Townships
Colne

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1911

Pages

522-536

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'Townships: Colne', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 6 (1911), pp. 522-536. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53171 Date accessed: 20 September 2014.


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COLNE

Calna, 1230; Kaun, 1241; Caune, 1251; Colne, 1311.

The chapelry of Colne embraces the townships of Colne, Marsden and Foulridge, Barrowford Booth in Pendle, and Trawden.

The main portion of Colne township lies on the north side of the stream here called Colne Water, (fn. 1) flowing west to join Pendle Water, a tributary of the Calder. The older part of the town of Colne occupies a central position on a ridge of ground 600 ft. above the sea, about a quarter of a mile north of the river, on the banks of which is the part called Waterside, with a bridge—no doubt the bridge mentioned in the Court Roll of 1323. The township has two large moorland projections; one, north-east between the two portions of Foulridge, extends to the county border and includes the elevation called Piked Edge, 1,165 ft.; the other, a hillside tract eastward between Barnside and Trawden, also extends to the county border as Emmott Moor, having the Laneshaw, the principal affluent of Colne Water, on the north, and rising to 1,430 ft. at the Wolf Stones in the south-eastern corner. North of the town the surface descends, the brook across which is Vivary Bridge (fn. 2) flowing down the hollow, and then rises again, a long ridge, which may be described as an extension of Piked Edge, reaching to the western boundary, where the ground falls away steeply to form the clough down which flows Wanless Water south to join Colne Water. This ridge at one point attains 728 ft. above sea level. North of it, in the lower ground, are the large Foulridge reservoirs for the service of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. The area of the township is 4,635 acres, and its population in 1901 numbered 19,055. The present extended township contains 5,063 acres, (fn. 3) and has a population of 23,000.

At the western end of the township are Greenfield, in the corner between Colne and Wanless Waters; Alkincotes, on the end of the central ridge, with Holt House to the east and Heir's House and Blakey Hall on lower ground to the west. North, near the reservoir, is Hob Stones. North of the town of Colne is Langroyd; to the east of it are Lidgett, Standroyd and Heyroyd, Flass and Salter Syke; to the south-east, beyond Colne Water, is Carry Heys. Further to the east is the hamlet of Laneshaw Bridge, beyond which is Emmott Hall. To the north-east of Piked Edge are Black Lane End and Ayneslack, in the extreme corner.

The principal road is that from Burnley through Nelson; it enters the township at Primet Bridge, to the east of Greenfield and below rising ground now called Bunker's Hill; thence it goes eastward past the house known as Colne Hall (fn. 4) and through the town, where it is called Market Street, and is crossed by roads leading north to Foulridge and south by Waterside to Marsden. The eastward road is continued into Yorkshire by Laneshaw Bridge through Wycoller and through Barnside; it has branches also north-east by Lidgett and south-east to Trawden. On the east side of the town the Skipton road leads north. There are numerous minor roads and several bridges in addition to those mentioned. (fn. 5) The Accrington and Colne branch of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company (fn. 6) has a station at the west end of the town near Primet Bridge, and the line continues north, as part of the Midland Railway, to Skipton. (fn. 7) The Leeds and Liverpool Canal also crosses the west end of the township beyond Wanless Water. The Colne Light Railway connects with the Nelson and Burnley electric tramway system.

There are a number of cotton manufactories, fancy goods being made here; there are also some iron foundries and works for the manufacture of looms and mill furnishings, a brewery and brick works. Coal was formerly mined. (fn. 8) The agricultural land is almost entirely in pasture, there being 3,676 acres in permanent grass, 36 acres of woods and plantations, and 24½ acres of arable.

The annual wake was formerly held on 24 August. The present market days are Wednesday and Saturday, special cattle markets being held on the last Wednesday of each month. The fair days are the second Wednesdays of March, May and October. (fn. 9) These are of recent institution, as will be seen by the account of the town and neighbourhood given in 1795:

It is a small market-town, the market on Wednesdays. The trade formerly consisted in woollen and worsted goods, particularly shalloons, calamancoes, and tammies; but the cotton trade is of late introduced, the articles consisting chiefly of calicoes and dimities. There is an elegant Cloth Hall—or Piece Hall, as it is here called—where goods are sold during the ringing of a bell, fines being levied on sales after the stated time. Much money is turned in this town, in proportion to its size, it being situated on the edge of the district of Craven, where cattle for slaughter are procured for a large surrounding country. Colne stands only a mile from the course of the Leeds Canal, at a part where a subterraneous tunnel [Foulridge] is to be carried at vast expense through a quick sand. The country about Colne is hilly, and the town is seated upon coal, with stone beneath, and slate for building. Lime is plentiful four miles on the Skipton road. Roman coins have been found at Colne, but there are no other marks of its being a Roman station. (fn. 10)

The Cloth Hall mentioned was erected by subscription in 1775. It is now used for public meetings and dramatic performances.

There are around Colne numerous remains of the ancient inhabitants of the district, (fn. 11) and the name of the place has led local antiquaries to suppose that it was a Roman colony or to identify it with the Colunio recorded by the Ravenna geographer. (fn. 12) The history of the place is quite obscure, but it may have been an independent parish in 1120, as mentioned below. It had a church and school; market and fair were instituted (fn. 13) ; and one of the halmote courts of the honor of Clitheroe was held there. During the Civil War there is some slight notice of the district; the Parliament's forces were in 1643 stationed at Emmott Lane Head to check the Yorkshire Cavaliers, (fn. 14) and in 1644 there were skirmishes at Haggate and Colne. That at the latter place on 25 June went in favour of the Royalists, who under Sir Charles Lucas defeated the Parliamentarians under Col. Shuttleworth. (fn. 15) Somewhat later the Society of Friends gained many members here. The woollen manufacture was long the chief industry of the town, and afterwards the cotton trade; the introduction of machinery here as in other towns led to opposition and disturbance, as in 1819 and 1826. (fn. 16) In 1840 there was a conflict between local Chartists and the police. (fn. 17)

Two newspapers are published weekly, the Times and the Observer.

The market cross was removed in 1823 to allow room for coach traffic. (fn. 18) This cross has been restored and re-erected on another site in the Free Library grounds. The Tom Crosses were on the boundary. By the wayside near Emmott Hall there was in 1806 'a perfect cross with the ciphers IHS and M, half obliterated, upon the capital. . . . A very copious spring, in an adjoining field, now an excellent cold bath, is called the Hullown, i.e. the Hallown or Saints' Well.' (fn. 19) The cross is still standing.

The chapelry in 1626 was by the County Lay expected to contribute £8 0s. 1¾d. towards a levy of £100 upon the whole hundred; the different parts contributed thus: Colne, £2 3s. 10¾d.; Marsden, £2 6s. 2d.; Foulridge, £1 18s. 2¾d.; and Trawden Forest, £1 11s. 10¼d. (fn. 20)

Manors

The manor of COLNE was one of the members of the honor of Clitheroe. Several Lacy charters are dated at Colne, pointing to the occasional residence there of the lords of Clitheroe and Pontefract. In 1241 it was worth £14 5s. 9d. a year, while Alkincotes was worth 19s. 4d. to the chief lord. (fn. 21) The place was included in the grant of free warren made to Edmund de Lacy in 1251. (fn. 22) In 1296 the farm of Colne and its members amounted to £22 11s. 8d.; the mills of Colne and Walverden produced £12 16s., and the fulling mill at Colne 33s. 4½d.; fines, perquisites of the halmote and the merchets of two women added 74s. 10d.; there were other profits from Trawden. (fn. 23) The inquest of 1311 shows that Henry de Lacy had a chief messuage in Colne; 551 acres of land demised to tenants at will at 4d. an acre; 10½ oxgangs of land held in bondage and rendering 31s. 6d. a year, each oxgang paying 4d. in addition for works remitted; also 14 tofts worth 7s. a year. The mills at Colne and Walverden were worth £5 clear, and the fulling mill, 6s. 8d.; the halmote of Colne and Walverden with its members 20s. a year. There were seven free tenants. (fn. 24) The accounts for 1323–4 show a net receipt of £41 15s. 9½d. from Colne and its members. (fn. 25) The extent of the manor of the same year shows various changes. The mines of coal were worth 3s. for a smith, and the ore smithies when set to farm were worth £8 13s. 4d. The Thistletake had ceased to be of value. (fn. 26) Some later details may be given. In 1446–7 a lease of two mills in Colne for thirty years was granted to James Banastre and Robert his son at a rent of 61s. 6d. a year (fn. 27) ; and in 1495 John Towneley of Towneley received a lease of them on being compelled to stop his new mill at Walverden. (fn. 28) The rental of 1527 gives a list of tenants with their rents (fn. 29) ; the corn mill and the walk mill, paying £2 13s. 4d. and 13s. 4d. respectively, were held by Henry Townley in succession to Lawrence Towneley. (fn. 30)

In 1592 the queen ordered Sir Richard Shireburne and others to survey the boundaries between the moors and wastes of her manor of Colne and adjoining manors, and to inquire about inclosures and proposed inclosures; evidence was taken accordingly and bounds defined. (fn. 31) Another survey was made in 1605, and bounds were set between the manors of Colne and Ickornshaw. (fn. 32)

A demise of the manors of Colne, &c., was made to Edward Allen and another by Charles I in 1625. (fn. 33) It seems to have come into the possession of Henry Doughty of Thornley in Chipping, for in 1641 the manor and various copyhold lands in Colne were assigned to secure the dowry of Elizabeth Callis, who married Henry's son John. (fn. 34) The Doughtys were Royalists and their estates were sequestered and forfeited. (fn. 35) Hence, apparently, the sale of the manor to William Sykes, a Leeds merchant. This sale is said to have been nullified at the Restoration. (fn. 36) The manor was then and afterwards included in the Clitheroe honor conferred on General Monk and held by his descendants, but Colne Hall remained with the Doughtys, and so descended through the Patten heiress to the Earls of Derby, (fn. 37) who continued to own it till recently. The house with some land was sold to the late Mr. Thomas Shaw, who sold the house and grounds to the Colne Co-operative Society. The Earl of Derby still remains one of the principal landowners.


Stanley, Earl of Derby. Argent on a bend azure three stags' heads caboshed or.

A rental of 1662 is preserved in one of Christopher Towneley's MSS. (fn. 38) The land remains largely copyhold, the courts being held regularly by the lords of the honor of Clitheroe. The manor now includes Trawden, with Emmott and Carr or Carry Heys, formerly in the Forest of Trawden. The Court Rolls are complete from 1507, and there are a few earlier ones. (fn. 39) The pinfold is mentioned in 1425 (fn. 40) ; the stocks were wanting in 1509. (fn. 41) A large number of field-names and minor place-names occur in the rolls. (fn. 42)

ALKINCOTES (fn. 43) was sometimes regarded as a separate vill. There were several freehold estates in it. John de Lacy gave 22 acres in the vill to the Hospitallers, (fn. 44) and this land was in 1540 held by the heir of John Parker at a rent of 12d. (fn. 45) In 1311 there were four other estates there held by charter, viz. 32 acres held by Richard son of Adam de Alkincotes by 10s. 8d. rent; 7 acres by William son of Adam de Alkincotes by 3s. 6d.; 23 acres by Adam son of Peter de Alkincotes by 7s. 8d.; and 20 acres by Richard son of Adam Ayre by 20d. rent. (fn. 46) The first of these was in 1342 held by John the Parker in virtue of a grant by Henry de Lacy to Adam son of Richard de Alkincotes. (fn. 47) The second was a grant by Adam de Alkincotes to his son William. (fn. 48) The third was held by James de Walton in 1323, and may have been in Marsden. (fn. 49) The fourth appears to be the tenement known as Heir's House.

The Parkers were the chief family at Alkincotes, and had several branches. (fn. 50) Bernard Parker died in 1608 holding a messuage in Alkincotes of the king as duke in socage. (fn. 51) His son and heir, also named Bernard, then thirty years of age, in 1611 sold to Daniel Barnard, (fn. 52) who in 1631 paid £10 as composition for declining knighthood. (fn. 53) It was afterwards acquired by the Parkers of Browsholme, and occupied by Robert Parker (d. 1714), a younger son of Thomas Parker, and his descendant J. Parker was there in 1801. (fn. 54) It is now the property of Colonel John William Robinson Parker.

ALKINCOTES, standing on high ground in a park-like inclosure to the west of Colne, is an interesting house of three stories, built of dressed gritstone apparently in the latter half of the 16th century, but considerably altered in the 18th, and added to in later times. The principal front, which faces south, is about 64 ft. in length, and is distinguished by a central projecting porch carried up the full height of the building and by five picturesque and equally spaced stone gables surmounted by finials. The upper part of the building retains all its Elizabethan characteristics, the original four-light mullioned windows with the two centre lights raised, the stepped hood moulds and the boldly projecting gargoyles being still in position in the gables, but the front of the house appears to have been wholly refaced below in the 18th century, when all the mullioned windows were apparently removed, the present plain tall sash windows inserted and the porch remodelled in the classic fashion of the time. The windows retain their thick wood bars, and the effect of the whole, though exceedingly plain and unrelieved by string course or moulding except in the top story and the porch, is nevertheless one of dignity and some picturesqueness. The end walls, which are of rough stone, show the old built-up windows, but later sash windows have been inserted also. The roofs are covered with stone slates. The north-east wing is also of three stories and of the same date and character as the main building, to which it is connected by a lower two-story structure, the upper part of which appears to have been rebuilt at the same time the changes took place in the front. On the ground floor the old mullioned and transomed windows remain, and a stone in the upper part of the wall has the initials TPA (Parker) and the date 1720, which probably gives the year when the house was remodelled. A west wing was added in the early part of the 19th century and has many of the characteristics of the revived Gothic of the period, though that portion which is seen from the south carries out the design of the front in all its details. The interior has been wholly modernized and is without interest except for a good collection of Elizabethan oak furniture removed hither from Browsholme. (fn. 55) On the lawn is a quaint 17th-century octagonal sundial which bears the names of 'Christopher Trueman, generosus,' and John Dixon on the shaft, and a date which is difficult to decipher. (fn. 56)


Parker of Alkincotes. Vert a cheveron between three stags' heads caboshed or.

HOLT HOUSE was also a Parker estate, and in 1548 Lawrence Parker made a settlement of various messuages in Colne, with remainders to his son Henry and grandson Lawrence. (fn. 57) Henry Parker in 1551 sold the same to Ralph Greenacre. (fn. 58) There followed considerable disputing, (fn. 59) but the Parkers appear to have regained Holt House, Henry Parker, who died in 1617, holding it of the king as duke in socage; his heir was his grandson Alexander (son of Henry) Parker, aged sixteen. (fn. 60) Hob Stones was in 1513 held by the family of Hargreaves, John Hargreaves in that year succeeding his father Richard. (fn. 61) Soon afterwards it was acquired by the Parkers of Alkincotes. (fn. 62)

HEIR'S HOUSE was no doubt the land, meadow, buildings, &c., in Alkincotes which were granted to Richard de Marsden, clerk, by Richard son of Adam le Hayr in 1312, together with the reversion of the dower of his mother Agnes. (fn. 63) The new possessor in 1314 gave them to Robert his son, (fn. 64) and in 1318 Robert son of Richard de Marsden summoned Richard de Marsden to warrant a messuage in Colne to him. (fn. 65) The estate descended in this family till the 17th century, (fn. 66) when Edward Marsden (fn. 67) of Heir's House gave it to his natural son Richard Marsden alias Robinson, who gave the same with his natural daughter Jane in marriage with Richard Burton of Preston, stationer, in possession in 1658. (fn. 68) About 1875 Heir's House was the property of Mr. T. T. England, who also owned the following estate. It is now the property of Mr. Rennie Knight. (fn. 69)

BLAKEY HALL may have derived its name from one of the families who owned it, for Blakey, or the Blake Hey, appears to have been within Pendle Forest, where the family had lands. (fn. 70) Simon de Blakey was tenant of part of Barrowford in 1323, (fn. 71) and in 1331 he obtained from the king a grant of Blakey in fee; he had paid 11s. 5d. rent for it as tenant at will, and was to pay 5s. more as freeholder. (fn. 72) He died in 1349, and his lands, described as in Colne, were still in the king's hands in 1361, (fn. 73) probably through the minority of his son and heir Geoffrey, who held in Colne by 16s. 5d. rent, and obtained a pardon in 1362. (fn. 74) The line can be traced down to 1634, (fn. 75) when Simon Blakey and Nicholas his brother confirmed to the above-named Edward Marsden the capital messuage of Blakey, &c. (fn. 76) The Blakeys were recusants, and the fines for religion are said to have been the chief cause of their fall. (fn. 77) There are numerous references to the Blakeys of Colne in the Court Rolls. (fn. 78)

GREENFIELD was reputed to be a manor. (fn. 79) It was at one time held by a Banastre family. In 1457 Agnes Banastre of York, as widow of John Banastre, claimed dower from John's son John in her husband's estate in Colne, Great Marsden and elsewhere. The son objected, because she had deliberately procured a divorce from bed and board by acting as sponsor at confirmation to one of her children by the said John Banastre. (fn. 80) The estate seems to have descended to another John Banastre in 1507. (fn. 81) In or before 1518 an award was made concerning all the lands, &c., which had belonged to John Banastre of the Greenfield and the reversion of those held for life by Lawrence Towneley; and William Banastre of Aldcliffe became bound for the observance of the same to Sir John Towneley and George Hoghton. (fn. 82) This George Hoghton, no doubt in right of his wife, appears to have entered on possession of Greenfield. (fn. 83) Nicholas son and heir of Richard Townley acquired the estate in 1541, (fn. 84) and thus it descended to the Townleys of Royle. (fn. 85) Edmund Townley, the son of Nicholas, died in 1598 holding the manor of Greenfield, with various lands in Colne, Marsden and Trawden, of the queen by knight's service and a rent of 40s. 10d. (fn. 86) The estate continued in the same ownership as Royle down to 1816, when R. Townley Parker sold it to Jonathan Dickinson. It was afterwards owned by Mr. Catlow. The farm called Stanroyd or Standroyd formed part of the estate, (fn. 87) but in 1538 Standroyd Hall was owned by the Rushworths. (fn. 88)

Heyroyd and Moss House were owned by Thomas son and heir of John Driver in 1524. (fn. 89) The former has long been in the possession of the ancestors of the present owner, Mr. Richard Sager. Lands called Burwens (fn. 90) were the inheritance of Christopher Lister, who was in 1509 succeeded by his son William. (fn. 91) The estate was afterwards sold in part at least to the Townleys of Barnside, (fn. 92) and so descended to the Claytons of Carr Hall. (fn. 93) Mrs. Anderton is the present owner. The Mitchell family occurs frequently in the records. (fn. 94)

John Hartley of LANGROYD was a plaintiff in 1540. (fn. 95) The estate is now the property of Mr. Edward Carr. Langroyd House is a picturesque two-story stone building about three-quarters of a mile to the north of Colne, of simple design, the chief feature being a boldly projecting two-story gabled porch in the middle of the south or principal front. In the spandrels of the doorway, which has a four-centred arched head, is the date 1605—probably the year of erection. The house, however, has been a good deal restored and modernized, especially internally, the windows having probably all been enlarged in the 18th century. The original front measures only about 42 ft. in length, but at a later date a new wing, with gable 20 ft. wide, facing south, has been added at the east end, slightly projecting in front of the main wall. On each side of the gabled porch the roofs, which are covered with modern green slates, have overhanging eaves with gables facing east and west. Additions were made again at the east end in 1900, and at the back in 1909, during the progress of which latter work two old chimney openings were discovered and opened out. In a panel over the porch are the arms of Carr, a modern insertion taking the place of an older panel, the original moulded border of which remains.

The Vivers or Vivary was shared by the Walker and other families. (fn. 96) Mr. Harold Smith is the owner of Nether Heys. The names of owners of land appear also in the Subsidy Rolls. (fn. 97)

EMMOTT (fn. 98) probably represents the 10 acres in Colne held by Robert de Emmott in 1311 by a rent of 3s. 4d. (fn. 99) An estate of 10 acres in Emmott was in 1440 granted by John Wollo of Kildwick to Maud widow of Thomas Radcliffe; all the grantor's lands in the parish of Colne and chase of Trawden were included. (fn. 100) The descent of the estate cannot be traced for lack of evidence, but the surname was not uncommon in the district. (fn. 101) The estate called Emmott Hall descended to two brothers, William and John Emmott, the former of whom died in 1725 and the latter in 1746, (fn. 102) but a younger brother, Christopher, a London merchant, had been obliged to repurchase it. It went to a nephew, Richard Wainhouse, who took the name of Emmott, and his granddaughter Harriet Susanna Ross having married George Green, (fn. 103) their son, after succeeding to this estate, took the additional name of Emmott in 1851. The hall is now the property of his son, Mr. Walter Egerton John GreenEmmott. (fn. 104)

EMMOTT HALL stands on high ground 2½ miles east of Colne near the junction of the River Laneshaw with the Hullown Beck, the front facing south towards the Wycoller Valley. The house, which is built of stone and has stone slated roofs, is apparently of 17thcentury date (fn. 105) and of the usual type with central hall and projecting gabled end wings, but in the first half of the 18th century the whole of the middle part was refronted and other alterations carried out entirely changing its appearance. The building is of two stories and the end wings retain their original balled gables, though the windows have been modernized and sashes and later casements substituted for the old mullioned openings. Between the end wings the 18th-century work remains unaltered and is a fine and dignified classic composition, the middle part emphasized by four Ionic pilasters rising from the ground the full height of the two stories and carrying an entablature with cushioned frieze, surmounted by a parapet with large urn ornaments, the middle one of which bears the Emmott arms. The windows, which retain their original wood bars, have moulded architraves, those to the first floor having in addition pedimented heads. The junction of the classic front with the lower side gables is effected by a boldly stepped and curved parapet, the whole forming a very good specimen of late Renaissance work of a type not frequently met with in this part of the county. Over the two outer windows and below the cornice are the initials C. I. E. and the date 1737, probably the year when the new front was erected, but some work appears to have been done ten years earlier, as on an ornamental spout head on the return of the east wing is the date 1727 together with the Emmott crest. The doorway is centrally placed and has an open stone porch supported by small Ionic pillars and pilasters. The older 17th-century work in the wings is built with small roughly-coursed stones, but the later work is faced with large squared blocks of gritstone. The interior of the house preserves some of the 17thcentury panelling and a good staircase on the north side with twisted balusters. There is a modern wing at the east end.


Emmot. Per pale azure and sable a fesse engrailed ermine between three bulls' heads caboshed or.

The fine 18th-century stone gate-piers and iron gates now at the south-east side of the house were originally erected to the left of the carriage drive in front of the hall, but were removed to their present position in 1841, when the road was altered and the grounds in front of the house were rearranged by the banking up with soil of the rocky surface and by the erection of a retaining wall to the road.

Emmott Moor and Carry Heys were parts of Trawden Forest. In 1507 the former, which had paid nothing, (fn. 106) was demised to Lawrence Townley and Ralph Askew for £1 rent. They sold twothirds to Thomas Emmott in 1508 (fn. 107) and the other third to Alice Hanson and John Hanson in 1509 (fn. 108) ; but, though Thomas Emmott paid the whole rent in 1527, John Emmott paid two-thirds and John Hanson one-third in 1609, and William Emmott and William Hanson the same shares in 1662. John Hanson of Emmott died in 1612 holding a messuage there of the king as duke by the twohundredth part of a knight's fee. His son and heir William was twenty years of age. (fn. 109)

Carry Heys was held by John Rushworth in 1527 by a rent of 20s. 6d.; in 1662 James Folds, James Hargreaves and the heirs of Robert Hargreaves paid 20s. net, while the fee farm of Nicholas Townley of Royle for old rent there was 13s. 2d., and for new improvement 15s. 11d. (fn. 110)

The abbey of Whalley had a barn and a few acres of land at Colne, occupied by John Mitchell in 1538. (fn. 111)

The following in 1524 contributed to the subsidy for lands:—Thomas Emmott, Leonard Blakey, Richard Blakey, John Rishworth. (fn. 112) In 1543 John Rishworth, 'squyer,' Lawrence Parker, John Hartley, Robert Blakey and Thomas Driver. (fn. 113) In 1564 Robert Blakey, Thomas Emmott, Bernard Parker and Edward Marsden. (fn. 114) In 1597 Thomas Emmott, Thomas Rishworth, Bernard Parker, Henry Parker, Edward Marsden, Henry Shaw, John Hargreaves, James Paley and Nicholas Mitchell. (fn. 115) In 1626 John Emmott, Daniel Barnard, Henry Shaw, Alexander Parker, Edward Marsden, Robert Hargreaves, Nicholas Mitchell, Geoffrey Shakleton and Simon Bulcock. A number of convicted recusants are entered on this list. (fn. 116)

The hearth tax return for 1666 shows that there were in Colne town 170 hearths liable to the tax and 134 in the rest of the township. In the town the principal houses were those of Robert Trueman with eleven hearths, Margaret Emmott and Joseph Shakleton eight each, Francis Robinson seven, Mrs. Cunliffe six, James Hargreaves, Greenfield, William Greene the younger and John Huitt five each. Outside Robert Hammond had fifteen hearths to be taxed, Christopher Smith and Christopher Trueman seven each, John Hargreaves and Henry Shaw six each, John Bankes, William Emmott and Miles Tilltes five each. (fn. 117) The hearth tax return of 1673 also shows a considerable number of houses in Colne with four hearths and more; the only occupiers entitled 'Mr.' were Robert Hamond, John Hargreaves and (Robert ?) Trewman. (fn. 118)

Borough

A local board was formed for COLNE in 1875, the district including the northern part of Marsden. (fn. 119) In 1894 this district was constituted the township of Colne, (fn. 120) and the board became an urban district council. In the following year a charter of incorporation was granted, (fn. 121) the council consisting of a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen councillors. The borough is divided into six wards: Central, Horsfield, Vivary Bridge, Primet Bridge, Carry Bridge and Laneshaw Bridge. The town hall was opened in 1894. Waterworks were established in 1806, (fn. 122) the source of supply being at Flass; the undertaking was acquired by the local board in 1881. (fn. 123) Gas-works, erected in 1838 by a company, were also taken over by the local board in 1877. (fn. 124) A commission of the peace was granted to the borough in 1898. There is a voluntary fire brigade. The cemetery, opened in 1860, is controlled by the corporation. An isolation hospital has been established. The Jubilee Cottage Hospital, erected in 1900 by Sir W. P. Hartley, is supported by voluntary contributions. There is a public library, given by Mr. Carnegie. The old Free Trade Hall has become the Theatre Royal.

Church

The church of ST. BARTHOLOMEW (fn. 125) stands in a commanding position (fn. 126) near to the summit of the hill on which the town is situated, on the north side of the main street, and consists of chancel with north and south aisles or chapels, together with vestries, and organ chamber forming a kind of transept beyond the north aisle, nave with double north and single south aisle, south porch and west tower.

The earliest part of the building is the north arcade of the nave, which dates from the end of the 12th or beginning of the 13th century, and forms the only remaining part of a transitional church consisting of chancel and nave with north aisle, the dimensions of which would be, approximately, chancel 25 ft. by 18 ft. and nave as at present. No evidence of its western termination or whether there was a south aisle can be deduced from the plan, but it probably ended in a western gable and was aisleless on the south side. No doubt the building passed through the usual processes of enlargement and alteration during the next two centuries, but there is little positive evidence of this in the structure itself till the beginning of the 16th century, when the church having probably become dilapidated the people determined upon its repair and restoration. The greater part of the building belongs to this date, but a fragment of 14th-century work remains at the east end of the north side of the chancel in a narrow doorway opening into the north aisle, which shows that in the 14th century the chancel was of the same extent as at present, and had an aisle its full length on the north side, the door, as may be seen by the reveals, never having been an external one. In the last restoration, when the east wall of the north chancel aisle was pulled down, the masonry was found to be very largely of 14th-century date and contained fragments of a window of the same period, (fn. 127) so that it may be assumed that the chancel (fn. 128) at least of the early church had been rebuilt in the 14th century, at which date probably the plan would assume more or less of its present form. The lower part of the tower may belong to this period, though it bears little external evidence of a date earlier than the 16th-century building.

There was apparently an almost complete reconstruction of the church (fn. 129) early in the 16th century, for to that period the greater part of the present building belongs, including the chancel, nave, with the south aisles of each, south porch and west tower. Some work was probably carried out in the 17th century, the porch, if not rebuilt, having been most likely then repaired, and in the 18th century the interior appears to have been filled with square pews and to have assumed more or less the appearance which it held till about fifty years ago. In 1733 a gallery was erected at the west end, and the easternmost window of the south nave aisle was rebuilt, (fn. 130) and in 1765 a flat plaster ceiling was erected. In 1815 the middle pier of the north arcade of the nave gave way and had to be taken down and rebuilt. (fn. 131) This occasioned so considerable a declension of the other piers that they had to be underpinned and a new base of strong masonry built up from the rock below. (fn. 132) The church was at that time pronounced to be insecure and unsightly, and its demolition and the erection of a new building were demanded by a strong party among the parishioners, who actually attacked the fabric while the restoration was in progress. (fn. 133) In the following year, 1816, the Banastre chapel on the north side of the chancel was repaired, but otherwise nothing seems to have been done to the building till 1856–7, when a further and more extensive restoration took place. The west gallery, which contained the organ, was then taken down, the flat ceiling removed, exposing the original 16thcentury roof, the tower arch opened out and various repairs done to the tower, including the forming of the ringing chamber and clock room. The nave was reseated with modern seats, but the square pews were allowed to remain in the chancel and chancel aisles. The chief work, however, consisted in the pulling down and rebuilding of the north aisle of the nave, which was increased in width from 13 ft. to 25 ft. and covered with a high gabled roof. This new aisle, which was in a very plain Gothic style with four tall two-light pointed windows in the north wall, was in its turn pulled down in 1889, together with that on the north side of the chancel, and the present double nave aisle, with organ chamber and vestries eastward, was erected. (fn. 134)


Plan of Colne Church

The church is built of wrought stone, which has been renewed in places; but the lower part of the east wall of the chancel is of very rough masonry, being constructed with round and unshaped stones and without plinth. The roofs are covered with stone slates and have overhanging eaves, except to the porch and the south nave aisle, and the work is generally of a very plain description.

The chancel is 42 ft. 9 in. long by 20 ft. 9 in. in width, and is lit at the east end by a modern fivelight pointed window in 15th-century style, with cinquefoiled heads to the lights and tracery over. The roof, which is slightly lower than that of the nave, is also modern and divided into five bays by moulded oak principals plastered between. On each side is an arcade of three pointed arches of two chamfered orders springing from octagonal piers and responds, (fn. 135) 18 in. in diameter, with moulded caps and bases. The chancel floor has been raised above that of the aisles and is now level with the tops of the bases, the mouldings of which on the south side are plainer in detail than those on the north. Above the arcade on each side are three square-headed, widely-spaced clearstory windows, each of three round-headed lights, the westernmost of which on the north side is now below the modern high gabled roof of the new organ chamber transept. The chancel arch, which is of two continuous chamfered orders with moulded base, showed signs of giving way in 1815 and was then restored. Eastward of the arcades is a length of straight wall 6 ft. long, that on the north side containing the 14th-century doorway already mentioned, with splayed jambs, now used as a seat, the difference of level resulting from the raising of the chancel floor rendering its use as a door no longer possible. On the south side is a two-light window, now built up and hidden on the inside by a monument, but visible from the exterior. The chancel is inclosed on all three sides by modern oak screens. The north aisle, the eastern end of which is the Banastre chapel, is modern and structurally without antiquarian interest, the walls having been entirely rebuilt and vestries added on the north side. The area, however, remains the same, the east wall having been originally, as now, in line with that of the chancel, the diagonal buttress at this point being probably built only to balance that on the south side. (fn. 136) Originally the aisle, which is 11 ft. wide, had two windows of three and four lights respectively on the north side, and prior to 1889 there was a small vestry at the east end approached by the 14th-century doorway, with a window on the north side and a fireplace on the east. There is now a modern four-light traceried window at the east end. The south aisle is also 11 ft. wide, but the east wall sets back from that of the chancel 6 ft., and the east end is occupied by the Barnside chapel, formerly belonging to the Townleys of Barnside. The chapel, as well as that on the north side, is divided from the rest of the aisle at the west end by an oak screen, and is 20 ft. in length. (fn. 137) The screens are the original 16th-century ones restored, with Gothic tracery in the heads of the openings, and the sills and top rails carved with vine pattern or traceried ornament. The south aisle is lit by an original square-headed four-light window at the east end, and on the south has two windows of similar design, the mullions of which have been renewed, and a modern door at the west end. (fn. 138) The walls of the chancel and aisles, as also those of the nave and rest of the church, are plastered, and the chancel aisles are separated from those of the nave by stone arches of two continuous chamfered orders.

The nave, which is flagged, is 55 ft. by 19 ft., and has an arcade of four bays on each side with pointed arches of two plain chamfered orders. The north arcade is supported by circular piers 2 ft. 5 in. in diameter, with moulded bases and capitals, 7 ft. 2 in. high to the springing of the arches, and at the ends by responds of similar character. The piers on the south side are 8 ft. high, and have octagonal shafts 20 in. in diameter, with moulded bases and capitals, the arch springing at the east end from a similar respond and at the west dying into the wall. The clearstory consists of four three-light square-headed windows on each side, unequally spaced, and with pointed heads to the lights; and the roof, which is modern or the 16th-century one almost wholly restored, is divided into six bays by two main principals and three intermediate ones plastered between, with half-principals against the end walls.

The new north inner aisle is the same width (13 ft.) as the original 16th-century one, and is lit at the west end by a four-light pointed window; and the outer aisle, which is separated from it by an arcade of four pointed arches on octagonal piers, is of the same width, the outer wall being 3 ft. in front of the former wall of the wide north aisle built in 1856. It is lit by four traceried windows with segmental heads on the north side, and a pointed window of four lights at the west end similar to that of the inner aisle. The east end is open to the organ chamber under a pointed arch, and the two aisles have separate gabled roofs.

The south aisle, which has a lean-to roof, preserves most of its 16th-century features, and is lit at the west end by a four-light square-headed window, with two other windows at the eastern end of the south wall. That furthest east is the window which in 1862 replaced the one erected in 1733, but which in its turn has given place to a new window of three lights, with transom and plain tracery, in the last restoration. The wall at the east end of the aisle was raised at an early period, and is roofed with a gable which gives it externally the effect of a small transept. West of this is an original four-light square-headed window, and beyond this again, but 18 ft. from the west wall, the south doorway, which has a pointed head, with moulded jambs and external hood mould ending in carved heads. The door is modern. The porch is 12 ft. 6 in. by 10 ft. 6 in., and has a stone seat on each side, but is without side windows. The outer opening has a pointed arch with two plain chamfered orders, imposts and chamfered jambs. In the gable is a plain niche, and, in the place of a finial, there is a square stone sundial, with a gnomon on three sides, raised on a short pedestal. In the apex of the gable are a number of initials, probably those of the churchwardens at the time when the porch was erected or rebuilt, together with the name 'John Dison, August.' (fn. 139) The outer archway is now open to the churchyard, but had formerly wooden gates about 6 ft. high. Against the front wall on the east side are three semicircular stone steps.

The tower is 12 ft. 9 in. square inside and 62 ft. high. It has a projecting vice with external door in the south-east corner, and square buttresses of four stages at the western angles stopping below the belfry windows. There is a moulded plinth, but otherwise the exterior is very plain. The belfry windows are pointed and of three lights, with transoms and tracery in the heads, the openings and hood moulds alone being ancient. The original mullions and tracery were removed at the beginning of the 19th century, when new bells were hung and wood louvres were substituted, the present mullions dating only from the last restoration. The walls terminate in an embattled parapet, with gargoyles below the string on the north and south sides. The west door has a pointed head with hood mould and continuous double hollow-chamfered head and jambs stopped at the base, the inner order being new; and above is a pointed three-light window with traceried head and external hood mould. The lights are cinquefoiled, and the head has a sunk chamfer dying into plain splayed jambs. On either side of the window are two shields, all four of which are indecipherable or blank, and above is a small window to the ringing chamber. On the vice are two other shields, one above the other, the lower one defaced, and the other supposed to be the arms of Lee, or Legh. (fn. 140) The clock was placed in the tower in 1811, and faces east and west high up on the south side of the belfry windows, and there is a good 18th-century weather vane. The arch is lofty and open to the church, and consists of two continuous chamfered orders running to the ground.

The font, which now stands under the tower, (fn. 141) has an octagonal basin on a clustered shaft with hollowed sides, each containing a shield. It is of early 16th-century date, and was given to the church by Lawrence Townley of Barnside, whose initials and arms occur on three of the shields. The remaining sides have the sacred monogram and the implements of the Passion.

In the Banastre chapel, or north chancel aisle, now attached to the wall, are preserved three pieces of oak which originally formed part of one of the beams which supported the roof, on which is an inscription in raised letters:—

Quesumus in celo precibus succurrere mundo.

Hac recitare via debes Letare Maria Laruas interitu diluit ilia manu.

Hyrd genitrix Xristi Wilelmum deprecor audi Ne superet mors me virgo parens retine. (fn. 142)

In the south chancel aisle is a sepulchral slab 5 in. thick, 6 ft. long and 2 ft. wide, at the top slightly tapering, with bevelled edge and floreated cross and sword. (fn. 143)

The organ is first mentioned in 1815, and stood till 1829 in a gallery at the east end, supported by the chancel screen. In that year it was removed to the west gallery, the eastern one being pulled down. A new organ was opened in 1857 at the west end of the new north aisle, which position it occupied till the erection of the present organ chamber in 1889.

The pulpit, which dates from 1891, is of oak on a stone base, and all the seating is modern.

There is no ancient stained glass.

When the west gallery was removed in 1856 fragments of a wall painting were found beneath the whitewash above the western arch of the north arcade, half the head and part of the body of a man in red colouring being visible. (fn. 144)

There are mural monuments to William Emmott (d. 1660), with a rhyming epitaph made by himself; to the Rev. John Horrocks, incumbent (d. 1669), with a long Latin inscription; and to Edward Parker of Alkincotes (d. 1805), who is buried at Waddington. A brass to George Hartley (d. 1670) has a quaint rhyming inscription, and another brass marks the place of burial of Christopher Jackson (d. 1695), 'Actor homo, Coelum Spectator, grande Theatrum Mundus, Vita frequens Fabula, Scena Dies.'

There is a ring of eight bells. Six were cast by Thomas Mears of London in 1814, and two trebles, the gift of Thomas Hyde of Colne, were added in 1900, in which year all the bells were restored and rehung. (fn. 145)

The plate (fn. 146) consists of two chalices of 1790, with maker's mark I. L.; a flagon of 1774–5, originally given to Mr. John Turner of Hob Stones, on the completion of the Cloth Hall by the shareholders, in recognition of his superintendence of the erection of the building, and afterwards given by him to the church. The flagon, which is 14 in. high, is inscribed, 'I cloath the naked,' with a sheep feeding below, and the words, 'The free gift of the Proprietors of the Piece Hall in Coln to Mr. John Turner of that Town, Surgeon, in gratitude to Him for his unwearied attendance and daily instructions to the workmen who where engaged in carrying on that Work, and which was begun and finished under his care and sole direction in the year 1776. Further given by the sd John Turner for perpetual Use of the Communion Service of the Church in Coln 1790.' There is also a paten of Sheffield make 1853, inscribed 'Presented by the principal members of the Congregation of the Church of Colne 1854. John Henderson, incumbent,' and an electro-plated credence paten.

The registers (fn. 147) begin in 1599, and are continuous to the present time except that the marriage register is wanting from February 1644 to June 1654. The churchwardens' accounts (fn. 148) begin in 1703. The seating arrangements were settled in 1576 by John Towneley of Towneley, head steward of Blackburnshire, with the consent of the wardens and inhabitants. (fn. 149) Another order was made in 1635 by commissioners appointed by the Bishop of Chester. In 'the rank between mid alley and south alley' occur allotments of 'the third form adjoining to the pulpit and great pillar,' next 'the double form on the west side of the great pillar and adjoining to the pulpit,' and then 'the fifth through next beneath the pulpit.' (fn. 150)

The churchyard lies principally on the south side of the building and is partly planted and covered with flat gravestones. Previous to 1820 it had neither gates nor railings, and was used as the playground of the town, but it is now inclosed by a stone wall with gates at the south and south-east. The oldest dated stone is 1606. The cross in the churchyard remained undefaced in 1622, and was finally removed in 1728. (fn. 151)

Advowson

The 'church' of Colne is named in the gift of Whalley to Pontefract Priory about 1121 by Hugh de Laval. (fn. 152) By the time the monks of Stanlaw received possession of Whalley Rectory Colne had become a chapel only, and in 1296 the tithes of its chapelry were worth £20 13s. 4d. a year, the altarage £10 and the land 7s. Out of this there was a customary payment of 4 marks to the chaplain. (fn. 153) This stipend seems to have been increased, as in other cases, to £4. (fn. 154) This was paid after the Reformation, when the rectory had been transferred to the Archbishop of Canterbury, but was increased to £11 10s. In 1650 the minister of Colne received this stipend from the farmer of the rectory and £28 10s. from the Royalist sequestrations. (fn. 155) At the end of that year the allowance was increased to £50. (fn. 156) This would cease at the Restoration, but private benefactions and a share of the fees had raised the stipend to £30 by 1717. (fn. 157) Large additions have been made, and the net value of the benefice, which is styled a rectory, (fn. 158) is now £425 a year. (fn. 159)

The vicars of Whalley used to nominate to this as to the other curacies, but the advowson was in 1847 acquired by the Hulme Trustees. The following have been incumbents (fn. 160) :—

c. 1525John Hitchen (fn. 161)
c. 1545John Fielden (fn. 162)
1563Roger Blakey (fn. 163)
oc. 1596Lawrence Ambler (fn. 164)
1599Richard Brierley (fn. 165)
1636Thomas Warriner (fn. 166)
1645John Horrocks, M.A. (fn. 167)
1669James Hargreaves, B.A. (fn. 168)
1694Thomas Tatham (fn. 169)
1706John Barlow, B.A. (fn. 170)
1727Henry Smalley, B.A.
1732William Norcross (fn. 171)
1741George White (fn. 172)
1751Roger Wilson, LL.B. (fn. 173)
1789John Hartley, B.A. (fn. 174)
1811Thomas Thoresby Whitaker, M.A. (fn. 175) (University Coll., Oxf.)
1817Philip Abbott (fn. 176)
1821John Henderson (fn. 177)
1876William Clifford, M.A. (Brasenose Coll.,Oxf.)
1908Stephen Peachey Duval, M.A. (fn. 178) (Brasenose Coll., Oxf.)

Though there were two side chapels to the quire— that on the north belonging to the Banastres of Park Hill and that of St. Sithe (fn. 179) on the south to the Townleys of Barnside (fn. 180) —there was no endowed chantry, but the Edwardine commissioners seized bells and 'ornaments' worth 27s. 6d. (fn. 181) The visitation list of 1548 shows five priests resident at Colne; there were four in 1554, and two, Fielden and Blakey, in 1562 and 1563. (fn. 182) The latter then remained sole curate, and one minister was thenceforward considered sufficient for the chapelry till recent times. The careers of some of the incumbents have details of interest, such as those of Warriner and Horrocks in the Civil War period. The visitation returns also give some particulars, (fn. 183) particularly as to the recusants and Nonconformists in the chapelry. At the beginning of the 18th century service was performed every Sunday twice a day, except one afternoon in the month, when the curate officiated at Marsden. (fn. 184) The most exciting episodes in the religious history of the town relate to the opposition to Methodism about 1748. (fn. 185) Wesley wrote in 1752: 'There have been no tumults since Mr. White was removed. He was for some years a Popish priest. Then he called himself a Protestant and had the living of Colne. It was his manner first to hire, then to head the mob, when he and they were tolerably drunk. But he drank himself, first into gaol and then into his grave.' (fn. 186) A great contrast to this man was the first rector, the Rev. J. Henderson, who held the benefice for fifty-five years, and retired amid the respect of all classes, the Nonconformists included. An additional church was built in his time in the eastern part of the township in 1836; it is called Christ Church, (fn. 187) and the Hulme Trustees have the patronage. The school at Laneshaw Bridge is also used for service.

As above stated Methodism early made its appearance in Colne. The first chapel was built in Colne Lane in 1777, and Wesley preached there soon after it was opened. (fn. 188) A famous preacher of later times was William Dawson, a Yorkshire man, who died at Colne in 1841. (fn. 189) Chapels were afterwards built at Laneshaw Bridge, 1822–58; Burnley Road (Albert Road), 1825; Collingwood Street, 1882, and Black Lane End; and there is a mission room at Stone Bridge. The Primitive Methodists have two chapels; one of them, named Ebenezer, was built by the New Connexion in 1811. The Methodist Free Church also has a chapel, called Mount Zion.

The Inghamites or Old Independents appeared about 1743; they have now two chapels in the town. (fn. 190)

The Congregationalists began services in 1807, and used the Cloth Hall till a chapel was built in 1811. (fn. 191) This chapel was used till 1879; it has since been pulled down. The present church was built 1877–9 and renovated in 1901.

The Baptists had been known in the town from the beginning of the 18th century. (fn. 192) The history of Zion Chapel begins in 1769; the founder, John Stuttard, ministered there for nearly fifty years. (fn. 193) The church, now known as Trinity, was rebuilt in 1883. A second chapel has been opened.

The Unitarians have a chapel (1876). There are also two Free Gospel Halls, a Free Christian Church and Bethel Chapel. The members of the Society of Friends were formerly numerous in the chapelry, but their meeting-place is in Marsden. (fn. 194)

The names of a number of convicted recusants appear in the time of Charles I, but there is little other evidence to prove the permanence of the Roman Catholic religion. (fn. 195) Mass was publicly said in 1850 for the first time after the Reformation in an upper room of the Angel Inn; the priest had usually to be guarded by a policeman, and after a time the service ceased. In 1872 a resident priest began to minister, a room over a shop being used; the school-chapel of the Sacred Heart was opened in 1888, and the present church in 1897.

A grammar school existed in 1558, when it had 4 marks rent as endowment. (fn. 196) Archbishop Tillotson is said to have been a scholar there about 1640. In 1687 the school received a gift of £40 to provide £2 a year for the education of four poor children. Further endowments were obtained, but the school languished, and in 1887 came to an end. (fn. 197) The income, over £30 a year, is employed in giving exhibitions at the municipal day school, under a scheme made in 1898. The free school at Laneshaw Bridge was founded by John Emmott and others in 1783.

Charities

Inquiries were made into the charities of the chapelry in 1826 and 1899, and the following details are taken from the report issued in 1900. The endowments for education amount to £149 a year; there are none for ecclesiastical purposes or almshouses; but about £28 is available for the poor. A number of charities have been lost. (fn. 198)

For Colne chapelry Alice Hartley in 1600 gave £60 for the poor, and a rent-charge of £3 10s., known as the Spead Dole, now represents it. (fn. 199) It is distributed in money doles. Lord's Ing Dole, represented by a rent of £5 a year on land covered by the Foulridge reservoir of the canal, was in existence in 1671, a meadow called Lord's Ing having been given to the poor. It is managed like Hartley's charity. Other ancient benefactions by Ambrose Walton, £40, and William Rycroft, £50, were augmented and applied in 1724 to the purchase of land at Dowshay Clough which now produces £16 a year. It is given in small sums to poor persons in the townships within the chapelry. Mary Anderton, widow, in 1876 left £100 for a distribution of bread every Sabbath day by the rector and churchwardens. The rector (Mr. Clifford) refused to accept a trust which required a Sunday distribution, and thus the interest, £4 3s. a year, has been left to accumulate in the bank. The rector stated that the charity would be more useful if a distribution of flour were allowed, because most of the inhabitants baked their own bread.

Footnotes

1 Sometimes named the Calder.
2 This bridge takes its name from the Vivers, an ancient fishpond for the service of Colne Hall. The fishery mentioned below was at this place.
3 Including 72 acres of inland water; Census Rep. 1901.
4 Built on the site of the old courthouse.
5 The following bridges are named in the Court Rolls: Colne Bridge, 1507; Winewall Bridge, 1541; Stone Bridge, 1541; New Bridge, 1543; Carry Hey Bridge, 1546; Hatherald or Hatherholt Bridge, 1549; Royd Bridge, 1556.
6 Part of the old East Lancashire Railway, opened to Colne in 1848.
7 Part of the old Leeds and Bradford Extension Railway; cuttings began at Priestfield in 1846; opened 1847.
8 A coal pit in Carry Heys is marked on the 1848 map; Coal Pit Lane led to it.
Receipts from sea coal in Trawden are recorded in 1296 and 1305.
Lawrence Lister in 1464 complained that several persons had been digging coal in his land; Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton. 4 Edw. IV.
In 1488 the king granted a lease of the sea-coal mine of Colne to Christopher Lister, also the fishery there, and quarries of slate stones at Accrington and elsewhere; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxi, A 55. A similar lease was granted to William Lister in 1509; ibid. A 61. The coal mines in Colne and Trawden were leased in 1639; ibid. xxv, 101 d.
9 In 1826 the market day was Wednesday and the fairs were held on 7 Mar., 13 and 15 May, 11 Oct., and 21 Dec.; Baines, Lancs. Dir. i, 619. Lewis in 1833 gives Wednesday and Saturday as the market days.
10 Aikin, Country round Manch. 279.
11 Very ancient earthworks are found at Castercliff and hills to the south of Colne.
12 Thompson Watkin, Rom. Lancs. 199. Roman coins, &c., have been found at Greenfield and Emmott in Colne and Catlow in Marsden; ibid. 233–4. For older speculations see Leigh, Nat. Hist. of Lancs. bk. 3, p. 10.
13 The origin of this market is unknown. Nothing is said of it in the Lacy accounts or in the Plac. de Quo Warr. of 1292. It is named in W. Smith's list of market towns in the county in 1588.
The fairs at Colne, Padiham, Burnley and Haslingden were in 1632 granted to Roger Kenyon, who was to pay 20s. a year to the king; and in 1633 it was ordered that the fairs should be held strictly on the days named in the lease and not moved about at the pleasure of the inhabitants or neighbouring gentry, except that the fairs falling on Sunday should be kept the following day; Duchy of Lanc. Decree Bks. 7–10 Chas. I, fol. 464b.
14 War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc.), 43.
15 The Earl of Newcastle's forces were defeated near Colne in July 1643; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 147. The Royalists were victorious in a skirmish there in June 1644; ibid. 201. A local tradition says it took place near the site of the cemetery; Carr, Annals of Colne, 77 n.
16 Carr, op. cit. 92.
17 Ibid. 94.
18 For the crosses see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xviii, 35 (with view), 38, 40.
19 Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 257. There is a measured drawing of the cross in Trans. Burnley Lit. and Scient. Club (vol. i, 1884).
20 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 23.
21 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 157.
22 Cal. Chart. R. 1266–57, p. 357; see also Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 381.
23 De Lacy Compoti (Chet. Soc.), 4. The mention of Walverden and Trawden shows that the manor then extended over Marsden and the lands to the east of it. In 1305 the 12d. 'decay' of the farm of Robert son of Gamel in Great Marsden was recorded under Colne; ibid. 117. The accounts of 1323, by mentioning Blacko and Wycoller, indicate that Barrowford as well as Trawden was included; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 187. Thus the 'manor' was the same as the 'parish.'
The accounts for 1305 are of the same character as those of 1296; 3s. 6d. had been received for 10½ acres newly approved from the waste, and the fines for entry on lands rose to £4 6s. 10d. 12d. came from the tax called Thistletakes. The merchets of five women amounted to 4s. 6d. as against 13s. 4d. from two in 1296; De Lacy Compoti, 99.
24 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 6. The amounts, as usual in inquisitions, are much less than those shown in the rentals. One of the free tenements (Catlow) was in Great Marsden, and perhaps that of Adam son of Nicholas de Holden also.
25 Ibid. 187–8.
26 Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 482–4. Later accounts may be read ibid. 490–6. A list of the tenants in 1443 is also given, 503–4.
27 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 538. For the repairs of the mills about the same time see Farrer, op. cit. i, 497.
28 Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxi, A56. The mill was out of repair in 1507–8; Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 232, 241.
29 Duchy of Lanc. Rentals, bdle. 5, no. 12; the rents recorded amount to £30 18s. 5¼d. Henry Townley was in possession in 1522; Farrer, op. cit. i, 275. The following are the surnames of the tenants of Colne (and Great Marsden) in 1527: Banastre, Bauden, Blakey, Briercliff, Bulcock, Diconson, Driver, Ellott, Emmott, Folds, Hanson, Hargreaves, Hartley, Jackson, Legh, Lister, Mancknowles, Marsden, Mitchell, Parker, Radcliffe, Ridihalgh, Shaw, Shower, Smith, Swain, Taylor, Townley, Walker, Walton, Whitworth, and Wilson. The predecessors include Booth and Twisleton.
30 By a grant of 1570 the two mills of Colne, viz. a corn mill and a walk mill, were held by Thomas Townley of Greenfield; W. Farrer's D.
The queen in 1578 demised her water corn-mill of Colne to Piers Pennant, but Henry Townley was the farmer of the mills in 1595–6, when there were various disputes with the copyholders as to the suit due to the mills; ibid.; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 293–4, 331; Carr, Annals of Colne, 69, 72.
31 Duchy of Lanc. Special Com. no. 498. Nicholas Robinson said the division between Colne and Trawden was Trawden Ditch, 'beginning at a tenement of Mr. Farrer's called Kirkclough and extending upwards towards the south to a hill called Little "Bulsware" and to the Deerstones there.' He had lived at Priestfield in Colne and had turbary from the moors and wastes. Another witness said this boundary began near Colne Mill, on the south side of the water, at the head of Kirkclough.
The boundary between Colne and Ightenhill was by Walverden Clough; i.e. Colne included Great Marsden. The exact line was in dispute. One witness said it began at Pighole beneath Catlow, went up the water of Walverden, leaving Swayne's Platt on the north, straight up 'Bulsware' to a rushy slack, supposed to be the 'head of Walverden'; thence directly to the nearest part of Trawden Ditch (decayed). Another said the bound went from Swain's Platt up the south side of Foxhole Slack to a grey stone on Little Boulsworth side, then recently taken away for building, and thence to the place where a birch tree had once stood. Another said the boundary went up Walverden to Coldwell, thence to a stone called Parrock Stone—another said Warcock Stone—on Deerstone Moor and thence to the Deerstones; he had heard that the old ditch on the side of Boulsworth from the Deer Stones to the Hare Stones was made by the inhabitants of Ightenhill.
Robert Hargreaves of Standroyd, tenant of Edmund Townley of Royle, had heard very aged men say that a 'whikin,' or mountain ash, and a thorn grew in the upper end of 'Hayneslacke,' above and below the dike called Lancashire Dike, and that this dike was the boundary between Colne and Ickornshaw as far as it went; then the marks were a grey stone in 'the Bawsedge' (Boss Head) and the Wolf Stones. Another witness said the bounds began at Tom Cross, led straight to a stone on Surgill end, then south or south-east into Skipton Clough, down to a stone in the lower end of this clough; thence to a stone on Grindlestone Edge, and directly over to the grey stone on Bawsedge; thence to a syke called Sandyforth, running on the east end of Redeshaw down into Ickornshaw, and so to Hunter Law. Another said the known bounds were a grey stone in Aynslack Head, Stone Benkes, round hill at Barnside Knarr end, Sandyford Bridge, and Langshaie (Laneshaw) Water. Another said the tenants of Monkroyd had always repaired the west end of the stone bridge over Sandyford Syke and the tenants of Ickornshaw the east end of it.
32 Ibid. no. 678.
33 Pat. 1 Chas. I, pt. iv.
34 Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 256–62. John Doughty, a 'delinquent,' died about 1647. His father joined the Scots in 1648.
35 Ibid. 263–8; Index of Royalists (Index Soc.), 41.
36 'The manor of this town, with some cottages on the south side of it, was purchased in the time of the civil wars by Mr. William Sykes, of Leeds, merchant, who, dying in 1652, left it to his son, who valued it at £1,158 2s. 9d. But at the Restoration it reverted to its former owner'; Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 297, quoting 'Lucas's MSS.'
37 Carr, op. cit. 31. Ambrose Barcroft was described as of Colne Hall in 1678; Folds D.
38 Honor of Clitheroe MS. (in possession of W. Farrer), p. 195. It gives fifty-two tenements of the 'old hold' in Colne township, most of them having parcels of the 'new hold' also, and twenty-three of the 'new hold' only. The rents of the 'old hold' in Colne and Marsden amounted to £26 5s. 2½d. according to the decree made by the Commissioners of James I, and those of the 'new-hold,' resulting from improvements of the commons and wastes, to £50.
39 Lancs. Ct. R. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 1–5, gives the rolls of 1323–4. Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 215 on, gives the rolls of 1425, 1457 (extract), 1478 (extract), 1495–6, 1498, 1504, 1507–67.
40 Farrer, op. cit. i, 222, 269, 270.
41 Ibid. i, 246.
42 For example, Burwens, Carrholme, Crawshey, Henfield (Brownhill), Keriall Lane (in Marsden), Malkin Yard, Piper Yard, Pulforth (south of Nether Hey), Tunercrook, Withinbutts, Walkerfield.
43 Altencote, 1242; Alcancotes, 1296; Alkenkotes, 1311.
44 Kuerden MSS. iv, A 3; fol. MS. 230, 233. The bounds began on the east side of 'Strutwide' and extended to the pathway going down from the house of Uctred son of Adam de Swinden as far as the brook which was the division between Alkincotes and Colne.
The original charter was about 1650 'in the custody of Richard Burton of Blakey and the Heir's House, by the gift of Richard Marsden, his father-inlaw'; Harl. MS. 2077, fol. 325.
45 Kuerden MSS. v, fol. 84b.
46 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 6.
47 Cal. Pat. 1340–3, p. 487; inspeximus of the charter. Of the land 20 acres had bounds beginning from 'Gilleberdechay' Clough and going south and west as far as Jordanwell Syke; the other 12 acres lay east of the Greengate. In addition to the lord's rent of 10s. 8d. payable on St. Giles's Day, the tenant was to pay 3d. for ward of Lancaster Castle.
Richard de Alkincotes was living in 1323; Farrer, op. cit. i, 482.
In 1365 Robert de Marsden gave to John son of John the Parker of Alkincotes a messuage, &c., which he had by the feoffment of William del Fenays; Add. MS. 32104, no. 391.
'Gybertshey' in Alkincotes is named in 1550; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 266.
48 Kuerden fol. MS. p. 31; Peter and Richard de Alkincotes were witnesses. William son of Adam de Alkincotes paid his fine on entry to his lands in 1296; De Lacy Compoti, 4. William de Alkincotes was living in 1323 and 1332; Farrer, op. cit. i, 482; Lancs. Ct. R. 5; Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 85.
49 Farrer, op. cit. i, 482.
50 Richard the Parker of Colne was a defendant in 1340; Coram Rege R. 322, m. 163 d. In 1361 Geoffrey de Blakey granted to John son of John the Parker of Alkincotes 2 acres of meadow in the vill of Colne lying by Foulridge Brook; Add. MS. 32104, no. 1214.
William de Walton in 1424 complained that a number of people in the district, including Ellis son of Richard Parker of Alkincotes and Geoffrey son of John Parker of the same, had lain in wait for him to beat him, &c.; Towneley MS. RR, no. 1685. Ellis was outlawed; Pal. of Lanc. Chan. Misc. bdle. 1, file 5.
Ralph Parker of Alkincotes occurs in 1425; Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 219.
In 1550 Henry Parker and Margaret his wife occur; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 14, m. 321. See also Farrer, op. cit. i, 381, 399. Bernard Parker is named in 1552 and later; ibid. 395, 400. Bernard son of Bernard in 1563; ibid. 453.
51 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 110.
52 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 79, no. 40. The deforciants were William Fenwick, Elizabeth his wife and Bernard Parker.
53 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 217.
54 Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 254, 260. There is a monument in Colne Church to Edward Parker of Alkincotes, who died there in 1865.
55 Trans. Burnley Lit. and Scient. Club, ii, 115.
56 It is apparently 1670.
57 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 173.
58 Ibid. bdle. 14, m. 160. The Holt House estate is referred to in Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 320, 378, 448.
59 Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 242, 265, 328; iii, 132, 244, 382, 511, 275. In one complaint Thomas Muschamp, citizen and goldsmith of London, in 1567 stated that Henry Parker of Holt House had held certain freehold lands there and copyhold lands in Alkincotes and sold them to Ralph Greenacre, who sold to plaintiff, but Thomas Lister and others had expelled him from possession. In reply it was said that the freehold land had been granted by Henry son of Lawrence Parker in 1541 to John and Robert Hargreaves for Henry's life, with remainder to his son Lawrence Parker, who, by surrender of the grantees, obtained possession, and in 1562 gave to Lister and others. The copyhold lands had also been given to them. Henry Parker, still living, acknowledged the sale to Greenacre, and said he was tenant at will; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. lxviii, M 1. There was a fine in 1587 concerning a messuage, &c., in Alkincotes and Colne, between Henry Parker, plaintiff, and Lawrence Parker, defendant; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 49, m. 22.
In 1573 the third part of two messuages, &c., was purchased by William Hawkesworth from Thomas Lister; ibid, bdle. 35, m. 6. This appears to have been part of the Holt House estate; Ducatus Lanc. iii, 80, 83, 132.
60 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 78–9. Henry Parker also owned land in Foulridge. In the Colne Registers he is described as 'of Edge.' Alexander Parker of Holt House occurs in the registers 1638–48.
61 Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 253.
62 Ibid. 407, 432.
63 Add. MS. 32104, no. 385. Richard de Alkincotes was a witness.
64 Ibid. no. 397. James son of Geoffrey de Walton gave to Richard de Marsden, clerk, in 1315 the land which Adam son of Peter de Alkincotes had by grant of Adam le Hayr in Alkincotes; ibid. no. 386.
65 De Banco R. 221, m. 281.
66 In 1340 Richard de Marsden gave to his son Robert land called Blakey, the bounds beginning at Wanless Brook and going round Brown Hill to Hallholme Bank and so back to the Wanless; Add. MS. 32104, no. 394. Ellen de Alkincotes widow of William de Marsden in 1347 granted to her son Robert de Marsden all the land she had by the gift of John her father in Hatherholt, 12d. rent to be paid; ibid. no. 393.
William de Marsden of Swinden and William de Marsden the elder testified in 1388 that Gilbert son of Robert de Marsden had undertaken to pay them 100s. yearly during his life; ibid. no. 396. A few years later, in 1395, Gilbert son of Robert de Marsden released all right in his hereditary lands to his son Nicholas; ibid. no. 390. In 1417 Nicholas son and heir of Gilbert de Marsden was refeoffed by John son and heir of Henry de Shuttleworth of Hacking, in all his lands in Colne and Marsden; ibid. no. 387. In 1453 Nicholas Marsden bequeathed all his lands to James son of Robert Marsden; ibid. no. 392. James Marsden died about 1509, when his widow Margaret is named; Farrer, op. cit. i, 246.
Margaret Marsden, the widow, and Lawrence Marsden, the executor, of James son and heir of Robert Marsden of Heir's House were in 1526 summoned to answer Thomas Lister and Christopher Robinson, executor(s) of the will of Henry Parker of Alkincotes; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 142, m. 10 d. Nicholas Marsden was in possession in 1537; he also owned Priestfield, Netherley and Hatherald (Haverholt); Farrer, Clitheroe Ct. R. i, 272, 311, 321, &c. The name of the house is spelt sometimes with and sometimes without the H. Another Marsden family had land in Calfhey; ibid. 427, 433.
One Nicholas Marsden in 1521 arranged for the marriage of his son Nicholas with Grace daughter of John Hoghton of Pendleton; Add. MS. 32104, no. 206. Grace Marsden in 1563, as widow and executrix of Nicholas Marsden, agreed to an arbitration about disputes with Robert Shuttleworth of Hacking; ibid. no. 208.
67 He paid £10 in 1631 as composition for declining knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 217. He was buried at Colne, as 'of Blakey,' 29 Dec. 1643; Reg.
68 Note by Christopher Towneley in Add. MS. 32104, after no. 400. Evidences are given; ibid. no. 211, 213, 400, 399. Sarah Folds (1644) was sister and heir of Edward Marsden; ibid. no. 210.
69 Carr, op. cit. 66 n.
70 a See the account of Barrowford.
71 Lancs. Ct. R. 33, 72.
72 Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), B 191. Simon de Blakey's cattle were seized in Barrowford in 1335 by Richard de Marsden, bailiff of Queen Isabel, then holding the honor; De Banco R. 301, m. 175 d.
73 Memo. R. (L.T.R.) 130.
74 C 8, 13, B 175; Geoffrey had entered without coming into court and doing fealty, &c. About the same time he made a feoffment of his lands in Colne and the Chase of Pendle; ibid. B 176. Geoffrey and Lettice his wife received lands in 1363; ibid. B 478.
75 Nicholas Blakey appears in 1381–3 and Lawrence his son in 1459; ibid. B 316, 178–9. Lawrence Blakey and Joan his wife made a feoffment of their lands in 1461; Add. MS. 32104, no. 1222. Lawrence in 1471–5 gave lands in Blakey to his nephew Nicholas; C 8, 13, B 180–2. Blakey is here called 'in the parish of Clitheroe,' not Colne. In 1485 Simon son of Nicholas Blakey of Blakey was contracted to marry Jenet daughter of Lawrence Towneley; ibid. B 183–4. Nicholas was dead in 1527, when his widow Agnes occurs (ibid. B 189), and Simon appears to have had a son Nicholas (living 1535), whose widow Alice Blakey of Admergill and sons Simon and Bernard occur in 1556; ibid. B 192–4. Bernard Blakey of Blakey appears to have succeeded to land in Blacko and Admergill (ibid. B 195). He is named as a friend in the will of Lawrence Blakey of Blacko, clothier, 1574, and was one of the witnesses. Bernard's will of 1603 names sons Simon (the heir), John, Nicholas, Henry and Robert; he left £160 for his younger children and others; Towneley MS. DD, no. 981. He was buried at Colne 7 June 1603; Reg. Shortly afterwards (1605–7) Simon Blakey sold his lands at Admergill in Yorkshire to Sir Stephen Tempest and James Paley; C 8, 13, B 196, 479. Simon Blakey contracted his son Simon (under fourteen) to marry Priscilla daughter of Emery Carr; ibid. B 201. The marriage took place 14 Feb. 1612–13, and Priscilla died two years later; Colne Reg. Simon Blakey, apparently the father, died in Sept. 1632; ibid.
Richard Blakey was defendant to a claim to Sym Pasture, Hore Stones, &c., about 1600; ibid. iii, 487.
76 C 8, 13, B 200; Frances Blakey, the mother, was a party, and Anne wife of Simon (son of Simon) Blakey is also named. Simon Blakey occurs again in 1638; ibid. B 199. Anne Blakey, widow, was buried at Colne 29 Jan. 1639–40; Reg.
77 Simon Blakey (c. 1625) was a convicted recusant, paying double to the subsidy. His wife, another Simon and wife, and Bernard Blakey were also convicted recusants; Carr, op. cit. 27. In 1639 Frances widow of Simon Blakey, who had £8 a year from Edward Marsden of Heir's House as dower from her late husband's lands, gave him 'all or so much of the said yearly rent of £8 as will pay, bear, and sustain all the damage and loss as the said Edward Marsden shall bear for and about my recusancy'; Add. MS. 32104, no. 207.
78 Thus one John (son of Nicholas son of Thomas) Blakey in 1425 inherited a messuage and land in Colne from his mother Isabel, daughter and heir of John Ellott; Farrer, op. cit. i, 218.
Robert Blakey had various messuages in 1537; ibid. 328; dower of his wife Margaret. See also pp. 390, 406, 416, 428; Blackstubheys, Walkerfield, Tenterholme, Judfield, the Warth, the water called Colne Viver and Hall Hill are among the places named. The dispositions made by Robert Blakey led to much disputing. After one surrender he was persuaded to make a second to different feoffees and different uses. According to the first, he left the lands to his daughter Ellen, who was to marry John son of Lawrence Blakey of Colne, with remainder to Robert's brother John and male issue. After that, 'upon his bed, giving God thanks, [he] did say that he was now quiet in his mind, for that his father had in his life time taken him sworn that he should leave the said lands to his name; and for that Ellen his daughter had chosen one John Blakey to take to her husband he was glad thereof'; Duchy of Lanc. Dep. lxxvii, B 11.
Roger Blakey died in 1557, and was succeeded by a kinsman John Blakey; Farrer, op. cit. i, 424.
79 In a plea of 1636 it was said to lie in Great Marsden; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. bdle. 346.
80 Farrer, op. cit. i, 224.
81 Ibid. 232. Only lands in Great Marsden are named. John's mother Joan had married Lawrence Townley, who claimed to hold her lands till death by the courtesy of England. John Banastre was living in 1515; ibid. 255, 260.
82 Add. MS. 32104, no. 758.
83 His name appears on the Colne jury lists from 1520, and in 1532 he acted as greave; he was styled 'of Greenfield' in 1533; Farrer, op. cit. i, 270, 307, 313. According to the pedigree in Whitaker (Whalley, ii, 28) he married Joan daughter of Henry Banastre or Banister of Greenfield, and had a daughter Ellen, who married Thomas a natural son of Sir John Towneley, but was divorced. In 1524 there was a fine concerning lands in Colne, Marsden and Twiston, the deforciants being George Hoghton and Joan his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 11, m. 183.
84 Ibid. bdle. 12, m. 49; the deforciants were George Hoghton, Thomas Townley and Ellen his wife. In 1544–5 there was enrolled an agreement concerning the manor of Greenfield between George Hoghton and Nicholas Townley of Royle; Close R. 36 Hen. VIII, pt. i, no. 12.
Before this sale there had been disputes as to the inheritance, one Richard Banastre claiming Greenfield. Ellen Townley was described as kinswoman and heir of John Banastre, which John had married a Joan Worsley (see the account of Downham) without obtaining a nullification of his previous marriage; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 170; ii, 55, 61, 63, 70. Ellen Hoghton afterwards married James Hartley; Farrer, op. cit. i, 392.
85 Nicholas Townley inherited certain lands in Colne, his grandfather dying in or before 1533 in possession of two messuages, which descended to his son Richard Townley; ibid. i, 308. Richard Townley died in 1541 holding four messuages, &c., his son Nicholas, the purchaser of Greenfield, succeeding; ibid. 354. He died in 1546 holding five messuages and various lands in Colne, including Law House, Booth House, Whitesyke and Fernside. His son Edmund was under one year of age, and had for guardian his uncle George Vaughan. Dower was granted to the widow Anne Townley. The fine was 23s. 4d.; ibid. i, 372. For the Booth family in 1425 see ibid. 220.
Anne Townley was still living in 1564, when she had disputes as to dower with Thomas Townley, James Hartley and others; Ducatus Lanc. ii, 218, 298, 401. Edmund Townley had also to meet claims by the Hartleys; ibid. iii, 6, 34, 79, 86, 102, 264. Some of these concerned the working of coal mines at Greenfield; ibid. iii, 151.
In 1573 Robert Hartley of Greenfield sold to Edward Braddyll of Whalley and Richard Braddyll of Catterall all the messuages, &c., in Greenfield lately occupied by James Hartley, Thomas Townley and Anne Townley, widow; Add. MS. 32104, no. 1111. See also Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 36, m. 172.
86 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 13. A settlement of the manor had been made in 1596; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 59, m. 248.
Thomas Townley of Royle and his son about 1725 held in Colne Law House, Standroyd, Hainslack (Ayneslack) and other copyhold estates; Folds D.
87 In 1478 Lawrence Dicconson names Standroyd as held by him for life by the grant of Richard Banastre the elder and Richard Banastre the younger, son of the elder Richard and Joan his wife. He then released all his title therein to John Banastre son of the younger Richard and Isabel his wife, daughter of John Popeley; Add. MS. 32104, no. 613. Twenty acres called the Standroyd were secured to the use of Ellen (Hoghton) wife of James Hartley in 1551; Farrer, op. cit. i, 392.
88 John Rushworth, esq., Agnes his wife and Alexander his son and heir were put in possession; Farrer, op. cit. i, 333. They also had the land called Carr or Carry Heys. The house is called Standroyd Hall in 1566; ibid. 470.
89 Ibid. 281, 288. John Driver was the owner in 1556; ibid. 410.
90 Part of the town of Colne is built on Burwains or Burrance meadow; Carr, op. cit. 19.
91 Farrer, op. cit. i, 244. Hansfield or Henfield was also part of the inheritance when William Lister died in 1541 and was succeeded by a son Christopher; ibid. 350. This Christopher died ten years later and was followed by a son William, of full age; ibid. 389.
92 Ibid. 425, in 1558.
93 Captain Every-Clayton was owner about 1875; Carr, op. cit. 31. Henfield was about 1600 purchased by Alice Hartley, a benefactor of the poor; ibid. 73.
94 Peter Mitchell of Colne had the king's pardon in 1479; Towneley MS. RR, no. 1448. For family disputes see Ducatus Lanc. i, 173; ii, 80, 292, 349; iii, 259, 288. Henry Mitchell made a surrender of certain lands in 1521; his son Nicholas had died leaving a widow Elizabeth; Farrer, op. cit. i, 271. Other Mitchells occur two years later; ibid. 279. See also pp. 435, 449.
95 Ibid. i, 337–8.
96 The Blakeys had part of the Vivary in 1531; ibid. i, 302. The Hartleys in 1534; ibid. 315. Nicholas Walker in 1552 and 1557; ibid. 398, 422, 437.
As might be expected, this last surname occurs early, Matthew the Walker occurring in 1324 and Michael the Walker in 1332; Lancs. Ct. R. 2; Exch. Lay Subs. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), 85. Robert Walker of Colne in 1631 paid £10 for having declined knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 217.
97 See those printed by Carr, op. cit. 24–27; also text below.
98 –8 Emot, 1296; Emote, 1311.
99 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 6. Henry de Emmott occurs in Trawden in 1296; De Lacy Compoti, 22. William son of Henry de Emmott in 1323 paid 40d. for 10 acres held by charter; Farrer, op. cit. 482. William de Emmott occurs again in 1332; Lancs. Ct. R. 5; Exch. Lay Subs. 85. William son of Robert Emmott was a defendant in 1340; Coram Rege R. 322, m. 163 d.
100 Towneley MS. C 8, 13, p. 1066.
101 Evidence will be found in the Clitheroe Ct. R. Thomas Emmott the elder was a juror in 1425. Thomas and William Emmott were tenants of Colne in 1443. Thomas, Richard and Edmund Emmott are mentioned together in 1515; ibid. i, 260. Thomas (son and heir of James) Emmott and Henry Emmott occur in 1537; ibid. 325. Henry Emmott died in 1554, leaving a son and heir John; ibid. 405. Thomas Emmott of Emmott and his brother John, James Emmott of Wycoller, John Emmott of Emmott Lane and Humphrey Emmott occur together in 1563; ibid. 447.
An inventory of the goods of James Emmott of Emmott, clothier, 1681, is preserved at Chester. Administration was granted to his widow Elizabeth. Henry Emmott of Emmott and Thomas Emmott of Emmott Lane are mentioned.
102 Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 257. He gives of the brothers William and John the following portrait: 'John Emmott was a pious and amiable man, a Christian of the old school, regular and devout, retired and humble. William, the older brother, is said to have had a portion of the same spirit. Their infirmity was that both were inattentive to their worldly concerns.'
103 Ibid.
104 The later steps in the descent are from Burke's Landed Gentry.
105 The date 1693 (or 1643, the third figure is difficult to decipher) is on a stone behind the parapet near the central urn, doubtless one of the original stones re-used in the 18th-century alterations. The date may give the year of the building of the east wing and alteration of the west wing to match, the latter being the oldest part of the house.
106 –7 MS. at Huntroyde. The other particulars in the text are from Duchy of Lanc. Rentals, bdle. 5, no. 12 for 1527, the Grimshaw MS. for 1609 and the Honor of Clitheroe MS. (Towneley) for 1662.
107 Farrer, op. cit. i, 240.
108 Ibid. 243. Thomas Emmott appears to have been succeeded by William (living 1561), whose son and heir Thomas occurs in 1544; ibid. 363, 441. Thomas appears to have come into possession by 1563; ibid. 456.
109 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 233. Alice widow of William Hanson and John Hanson her son occur in 1520; Farrer, op. cit. i, 268. Alice was still living in 1537; ibid. 325. William the son of John Hanson was admitted to the third part of Emmott Moor and land in Great Marsden in 1557; ibid. 418, 421. He had a brother John; ibid. 461.
110 The Rushworths have already been mentioned. In 1599 Lawrence Habergham claimed land called Carry Heys against John and Nicholas Folds; Ducatus Lanc. iii, 319.
Robert Hargreaves of Carry Heys made his will in 1655 (pr. 1657); he mentions his cousin John Hargreaves of Greenfield. His children were all young. Robert his son conveyed Carry Heys to Ambrose Barcroft of Colne Hall in 1678, and in 1704 Thomas Barcroft of Noyna had it. It afterwards (1791) was in the hands of Matthew Wilson of Otley, in right of his wife Martha daughter and co-heir of William Barcroft of Noyna, and was in 1799 released to Mary Folds of Trawden. She had by inheritance the Folds share of Carry Heys. These particulars are from the Folds D. (W. Farrer).
111 Whalley Couch. (Chet. Soc.), iv, 1221.
112 Subs. R. Lancs. bdle. 130, no. 82.
113 Ibid. no. 125.
114 Ibid. bdle. 131, no. 212.
115 Ibid. no. 274.
116 Ibid. no. 317.
117 Ibid. bdle. 250, no. 9.
118 a Carr, op. cit. 28–9.
119 Act 38 & 39 Vict. cap. 176; the name was 'Colne and Marsden local government district.'
120 Local Govt. Bd. Order 30592.
121 Charter dated 17 July 1895.
122 Under an Act 46 Geo. III, cap. 27.
123 Act 44 & 45 Vict. cap. 83.
124 Act 40 & 41 Vict. cap. 159.
125 An account of the church in Carr, op. cit. chap. iv, has been used in the following description. Cf. Lancs. Churches (Chet. Soc.), 16.
126 There is a local version of the story of the stones having been carried to the top of the hill by supernatural agency from a proposed site at Church Clough, about half a mile from the town; Carr, op. cit. 197.
127 Ex inform. Austin and Paley.
128 The principal image in the chancel is mentioned in a penance ordered in 1515; Act Bk. of Whalley (Chet. Soc.), 45.
129 In 1577 again a commission was issued for the repair of the chapel of Colne; Pennant's MS. Acct. Bk.
The following were the proportions payable to a 'fifteenth' of £3 3s. 6d. for the repair of the chapel: Colne, town part, 7s. 1½d.; township part, 13s. 6½d.; Great Marsden, 14s. 2d.; Little Marsden, 7s. 6d.; Trawden, 8s. 4½d.; Foulridge, 5s. 8½d.; Penley, 7s. 1d.; Carr, op. cit. 105.
130 There was formerly an external inscription in which this was recorded: 'This window rebuilt A.D. 1733. Richd. Boys, Jo. Harison, Will. Hanson, Will. Sagar, Jo. Spencer, Rich. Varley, Rob. Dixon, Thos. Midgley, churchwardens; John Thornton, sidesman.' This inscription was removed in 1862 when the window was again rebuilt and the roof raised.
131 Whitaker, Whalley (ed. 3, 1818), 392, where a detailed account of the method of restoration is given.
132 'First, the pier whose failure had occasioned all the mischief having been removed, the basis appeared to have been undermined (through interments) and cut away from time to time. A new and ample basis of strong masonry was then laid upon the rock and the original pillar replaced with great care and exactness. All this was easy, but the restoration of the two other pillars, which had but partly declined, was a much more hazardous undertaking. The architect, however, by sharing the risk of being crushed to death with the workmen, prevailed upon them to make narrow perforations under the basis from north to south, through which he introduced strong bars of iron. He then placed large beams of wood along the surface from east to west on each side of the pillars, and when the bars had been passed through the apertures strapped them over the beams and bound them immovably together. By this method the pillars, arches and walls were actually suspended. He next proceeded to withdraw the decayed bases, and the whole structure above was left visibly hanging in the air, in which state it remained till new and massive bases were constructed underneath, which, by strong underpinning, restored the inclined pillars to the perpendicular'; Whitaker, op. cit. The architect was a Mr. Turner of Leeds.
133 It was necessary afterwards to place a guard in the vestry every night till the restoration was completed.
134 The architects were Messrs. Austin & Paley of Lancaster.
135 Except at the east end of the south arcade where the arch springs from a shaped corbel.
136 –7 It is possible, however, that when the chancel wall was rebuilt in the 16th century the intention was to set back the aisle wall.
137 The Banastre chapel is 26 ft. in length, being longer by the extra 6 ft. in its east end.
138 The position of the doorway has been altered, the original one being further east, about 2 ft. from the window.
139 This name occurs also on the sundial at Alkincotes, which is of 17thcentury date. Dison probably erected both dials, and the initials of the wardens may have been cut at the same time as his name on the porch.
140 Carr, op. cit. 105. A fesse between three crescents. Other interpretations are given.
141 Before 1889 the font stood at the west end of the south aisle.
142 A portion of the inscription was communicated to the Society of Antiquaries in Jan. 1747–8, but through certain of the words being wrongly copied an incorrect translation naturally followed. This was copied into Camden's Britannia, but a corrected reading was given by Dr. Whitaker in his History of Whalley.
143 Carr, op. cit. 133, says there is an obscure inscription round the edge, the words 'Thompson' and 'Esholt' being visible. According to Whitaker Helen daughter of Lawrence Townley of Barnside married Henry Thompson, to whom the site of the nunnery of Esholt was granted in 1 Edw. VI.
144 Carr, op. cit. 112. 'In attempting to bare the lower portion of the figure the composition on which it was painted crumbled away to such an extent that the attempt was abandoned.'
145 The tenor bell bears the names of the Rev. John Dunderdale, curate, seven churchwardens and a sidesman.
146 Among the church goods in 1599 as given in the register was a 'silver cup with a lid or covering.'
147 The portion 1599–1653 has been printed by the Lancs. Par. Reg. Soc. 1904.
148 A few extracts are given in Carr, op. cit. 144–5.
149 'Honor of Clitheroe' MS. (Towneley). Seats were allotted for Admergill in Yorkshire.
150 Copy by Mr. Waddington.
151 Carr, op. cit. 74, 82.
152 Dugdale, Mon. v, 121. The 'church' and 'parish' of Colne are often named in later documents.
153 Whitaker, Whalley, i, 87. The several townships were valued thus: Colne with Alkincotes, 8 marks; Foulridge, 6 marks; Fernside and Barnside, 4 marks; Marsden, 10 marks; Little Marsden, £2. The abbey received £31 17s. 3d. from the chapel in 1536; ibid. 116.
154 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 10. From a list of rents due, given in the parish register, it appears that £6 13s. 4d. a year belonged to the chaplain in 1599.
An inquiry in 1632 showed that rents of £15 2s. were due from lands, &c., in Burnley Wood, Colne, Marsden and Blackoe, and an order was made for their payment; N. and Q. (1st ser.), x, 165.
155 Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 164. An augmentation of £13 10s. was ordered in 1645 by the deputy lieutenants; Whitaker, op. cit. i, 221.
156 Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 89, 93; it was to come from the rectory of Kirkham sequestered from Thomas Clifton of Lytham. The money was paid; ibid. 237.
157 Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 324. The increase came from rentcharges on lands called Hollingreave, Gibhills, Viepens, &c., and from other gifts, including sums for annual funeral sermons. There were then seven wardens and two assistants.
For a suit as to one of the bequests to curate and school see ibid. 326 n.
158 It was declared a rectory in 1867; Lond. Gaz. 7 June.
159 Manch. Dioc. Dir.
160 The names of some earlier priests there are on record, but their position is not known. Thus William Fairbank by his will of 1520 desired to be buried in the chapel of Colne, leaving 10s. for the purpose and 6s. 8d. to Robert Blakey to pray for his soul; Piccope's Wills (Chet. Soc.), i, 10. The same Robert Blakey was celebrating at Colne in 1548 and 1554; Visit. Lists.
161 Act Bk. of Whallcy (Chet. Soc.), 2 (undated; cf. 104).
Hitchen or Higgin was still curate in 1541, being paid by the vicar of Whalley; Clergy List (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 18. A subsequent note shows that he had left or died by May 1544.
162 Fielden was in 1541 the stipendiary of George Hoghton; ibid. He had succeeded to the chaplaincy by 1546; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 213.
John Fielden, clerk, parson of Graton, Lincs., who gave evidence in a Colne case in 1555 or 1556, was obviously the same man, Roger Blakey being then styled 'curate of Colne'; Duchy of Lane. Dep. lxxvii, B 11. Fielden occurs in the visitation lists of 1548, 1554, 1562 and 1563, but in the last (being styled curate and dean) he is described as decrepit, and though his name was written in the 1565 list it was struck through.
Lands belonging to the church were in 1550 granted for life to John Fielden and Robert (Roger) Blakey, priests there; Clitheroe Ct. R. 4 Edw. VI (Halmotes of Colne and Ightenhill).
163 Roger Blakey occurs in all the visitation lists named above, and in 1563 and 1565 is styled curate. In 1544 he claimed the curacy of the chapel against the vicar of Whalley, alleging that the vicar, in consideration of certain payments, had agreed to appoint him at a stipend of £4 a year. He was still in occupation in 1546; Duchy Plead. ii, 223. He, like Fielden, subscribed to the queen's religious supremacy in 1563, and was still curate in 1575, when John Rushworth's will was proved before him; Ches. Sheaf (Ser. 3), i, 34–5; Pennant's MS. Acct. Bk.
Roger Blakey of Colne, clerk, aged eighty-two, gave evidence as to the boundary of the manor in 1591; Duchy of Lanc. Special Com., no. 498.
164 This name occurs in the Chester records in 1596–7; note by Mr. Earwaker. He seems to have gone to Whitworth, and was in trouble there for refusing to wear the surplice. His wife was buried in Colne Church in 1600; Reg. There was a surplice at Colne in 1599; ibid.
165 The registers begin in 1599 with a heading by Brierley, and about 1610 he was curate and 'well affected'; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 10. Yet the visitation returns of 1605 give John Walker as curate. This is perhaps the John Walker, 'parish clerk of Colne,' who was buried in 1613; Reg. Richard Brierley's name is given in the visitation returns of 1622, and he continued there till his death. He was buried 2 Feb. 1635–6.
166 There is a note in the register-book stating that it was delivered to Thomas Warriner, the minister, 13 Apr. 1636. He was put into the curacy by Archbishop Laud, and in the Civil War time was dragged out of the church by two Parliamentary soldiers, who had intended to kill him, but were prevented by the people; Walker, quoted by Carr, op. cit. 151.
167 He was approved by the Committee of Divines 1 Apr. 1645; Whitaker, op. cit. i, 221. Whitaker, however, interpolates one Thomas Whalley at this point (ii, 248), apparently in error. John Horrocks was in 1650 called 'a very able divine,' and his epitaph describes him as a Barnabas to the good and a Boanerges to the wicked; but the whole inscription is characterized by Dr. Whitaker as 'one of the most extravagant pieces of bombast he ever met with'; op. cit. ii, 255. Horrocks conformed at the Restoration, and died in possession 7 Sept. 1669.
168 Schoolmaster of Colne.
169 The church papers at Chester Dioc. Reg. begin here. Tatham was afterwards vicar of Almondbury.
170 He had been curate of Harwood and Langho. Whitaker states that he was succeeded by his son Thomas Barlow, but the church papers do not support it.
171 He became involved in debt and died in the Fleet prison. He was objectionable to the bishop on account of his politics and to the people for his litigiousness; Carr, op cit. 156.
172 He was a Roman Catholic priest, educated at Douay, but becoming a Protestant was recommended by Archbishop Potter for the curacy of Colne. He was a man of some learning and ability, but grossly neglected his duty at Colne and was of low morals. On the appearance of Methodism he opposed it by speech and by appealing to the mob, for which he was denounced both by John Wesley (as below) and Grimshaw of Haworth; ibid. 156–63. For his works see Loc. Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 79; ii, 223.
173 He was vicar of St. Mary Magdalen, Wiggenhall, and served Colne by curates, one of whom was so immoral that the inhabitants petitioned against him in 1782; Carr, op. cit. 164.
174 He resided at Colne and gained the respect of the parishioners.
175 Eldest son of Dr. Whitaker, the historian of Whalley. He did not reside at Colne.
176 He was afterwards head master of Clitheroe Grammar School and incumbent of Downham.
177 For a notice of him see Carr, op. cit. 168–73.
178 Previously vicar of Newchurch in Pendle.
179 St. Osyth of Essex or St. Zita of Lucca
180 The Townley 'pew or kneeling place' was set up about 1500, and in 1546 was in dispute between Lawrence Townley and George Hoghton. John Fielden the chaplain and others were alleged to have entered the church at night and broken down the pew and carried it away; Duchv Plead ii 213–14.
181 Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 266, 277.
182 Visit. Lists at Chester Dioc. Reg.
183 In 1601 a sermon was expected once a quarter, and complaint was made that the vicar of Whalley had not done his duty in this matter. In 1605 there were sixteen recusants and a number of non-communicants.
184 Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 325.
185 George White, then vicar, summoned his assistants to meet at the Cross, 'where each man shall have a pint of ale in advance, and all other proper encouragement.' A 'drunken rabble' assembled accordingly; Wesley himself was assaulted, and he and his companions were grievously ill-treated and in some peril of life; Carr, op. cit. 157–9, quoting Wesley's letter (1748).
186 Loc. Glean. Lancs. and Ch s. i, 88, from Wesley's Journal.
187 A district was assigned to it in 1838.
188 An accident spoiled the occasion, for a gallery gave way and several persons were injured.
189 There is a notice of him in Dict. Nat. Biog.
190 Carr, op. cit. 84.
191 Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. ii, 176–9.
192 There were five Anabaptist families known in Colne chapelry in 1717; Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 324.
193 A. J. Parry, Cloughfold Bapt. Ch. 105. In 1798 it was reported that the cause had 'suffered awfully by the defection of those members who seemed to be pillars,' but a revival was hoped for; Rippon, Bapt. Reg. iii, 20.
194 An American Friend who visited England about 1752 reported of Colne: 'No members of our society. . . . A poor dark town in respect to religion'; Life of John Churchman, 146.
195 Carr, op. cit. 27; see also a preceding note.
196 Clitheroe Ct. R. of 4 & 5 Phil. and Mary (Halmote of Ightenhill).
197 End. Char. Rep. 1900. The boys formerly demanded a gift from each newly-married pair; N. and Q. (Ser. 9), ix, 386.
198 Lawrence Manknolls of Town House in Marsden in 1660 left land producing £10 a year for the impotent poor of the chapelry. Payment seems to have been refused from 1837 onwards. John Malham of Reedyford (before 1733) gave £1 13s. 4d. a year, paid in 1826 out of land called the Poor Fields in Great Marsden, but when the land was sold about 1857 the purchaser refused to pay the charge. The gifts of Mary Starkie, Thomas Smith, John Smith and Lawrence Roberts had been lost by 1826.
James Robinson in 1764 gave 10s. a year to the curate for a sermon on 5 Jan. and 5s. for bread for the poor attending to hear the sermon; also another 10s. for a sermon on 8 June. The purchaser of the land charged has since 1869 refused to pay.
199 The charge is paid out of Brown Hill Farm.