisle was pulled down in 1789, and rebuilt the following year in its present form with a gallery over it. In 1803 the north aisle was again rebuilt with a gallery over, uniform with the new south aisle, and the tower was raised 30ft. In 1854 the roof was removed, and an arcade of five arches with clearstory over was erected on the nave piers, with two arches of less height to the chancel, the roof of which is lower, and to which there is no clearstory. The piers were of great height and had formerly supported a longitudinal beam carrying the roof of the nave and aisles. A general restoration of the building was at the same time carried out, all the old square pews being removed and the present open benches substituted. A three-decker pulpit which stood in front of the chancel was also removed, the galleries refronted, their staircases rearranged, and the organ, which stood at the east end behind the pulpit, blocking the chancel window, was removed to the west end. In 1873 the chancel was lengthened, and a vestry with organ chamber over added on the south side, and a new south porch was built in 1889. In 1903 the south and west galleries were removed and an addition was made to the vestry. Apart, therefore, from the lower part of the tower, the exterior of the church is wholly modern, the oldest part dating only from 1790, and the interior similarly shows structurally little or nothing of antiquarian interest, except the piers, which belong to the 16th-century rebuilding, and the older tower arch.

The church is built throughout of wrought stone, the walls of the aisles (which are continuous to nave and chancel) being lofty and pierced with two tiers of windows, the lower having square and the upper plain, segmental heads. The general appearance of the exterior is one of flatness, the aisle walls being unrelieved by string course or mouldings to the windows, and all the detail is poor and in the pseudoGothic style of the time. The aisles have lean-to roofs and wide embattled parapets. The raising of the nave roof by the addition of the clearstory has greatly improved the appearance of the building and corrected the proportion of the tower, which had suffered in the raising. The nave and chancel have both embattled parapets and gables, with crocketed pinnacles at the angles and terminal apex crosses. The roofs are covered with green slates.

The chancel is 42 ft. long by 20 ft. 6 in. wide, and before its extension in 1873 was open on each side to the Towneley and Stansfield chapels its full length. The extension consisted of an addition of about 18 ft., and there is now that length of straight wall at either side of the east end. The upper part of the south side over the vestry is open to the organ chamber. The east window is of five lights with tracery in the style of the 15th century, and the two chapels are separated from the quire by an arcade of two arches of two chamfered orders springing from octagonal piers with moulded capitals, the lower part of the openings being filled in with modern iron screens.

The Towneley and Stansfield chapels occupy the east ends of the rebuilt aisles on each side of the chancel. The Towneley chapel in the north side is 25 ft. long by 17 ft. wide and the floor is raised one step above that of the aisle, the distinction at the west end being otherwise unmarked. At the east end the chapel is lit by a new four-light window with 15th-century tracery, and on the north side by four windows, two below and two above, similar to those in the aisles. The Stansfield chapel is 24 ft. long by 19 ft. 6 in. wide and has a door at the east end opening into the modern vestry, above which the organ is open to the aisle. On the south side it is lit by two windows one above the other similar to those in the aisles, to the west of which is a door now built up, over which on the outside is a sundial made by Whyman of Gawthorpe in 1791. The floor is raised like that of the Towneley chapel one step above the nave aisle, to which it is similarly open at the west end.

The nave is 70 ft. long by 20 ft. 6 in. wide, and has an arcade of five pointed arches of two chamfered orders springing from lofty octagonal piers with moulded capitals. The clearstory consists of five square-headed four-light windows on each side, and the roof, which is flat, is divided into five bays corresponding to the arcade, with moulded oak principals carried down the wall on to carved stone corbels. The bays have a moulded intermediate piece and are panelled and boarded, and the roof, which dates from 1854, is said to preserve the original character of the old panelled one, the line of which shows at the west end against the tower. All the interior walls are faced with rough stone.

The north aisle is 17 ft. 6 in. wide and that on the south 19 ft. 6 in., both being lit by two tiers of windows of four lights, five on the north side and four on the south, the south aisle having also two similar windows one above the other at the west end. On the north side of the tower at the west end of the north aisle is the old vestry, the outside wall of which is a continuation of that of the aisle, externally reproducing all its features. There was originally when built at the beginning of the last century a second vestry above, but this is now thrown into the gallery, which is approached by steps from the vestry below. The north gallery is the only one now remaining. Opposite the second bay from the west in both north and south aisles there is a door, that on the south being protected by the modern porch.

The tower is 13 ft. square inside with a vice in the south-east corner entered from the outside. It has a moulded plinth and square buttresses of four stages stopping below the ancient belfry windows, and the west door has a pointed arch with hood mould and continuous hollow chamfered jambs and head. Above is a traceried window of three cinquefoiled lights with hood mould and square jambs and a hollow moulded head dying out at the springing. The north and south sides are plain to the old belfry stage except for a small square-headed window high up in the wall. The original belfry windows, which now light the ringing chamber, are pointed and of two trefoiled lights with tracery over and external hood mould, and above this the extent of the old tower is marked by a string course. The modern top portion has a wide single-light louvred belfry window on each side and a clock facing east and west. It finishes with an embattled parapet and angle and intermediate pinnacles, below which is a blocked string course or cornice, the whole being poor in detail. On the south side, high up on the face of the vice, is a shield charged with a cheveron between what appear to be two horse-shoes, hammers and pincers, and on an adjoining stone is the rude representation of a pig. (fn. 111) The tower arch is open to the church and consists of two chamfered orders, the outer one dying into the wall at the springing, the inner one continuous to the ground.

The font stands under the tower (fn. 112) and is of 16thcentury date and octagonal in shape, two of its sides bearing the Towneley arms, the others being either plain or carved with shields and other emblems. (fn. 113)

The pulpit is of oak, dating from 1903, and all the other fittings are modern. (fn. 114) In the Stansfield chapel, however, is preserved an ancient gravestone carved with a cross fleury in a circle and sword in bold relief, which is probably of 14th-century date, (fn. 115) and in the east wall of the Towneley chapel are three old stones carved with shields bearing different impalements of the Towneley family, one having also the initials E. T. The chapel contains mural monuments to Richard Towneley, who died in 1706, with a long Latin inscription, the first part of which was written by himself, and to Charles Towneley, the antiquary, who died in 1805. There are also two modern altar tombs to members of the Towneley family and a mural monument to Cuthbert Kennett of Coxhoe, Durham (d. 1688). In other parts of the church (fn. 116) are monuments to members of the families of Halsted of Rowley and Hargreaves of Bank Hall and Ormerod. In the Stansfield chapel is a memorial to General Scarlett, who is buried in Holme.

There is a ring of eight bells cast by Thomas Mears of London in 1803, one of which was recast in 1857. (fn. 117)

The present silver plate (fn. 118) consists of a flagon (fn. 119) of 1722, inscribed 'Ex dono Reverendi venerabilis et eruditi Edmundi Townley nuper de Royle armigeri Anno Domini 1722,' with the maker's mark W. D.; two chalices, a paten, flagon and almsdish of 1857, all inscribed 'The gift of Robert Townley Parker of Cuerden to the parochial church of St. Peter in the chapelry of Burnley A.D. 1857'; and a chalice, paten and two cruets of Birmingham make 1878–9, given by Canon Parker in memory of his wife. There are also a plated paten and bread box.

The registers (fn. 120) begin in 1562. In 1525 there was a dispute between the 'Kirkmasters,' a local name for the wardens, (fn. 121) and some of the parishioners as to the assessment for the repair of the church and also as to the apportionment of seats. It was agreed that there should be four 'quarters' of the parish, paying in these proportions: Briercliffe, Extwistle, Hurstwood and Worsthorne, 12s.; Burnley, 8s.; Cliviger, 9s. 4d.; and Habergham Eaves, 10s. 8d. The first two quarters were to have the seats on the north side 'beneath the quire wongh,' Cliviger and Habergham having the south side. The first volume, which finishes in 1652, contains a rough plan of all the pews in the church in 1634 with the names of the respective owners and rude sketches of the 'Pullpitt Staires,' 'St. Anthony's Quier,' (fn. 122) and 'The Fonte.' The churchwardens' accounts begin in 1728.

The church stands close to the river on the north side, the churchyard being principally on the south. The house of the chantry priest formerly stood on the west side and the grammar school occupied the site till 1693. On this building were two shields with the arms of Towneley and Gateford and the initials J. T. It was pulled down in 1814 and the site incorporated with the churchyard. The cross stood on the south side of the church and was approached by three flights of broad steps, but after its destruction the base, which bears an inscription (fn. 123) and the date 1520, was removed in 1789 to the grounds of Towneley Hall. The churchyard was enlarged and properly inclosed in 1807. The oldest dated gravestone is 1664.

Advowson

The ancient cross at Burnley suggests the existence of a church there from an early time (fn. 124) ; otherwise the first record of one is in the grant of Whalley Church to the monks of Pontefract about 1121, the charter of Hugh de la Val including with it the 'church' of Burnley. (fn. 125) The deans of Whalley probably held it together with the principal church, and in 1296 it was described as a chapel only, its altarage being worth as much as 20 marks a year, and the tithes of its district—Burnley, Cliviger, Worsthorne, Extwistle, Briercliffe, Habergham and Ightenhill—amounting to 49½ marks, or £46 6s. 8d. in all. The land of the demesne of Burnley was worth 1 mark to the rector. (fn. 126) The monks of Whalley, on acquiring the rectory, were bound to maintain a chaplain at Burnley and pay him 4 marks, 'according to the custom of the country'; this appears to have been increased to £4, the sum given after the Reformation by the Archbishops of Canterbury as rectors. (fn. 127) This was increased to £11 10s. before the Civil War (fn. 128) ; and the duchy of Lancaster continued to allow £4 8s. 2d. out of the chantry rents. (fn. 129) During the Commonwealth period the curate's stipend was made up to £40 out of the Royalist and Church sequestrations. (fn. 130) This addition would cease after the Restoration, and in 1717 the certified income was only £23 16s. 9d., including the two allowances named, various fees and some private benefactions. (fn. 131) In 1716, however, a further augmentation of £12 a year was secured by gifts of the people and of the Rev. Edmund Townley, rector of Slaidburn, who thus acquired the advowson. (fn. 132) Various lands were purchased, and these became more valuable as the town grew. An Act was passed in 1819 allowing leases to be granted. (fn. 133) The net value of the benefice is now stated as £1,900 a year. It was declared a rectory in 1867. (fn. 134)

In a petition of the inhabitants in 1588 it was alleged that the duchy allowance had ceased in 1566, after which, for over twenty years, no minister officiated; they asked for a continuance of the pension and the appointment of a curate, to be nominated by three justices of the peace dwelling near the chapel. The queen allowed this. (fn. 135) Richard Kippax, being thus nominated in 1690, declared that he accepted the curacy in right of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and was licensed with the consent of the vicar of Whalley. (fn. 136) Afterwards the advowson descended with Royle to the family of Parker of Cuerden, (fn. 137) until in 1890, the rector being then patron, it was transferred to the Bishop of Manchester by an Act of Parliament, which also ordained that in future the rector should be a suffragan or assistant bishop in the diocese, with the title of Bishop of Burnley. (fn. 138) The income of the benefice had risen to about £4,000 a year; half of this was to be assigned to the new rector-bishop and the rest to other benefices formed out of the old chapelry. This Act took effect in 1901, on the resignation of the then rector, Canon Arthur Townley Parker, the author of the scheme.

There were two chantries endowed in the chapel. The Towneley chantry at St. Mary's altar, in the north aisle, was occupied by Peter Adlington in 1547, but he celebrated mass only three days a week there; his stipend was £4 14s. 7d., derived from lands in Ribchester, Blackburn, &c. (fn. 139) The other chantry, with a stipend of £4 13s. 4d. from lands in Haslingden and Burnley, had been founded by the inhabitants, and in 1547 Gilbert Fairbank, known as the gild priest, was celebrating mass and other divine service according to his foundation. (fn. 140) This chantry was at St. Peter's altar. (fn. 141) These chantries had no plate.' (fn. 142) There were also altars of St. Anthony in the south aisle, and the rood. (fn. 143) The former of these was also known as the Stansfield chantry, having probably been founded by the lords of Worsthorne. In 1368 the abbey of Kirkstall gave their lands in Extwistle to feoffees, who founded a chantry at Burnley for the soul of Peter de Tattersall, but the king's licence was not obtained. (fn. 144)

The confiscated 'ornaments' of the chapel at Burnley in 1552 were valued at the comparatively large sum of 33s. (fn. 145) For the service of the chapelry there were six priests in 1548, (fn. 146) as appears by the visitation lists, and the same number in 1554; but only two remained in 1562, of whom one, the above-named Gilbert Fairbank, was decrepit, and died soon afterwards. (fn. 147) From 1563 onwards there was only one minister for Burnley till the 19th century. (fn. 148)

The following is a list of incumbents (fn. 149) :—

oc. 1375Robert de Bolton
oc. 1532–7George Hargreaves (fn. 150)
Richard Marsden (fn. 151)
oc. 1542John Aspden (fn. 152)
c. 1567Bernard Harger (fn. 153)
oc. 1573William Duxbury (fn. 154)
1583Thomas Ryley (fn. 155)
oc. 1633Roger Brereley (fn. 156)
oc. 1638Henry Morris (fn. 157)
? 1664John Wallwork (fn. 158)
1671John Kenyon (fn. 159)
oc. 1674Robert Hartley (fn. 160)
1688Thomas Kay (fn. 161)
1690Richard Kippax (fn. 162)
1724James Matthews, B.A. (fn. 163)
1744Turner Standish, B.A. (fn. 164) (Brasenose Coll., Oxf.)
1787Thomas Collins, D.D. (fn. 165) (Worcester Coll., Oxf.)
1817Edmund Stringfellow Radcliffe, B.C.L. (fn. 166) (Brasenose Coll., Oxf.)
1826Robert Mosley Master, M.A. (fn. 167) (Balliol Coll., Oxf.)
Rectors
1855Arthur Townley Parker, M.A. (fn. 168) (Trinity Coll., Camb.)
Bishops
1901Edwyn Hoskyns, D.D. (fn. 169) (Jesus Coll., Camb.)
1905Alfred Pearson, D.D. (fn. 170) (Lincoln Coll., Oxf.)
1909Henry Henn, M.A. (fn. 171) (Trinity Hall, Camb.)

The list of names calls for little comment, except in the case of Roger Brereley, founder of the Grindletonians, so called from his curacy at Grindleton in Craven. (fn. 172) Richard Hartley, in 1687, left 20s. a year to the curate of Burnley 'if he shall read Morning Prayer in the church of Burnley every morning, except he be hindered upon urgent occasions or sick or impotent; the occasion to be judged of and allowed by two of the next neighbouring ministers, if any dispute arise.' (fn. 173) In 1724 there was a double presentation, William Halsted, vicar of Thornborough, being nominated by Ralph Assheton and other justices, while James Matthews, son of the vicar of Whalley, was nominated by Thomas Stanley and other justices. The latter prevailed, the vicar of Whalley claiming the right to nominate 'as by custom during 60 years last past'; but next year the people complained to the Bishop of Chester that he having several times preached in our chapel and being a very little man, delivers his discourses with so low, inarticulate and perplexed volubility or nimbleness of speech that such as sit in the remoter parts . . . cannot possibly hear or understand his discourses to edification. But the Rev. Mr. William Halsted whenever he preached in our chapel delivered his discourses to the greatest satisfaction of the whole auditory. We therefore humbly hope your lordship will exert your wonted zeal for this your chapel, that it may be filled as formerly, for though sectaries swarm in our neighbouring chapelries they have not hitherto been able to get any footing in our parish, our chapel having been well supplied for sixty years last past; but now to our great grief we hear that two conventicles are got licensed within our chapelry since the death of our late curate. (fn. 174)

Under the non-resident incumbents little or nothing seems to have been done to minister to the rapidly increasing population; but Mr. Master, appointed in 1826, applied himself to the task, and his successor imitated his example. After a new church had been opened in Habergham Eaves, St. James's in Burnley proper was built in 1849, (fn. 175) and St. Paul's, Lane Bridge, in 1852–3 (fn. 176) ; to these the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester present alternately. St. Andrew's, Burnley Lane, was built in 1867, (fn. 177) and its mission chapel of St. Cuthbert became a parish church in 1908; the Bishop of Manchester collates. To St. Catherine's (fn. 178) (1897) and St. Margaret's (fn. 179) (1898) the rector of Burnley presents. There are mission rooms in connexion with St. James's and St. Paul's.

Though from the complaint cited above it appears that 'sectaries' obtained a footing in the chapelry in 1724, (fn. 180) nothing much is known. Methodism appeared before 1787, when a chapel, afterwards given up, was built at Keighley Green. (fn. 181) The Wesleyans have chapels in Hargreaves Street (1840) and Stonyholme, and three others in Colne Road, &c. The Primitive Methodists built a chapel in Curzon Street in 1831, afterwards sold to the Wesleyan Reformers, and they have now two chapels in the northern part of the township—Mount Zion and Elim (1850), Burnley Lane. The Free Methodists had the chapel in Curzon Street, 1852; they have now three places of worship.

The Congregationalists established Bethesda Chapel, Goodham Hill, in 1814 (fn. 182) ; a secession resulted in that called Salem in 1851. (fn. 183) There is a third, more recent.

Ebenezer, Colne Road, was built in 1787 by the General Baptists (fn. 184) ; it has Immanuel connected with it. Zion Chapel, built by the Particular Baptists, followed in 1830, Enon in 1850, and Jireh, for the Gadsbyites, in 1853.

The following denominations are also represented: Unitarians, Swedenborgians (New Jerusalem) and Salvation Army. There are Christian, Protestant and Gospel Temperance Mission halls.

The chapel at Towneley Hall appears to have been the only place in the neighbourhood at which mass was said during the long period of proscription, (fn. 185) and Roman Catholicism never quite died out. (fn. 186) The Towneley registers from 1705 to 1727 have been printed, and show that there were almost a hundred baptisms and fifteen marriages in that period. (fn. 187) In the town itself St. Mary's, Eastgate, was built in 1846–9 to replace the old Handbridge chapel (1817) near the entrance to Towneley Park, which has since been taken down. A Towneley chapel was added in 1879. St. Thomas's school-chapel (1876–7) is served from St. Mary's. At the north end of the town is St. John the Baptist's (1892). (fn. 188) There is a convent of Sisters of Mercy.

There is some unsatisfactory evidence of the existence of a school before the Reformation. (fn. 189) The earliest certain notice is in Mary's time, in 1558, when a rent-charge of 3s. 4d. was given towards its endowment. (fn. 190) Some chantry lands were in 1563 secured for it, and a further endowment was obtained in 1577, due to Robert Ingham, one of the priests of the church in 1548 and 1554. The school was free to the inhabitants of the chapelry. (fn. 191) Lands were given for the endowment by the Rev. Oates Sagar about 1580 (at Alverthorpe, Wakefield), and by Nicholas Townley of Royle, 1699 (Cockridge). Scholarship endowments have been given in recent times. A valuable school library was founded by the Rev. Edmund Townley and the Rev. Henry Halsted. (fn. 192) The school was reorganized in 1873, and later, and is now under the control of the corporation.

From a dispute concerning the schoolhouse in 1675 (fn. 193) it appears that John Towneley and others built it in 1602 upon a piece of chantry land adjoining the churchyard—the lower part for a dwelling, the upper for a schoolroom. When, about 1675, the trustees of the school appointed a master, without the consent of Richard Towneley of Towneley, the latter refused access to the schoolroom, alleging that the building was his private property. He and his ancestors had had possession of the lower rooms. It was shown that the house had been built for a school, that at first there was no door into the schoolroom except 'the great door out of the churchyard,' that there was no entry into the school from the lower rooms, and that the Towneley claim to ownership of the school was quite a new one.

Charities

Official inquiries were made into the charities of Burnley in 1826 and 1899, but the later one was partial only, the county borough being excluded. The following details are taken from the reports issued, endowments for schools and churches being omitted:—

Isabel widow of Richard Shireburne of Stonyhurst in 1693 left £190 for the poor of Burnley, and in 1826 £9 was paid by the agent of George Weld to Peregrine Towneley of Towneley, who distributed it. This charity has since been lost. Robert Halstead of Rochester in 1649 left £3 6s. 8d. for the poor of the parish of Burnley and the same for the poor of Worsthorne; the rent-charges are still paid, and the money is distributed in money gifts.

For Burnley and Habergham Eaves Elizabeth Peel in 1800 left the residue of her estate, now represented by £1,722 consols, for the relief of the poor in the winter months by gifts of bread and clothing. Orders for clothing are given to over 100 persons in each township, the value being 4s. each.

In the township of Burnley the poor became entitled to £500 under the will of Molly Hindle, 1804; this now produces £13 15s., distributed at Christmas-time in doles of cloth worth 5s. each. Mary widow of the Rev. John Hargreaves in 1814 left the residue of her estate for poor widows in Burnley and Bacup, and £9 a year is now paid by Sir J. O. S. Thursby of Ormerod House, Burnley; it is given in doles of flannel and other dress materials.

John Halstead of Broadbank in 1672 gave a rentcharge of £3 for the poor of Briercliffe with Extwistle. This is still in force, and doles of 5s. are distributed to aged widows and others once a year.

In Cliviger George Stephenson in 1805 intended to leave £20 to the Sunday school and £10 to four poor widows, and his representatives fulfilled his intentions. The interest for the widows is now only 4s. 8d. a year. On a women's sick club becoming extinct in 1875 the surplus funds, £20, were invested in consols, and now produce 9s. 8d. a year, divided among eight poor persons at Christmas-time.

Footnotes

1 Formerly Swinglehurst.
2 The Bury or Manchester road has been continued north, crossing the Brun and going on as Bank Parade or Keighley Green, along the right bank of the stream, to join the church road later. Church Street was formerly called Fenkel Street.
The lane called Godley Lane led from the church eastward, but has been replaced by modern streets. The ancient cross stood in it.
The following account of the bridge is of interest. It is taken from the Folds MSS.: 'The old bridge in Burnley was pulled down 29 June 1736, being Peter's Day, at ¾ past 2 in the afternoon. Memd'm that there is to be built at the upper end of Burnley over the River Burn, otherwise Brun, [a bridge] direct from Fenkell Street to the end of the house belonging to the late Sir Nicholas Shireburne, facing the upper cross; the arch to contain 16 yds. in length hollow between butment and butment, in breadth between battlements on the inside 4 yds., the length of the battlements in a direct line 40 yds. each; one wing wall at the north end of the said bridge up the said river containing 15 yds. in length, and another wing wall up the said river at the south end of the said bridge of 10 yds. in length; the height of the battlements of the said bridge to be 4 ft.; the length of the pavement over the said bridge to contain 80 yds. The undertakers to find all manner of things whatsoever for the building and erecting the said bridge, and to make and pave a way close adjoining to the south-east end of the said bridge into the said river, necessary and convenient for persons of the said town of Burnley to water their cattle and to fetch water; the same way to be levelled, paved, done, and performed according to the direction and good liking of John Hadocke, esq. And to pull up the inner church wall between the old Naylor house end and Crossley's dunghill, and with the stone that arises therefrom raise the wall next the water 2 ft. higher from Crossley's stable end to the old Naylor house end; and to pull up the pavement that now is between the church walls, and make the same level with and lay the same to the churchyard, and to sait the channel out of the street into the river.'
3 The tramway was opened in 1881 and worked by steam traction till 1902, when the Nelson line was opened with electric traction. The other parts were opened in 1903–4.
4 V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 553–5.
5 W. T. Watkin, Roman Lancs. 86, 210; traces of a road, coins, fragments of Roman pottery and funeral urns with burnt bones have been found at Burnley itself, and Ringstones Camp in Worsthorne shows remains of a walled station with a Roman road leading to it.
6 V.C.H. Lancs. i, 265; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xviii, 50.
7 It was proposed to summon the people of Colne and Burnley to join the Northern rising of 1536–7, but nothing seems to have been done; L. and P. Hen. VIII, xii (1), 1020.
8 The following is Dr. Aikin's description, published in 1795: 'Burnley has a market on Mondays, chiefly for corn. Its trade was formerly only in woollen or worsted goods, but the cotton manufactures are now introduced in it. Some fulling mills for woollens are still kept up, and there are many cotton machines and printing works about the town'; Country round Manch. 278.
Baines in 1836 described Burnley as 'seated in a narrow, fertile, woody vale,' the town consisting 'chiefly of stone houses, erected principally within the last forty years'; Lancs. (ed. 1), iii, 246. The solitary fulling mill left in 1824 had disappeared; ibid. 251. It is added: 'Owing to the extensive excavations for coals made under the town a number of buildings near its centre, extending westward, have sunk several inches, and there are many good houses to be seen with a rent down the front, and where the roofs and flooring have separated from the walls.'
The ordnance map of 1848 shows coalpits at the entrance of Yorkshire Street and in the present Red Lion Street and Guerden Street; others were to the east of the canal and the west of the railway.
9 a Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
10 Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1), iii, 251. Later (1833 onwards) there were races for a time at Turf Moor.
11 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 23.
12 Challoner, Missionary Priests, no. 186. The cause of his beatification was allowed to be introduced at Rome in 1886. There is a relic of him at Claughton-on-Brock.
His father Thomas Whitaker, master in 1617 and till his death in 1626, must have been a conformist. His will names his wife Ellen and his four children, also his base daughter Anne Wilson.
13 Dict. Nat. Biog. His father was the Rev. William Halliwell, master of the grammar school 1761–96; Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 172.
14 Trans. Hist. Soc. xxviii, 77.
15 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxv, 235.
16 Ibid. xviii, 50–53; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 170, 190. The Foldys cross was destroyed in a drunken freak.
17 For example, in the grant of free warren, 1251.
18 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 156.
19 Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 357.
20 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 213–14. The value was £15 11s., to which must be added 30s. 7d. from the charterers.
21 Chart. R. 87 (22 Edw. I), m. 11, no. 23. A century ago the market day had become changed to Monday. The lord had ceased to collect tolls. This ancient market held in the streets was abolished by the corporation in 1866.
22 De Lacy Compoti (Chet. Soc.), 18.
23 Ibid. 8.
24 Ibid. 16.
25 Ibid. 104.
26 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 7. The total was £16 8s. 3d.
27 Ibid. 191. The water-mill yielded £7 16s. and the fulling-mill 10s. 10d.; some repairs had been done to them.
28 –8 Often written Feysandforth. There are many other variants.
29 Kuerden fol. MS. p. 250. The date must be before 1240, when John de Lacy died. Roger Dean of Whalley was a witness.
30 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 214.
31 In 1607 a charter was produced by which Richard son of Richard son of Griffin gave to Oliver de Stansfield all his messuages and lands in Burnley and Briercliffe and the reversion of the portion held by Helewise his mother in dower. The piece of land called Mustihalgh was excepted. All was to be held of Henry Earl of Lincoln and his heirs; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 84.
32 Ibid. ii, 7. Oliver de Stansfield held 12 acres in Burnley in 1305; De Lacy Compoti, 109. This may account for the increase of the acreage from 40 to 50.
33 It was perhaps made the residence of the family, for James Stansfield of Heysandforth occurs in 1442; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 4, m. 1b. By a deed dated at Heysandforth in 1476 the feoffees regranted to Geoffrey Stansfield and Joan his wife a messuage, &c.; Add. MS. 32104, no. 1130. Feoffees of the same Geoffrey in 1485 granted to Isabel daughter of Lawrence Towneley (otherwise called Isabel daughter of Maud Southworth) certain lands in Burnley, to be held by her for life with remainder to Giles the son and heir of Geoffrey Stansfield, who was to marry Isabel; W. Farrer's D. On the seal tag is writing naming Geoffrey Stansfield of the Heysandforth. See John Stansfeld, Stansfeld Fam. 276.
A settlement of the manor was made in 1496 by Geoffrey son of James Stansfield; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 145.
34 Geoffrey Stansfield died in 1500 holding the manor of Heysandforth of the king as duke by knight's service. A widow Joan survived him. His son Giles died before him, leaving a widow Isabel and a daughter Joan, two years of age, who was heir of her grandfather; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 56.
Joan wife of Simon Haydock of Heysandforth was buried at Burnley 21 Aug. 1562; Reg.
35 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 40. The pedigree in Whitaker's Whalley (ii, 176) interposes another Simon between the one who married the heiress and Evan.
Evan had been married, perhaps in infancy, to Ellen daughter of Sir John Towneley, but was divorced by 1551, when disputes took place as to the lands settled on the marriage. The agreement for the marriage was made in 1522 when Evan father of Simon was still living, and the marriage took place before the children were twelve years old. At this age Ellen refused consent, and a divorce was obtained. Grimehouse was part of the lands assigned; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Edw. VI, xxvi, H 10; Dep. Edw. VI, xi, T 3.
A settlement of the manor of Heysandforth and other estates was made by Evan Haydock in 1586; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 48, m. 7.
Nicholas Hancock of Lower Higham in 1570 became bound to Evan Haydock of Heysandforth and Giles his brother; Add. MS. 32104, no. 1135.
36 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 236.
37 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 81–5, 123. The lands were held in socage. The will, dated 1606, is given. It mentions Anne his wife, his children Evan, Gilbert, Mary and Eleanor. Testator desired Mr. Justice Walmsley to undertake the rule of his son Evan during minority; £10 was to be paid for his education if he were brought up in the country, but £20 if he should go to the University or Inns of Court. His 'evidence chest' is named.
38 Subs. R. Lancs. bdle. 131, no. 317. His wife Anne was also a convicted recusant.
39 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxviii, no. 81. In 1620 he had settled his lands, naming his sister Eleanor and brother Gilbert.
40 The pedigree in Ormerod (loc. cit.) comes down to Simon's grandson John Haydock, J.P., who died in 1745.
41 Henry de Lacy (d. 1311) granted to Robert son of Robert de Burnley 8 acres of land in Burnley formerly held by John the Folder; Shireburne Abstract Bk. at Leagram. This was probably the foundation of the estate.
In 1528 Oliver Halstead surrendered several messuages, &c., to John Ryley, priest, John Woodroffe and others; John Ryley in 1533 releasing two messuages to John Woodroffe; ibid. John Woodroffe acquired other lands in the neighbourhood, and was in 1557 succeeded by another John, apparently his nephew; ibid. This John married Jenet one of the three daughters and co-heirs of Edmund Tattersall of Mossley (licence 1534) and was in 1580 succeeded by his son John; his wife Jenet died in 1597; ibid. John Woodroffe of 'Bankhead' and Richard Woodroffe of Burnley were freeholders in 1600; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 236. John Woodroffe of 'Banktop' was dead in 1610, his daughter Isabel (bapt. 1583) being wife of Nicholas Townley of Royle; she had in 1605 been divorced from Richard son of Thomas Shuttleworth; Shireburne Abstract Bk. In 1653 Isabel surrendered the old and new copyhold land belonging to Bank Top in Burnley to her granddaughter Isabel wife of Richard Shireburne. The will of Isabel Townley is dated 1674; ibid. The nuncupative will of her father John Woodroffe (1610) has been preserved; it left everything to her.
In 1579 John Woodroffe was ordered to go to communion at his parish church; ibid. About 1586 it was reported to the government that Robert Woodroffe, seminary priest, had been received at the house of Jenet Woodroffe of Bank Top; Baines, Lancs. (ed. Harland), i, 180 (from Harl. MS. 360). This Robert, whose parentage is not stated, arrived at Douay from England in 1577, was one of the early students of the English College at Rome (1579, aged twenty-five), ordained there and sent on the English mission in 1582, partly in hope that his native air would restore him, he being in poor health. It was for sheltering him that Richard Blundell of Little Crosby was imprisoned, and Woodroffe was imprisoned at Chester, Lancaster, Wisbech and Framlingham. In 1603 he was sent into exile for the second time, but returned to England. In one list he is noted as 'martyr, 1591,' but this is erroneous. See Douay Diaries, 121, 192, 321, 18, 33; Foley, Rec. S. J. v, 135, 228; Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc.), i, 110; Crosby Rec. (Chet. Soc.), 21.
42 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 175, 221.
43 Dict. Nat. Biog. He led the charge of the Heavy Brigade at Balaclava. He died at Bank Hall 6 Dec. 1871, and was buried at Holme.
44 In 1602 Thomas Barker had a dispute with Richard Woodroffe and Margaret Halstead, widow, concerning Bank House, late the estate of Henry Halstead; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 453. There were earlier disputes (1560–3) between Robert Pereson and William Halstead; ibid. ii, 231, 269.
45 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 167–9, with Halsted pedigree. The railway to Colne goes through part of its land.
46 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 175. The descent appears to be: William Folds, living 1522 -s. Richard -s. William, living 1560, d. 1603 -s. Richard, d. 1623 -s. William, b. 1585, d. 1650 -2nd s. John, d. 1687 -s. John, b. 1674, d. 1738 -s. John, b. 1694, d. 1741 -s. William, b. 1721 -s. John, b. 1745 -s. John -s. John, b. 1808; from family papers, registers, &c. Mr. Obadiah Folds is the present head of the family. William Folds of Dancer House was a freeholder in 1600; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 236.
In a surrender of the Dancer House estate in 1706 by John Folds, yeoman. the following place-names occur: Moorfields, Leonard's Fields, Haggsfield, Kilncroft, Slater Meadow, Tentercroft, Gregorycroft, &c.; also a cottage called the Hebrew Hall. A rent of 8s. 9d. was due to the lord of the manor; Folds MSS. In 1739 Banister Halsted of Rowley bequeathed his law books to William Folds son of John Folds the younger of Dancer House; Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), iii, 116.
The surname was a common one in the district. In a charge of assault, &c., at Burnley in 1425–6 the following were concerned: Christopher, Edward and Henry Folds of Burnley, John Folds of Sudhall, Robert Folds and John Folds the elder of Briercliffe; Towneley MS. RR, no. 1670.
47 a The date 1500 is said to have once been visible on the building. It was, however, 'covered up' in 1876; Whitaker, Whalley (ed. 4), ii, 175.
48 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 175. The surname occurs in several townships in the neighbourhood. William Ingham of Burnley, yeoman, was defendant in 1442; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 4, m. 18. In 1512 William son of John Ingham of Fulledge was contracted to marry Elizabeth daughter of George Ormerod; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), I, 25. John Ingham of Fulledge is named in a deed of 1531; ibid. T 135. The will of Robert Ingham of Fulledge, the elder, dated 1622, mentions several children, his heir being a grandson Robert, one of the executors. This grandson was probably the Robert Ingham of Fulledge who died in 1650, having made his will in 1647; it appears that he had two sons, John and Richard.
49 Richard de Whitacre paid 20s. for the herbage of Filly Close and Royle (Roel); Lancs. Ct. R. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 72.
50 The summer agistment of 60 beasts, 9 heifers, 6 stirks and 4 working horses realized 71s. 4d. in Filly Close and Royle; Rentals and Surv. portf. 9, no. 74.
51 Mins. Accts. bdle. 76, no. 1498.
52 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 177. 'John Clerke, for Royle,' is named in the list of tenants of 1443; Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 504.
The tenure may have been altered later. In the 17th century Mr. Townley paid a fee farm rent of 20s. 8d. for tenements called Royle and appurtenances in Pendle Forest.
53 The authority for the marriage is the pedigree in Visit. of 1613 (Chet. Soc.), 99. The bond is copied in Towneley MS. C 8, 13, C 103–4; Whitaker, loc. cit.
Richard was the son of Nicholas Townley, who died in or before 1533, Richard himself dying in 1541; Farrer, op. cit. i, 308, 354. Margaret his wife was then living, and claimed dower. An abstract of his will is printed in Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), i, 230.
54 Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 145.
55 It was alleged that Richard Townley of Royle and others had broken the weirs of the water of Whineroke, flowing between Lord Derby's lands within the hamlet of Clifton (Habergham Eaves) and Townley's lands, so that the former lands were flooded; Pal. of Lanc. Writs of Assize, bdle. 18 (29 Hen. VIII); Plea R. 162, m. 11 d.
56 See the account of Colne.
57 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 13. By his will, proved 1598, he gave Greenfield to his younger son Bernard for life, unless the elder son Nicholas would pay him an annuity of £13 6s. 8d. His daughters Anne and Blanche were also provided for. The inventory included books 20s. and a clock 26s. 8d. The inventory of the goods of his widow, Katherine Townley of Clifton, is dated 1629.
58 The marriage took place at Burnley 4 Feb. 1606–7; Reg. A pedigree (quoted above) was recorded in 1613.
59 Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxiv, 179.
60 Shireburne Abstract Bk. Patent dated 8 Nov. 7 Chas. I. In 1631 Nicholas paid £15 as composition for declining knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 217.
61 The daughter's marriage was distasteful to her father, perhaps on religious grounds, and he disinherited her; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 178 n.
62 There were two daughters, but Katherine Ingleby died unmarried in 1649; Burnley Reg.
63 Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), ii, 225.
64 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 312. In 1669 articles of agreement between Isabel (widow of Nicholas) Townley and Nicholas son of Robert brother of the said Nicholas Townley were drawn up; Shireburne Abstract Bk.
65 See the pedigree in Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 178. The following is an outline: Robert Townley, d. 1666 -s. Nicholas, d. 1682 -s. Nicholas, d. 1699 -s. Thomas, d. 1737 -s. Thomas (whose daughter was Anne Parker), d. 1770 -bro. Edmund, d. 1796. The Rev. Edmund Townley (d. 1729), younger son of the first Nicholas, was a benefactor of the church at Burnley.
66 a In the possession of Mr. Henry Taylor, F.S.A.
67 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 7.
68 Whalley Couch. (Chet. Soc.), i, 327.
69 Towneley MS. DD, no. 988.
70 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 7.
71 Whalley Couch. i, 325, 328–9.
72 Ibid. iv, 1221. In 1468 Ralph Abbot of Whalley granted to John Towneley a lease of three little garths lying by the bridge at Burnley and the west end of the church, between the water and the north side of the churchyard; Towneley MS. C 8, 13, W 134. This plat of land was sold by the Crown in 1606; Pat. 4 Jas. I, pt. xxiv. Robert Smith, the principal abbey tenant in Burnley, was plaintiff in the time of Henry VIII; Ducatus Lanc. i, 197.
73 Richard Tattersall of Briercliffe in 1523 held lands in Burnley, but the tenure was unknown; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 38, 79. For the Tattersalls of Ridge End see the account of Briercliffe. The estate at Ridge Ena was sold to Clayton of Carr in 1719.
74 The Grimshaws of Clayton had lands in Burnley (ibid. viii, no. 16). During the Civil War warning was given that the lands were liable to be swept away by the river, and the Committee for Compounding were asked to provide against it, as the people were afraid their passage to church and market would be stopped and their houses endangered. The sequestration was due to John Grimshaw's recusancy; Cal. Com. for Comp. i, 489.
75 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 94.
76 In 1508 Robert Rishton transferred to Sir John Towneley the corn-mill of Burnley for twenty one years at £3 6s. 8d. rent; Towneley. MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), R 56. For later leases from the Crown see Pat. 2 Jas. I, pt. xvii (to Baskerville); 7 Jas. I, pt. xxxiii (to Ferrers, &c.).
77 Ducatus Lanc. i, 177, 246; iii, 28; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 238, &c. Early in Elizabeth's reign Alexander Radcliffe had Burnley Mill by lease from Henry VIII, and complained that various freeholders and copyholders were withholding suit. The reply was that they were at liberty to grind either at Burnley or at Padiham, and before the Padiham Mill was built (fifty years earlier) at Hapton; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. lxix, R 5.
78 Duchy of Lanc. Dep. Edw. VI, lvii, T 1.
79 Folds D.; Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 179. The freeholders were: John Towneley, esq., Lawrence Habergham, Charles Ryley, Hugh Halstead, John Woodroffe, Edmund Robinson and Simon Haydock; also the glebe (35 acres).
80 Towneley MS. 'Honor of Clitheroe.' The holders were: Richard Towneley, esq., Nicholas Townley, esq., Lawrence Towneley, esq., Evan Haydock, gent., the feoffees of Burnley School, Richard Aspden, Thomas Barcroft of Lodge, William Barcroft of Barcroft, Thomas Brewer, Ralph Clough, Abraham Coulthurst, James Emott and John Banister (in right of wives), James Folds, Richard Folds, George Halstead, John Halstead of Rowley, Robert Hodgson, Robert Ingham of Fulledge, Henry Jackson, John Peel, John Robert and Richard Wood, Geoffrey Rushton, James Sagar, John Smith, John Tattersall, Richard Towne, Henry Walton and John Wilkinson.
81 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 179.
82 Subs. R. Lancs. bdle. 130, no. 82.
83 Ibid. bdle. 131, no. 212.
84 Ibid. 274.
85 Ibid. 317.
86 Ibid. bdle. 250, no. 9.
87 Act 59 Geo. III, cap. 34. There are many amending and augmenting Acts.
88 Act 59 Geo. III, cap. 32. Reservoirs were made at Heysandforth and on the south of the town, in Habergham Eaves.
89 The company was incorporated in 1826 by the Act 7 Geo. IV, cap. 36. The first works were at Saunder's Bank or Finsley Meadow, just beyond the south border of the township. Further works were erected at Stonyholme about 1850.
90 On a piece of land called Thorncroft. A new market-place was formed in 1852.
91 Act 9 & 10 Vict. cap. 119. The area was divided into three wards: Burnley North, Burnley South and Habergham Eaves.
92 New reservoirs were then formed in Worsthorne and Extwistle, and great extensions have since been made. There are reservoirs at Swinden, Hecknest and Cant Clough, and a compensation reservoir at Lee Green. The corporation in 1889 acquired the Padiham Water Works.
93 Act 17 & 18 Vict. cap. 67.
94 The charter is dated 24 Oct. 1861.
95 Act 28 & 29 Vict. cap. 24, 230. The market limits are the townships of Burnley and Habergham Eaves.
96 There is a separate cattle market. Abattoirs on the site of the old workhouse were opened in 1879.
97 Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iii, 252.
98 Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre. of Lancs. 346.
99 Act 34 & 35 Vict. cap. 154. The extensions were chiefly in the north-east, beyond Heysandforth to the workhouse; and in the west to Gannow, Hargher Clough and Cole Clough. A smaller addition was made in the south-east.
100 The wards were: St. Andrew's, Bank House, Trinity, Gannow, Healey, Fulledge, St. James's, St. Peter's.
101 Lond. Gaz. 7 Nov. 1871.
102 The wards are named: St. Andrew's, Danes House, Stonyholme, St. Peter's, St. Paul's, Fulledge, Burnley Wood, Healey, Trinity, Whittlefield, Gannow and Lowerhouse. The present boundaries, as settled in 1898, are fully set forth in the Year-book issued by the Corporation.
103 Local Govt. Bd. Order 31666.
104 Ibid. The Census Rep. 1901 gives the areas of the new townships thus: Burnley, 4,005 acres, including 65 of inland water; Brunshaw, 406 acres.
105 The court-house was formerly on Keighley Green.
106 Act 53 & 54 Vict. cap. 187. They have been greatly extended from time to time since.
107 A workhouse was built in 1822 in Royle Road, where the railway crosses the Calder. The present workhouse, to the north of the town, in Briercliffe Road, was built in 1876.
108 See Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 158; Lancs. Churches (Chet. Soc.), 101; Hist. of the Parochial Church of Burnley, by T. T. Wilkinson, 1856, which has been used in the following description; also The Founding of Burnley Parish Church, by John Allen, 1903.
109 –8 The founding of the Towneley chantry in the 14th century might lead to the supposition that parts of the building were of that period, but there is no sufficient architectural evidence remaining for determining the old plan. Wilkinson (Hist. Burnley Ch.3) says 'the original plan appears to have been cruciform, the chancel forming the head, and the Towneley and Stansfield chapels the right and left arms of the cross respectively.'
110 Wilkinson, op. cit. 2.
111 An ancient tradition, as at Winwick, connects a pig with the erection of the first church. See note 123.
112 The baptistery was formed there in 1903.
113 These have been variously interpreted. See Wilkinson, op. cit. 4; Whitaker's Whalley (ed. 4, 1876), ii, 159, where there is a full description with illustration.
114 Some 17th-century bench ends were removed in 1903.
115 Dr. Whitaker supposed it to have covered the remains of one of the earlier Stansfields.
116 In Kuerden MSS. vi, fol. 48 and 48b, are notes of arms, &c., formerly in the church and churchyard.
117 An earlier ring of four was cast by Samuel Smith of York in 1702. When the present ring was placed in the tower the old bells were sold, one going to Liverpool, another to Bolton and a third to Bacup. The remaining one was purchased by Mears, the founder of the new peal; Wilkinson, op. cit. 61.
118 In 1340 a chalice and a breviary were stolen from Burnley Church; Assize R. 430, m. 12.
119 One was sold to Richard Hitchen of Sparrhawk in Burnley, and in 1736 was used to fill ale in; Folds MSS.
120 The first part, 1562–1653, has been printed by the Lanc. Par. Reg. Soc. 1899.
121 Add. MS. 32104, no. 1241.
122 St. Anthony's Quire was the Stansfield chapel, then the property of Richard Shuttleworth, and was separated from the rest of the pews by a screen. This plan is printed in Memories of Hurstwood (1889), and with the Parish Register.
123 'Orate pro anima Johannis Foldys, capellani, quiistam crucem fieri fecit, Anno Domini mcccccxx.' See Taylor, Ancient Crosses and Holy Wells of Lancashire, 112.
124 'The tradition of the place is that prior to the foundation of a church at Burnley religious rites were celebrated on the site where [the old cross] stands, but that afterwards, upon an attempt being made to erect an oratory upon the place, the materials were nightly transported by invisible agents to the present site'; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 157.
125 Dugdale, Mon. v, 121.
126 Whitaker, op. cit. i, 87. A piece of land was given to the church in 1522 by Robert Booth; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), T 100. There were disputes between the inhabitants and the monks of Whalley as to liability to repair the church; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xv, fol. 45.
127 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 10.
128 Gastrell attributes the increment to Archbishop Juxon, but it is already recorded in 1650 in the Commonwealth Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 166. The inhabitants in 1609 petitioned for an increase of means for a minister; Note by Towneley.
129 The net amount received in 1717 was only £3 18s. 4d.; Gastrell, Notitio Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 308.
130 An order for £24 6s. was made in 1648; Whitaker, op. cit. i, 221. In 1650 an increment of £50 was ordered out of the Clifton or other sequestrations; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 89, 109, 132. This increase was afterwards paid; ibid. 248.
131 Gastrell, loc. cit. There were four wardens and four assistants.
132 Details of Townley's benefactions are given in Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 166–7.
133 Act 59 Geo. III, cap. 6; later Acts are 8 & 9 Vict. cap. 35, 10 & 11 Vict. cap. 163.
134 Lond. Gaz. 4 June 1867.
135 Raines in Gastrell's Notitia, loc. cit. The inhabitants on their part agreed to make the stipend up to 20 marks. In 1683 the increment necessary was apportioned thus: Burnley, £1 12s. 5d.; Habergham Eaves, £2 4s. 3d.; Cliviger, £2 4s. 4d.; Briercliffe, £2 16s. 9d.— £8 17s. 9d. in all; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 166.
136 Gastrell, loc. cit.
137 Thomas Townley was tenant in a recovery of the advowson in 1731; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 532, m. 5 d. There was another recovery in 1787; ibid. 646, m. 5.
138 Act 53 & 54 Vict. cap. 123.
139 Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 147– 50. The chantry goes back to 1372–3, when Thomas de la Legh granted the third part of the manor of Towneley to his nephew Gilbert on condition that he found a chaplain to sing for the souls of Thomas, &c.; Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 160. See also the account of Habergham Eaves.
The chaplain, Nicholas Parker, being dead, the Abbot of Whalley in 1481 asked Sir Richard Towneley to give it to John Green, a brother of the abbey; ibid. 163.
Sir Richard's son John, about 1500, endowed or re-endowed the chantry of St. Mary, as appears by an inscription thereon; ibid. 160. John Ingham was to be the priest; Add. MS. 30145, fol. 83.
Peter Adlington was cantarist in 1535, when the income was given as £3 6s. 8d.; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 230. He died about Christmas 1546, when Hugh Watmough was nominated to succeed him. John Ingham had preceded Adlington; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 3. John Aspden also claimed it; ibid. 103–6.
A chantry and chantry lands at Burnley were sold by the Crown in 1589; Pat. 31 Eliz. pt. xi.
140 Raines, op. cit. 150–2. The chantry seems to have been founded in 1523; Add. MS. 32104, no. 459. Gilbert Fairbank was the priest there in 1535, when his stipend was said to be £2 only; Valor Eccl. ut sup.
The lands of this chantry were afterwards (1552) assigned to the support of the grammar school; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 163.
At an inquiry as to 'concealed lands' in 1561 it was stated that Fairbank was still in possession of the endowment, but did no service for it; Duchy of Lanc. Special Com. no. 33.
141 Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 87. For ministers' accounts see ibid. ii, 315. Inquiries were made as to the lands of St. Peter's chantry in 1569 and later; Duchy of Lanc. Special Com. 186, 207.
142 The cantarists must have celebrated with the plate belonging to the chapel.
143 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 162–3; the 'rood priest' is named in a deed of 1544–5, in reference, it appears, to land formerly given for his support by John Ingham, chaplain. William Piccope in 1521 bequeathed his lands, in case he died without issue, to the 'use and behoof of a priest to sing and say mass and other divine service in the kirk of Burnley for ever,' for his soul and the souls of his parents; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), P 59. From references given (Whitaker, op cit. ii, 164) it appears that Stephen Smith and Richard Hitchen were the priests serving them. Stephen Smith was chaplain of Rossendale in 1531; Act Bk. of Whalley (Chet. Soc.), 138. Richard 'Higen' was in 1541 said to be paid out of the alms of the parishioners; Clergy List (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 18. Both names occur in the visitation list of 1548, but Hitchen is marked 'decrepit' and then 'dead,' by the bishop's officials. Smith was at Rochdale in 1554. See also Duchy Plead. iii, 126.
In a settlement of land in 1519 the ultimate remainder was 'to the use and profit of the service in the rood-loft of Burnley Church for ever'; Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. ii, 148.
144 Q.R. Memo. R. 160; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 32.
145 Raines, Chantries, 277, 275. The vestments and plate were taken away by the king's commissioners in 1553, apparently to the great indignation of the people, who as soon as Mary came to the throne made complaint of the spoliation; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 158. The vestments included some described as 'fine'; the plate mentioned was a chalice and two patens, and there were 'three high solemn and fine bells, a sanctus bell, one hand bell (and) three other little bells'; Augm. Off. Misc. Bks. clxx, m. 3.
146 Three chantry priests have been named: Fairbank, Smith and Hitchen. The other priests were Robert Ingham, John Aspden and Hugh Watmough. The first was in 1541 said to be paid by John Towneley, and perhaps served Towneley Hall; the second was the curate, paid by the vicar of Whalley; the third had been a chantry priest, as above.
147 Particulars as to various chantry priests were given at an inquiry into the lands in 1571. Thomas Burgess was stated to have died in 1554, Stephen Smith in 1562, and Gilbert Fairbank in 1567. Hugh Watmough was living; Duchy of Lanc. Special Com. 202.
148 Visitation lists at Chester. Even in the Commonwealth time there was only one minister in the chapelry.
149 Whitaker (op. cit. ii, 169) gives the following earlier names, but it is in most cases impossible to say whether they were the chaplains of Burnley or merely chantry priests or others living in the district: c. 1200, Henry the clerk of Burnley (Kuerden fol. MS. 250); John the clerk of Burnley; 1300, Walter the chaplain of Burnley; 1358, Richard de Burnley, chaplain; 1359, William Moton and John son of Adam son of Walter, chaplain; 1369, Ellis de Habergham, chaplain; 1520, John Folds, chaplain. The last-named caused a cross to be erected in the churchyard; ibid. 170.
In 1423–4 occurs an item of ½d., the rent of Walter the chaplain of Burnley for the eighth part of an acre of waste there, on which a house was to be built; Receivers' Accts. bdle. 89, roll 1631.
150 Hargreaves was 'curate of Burnley' in 1532; Duchy of Lanc. Dep. Hen. VIII, xx, B 12 k. See also Act Bk. of Whalley, 199, in which volume the 'church' of Burnley is often named as a place of public penance; ibid. 74, 165, &c.
151 He had removed to Ribchester by 1542; Clergy List, loc. cit.
152 His name appears in the Clergy List of 1541–2 as successor to Marsden, and in the visitation lists to 1565, in which it has been crossed out and another inserted, no doubt in preparation for the next visitation. Aspden subscribed to the royal supremacy in 1563; Ches. Sheaf (Ser. 3), i, 34–5. He died in 1567, being buried 30 June; Reg. According to the story told in 1588 there was no (regular) minister for twenty years after his death.
153 Visit. List.
154 The will of Thomas Barcroft was in August 1573 proved before William Duxbury, clerk, curate of Burnley. He occurs similarly as curate again in Sept. 1575; Pennant's MS. Acct. Bk. He was buried 14 May 1583; his widow's burial was on 24 May 1597; Reg.
155 Mary Ryley was baptized at Elland in Yorkshire 9 Sept. 1582, and is entered at the foot of a page in the Burnley register as daughter of Thomas Ryley, minister of Burnley. Probably, therefore, he succeeded Duxbury. A son was baptized at Elland 26 Nov. 1584 and a daughter at Burnley in 1589. Ryley was buried 1 May 1631; Reg.
In 1592 there were no pews, and in 1598 the church needed repair; Visit. Returns.
156 Brereley's name occurs in the Burnley registers from 1633 till his burial 13 June 1637. His will names his wife Ann, eldest son Thomas and six other children. He held on lease a farm at Marland.
157 Henry Morris's name appears in Apr. 1638, and he was still curate in 1653; Reg. Under June 1645 he recorded 'Here the Directory began.' He was a member of the Presbyterian Classis in the following year, and in 1650 was reputed 'an able and orthodox divine.' His name occurs in the registers in 1661 and 1662 as 'minister.' The handwriting changes in 1664, but Henry Morris was still curate in April that year, as appears from a Starkie marriage licence at Chester.
158 Wallwork signed the registers as curate at the end of 1666. He was buried 9 May 1671.
159 Visit. List.
160 He signed the registers for 1673 as curate, and was buried 9 Feb. 1687–8.
161 Buried at Whalley 6 July 1690. In 1689 he was reported 'conformable'; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 228.
162 Previously at Padiham. The church papers at Chester begin with his appointment. Anthony Parker, Thomas Braddyll and Christopher Wilkinson, justices of the peace, nominated him. He was buried 25 Sept. 1724.
163 As stated in the text there was a double nomination.
164 Nominated by Thomas Townley of Royle. The new curate was son of Sir T. Standish of Duxbury; he had been chaplain of H.M.S. Monmouth and stayed at Burnley till his death.
165 Nominated by Edmund Townley of Royle. Collins was rector of Compton Valence, but did not reside there or at Burnley, being chaplain and steward to Lord Ribblesdale; Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 170. The Rev. John Raws, master of the grammar school, was in charge 1788– 1834.
166 Nominated by Robert Townley Parker of Cuerden and Royle. Mr. Radcliffe was curate of Walton-le-Dale 1798– 1826, and did not reside at Burnley.
167 Nominated by R. T. Parker. Mr. Master resided at Burnley till his successor was ready, and then became incumbent of St. James's, Leyland, and rector of Croston. He was hon. canon and archdeacon of Manchester. He died in 1867.
168 Hon. canon of Manchester 1866, rector of Burnley 1867. He was the youngest son of R. Townley Parker and lived at Royle. He died soon after his resignation, on 17 Aug. 1902.
169 Rector of St. Dunstan's, Stepney, 1886, vicar of Bolton-le-Moors 1896, Bishop of Southwell 1904.
170 Previously vicar of St. Mark's, Broomhall, 1896, and canon of York 1903. He was the author of several theological works. He died after a brief illness on 19 Mar. 1909.
171 Previously vicar of Bolton-le-Moors.
172 Dict. Nat. Biog.
173 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 169.
174 Church papers at Chester Dioc. Reg.
175 For district see Lond. Gaz. 3 Dec. 1844.
176 A district was assigned in 1853.
177 For district see Lond. Gaz. 13 July 1869.
178 A district was assigned in 1897. There is a chalice here dated 1420.
179 A district was assigned in 1898.
180 Bishop Gastrell recorded fifty Quakers and four Independents in 1717; Notitia Cestr. ii, 308.
In 1670 complaint was made that John Hargreaves, 'pretended clerk,' had been preaching at Holme Chapel and elsewhere in the district without licence; Visit. returns.
181 Mannex, Dir. John Wesley visited the town several times.
182 Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. ii, 157; preachers had visited that 'licentious place' as early as 1806, and a church was formed in the following year. 'The friends of the Established Church' greatly assisted the cause. The church was rebuilt in 1879.
183 Ibid. 163; the dispute was over the appointment of a minister in 1849. A branch church was formed in 1889.
184 This was an effort of the General Baptists of Birchcliff. They began preaching at Worsthorne in 1776 and meeting with some success there went on to Burnley in 1780, Richard Folds being the minister. Here a church was formed and a chapel became necessary in 1787. It had severe checks from unworthy ministers, but was able to survive; A. Taylor, Engl. Gen. Baptists, 193, 278, 392.
185 It is mentioned by Gastrell in 1717; Notitia, ut sup.
186 In 1632 Robert Sager the younger compounded for the two-thirds of his estate liable to sequestration for recusancy by a payment of £2 a year, and Alice Sager compounded for Elizabeth Whitaker; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxiv, 178–9. There were 118 'Papists' in the chapelry in 1767; ibid. xviii, 216.
187 Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc.), ii, 306–11.
188 The full title is Our Holy Saviour and SS. John Baptist and Evangelist.
189 Stephen Ellis, clerk, described as 'scole-maister' (? Burnley) was trustee in 1532 for lands in Pendle Forest; Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. ii, 107. See ibid. 336.
According to the certificate of John Halsted and others in 1562 there were, before the destruction of the chantries, certain lands belonging to the churchwardens 'intended to have been used to the maintenance of their school.' Lacking a schoolmaster they allowed Stephen Smith to have the rents 'until such time as they could be provided of a schoolmaster,' and when the chantries were dissolved he, for his own profit, returned the lands as belonging to his chantry; Augm. Off. Misc. Bks. clxx, m. 2.
190 Raines in Gastrell's Notitia, ii, 316.
Papers at Burnley, dated 1675, state that 6s. 8d. rent charged on land in Cliviger was given in 1558, 10s. rent charge on the Ings in Colne in 1559, and £3 on land in Essex in 1578 (?); copyhold lands in the manor of Wakefield were given in 1585. A schoolhouse (as in the text) was built in 1602, when further endowments were subscribed.
191 End. Char. Rep.; Trans. Hist. Soc. xxii, 19–34,; Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 312.
192 For Halsted's will (1728) see Raines, loc. cit.
193 School D.