||The building was designed by Sir
G. G. Scott. The spire is 150 ft. high.
||Here it is called Fishergate Hill.
||Here called Broadgate.
||Formerly Finkale Street.
||It has a tower 179 ft. high. The
county records are preserved in this building, having been collected from different
repositories. The borough sessions house
||For the development of the local
post office see Hewitson, Preston, 336–41.
||The area of the county borough, according to the Census Report of 1901, is
3,971 acres. It is that of the old township, together with the whole of Fishwick, large parts of Ashton and Ribbleton, and bits of Grimsargh and Penwortham; these were all united into one
township or civil parish in 1894; Loc.
Govt. Bd. Order 31607. The 3,971
acres include 79 of inland water; there
are besides 85 acres of tidal water and
14 of foreshore.
||The population of the larger area of
the county borough was 112,989.
||The station was on the site of the
existing one. These details are derived
chiefly from A. Hewitson, op. cit. 199,
||The station was on the north side
of Fishergate, but was soon afterwards
connected with the station on the south
side, the line being thus made continuous.
||The Blackburn terminus occupies
its original position.
||The Southport (West Lancashire)
line had its terminus in Fishergate Hill.
||The terminus was in Maudlands.
||Foot passengers can also cross the
Ribble by the East Lancashire railway
bridge, that to Blackburn, by a side walk.
This bridge had fifty-seven arches in all,
mostly south of the river, but nearly all
have now been covered by an embankment.
||St. Stephen's cross is named in undated deeds; Add. MS. 32106, no. 1486,
1543, fol. 308, &c. Fishwick cross,
probably on the boundary, is named in
1339 (ibid. no. 1614) and the Butter
cross 1562; ibid. no. 847. See also
Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xx, 156–62.
The crosses known were the high cross
in the market-place, afterwards replaced
by an obelisk; a butter cross in Cheapside; a cross near New Street and another
in Friargate, and one on the Moor. Our
Lady's Well was near the Friary. The
butter cross was taken down in 1739 by
order of the corporation, and the
materials used to repair the marketplace, as appears by the records.
||The Old Bank was opened in 1776;
for a long time the Pedder family were
chief proprietors. It failed in 1861.
See Hewitson, op. cit. 238, where is
given a view of the house (c. 1690) in
which business was done.
The Preston Banking Company,
founded in 1844, had its head office in
Fishergate. It has been absorbed by the
London City and Midland Bank. Four
other banks have branch offices.
The Savings Bank was opened in 1816.
||These include the Conservative Club,
the Reform Club and the Winckley Club.
In 1824 there were two news-rooms, one
in the coffee-house in Church Street and
the other adjoining the Town Hall; the
two, it was then said, connoted 'ancient
and modern Preston; the coffee room is
the resort of the gentry and men of
leisure, and the Guildhall room affords
its more ample accommodation to commercial gentlemen and tradesmen';
Baines, Lancs. Dir. ii, 499.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 354.
||Ibid. 118. A view of the cock-pit
is given; it was near the south-west
corner of the parish church.
Horse-races were run on Preston Moor
from 1726 to 1791.
For a Corpus Christi play about 1620
see Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Notes, ii, 27.
The Easter-egg rolling in 1882 is spoken
of in Pal. Note-bk. ii, 108.
||The pillory was last used at Preston
in 1814; Hewitson, Preston, 126. The
stocks, in the churchyard, were in use
till 1825; ibid. Ct. Leet Rec. 68.
||Hewitson, Preston, 126.
||Ibid. 226–30; a facsimile of the
first pledge, 1 Sept. 1832, is given, with
the signatures of the 'seven men of
Preston,' including that of Joseph Livesey,
the best known of them.
||See the account of Amounderness.
||Thus in 1292 Edmund, brother
of the king, proved that he was lord of
the manor; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec.
Com.), 388. In 1361 Preston was
among the manors of Blanche daughter
of Henry Duke of Lancaster; Fine
R. 162, m. 17.
||Soon after the Conquest the manor
was granted to Warine Bussel, who held
it for a time; Lancs. Inq. and Extents
(Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 35.
Again in 1254–5 the manor of Preston,
probably in Amounderness, was given by
Prince Edward to Maater Richard the
Physician; Pat. 49 Hen. III, m. 82.
In 1400 the king granted 10 marks a
year for life out of the profits of the vill
of Preston; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks.
xv, fol. 21.
Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 158–9;
the lands to the ploughing of four ploughs
would yield £6, the fisheries the same,
the markets £3 and the mills £2,
toll and stallages the same, perquisites
of pleas 13s. 4d., meadows and pastures
the same; escheats in the king's hands
produced 6s. 8d.
To various railages Preston paid as
follows: 1176–7, aid., £16 10s.; 1205,
tallage, £10 4s.; 1213–15, pleas of the
forest, £2 6s. 8d.; 1226, £10 0s. 6d.;
1248–9, £12; 1261, £20 13s. 4d.;
Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 35, 202, 251;
Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 135, &c.
As implied above, escheated lands were
the king's. From a house escheated 2s.
was accounted for in 1184–5; Farrer,
op. cit. 54. In 1201–2 Alexander de
Preston recovered a toft of which Roger
de Leicester had disseised him; ibid. 132.
Again in 1226 the farm of a house which
had been Harvey's (hanged) amounted to
3s. 8d.; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 138.
In 1256–8 escheats in Preston produced
21s, 9d. during eighteen months; ibid.
i, 222. These were in part held by
Richard le Boteler, who paid 7s. 6d. a
year in 1258–62; ibid. 230.
||Add. MS. 32103, fol. 147;, of 1346.
For escheats William Chapman paid
5s. 6d. (an increase of 1s. 6d.) and John
de Ashton 10s., in addition to 12d. to the
earl (part of the £15 fee-farm rent) and
9d. to the Prior of Lytham. This latter
tenement had belonged to Adam Bukmonger, for whom see Final Conc. (Rec.
Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 15.
The free tenants were: Nicholas de
Preston, holding 1 acre for which he paid
12d.; John Marshal and John Bennet,
in right of their wives—Ellen and
Christiana, daughters of Richard Marshal
—each paying 2s. 6d. for half a burgage;
Robert son of Henry Maggeson, a burgage (once burnt by the Scots), 4s.;
Nicholas son of Henry Williamson, four
plots of land, by Court Roll, 4s. 8d.;
Thomas de Yomb(er)gh, a messuage
lately belonging to Roger son of John de
Wich, 5s.; Henry Chapman, a messuage,
10s. Albred son of Robert and Alice his
wife, a toft for life, 2s.; an acre in the
hands of the friars (held in alms) had
formerly paid 4s.; it was used for the
channel conveying the water to their
||This was the opinion of Miss Bateson, who discussed the Custumal of the
town in Engl. Hist. Rev. xv, 496–512.
||Sir Thomas Walmesley about 1600
certified that he had seen a charter to the
burgesses so dated; Abram, Memorials
of Preston Guilds, 1. The charter of
Henry II may have been dated by him
conjecturally 1° Hen., for if there was an
earlier one extant it seems unaccountable
that it was not named or included in the
confirmations of the charter of Henry II
by successive kings.
||Ibid, 2, 3. The charter was given at
Winchester, where the king spent the
Christmas of 1179. The year it not
named in the deed itself, but gathered
from the place and from the names of the
In the Pipe Rolls of 1179–82 it is
recorded that the men of Preston gave
100 marks for the charter; Farrer, Lancs.
Pipe R. 42, 46. The customs of Newcastle at that date are not known.
||Abram, op. cit. 3; Cal. Rot. Chart.
(Rec. Com.), 26. From the wording of
the confirmation it may be gathered that
the additions of the fair, pasturage, &c.,
had been made by John when Count of
Mortain, 1189–94. The charter is dated
at Le Mans, 18 Oct. 1199.
The burgesses paid 60 marks and four
chaseurs for the grant; Farrer, op. cit. 116.
There was a dispute in 1201 as to the
right of gaol; ibid. 130, 136.
The fairs are mentioned in a charter
of a few years later by which William de
Millom and Avice his wife (see Lancs.
Inq. and Extents, i, 40) gave to Henry son
of William son of Swain the fourth part
of two burgages (in Preston), formerly
tenanted by Norasius and Aldwin, with
all appurtenances, white gloves being
payable at Preston fairs; Lytham D. at
Durham, 3 a, 2 ae, 4 ae, Ebor. no. 3. The
grantee was rector of Whittington, and
his son Henry gave the tenement to
Lytham Priory; ibid. no. 2.
||Abram, op. cit.; dated Westminster,
16 Mar. 1226–7.
The same king at Windsor, 29 Oct.
1252, allowed that an appropriation of
324 acres which the burgesses had made
under Fulwood belonged to the borough
and not to the king's wood. The boundary reached to Eves Brook from Ribbleton Scales to the point where the brook
fell into the Savock, and then along the
Savock to the old dyke which formed the
boundary between Preston and Tulketh.
Thus the land seems to have been what
was later known as Preston Moor. The
burgesses had liberty to cultivate the land
as they pleased, up to within 40 perches
of the cover of Fulwood, and their old
rights of turbary outside and of fencing
wood within Fulwood were admitted;
Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 406.
In 1227 a five years' grant of dead wood
from Fulwood for burning had been made
to the men of Preston; Cal. Pat. 1225–32.
||Abram, op. cit. 4; dated Westminster, 27 Nov. 1328. Four charters were
produced—those of Henry II, John, and
Henry III (2). The inspeximus is recorded in Chart. R. 2 Edw. Ill, m. 1,
||Abram, op. cit. 8. The first clause
of the Custumal seems to be referred to—
'That they [the burgesses] may have a
guild merchant with hanse and other
customs and liberties appertaining to that
||The charter, dated 18 Sept. 1235, is
printed in Farrer, op. cit. 414. It may
have been merely a confirmation of the
liberties referred to in the charter granted
by Henry II to Preston. It allowed a
guild merchant with all its liberties; the
burgesses might pass through the king's
dominions, trading freely, and quit of
toll, passage, pontage, ulnage, &c., and
themselves have in their borough soc and
sac, toll, infangenthef, and other jurisdictions. Similar liberties for Preston are
recorded in clause 4 of the Custumal.
In 1551 two inhabitants of Preston
complained that they had been compelled
to pay tolls at sundry places in Yorkshire.
For Pontefract it was alleged that the
right to charge dues was earlier than the
exemption claimed; Duchy of Lanc.
Plead. Edw. VI, xxviii, B 2.
Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 385.
The charter they alleged was that of King
John (1199), still extant. They paid £15
a year to the king for their liberties. The
weekly market, nominally held on Wednesday, was actually on Saturday. As the
charter did not specify the liberties, and
as the burgesses were not able to prove
the customs of Newcastle, the town lost
its cause for the moment. The 'gallows'
does not reappear.
||Ibid. 387. The lord of Penwortham
had the other moiety.
||The Custumal is printed in Engl.
Hist. Rev. xv, 496–500, with a commentary by Miss Mary Bateson, who divided
the document into forty-eight paragraphs.
She considers that the phrase at the end,
de lege Bretonica, refers to the laws of
Breteuil, on which the statutes of a
number of early English boroughs were
founded; ibid. 73, 302–see especially
p. 318, where the phrase lex Britannie
occurs. A reduced facsimile of the Custumal is given in Fishwick's Preston, 16.
The date is inferred from the heading
which Randle Holme prefixes to his
transcript—'Libertates Gilde Mercatorie
confirmate per Edwardum Regem.'
||Miss Bateson considers that the first
four paragraphs have come from a royal
charter, and that clause 36 was at one
time the ending. Clause 47 is a sentence
from 32, and 35 seems to be included
||Even a 'native' who obtained admission to the guild and remained a year
and a day undisturbed became absolutely
free; clause 3.
In the phrases 'burgensis de curia'
(no. 18, 20, 22) and 'burgensis de villa'
(no. 32) Miss Bateson sees an opposition,
as if the distinction between out and inburgesses had already been fixed. The
'burgensis de curia' of no. 20 may be an
error for 'pretor de curia.'
||Clauses 5, 6, 16. A curious provision was that 1d. was to be paid to the
pretor's servant for his testimony to the
fact of entry. A disputed title was
settled by the oath of the tenant's 'prepo
situs' and two neighbours at least,
affirming that he had held it a year and a
day; no. 7.
A burgess might sell his burgage, but
the next of kin had a right of pre-emption. If he had only one burgage he
must on selling pay 4d. for liberty to go;
Nothing is said of an annual rent to
be paid for the burgage, but this was
probably 12d. In an undated charter
William de Euxton granted a burgage in
Preston to Richard the Smith, a rent of
12d. being payable to the lord of the fee;
Towneley MS. OO, no. 1099.
No plot of land is named in the Custumal as appurtenant to a burgage, but
from charters and inquisitions it may be
inferred that some land was normally
held with a burgage.
In later times it was customary for a
burgess to pay 7d. on 'renewing his freedom' at each guild celebration; Abram,
op. cit. 65 (quoting Kuerden).
||Among other by-laws it was ordained
that if a burgess bought anything and gave
an earnest or instalment the seller might
rescind the bargain on repaying double the
earnest; but should the purchaser have
handled his purchase he might either
retain it or accept 5s. from the seller
instead; Custumal, no. 12. A stranger
might not share in any bargain with one
of the burgesses; no. 29.
||One rule was that if anyone were
taken and convicted for robbery or breach
of trust (infidelitas) the prosecutor should
'do justice' on him; no. 19.
||Clause 10. A burgess was not to
be compelled to go with his lord on a
military expedition unless he could return
home the same day; no. 43.
||Clause 9. If one burgess wounded
another and they desired to agree their
friends might impose a penalty of 4d. for
each thumb-length of wound in a covered
part of the body and 8d. for each in an
open place. The assailant must also
make good any money loss due to the
wound and pay the doctor; no. 21. The
final clause of the by-law seems to mean
that the wounded man should swear upon
his arms that he had been wounded and
was willing to accept the composition
agreed upon. If a burgess should be fined
12d. three times for breach of the assize of
bread and ale, the fourth time he should
pay a heavier fine, or else go to the cuckstool (ad cukestolam); no. 31. Should
anyone carrying false money be captured
the 'prepositus' must account for the
money and send the criminal to the king
for punishment; those who caught him
should have the clothes; no. 41.
||Clauses 18, 22. Should there be
wager of battle between a burgess and a
knight the latter must fight in person;
In 1184–5 a fine of 5 marks was levied
by the king because a man had been put
'at the water' without warrant; Farrer,
Lancs. Pipe R. 55.
||Clause 23. Succession to property
is regulated by no. 32.
||Clauses 24, 25.
||'Pretors' occur at Clitheroe also.
Ralph the reeve of Preston occurs about
1200, together with Roger his son;
Lancs. Pipe R. 335. Roger, 'pretor' of
Preston, apparently the reeve, attested a
local charter about 1220; Kuerden MSS.
iv, C 25b.
Roger reeve of Preston, Ralph his son
and Robert the Clerk of Preston occur
about the same time; Add. MS. 32106,
no. 378. Baldwin de Preston was reeve
in 1246, and chose the jury of twelve
(including himself) who came from the
borough; Assize R. 404, m. 19b.
There seems to have still been no
'mayor' in 1292, when the bailiffs appearing for the town were Adam son of
Robert and Robert son of Roger.
To a charter already quoted Roger
Pade, 'then chief bailiff of Preston,' was
a witness; OO, no. 1099. Local charters
to about 1320 are usually attested by the
two bailiffs of the town; but in one early
deed Adam brother of Filbard, mayor, and
William and Roger brother of Roger (?),
reeves, were principal witnesses; ibid.
no. 1101. In 1311–12 William son of
Robert the Tailor granted to John del
Wich land in the new field under Fulwood, and the witnesses were the mayor,
Robert son of Roger, six bailiffs—Adam
de Bury, William son of Nicholas,
William son of Paulin, Henry Banastre,
Roger Salley, Albred son of Adam—and
the clerk of Preston, William de Wigan;
Towneley MS. DD, no. 2198. In the
guild of 1328 the mayor and two bailiffs
are named, and the government at that
time was conducted in the name of the
mayor, bailiffs and burgesses.
The community had a common seal as
early as 1250; Cockersand Chartul. (Chet.
Soc), i, 220–1. A seal of 1376 is in
the British Museum (Birch, Catalogue,
no. 5315); it shows the Agnus Dei,
statant regardant, with banner flag, and
on the lamb's shoulder a shield bearing
the duchy arms. It is surrounded with
the legend + SIGILL' COMVNE BVRGENCIVM
DE PERSTON. The seal of 1415 is the
same, with the addition of three P's
round the lamb, thus: [consult printed volume] About
the end of the 17th century the statant
posture was altered to couchant. The
seals of 1415 and the present time are
shown in Fishwick, op. cit. 36, 37. In
1349 the king granted a seal for recognizances of debts; the greater piece was to
remain in charge of the mayor and the
smaller piece with a clerk deputed by the
king; Cal. Pat. 1348–50, p. 266. William
Clifton was appointed to be keeper of the
smaller piece in 1423; ibid. 1422–9,
The Moot Hall is named in a deed of
1377, by which Thomas de Molyneux of
Cuerdale and Joan his wife gave the
mayor, bailiffs and community of Preston
a small piece of land (12 ft. by 12 ft.) adjoining the said hall, at a rent of 6s.; OO,
||This does not seem to be mentioned
in any of the early charters.
The original farm of the town was
£9, but in or before 1179 was increased
by £6; Farrer, op. cit. 42, 131. In
1212 the burgesses held three plough-lands
in Preston by a rent of £15; Lancs. Inq.
and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.),
i, 45, 138, 289. The diminution from
the six plough-lands of Domesday Book is
probably accounted for by the separation
of Fulwood and Ribbleton.
||'Curia nostra'; no. 9.
||If a stranger claimed a debt before
the reeve and the debtor would not pay
the 'pretor' paid it out of the king's
purse, and then seized the debtor's
chattels or took possession of his house;
Cal. Pat. 1313–17, p. 186. The
tolls which might be levied are printed
in Fishwick, Preston, 25. Other grants
were made in 1328 (for two years) and
in 1333 (for five years); Cal. Pat. 1327–
30, p. 270; 1330–4, p. 408. At a trial
in 1334 it was alleged that the men of
Preston had obtained pavage charters for
five and then for three years, and then,
the town being sufficiently paved, purchased another charter to last for five
years, 'to the great oppression of the
people of those parts.' Nicholas de
Preston and three others appeared for the
community to aver that the additional
paving was required, but the decision was
against them, and they had to pay a fine.
The pavage dues were stated to amount
to 10 marks a year; Coram Rege R. 297,
Rex m. 21.
In 1337 an inquiry was made at to
the right of pasture in Fulwood; Lansdowne MS. 559, fol. 66/36b.
The taxation of the ninth of the borough
of Preston in 1340 has been preserved and
supplies forty-four names of persons
taxed; Subs. R. bdle. 130, no. 15.
In 1341 a commission was appointed
to inquire into a suspected misappropriation of the pavage money raised; Cal. Pat.
1340–3, p. 313. Another grant of pavage
was made by Duke Henry in 1356;
Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 344.
In 1582 Richard Stirrop was admitted
burgess in consideration of his making
the post-holes in the market stead at the
yearly fairs and repairing the causeway
between Barkhouse Hill and the windmill
at the east end of the town; Abram,
Mem. of the Guilds, 33.
||By Richard II in 1379, preserved
at Preston; see Cal. Pat. 1377–81,
p. 340. By Henry IV in 1401, also at
Preston; a new clause was inserted,
allowing the burgesses to use any of the
liberties, &c., granted by former charters,
even if they or their predecessors had not
hitherto fully availed themselves of the
same. By Henry V in 1414. By
Henry VI in 1425, now at Preston. By
Philip and Mary in 1557, at Preston.
For the charters of 1401 and 1414 see
also Charter R. 2 Hen. IV, pt. i, no. 8;
1 Hen. V, pt. iii, no. 3.
||The charter probably ratified customs
in the government of the town which had
grown up in the course of time. At the
guild of 1500 it was ordained that the
mayor should nominate two 'ancient,
discreet and honest burgesses,' called
elisors, who in turn were to nominate
twenty-four burgesses, not bearing office
in the town, to choose fit persons to be
mayor, bailiff and sub-bailiff; the mayor,
after his election, chose a second bailiff
and a serjeant for the mace; Abram,
Mem. of the Guilds, 23.
In a writ de quo warr. issued in 1487
the corporation were called upon to show
by what title they claimed to elect a
mayor. The £15 a year rent to the
Crown is named; Pal. of Lanc. Writs
Proton. 13 Hen. VII. For part of the
reply see Kuerden MSS. iv, P 10 (the
In 1527 Sir Richard Hoghton made a
lawless attempt to impose on the town
his own nominees as mayor, bailiff and
serjeant. It was then the custom to
nominate priests as elisors; Fishwick,
Preston, 38–42, quoting Duchy of Lanc.
Pleadings, Hen. VIII, rii, F 1; viii,
W 9; vi, W 11. Sir Thomas More was
then Chancellor of the duchy; he rejected
the Hoghton claims and made certain
'ordinances' for the peace of the town
and the election of mayor; ibid. 43–4,
quoting Pleadings, vi, W 11. Sir Richard
again, interfered with the election in.
Oct. 1534; ibid. 45.
Disputes arose as to the nomination of
both elisors by the mayor, and the charter
of 1566, while confirming the mode of
election of the twenty-four, gave them.
the choice of one of the elisors. A three
weeks court for trying causes of debts,
&c.; the view of frankpledge on the days
'accustomed from ancient times,' the
markets and fairs (with court of piepowder), were all expressly ratified by
the charter, to be held by 'the ancient
rent and farm due to the Crown.'
The charter did not allay all the internal
disputes which had been going on respecting the choice of the mayor, who, it will
be seen, had large powers. It gave the
elisors the right to choose an entirely new
body of capital burgesses each year, but
in practice no doubt the same persons
were re-elected, if willing, and in 1598
there is mention of a permanent body of
aldermen, who were eight in number.
It was ordered that 'the whole number
of benchers, commonly called aldermen,'
should stand and remain as they then were
until the next guild merchant, and that
the mayor should be chosen annually from
this body, beginning with the senior
member, and descending yearly according
to seniority; ibid. 34. This rule was
confirmed by the guild of 1602, which
also decreed that out-burgesses who came
to reside within the town should not be
eligible as mayor or bailiff till they had
resided for seven years; ibid. 36. In
1642 it was ordered that on an alderman
dying a successor should be appointed
from the members of the common
council; ibid. 47.
An attempt to disfranchise two burgesses was defeated by their appeal to the
Exchequer Court in or before 1582;
Abram, op. cit. 33.
||Abram, op. cit. 26–8. The decision
seems to have been adverse to the town;
Lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs.
and Ches.), ii, 236, 256. An earlier claim
to this immunity was investigated in
1521, when the mayor and burgesses also
claimed all the goods of felons, fugitives,
&c., and view of frankpledge; Duchy of
Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 36.
||Abram, op. cit. 40. The making
of bricks for sale was likewise forbidden,
so that the 'wastes' of the town might
not be impaired.
There are other evidences that at that
time the established guilds or trade companies were jealous of the growth of
independent traders. The rules of the
Preston Company of Drapers, Mercers,
Grocers, Salters, Ironmongers and Haberdashers of 1628 prohibited the sale by
any 'stranger' of goods belonging to these
trades; ibid. 41–2. In 1633 the Society
of Skinners, Whittawers and Glovers in
Preston and other places made a petition
against unlicensed traders; Cal. S. P. Dom.
1633–4, p. 330.
||The records from 1653 to 1813 are
preserved in three folio volumes at the
Town Hall. An account of them, with
copious extracts, was published in 1905,
Mr. Anthony Hewitson being editor. The
court leet was held twice a year. The
Inquest, sometimes called the court baron,
sat frequently. The Mayor's Court was
held on the Friday before St. Wilfrid's
Day for the election of mayor, bailiff and
serjeant; their inauguration was on the
feast itself. The old procedure is related
in Whittle's Preston (1821), 194–206.
The principal matters in the records relate
to the right to carry on a trade and to
pasture cattle on the marsh. The court
leet became extinct in 1835, having long
ceased to be of any utility in the changed
conditions of the town.
||In 1504–5 the sheriff was directed
to call for £45, the rent due to the king
for three years from the mayor and
bailiffs of Preston; Kuerden MSS. iv,
||Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 448.
The intermediate surrender of the purchase in 1660, as evidence to the loyalty
of the corporation, is printed in Manch.
Guard. N. and Q. no. 375.
||Abram, op. cit. 51–5. The guild
meeting was continued for six weeks to
allow of the codification. The orders
were classified under the following titles:
The Sabbath; the oaths; the town lands,
rents, and other revenues; the marsh,
mere and town field; geese on the marsh;
swine; brick and digging of sods; preservation of the common, &c.; buying and
selling between foreigners and others, and
the tolls, stallages, pickages, lastages and
other customs due for the same; householders and their duties; officers; manner
of holding a council; weights and measures;
foreign burgesses; restraining of foreign
burgesses; duties of foreign burgesses;
alehouse-keeping, tippling and victualling;
bailiffs and other inferior officers; office
of a serjeant; streets and scavengers.
'About 2,200 burgesses were enrolled
at the guild of 1662, of whom something
less than 900 were foreign burgesses.'
||Ibid. 68; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks.
||Abram, op. cit. 135. A description
of the old-fashioned way of 'beating the
bounds' at Preston is given in Hewitson's
Preston, 121. It is included among the
former sports of the place.
||Abram, loc. cit.; Act 2 & 3
Will. IV, cap. 64. The six wards were:
St. John's, south-east from Church Street
to the Ribble, including part of Fishwick;
Christ Church, to the west; St. George's,
to the north-west; St. Peter's, north of
Maudland; Trinity, the east central part
of the town (including the Town Hall)
to the northern border; Fishwick, the
eastern suburb of Preston, and the greater
part of Fishwick township. Changes of
area were made in 1881, and St. George's
and Trinity were re-named Maudland and
||Under an Improvement Act of 1880,
43 & 44 Vict. cap. 118.
||Under the Ribble Navigation Act of
1883, 46 & 47 Vict. cap. 115. The
enlargement came into force in 1889.
||Loc. Govt. Bd. Order 31607.
||About 1800 the watchmen were provided by private subscriptions and a
corporation grant. In 1832 a police
station was opened in Avenham Street,
the force numbering six men. A new
station, with magistrates' court, still
used, was opened in Lancaster Road in
1858. The bench of magistrates was
anciently regulated by the charters, as
already described; since the passing of
the Municipal Reform Act in 1835 the
justices have been appointed by the
Chancellor of the duchy.
There is also a fire brigade, with
station in Tithebarn Street. In 1271
Thurstan de Holland complained that
one Henry son of Mirre had destroyed
one of his houses at Preston; but it was
shown that there was a fire in the town,
and Thurstan's house and some others
had been destroyed to check the flames;
Curia Regis R. 201, m. 7 d.
||The seneschal, later the recorder, is
named in the charters of 1566 and 1663.
He presides at the three weeks court and
the quarter sessions of the borough.
||The offices, at the west end of
Fishergate, were opened in 1882. The
chief county officials have their offices in
The prison, at the east end of Church
Street, was erected in 1789 to replace the
old house of correction in the Friary.
A court-house was built in 1829
adjoining. The new county sessions
house, already mentioned, has replaced
it. The county police offices are part of
the new building, in which is also the
County Hall, used for the meetings of
the county council.
||The town records mention five
principal wells: Mincepitt, near the
gas company's land; Market-place,
1654; Fishergate, 1666; Lady Well,
west of Friargate; Goose Well, outside
Church Street bars. The old 'cistern'
was built in Avenham in 1729, R.
Abbot, a Quaker, was the maker. See
Hewitson, Ct. Leet Rec.; Hardwick,
Preston, 44.5. In 1743 a new cistern
was made at Syke Hill, from which
water was distributed through wooden
pipes; see Hewitson, Preston, 378–80.
||Priv. Act, 2 & 3 Will. IV, cap. 27.
||16 & 17 Vict. cap. 48. See Hewitson,
op. cit. 381–3. Further large reservoirs
have lately been constructed at Longridge.
The works supply not only the borough
but several adjacent townships, north and
south of the Ribble.
||Hardwick, op. cit. 444; Gerard,
Stonyhurst, 125. The first works were
in Avenham Lane (Glover Street).
||Act 55 Geo. III, cap. 22; 2 & 3 Vict.
cap. 3. Additional gasometers have been
erected in North Street and at Ribbleton
||Hewitson, Preston, 208–9. An
omnibus service to Fulwood began in
1859, superseded by the tramway in
1879. Other tramway lines, from
Ribbleton through the town to Fishergate Hill and to Ashton, were opened in
||Ibid. 287–98. The new Harris
Library, built for it between 1882 and
1893, was opened in 1894. Dr. Shepherd's
library (1759) is housed with it. The
Law Library, founded in 1831, is a
private subscription one; the building is
in Chapel Walks, Fishergate.
||Ibid. 312–14. The museum was at
first (1841) in Cross Street. An
observatory, privately founded, was
acquired by the corporation in 1879 and
anew building erected in 1881 in Deepdale Road.
||The building was erected in 1849
in Avenham Lanc as an Institute for the
Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, originally
organized in 1828. Declining in usefulness it was re-endowed by the trustees
of E. R. Harris as a Technological and
Science and Art School in 1882;
Hewitson, op. cit. 235, 276.
||This building, in Corporation Street,
is managed by the council of the Institute, who have acquired the old
buildings of the School for the Blind
(1871), which has been removed to
||For example, baths and wash-houses
were opened in 1850 and refuse destructors in 1887 and 1892.
Formerly there was a public cold water
bath at the western end of the town,
called the Spa Bath. It was closed about
1860; Hewitson, Preston, 242. There
was a spa well there; ibid. 385.
||This building was opened in 1867.
See Hewitson, op. cit. 359–66.
||It was first erected by the corporation in 1822–4, and after enlargement
was re-opened in 1882. There is accommodation for 3,600 auditors It has a
large organ. The corn market is held
there on Saturdays; at the front are sold
eggs and poultry. The pork market was
formerly held at the rear, but was discontinued in 1881; Hewitson, op. cit.
||It is in Lancaster Road, on the site
of the old 'Orchard,' and was built in
1870–5. Fruit and vegetables are sold
there; Hewitson, op. cit. 308.
In Whittle's Preston (1821), 116–20,
is a description of the former markets.
The Old Shambles, a street leading from
the Market Place to Church Street, were
on the east side of the Town Hall. The
Strait Shambles, erected in 1715 by
Thomas Molyneux, went north from
Church Street opposite Avenham Street.
They were pulled down in 1882 to make
room for the Free Library. Separate
slaughter-houses were erected in 1818
near Syke Hill. The fish stones were on
the northern side of the market-place;
they were removed in 1853.
Whittle further states that then the
market days were Wednesday, Friday
and Saturday. A bell was rung at
9 a.m. when the sale of provisions and
fish began; it was rung again at 10 a.m.
when 'forestalled, hucksters and badgers'
might purchase to sell again; and at
11 a.m. when the corn trade began.
'The various markets shall now have
their place as to where they are held
according to ancient usage. The cattle
market in Church Street. The goose
and pork market immediately under the
church wall. The country butchers and
others hold their market on the south
side of Church Street.' The marketplace was apportioned to various kinds of
produce. On the south side butter and
poultry; at the east corn and peas; in
the centre earthenware, glass and toys;
to the north, clothiers; west of the
obelisk, confectionery, hats, boots, cutlery,
small wares. The cheese market and
fruit stalls on the west side of the
square, with vegetables on both sides of
Cheapside, which leads down to Fishergate.
Still earlier arrangements as described
by Dr. Kuerden about 1680 are printed
in Hardwick's Preston, 209. The cattle
market was in Church Street, swine
were sold opposite the church, and sheep
on the west side of the market-place;
the horse market was in Fishergate.
||While the town was still quite
small the corporation in 1696–7 obtained
from Alderman Lemon a piece of ground
on Avenham, used as a walk, and thus
secured it for public use. It was planted
with trees, and forms a conspicuous
object in Buck's 'Prospect' of 1728;
Hewitson, op. cit. 320, 236. Thoresby,
the antiquary, who visited the town at
the 1702 guild, described it as 'a very
curious walk and delicate prospect';
Thoresby, Diaries, i, 389–91.
Avenham Park, to the south-west of
it, occupies 27 acres by the Ribble side.
Between 1843 and 1852 the corporation
purchased the land, and formed it into
an attractive pleasure ground in 1861–7;
work being thus provided for the factory
workers made idle by the American
Civil War; ibid. 319–22. Miller Park,
11 acres, lies further to the west; the
land was given by Alderman Thomas
Miller, and, after being laid out, was
opened in 1867; ibid. 323. Fine views
of the Ribble Valley can be obtained
from these parks.
The moor to the north of the town
was inclosed by the corporation in 1834.
From 1786 to 1833 horse-races had been
run there, in opposition to those favoured
by the Earl of Derby on the adjacent
Fulwood Moor. Racing had taken place
much earlier, an 'intended horse course'
being marked in 1695. A park of 110
acres has gradually been formed of the
land inclosed. The Marsh, another part
of the old common land, is used as a
recreation ground; it measures 22 acres.
Haslam Park was presented to the
town in 1908 by Miss Haslam.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 249.
||See the introduction.
||A full description is given in Trans.
Hist. Soc. (new sen), xiii, 1–47.
||For the history see Hewitson, Preston,
||A dispensary was established in
Fishergate in 1809 and a house of recovery in Great Shaw Street in 1813.
The latter was removed to 'the Moor' in
1833. The two institutions are combined in the present infirmary, on the
last-named site, opened in 1870; Hewitson, op. cit. 284.
||The earliest newspaper, of no long
continuance, was the Journal, 1744. Of
the existing newspapers the Guardian was
established in 1844 and the Herald in
The daily papers are the Lancashire
Post and Northern Telegraph; the weekly
ones the Preston Guardian, Preston Herald
(Wednesday and Saturday), Preston Argus,
and Catholic News.
For a full account of the newspapers
up to 1882 see Hewitson, op. cit.
||The site does not seem to be known
exactly. A charter of 1311–12 describes
a piece of land as situated under this
hospital and extending to Swaghwell
Syke; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. iv, 580. This
name is probably the same as the Sewalle
Syke of the Cockersand Chartul. i, 217.
Possibly the well was one known later as
Atherton's Well, near the canal bridge on
Fylde Road; Hewitson, Preston, 385.
Spital Moss was close by.
Charters of the hospital are in the
Duchy Great Coucher, i, fol. 80, &c.
The history of the hospital is narrated
in the account of the religious houses of
the county. After its confiscation by
Edward VI it was in 1549 granted to
John Doddington and William Ward;
Pat. 3 Edw. VI, pt. vi. They sold it to
Thomas Fleetwood in 1550, and in 1560
Thomas sold the estate to John Fleetwood of Penwortham; D.in Preston Chron.
12 Oct. 1861. Thomas Fleetwood is
here called 'of Hesketh'; he was the
brother of John, who died in possession
in 1590; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xv,
||See the account of the religious
houses. Part of the building was granted
to William Breres of Preston and Oliver
Breres of Chorleytn 1539–40, and Oliver
was in possession in 1545; L. and P.
Hen. VIII, xv, p. 564; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec.
Com.), i, 178. In 1540 the whole site
was granted to Thomas Holcroft; Pat. 32
Hen. VIII, fol. iv. The building was
used as a house of correction from about
1640 to 1789; Hewitson, Preston,
||The Hospitallers' lands in Preston
were in 1544–5 given to Richard Crombleholme; Pat. 36 Hen. VIII, pt. xvii.
||Lytham charters at Durham, 3 a,
2 ae, 4 ae Ebor. no. 1–5. These are grants
of rents by the heirs of Richard son of
Roger of Woodplumpton.
||The tenement seems to have been
known as Tinkler House, and a rent of
2s. was derived from it; Duchy of Lanc.
Rentals bdle. 4, no. 7, 8; Mins. Accts.
bdle. 136, no. 2198.
||Richard de Derbyshire gave land in
Jugeler Ridding and in Woodholm (formerly
Robert son of Stephen's) to Stanlaw
Abbey; Whalley Couch. (Chet. Soc.), ii,
||Richard Rufus (? Russel) gave half of
a toft in Fishergate to Sawley; Harl. MS.
112, fol. 74. This as a burgage was
afterwards demised by the abbey to Hugh
le Sposage, at a rent of 12d. to the abbot,
12d. to the king (as chief lord) according
to the use and custom of the vill, and 8d.
to the heir of Hugh Fitton. By Adam
son of Hugh le Sposage it was granted to
Roger son of Adam son of Suard, by
whom it was surrendered to the abbey;
Russel was an early surname in
Preston; De Banco R. 195, m. 331;
248, m. 44.
Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), i,
216–25; iv, 1262–3. The lands seem
for the most part to have been acquired
by Master William de Kirkham and
handed over to the canons. The charters
contain a number of details as to the
people and place-names. The latter include Sicling Moor, Oldfield, Platfordale,
Sewall Syke, Woodholme, Whitacre,
Dustesahe Field and Gildhouse.
Roger son of Robert Woodward in
1326 granted Thomas Banastre and Joan
his wife land held of the Abbot of
Cockersand and having a kiln-house upon
it; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1114.
Alice daughter of Adam de Rufford and
widow of Simon released to the canons
her claim in Thimsacre; Towneley MS.
DD, no. 10.
In 1281 Amy widow of Robert son of
Cecily claimed dower in two messuages,
4 acres of land and a burgage in Preston
against the Abbot of Cockersand, Adam
de Bury and William son of Adam Albin;
De Banco R. 42, m. 15.
||Assize R. 408, m. 8. The plaintiff
was Walter son of Jordan de Kirkham,
brother of Master William de Kirkham,
son of Richard. The abbot alleged
bastardy, but an agreement was come to,
and Walter released all his claim in the
||Of the Crown, mostly in free
Isabel widow of John Talbot, 1432;
and John Talbot of Salesbury, 1449;
Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 41, 55.
Alexander Hoghton of Hoghton, 1489;
Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 66. A
similar statement is made in the later inquisitions in the case of this and other
John Singleton of Broughton, 1521;
ibid. v, no. 45.
Sir Thomas Boteler of Warrington,
1522; ibid. v, no. 13.
Lawrence Starkie, 1532; ibid. ix,
no. 21. One of his daughters married
Humphry Newton; see note 134.
James Anderton of Euxton, 1552, in
socage; ibid, ix, no. 14.
James Forshaw of Penwortham, 1563;
ibid. xi, no. 41.
Sir Richard Molyneux of Sefton, 1569;
ibid, xiii, no. 35.
George Hesketh of Poulton, 1571;
ibid. xiii, no. 15.
Richard Greenacres of Worston, 1578;
ibid. xiv, no. 16.
Richard Chisnall [see Chisnall], 1587,
3 acres; ibid, xiv, no. 39.
John Grimshaw of Clayton, 1587;
ibid. xiv, no. 53.
Thomas Standish of Duxbury, 1599;
ibid. xvii, no. 54.
Of the Corporation, i.e. the mayor,
bailiffs and burgesses:
John Skillicorne, 1478, four burgageg,
by a rent of 2s.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet.
Soc.), ii, 105.
William Farington of Leyland, 1501;
Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 67.
Richard Taylor (see Bretherton and
Longton), 1596; ibid. xvii, no. 25.
Another of the name died in 1631, leaving
a son Henry, aged sixteen; ibid, xxvii,
Robert Hankinson (see Newton with
Scales), 1604; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.
Lancs, and Ches.), i, 135; ii, 123.
John Stopford of Ulnes Walton; ibid.
i, 169; ii, 72.
George Rogerson, 1620, the Water
Willows, &c.; ibid. ii, 189.
Thomas Shireburne of Heysham,
1635–6; Towneley MS. C 8 13 (Chet.
William Critchlow of Lea, 1637–8;
Edward Lussell of Osbaldeston, 1637;
Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxx, no. 78.
Robert Singleton of Broughton, 1501;
of St. John of Jerusalem by a rent of 3d.;
ibid. iii, no. 63.
Robert Singleton of Brockholes, 1525;
of the heir of Adam de Brockholes, by
three grains of pepper; ibid. vi, no. 64.
William Moore of Bank Hall, 1602;
of Sir Richard Hoghton; Lancs. Inq. p.m.
(Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 13.
The unrecorded tenures include those
of Balderston of Balderston, Clifton of
Westby, Harrington of Westleigh, Hesketh
of Rufford, Langton of Walton, Leyland
of Morleys, and Travers of Nateby.
Of the above it may be noticed that
the Moores retained their Preston estate
till 1691; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F.
bdle. 226, m. 22.
The Feet of Fines give some particulars
of other families. For instance, in the
16th cent., Park, bdle. 12, m. 63, 144,
290; Newsham, bdle. 20, m. 63; Arkwright, bdle. 43, m. 200; Forshaw, bdle.
49, m. 77; 57, m. 160; Haighton, bdle.
58, m. 173.
The following persons were recorded
as freeholders in Preston in 1600: Henry
Ascroft, Thomas Banastre, Richard
Blundell, Richard Cuerdall; Henry, James,
Richard and William Hodgkinson; Edmund Lemon,—Preston, George Sollom,
Anthony and Thomas Wall, James and
—Walton; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and
Ches.), i, 233.
||Kuerden's collections, especially
iv (P) and the folio volume (C, D), contain much relating to the local families.
Numerous Hoghton deeds are in Add.
The Guild Rolls also are valuable for
their pedigrees. For the earlier generations some assistance may be derived from
the witnesses to charters; e.g. about
1260 there appear Adam brother of
Suard de Preston, Roger and William
his sons; Add. MS. 32106, no. 451.
||The following references to the
Plea Rolls, &c., will show that different
families used this surname.
A Gamel son of Gamel was admitted
to the freedom of Preston by a charter of
King John in 1199, confirming one
granted when John was Count of Mortain; Cal. Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 26.
In 1246 it was recorded that two burgages and 4 acres of land had escheated
to the king. Adam son of Suard held
them at half a mark rent; Assize R. 404,
m. 19 d. Robert son of Stephen de
Preston unsuccessfully claimed a messuage and 3 acres against various persons;
ibid. m. 4.
A Henry son of Baldwin de Preston
did fealty on succeeding in 1254;
Excerpta e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), ii, 187.
See also Rot. Lit. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i,
430; Cal. Close, 1279–88, p. 265.
Roger son of Adam de Preston in 1262
acquired a toft, at 1d. rent, from John de
Balderston and Alice his wife; Final
Conc. i, 135.
In 1277 Maud widow of Roger son of
Roger de Preston claimed dower in
Preston against Robert son of Adam,
Roger son of Belota, Paulin de Preston,
and others; De Banco R. 19, m. 14 d.
Two years later Alice widow of Master
William de Preston claimed a messuage,
&c, against William son of Master
William, and land against Nicholas son
of Roger de Preston and Alice his wife;
ibid. 29, m. 17; 31, m. 9.
Agnes widow of Adam de Hoghton in
1290 claimed dower in houses, bakehouse, &c., in Preston against Alice
widow of Roger son of Adam de Preston;
ibid. 83, m. 127 d.
In 1291 Geoffrey son of Roger son of
Adam de Preston and Ellen his wife unsuccessfully claimed a messuage and 3 acres
of land in Preston against Maud de
Brockholes, William de Slyne and Eva
his wife. It appeared that Ellen was
daughter of Adam de Brockholes and Eva
daughter of Adam de Preston (who had
enfeoffed her fourteen years before).
Geoffrey's father Roger is also called 'son
of Avice'; Assize R. 1294, m. 8 d.;
1299, m. 16. The same Geoffrey and
Ellen sued William the Carpenter of
Preston and Eva his wife; Assize R. 407,
m. 4; 1294, m. 9. In this claim Eva
daughter of Adam the Clerk of Brockholes
was found to have been born out of wedlock; she had an elder brother William;
Assize R. 408, m. 7, 9, 38 d.
The following belong to the year 1292:
Robert de Ribbleton and Cecily his wife
claimed the fourth part of a messuage and
toft against Roger son of Anot de Preston
and Ellen his wife; it was proved that
Ellen was in seisin before she married
Roger; Assize R. 408, m. 3, 44 d. Roger
son of Avice de Preston was defendant in
another plea; ibid. m. 36 d.
Robert son of Adam de Preston complained of a trespass by William the Tailor
of Preston; ibid. m. 3, 17 d. William
the Tailor was non-suited in a claim for
debt against Hugh and Robert sons of
Adam son of Philip de Preston; ibid,
m. 32. Robert son of Adam son of Siward
held the moiety of a messuage claimed by
Agnes wife of William de la Launde, on
the ground that her mother Maud (sister
of Alice daughter of Ivette) had held it;
ibid. m. 34. Robert son of Adam defended his title to land in Preston against
Henry le Pestur and Christiana his wife;
ibid. m. 32. Robert son of Adam son of
Philip also defended his title against
Richard son of Henry del Wra; ibid. m.
44 d. Robert son of Adam de Preston
was charged with trespass by Alan son of
Master Thomas de Lancaster and others;
ibid. m. 103. Robert de Preston was
defendant to a claim by Cecily widow of
Jordan de Claughton; ibid. m. 54 d.
Robert son of Adam de Preston defended
his claim to certain land (claimed by
Nicholas de Burnhull) by saying that he
had received it from Alan de Catherton;
ibid. m. 49.
Christiana widow of Henry Mirreson
de Preston cliimed dower in various
tenements against Robert son of Adam
de Preston and Alice widow of Adam,
against Adam son of Richard de Preston
and against Paulin de Preston; ibid. m.
49 d. She also claimed against William
son of Roger, when Robert son of Roger
de Preston warranted William and by
leave rendeied dower to the claimant;
ibid. m. 61. William son of Roger de
Preston claimed a debt from William son
of William; ibid. m. 102. William son
of Roger son of Adam de Preston demised
land to Richard the Teinturer, who
refused to pay the balance of the amount
he promised and was ejected; ibid. m. 54.
Robert son of Roger son of Adam de
Preston was, together with Alice me
widow of Roger, defendant as to a claim
by William the Lister; ibid. m. 58.
Hugh son of Wimark de Preston and
Margery his wife claimed small plots of
land against William son of Roger Fitz
Award de Preston and Robert son of
Adam son of Ralph the Barker of Preston; ibid. m. 7. Albred another son of
Adam son of Ralph was defendant; ibid.
m. 43. Hugh son of Hugh de Preston
defended his title against William son of
Pain de Preston; ibid. m. 44 d. William
son of Hugh de Preston had demised a
messuage and lands to Roger son of
Adam de Preston in consideration of
maintenance, but on this failing he
claimed damages against Alice the widow
of Roger and others, and was allowed 72s.;
ibid. m. 99.
The same Alice was defendant to a
claim for money owing put forward by
Paulin de Preston, and Amota widow of
Richard son of Richard son of Malbe de
Preston; ibid. m. 103. Adam and
William sons of Paulin de Preston had a
dispute about a charter; ibid. m. 37 d.
Alice daughter of William son of Ralph
de Preston claimed a tenement against
Alice daughter of Alexander de Preston;
ibid. m. 24. Another Alice daughter of
Ketel de Preston and wife of Simon son
of Amabil de Ribbleton claimed land;
Roger son of Richard le Pestur of
Preston (alias Richard de Preston)
claimed parcels of land against Robert
the Tailor, Richard son of Uctred de
Preston and Avice his wife, Richard de
Aldware and Robert son of Roger de
Preston; ibid. m. 41. In another claim
the same plaintiff showed the following
pedigree: Award de Preston –s. Roger
-s. Richard -s. Roger (plaintiff). Award
had given a messuage to Henry de Penwortham and Christiana his wife and
they had died without issue; ibid. m.
Adam son of Agnes de Preston, Amery
his vrife, Robert son of Beatrice and Alice
his wife claimed a strip of land (100 ft.
by 1 ft.) against William son of Roger de
Preston; ibid. m. 52 d. Ellen widow of
Adam son of Philip de Preston claimed
against Roger son of Adam Russel of
Preston and Maud his wife, but was
non-suited; ibid. m. 54 d. Maud daughter
of Fulk de Preston was a plaintiff; ibid,
m. 91 d. Cecily daughter of Hugh
Asellison claimed a tenement against
Geoffrey son of Roger de Preston; ibid.
In 1301 Robert son of Adam son of
Philip de Preston was sued for dower by
Amery widow of William Aldeware; De
Banco R. 136, m. 46. William son of
Roger Mirreson had a dispute in 1305
with Henry son of Robert Attownsend
of Preston; Assize R. 420, m. 8.
Pleadings of 1308–14 show us Albric
and Avice children of Adam son of Ralph
de Preston contending with Ralph son
of Henry son of Ralph; Assize R. 423,
m. 5 d.; 424, m. 5. Adam son of Robert
de Preston gave a release to John son
of Robert son of Adam de Preston respecting six messuages and various lands;
Alberic the brother of John and Nicholas
ton of William de Preston are named;
ibid. m. 2 d. Robert son of William son
of Roger de Preston and William son of
Nicholas de Preston were defendants in
other pleas; ibid. m. 1 d., 9. Christiana
widow of William son of Roger de Preston
and Robert son of Roger son of Adam
de Preston were concerned in suits of
1324–5; Assize R. 426, m. 9.
Other references might be added, but
the above will show how generally the
surname was used. In the following
cases somewhat fuller details than usual
were alleged: In 1323–4 William de
Wigan claimed against Albred son of
Ralph de Preston and Henry son of
Robert Adcockson certain land which
had been given by Benedict the Clerk to
William son of Adam de Preston in free
marriage with Cecily his daughter, and
which should descend to plaintiff as son
and heir of William son and heir of
Cecily; De Banco R. 252, m. 114 d.
The Prior of Burscough claimed against
Robert son of John de Preston a tenement granted by Nicholas the Prior
(temp. Henry III) to Robert son of
Adam de Preston by a rent of 18d.;
ibid. 340, m. 430 d. Richard son of
Adam son of Margery de Preston claimed
an acre against Albred son of Robert son
of Adam de Preston in 1346; ibid.
345, m. 152 d.
In 1352 Alice daughter of John (who
married Margaret) son of Albred son of
Adam son of Ralph de Preston claimed
two messuages, 24 acres, &c., against
Adam Skillington and Alice his wife (in
her right), Geoffrey de Hacconsall and
John son of John son of Albred son of
Adam son of Ralph de Preston (who was
to inherit after the death of Alice
Skillington); Duchy of Lanc. Assize
R. 2, m. 3 d. (Pent.), Margery daughter
and heir of Adam son of William Mirreson claimed against Thomas son of
William Mirreson; ibid. m. 1 d. (July).
John son of Geoffrey son of Robert son
of Cecily de Preston did not prosecute a
claim put forward in 1355 against Roger
son of Adam son of Margery de Preston;
ibid. 4, m. 5 d.
John Preston of Preston had a pardon
in 1391; Cal. Pat. 1388–92, p. 369.
George Preston, drover, died in 1602
holding of the corporation in free burgage;
Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and
Ches.), i, 103 (will recited).
||Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 237;
there is a somewhat fuller one in Fishwick, op. cit. 222–3. This is perhaps
the family referred to by Kuerden about
1690 in his notice of the former Molyneux Square to the north-east of the
market-place: (Most of which belongs
to that worthy person and purchaser of
the Townend, the ancient estate formerly
belonging to the family of Prestons, but
now in possession of Mr. Rigby, Paternoster Row in London'; Hardwick,
Preston, 210. Townend stood near the
present St. Peter's Church; ibid. 211.
Henry son of Robert Attownend has been
already named in 1305.
Henry Preston, who died in 1549,
married Isabel Argham, widow, and had
for heir a son apparently posthumous.
His principal house was held of the
Hospitallers by a rent of 10d., but he
held other lands of the heir of Nicholas
Skillicorn (by 18d. rent), William Stanley
(14d.) and the borough of the vill of
Preston (4d.); Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m.
ix, no. 19; x, no. 10. Henry the son,
whose will is recited, died in 1599 holding his father's lands, with the addition
of Arom's house and lands lately acquired
of William Arom, deceased, held of the
mayor and burgesses. William, his son
and heir, was seventeen years old; ibid.
xviii, no. 45. William died in 1640
holding the same estate and leaving as
heir a son Henry, aged thirty-five; ibid.
xxix, no. 8. The pedigree states that
Henry died about 1654, leaving a son
William, aged eighteen in 1664. Henry
was a Royalist, and his estate was
sequestered by the Parliament; Cal. Com.
for Comp. iv, 2822. The arms of Preston
of Preston have the chief gules in
Dugdale's visitation, but its tincture is
sable in the visitation of 1613.
||An earlier barony of Preston is
said to have been conferred upon the
family, 1360–90. See G.E.C. Complete
Peerage, iv, 55. The arms of Preston
Viscount Gormanston are Or on a chief
sable three crescents of the field.
||An outline of the family deeds, as
extant about 1480, is printed in Hist.
MSS. Com. Rep. iv, 574, &c. It is not
possible to compile a clear descent therefrom. The Preston deeds mostly range
from about 1290 to 1350, and refer, it
appears, to two families chiefly, one derived from an Award de Preston -s.
Roger (the Tailor) -s. Robert (the Tailor)
-s. Henry -bro. Roger; and the other
from an Adam de Preston -s. William
-s. Robert. Thus Roger son of Robert
the Tailor of Preston made a grant of
land to William de Preston, burgess
of Drogheda. This family are often
erroneously described as 'lords of Preston'; they were merely burgesses, as
appears from their charters and the Guild
Rolls. In 1397 Christopher son of
Robert de Preston—perhaps there were
two of the name—was admitted as a
burgess, and Christopher and Robert his
son in 1415; Preston Guild R. 2, 5, 7.
The following local names occur in the
deeds: Fishwickgate, Fishergate, Avenhamends, Broadlache, Broughton Bridge
(1312), Gerelriding, Ingolriding, Quintacre, Pepperfield, Newfield under Fulwood,
Platfordale, Moorplat, the Friars' Garden,
Swaghwell Syke near the Magdalene's
In 1458 Thomas Nelson acquired lands
in Longton and Preston from Robert
Preston of Drogheda, and four years later
Matthew Bolton and Margaret his wife
purchased all or part from Thomas Nelson
and Agnes his wife; Final Conc. iii, 121,
Isabel widow of James Harrington of
Wolfage in 1518 held lands of the heir
of William de Preston in burgage; Duchy
of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 2.
Ewan Browne of Ribbleton in 1544
held two burgages in Preston of Lord
Gormanston by a rent of 12d., and George
Browne likewise in 1567; but James
Browne in 1586 held of the mayor, &c.,
in socage and by suit of court; ibid. vii,
no. 24; xi, no. 4; xiv, no. 42.
Thomas Skinner in 1577 purchased
Christopher Lord Gormanston's estate in
Preston and district; Pal. of Lanc. Feet
of F. bdle. 39, m. 97. Later deeds regarding Skinner's estate were enrolled
in the Common Pleas, Trin. 1599, rot.
15; Mich. 1599, rot. 27; Trin. 1600,
||Thomas son of Thomas Banastre
claimed 3 acres in Preston in 1292
against Simon the Clerk and Margery his
wife, and it was found that one Richard
Banastre had disseised Thomas Banastre
the father; Assize R. 408, m. 56. Richard
Banastre then was defendant in another
plea; ibid. m. 101. Also later, in 1306;
De Banco R. 158, m. 115 d. For others
of the family, ibid. 152, m. 215 d.
Nicholas and Hugh sons of Paulin de
Preston claimed land by inheritance in
1305 against Richard Banastre of Preston, Henry de Kirkstile and others;
Assize R. 420, m. 8. Henry son of
Richard Banastre of Preston is named in
1313; Cal. Pat. 1313–17, p. 53.
Ellen widow of William de Southworth
in 1323–4 claimed 20 acres against
Henry Banastre of Preston; De Banco R.
251, m. 117d. Amery widow of Roger
at Kirkstile claimed dower against Henry
Banastre of Walton and others in 1334;
ibid. 300, m. 109 d.
The Banastres of Bretherton had land,
&c., in Preston; it descended like Balderston, but the tenure is nowhere stated;
Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 16, &c.
In 1465 Richard Banastre of Preston
the younger received from the mayor,
&c, land on Siding Moor between the
new intake of John Breton and Bromefield Bank (that had been Henry Banastre's); Kuerden MSS. iv, P 12.
William Banastre and Grace his wife
were defendants in 1494–5; Pal. of
Lanc. Plea R. 79, m. 9d. Lawrence
Banastre of Walton died in 1558 holding
a capital messuage in Preston of the mayor
and burgesses in free burgage; Duchy of
Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 58. Richard
Banastre appears as vendor in 1548 and
later; he and his wife Isabel in 1570 and
1572 made settlements of messuages and
lands in Preston and Walton; Pal. of
Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 124; 27,
m. 148 (water-mill); 32, m. 73; 34,
Among several Banastres at the guilds
of 1562 and 1582 were Richard Banastre
of Peel Hall, with sons Thomas, Lawrence and George; Preston Guild R. 20, 32.
See also the Maudlands deeds in Piccope
MSS. (Chet. Lib.), iii, 330–4. Peel Hall
seems to have been near Deepdale Road
||Collections of the deeds of this
family are in Harl. MS. 2112, fol.
96b/137b; 2042, fol. 171. They show
that the estates in Preston and neighbouring townships had been acquired from
William son of Adam the White gave
lands to Cockersand Abbey about 1240;
Cockersand Chartul. i, 216. 'White'
may be Blundell. Richard Blundell and
Joan his wife had two burgages in Preston in 1367; Harl. MS. 2112, fol.
101b/142b. Two years later William son
of Richard Blundell had lands in Cuerden;
ibid. 100b/141b. William del Ashes in
1373 complained that Richard Blundell
had been depasturing his land at Preston;
De Banco R. 451, m. 163.
William Rose of Ingol in 1377–8
granted Richard Blundell of Preston land
in Ingol in Ashton formerly belonging to
Robert son of John de Blackburn, and
Richard occurs again the following year;
Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 99b/140b, 101b/142b.
In 1387–8 Richard Blundell and John
his son appear; ibid. fol. 98/139. John
married Agnes daughter of John de
Middleton about that time; Harl. MS.
2042, foL 171. Agnes was a widow in
1420; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 98/139.
Richard son of John Blundell made a
feoffment in 1435–6; ibid. In 1454–5
various lands in Preston, Broughton,
Ingol, Brockholes and Lancaster were
granted by the feoffees to John Blundell
(son of Richard son of John) and to
Agnes widow of John Blundell the grandfather; ibid. fol. 100b/141b. In the
following year John Blundell and Alice
his wife made a settlement; ibid. An
assignment of dower was made to Alice
widow of John Blundell in 1493–4; ibid.
The succession is not quite clear. John
seems to have been succeeded by brothers
William and Richard; ibid. In 1511
Alice wife of John Blundell was bound
to stand an award in matters disputed
between her and Richard the brother of
John Blundell; ibid. fol. 98/139. John
Hogson and Elizabeth his wife (daughter
and heir of Richard Blundell) in 1524
gave lands in Preston, Broughton, Haighton, &c., to Agnes Blundell sister of
Elizabeth; ibid. fol. 101b/142b. The
heir male seems to have been Richard
son of Robert Blundell, described as
cousin and heir of William Blundell, who
in 1534 gave lands in Preston to Ellen
Blundell, widow; ibid. fol. 99/140. This
Richard seems to have had a son John,
livingin 1546; ibid. fol. 100/141. Richard
had also a brother Henry, to whom he
became bound in 1543; ibid. fol. 99b/140b.
Richard and Henry his brother were both
burgesses of Preston Guild in 1542, and
the latter seems to have been ancestor of
the later Blundells; Fishwick, Preston,
356. From a fine of 1558 it appears that
Joan daughter of Richard Blundell, deceased, had married Henry Nicholson;
Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 20, m. 73.
The estate was in Preston, Broughton,
Ingol, Brockholes and Lancaster. Henry
Blundell was in possession in 1560; ibid.
bdle. 22, m. 93.
Robert Blundell of Ince died in 1615
holding a messuage in Preston of the
king in socage; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.
Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 28.
||Sir Thurstan de Holland, perhaps
about 1270, granted a burgage in Preston
to Nicholas de Burnhull; Dods. MS. liii,
fol. 88 b. Roger son of Adam and Henry
son of Mirre, then bailiffs, attested, and
the appended seal is curious as showing
three bulls' heads with a chief vair, and
the legend + s: THVRSTANI: DE: HOLAND.
Robert de Burnhull and Beatrice his wife
purchased a messuage in 1352; Final
Conc. ii, 134.
||The name appears at the end of the
14th century among the mayors and clergy
of the parish church. William de Ergham
(Arkholme) was guild mayor in 1397, and
the name, degenerating to Arrom, appears
down to the 17th century. It has been
shown above that Arom House was sold to
the Preston family; it is said to have been
acquired later by the Pattens, who on the
site erected their great mansion, afterwards
the town residence of the Earls of Derby;
Fishwick, op. cit. 75.
William Arram and Anne his wife had
a messuage, &c., in Preston in 1583;
Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 45, m. 28.
||Gilbert de Fishwick held a messuage
and 1½ acres claimed by Roger son of
Baldwin the Kirkman in 1292; Assize
R. 408, m. 39 d. Maud widow of Hugh
de Preston in 1323–4 claimed dower
against John the Marshal and Hugh de
Fishwick; De Banco R. 248, m. 120 d.
Hugh son of Richard Mabbeson of Fishwick was defendant in 1333; ibid. 294,
m. 186 d. William son of Roger de Fishwick of Preston was defendant in 1346–7;
ibid. 347, m. 158 d.; 352, m. 338 d.
There was a dispute in 1360 concerning
seven messuages, &c., between William
son of William son of Richard de Ribbleton
and others plaintiffs, and John de Fishwick
and Christiana his wife defendants; Duchy
of Lanc. Assize R. 8, m. 11.
In 1420 Thomas son of Nicholas Fishwick acquired a messuage from John
Tyrell; Final Conc. iii, 78.
||Geoffrey de Hacconsall and Margery
his wife were among the defendants to a
claim for dower brought in 1339 by Margery widow of Henry son of Robert de
Preston; De Banco R. 279, m. 192 d.
Geoffrey in 1340 obtained land in Woodholme from Albred son of Adam son of
Ralph de Preston; Duchy of Lanc. Assize
R. 2, m. iii d. William the son and Margery the widow of Geoffrey were defendants in 1356, when Simon de Preston
claimed certain land; ibid. 5, m. 26.
This Simon was son of John son of
Robert son of Adam de Preston, and
brother and heir of Robert son and
heir of John; Assize R. 435, m. 9. A
claim made by Thomas son of Nicholas
Deuias son of Agnes daughter of William
the Smith shows that this William and
Alice his wife had made a grant to William
son of Geoffrey de Hacconsall. Nicholas
Deuias had died at Calais, leaving Thomas
his son under age in 1353; ibid, m. 22.
William the Smith was living in 1338;
Kuerden fol. MS. fol. 396.
John the grandson of Geoffrey was outlawed and hanged for felony at Berwick,
and in 1406 his heir was found to be his
brother Roger. A pedigree is given, but
the tenure of the burgages, &c., is not
recorded; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet Soc.), i,
81–3. In 1411a charter was enrolled by
which Robert Hacconsall gave William
Dutton a house in Fishergate and a rood
of land annexed to the same and 3 acres
in the moor near the highway to Ribbleton; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 10.
||Richard the Marshal of Preston
complained in 1292 that William son of
Paulin de Preston had detained his wife
Milla in prison for a week; Assize R.
408, m. 20. William the Marshal was a
defendant in 1302; De Banco R. 144,
m. 319. Alan the Marshal occurs in
1329; ibid. 279, m. 192 d. John the
Marshal in 1330 received a messuage
from William son of Adam de Tyrel of
Preston; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 224.
Alexander the Marshal in 1347 obtained
a messuage, &c., from William son of
John de Ashton and Alice his wife;
Final Conc. ii, 124. In 1352 Cecily
widow of Alexander son of William the
Marshal acquired the fourth part of
certain messuages owned by Roger Starkie
and Maud his wife; ibid. 134.
John the Marshal and Alice his wife in
1376 obtained 2 acres from John Hunt
and Agnes his wife; ibid. 191. It is
possible that Alice was the widow of
Roger de Birewath, about whose lands
inquiry was made in 1394–5, when it
was found that Roger had died without
heir and that his widow had married John
le Marshal; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.),
i, 56; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 527.
Roger was living in 1372; Kuerden MSS.
ii, fol. 224.
James Marshall was a burgess in
1459; Preston Guild R. 11. In 1483 he
held lands in Preston in conjunction with
Grace his wife; the tenure is not stated;
Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 119–20.
From a fine of 1526 it appears that
George Henryson married Grace daughter
of Lawrence Marshall; Pal. of Lanc.
Feet of F. bdle. 11, m. 168.
||Roger de Leyland and Maud his
wife in 1307 claimed an acre against
Richard son of Adam Russel; De Banco
R. 162, m. 198. John son of Thomas
de Leyland was plaintiff in 1344 against
John de Leyland of Preston and others;
Assize R. 1435, m. 43d. Margaret
widow of John de Leyland and Cecily his
daughter and heir, who had married
Henry son of John de Coppull, appear in
1358; Assize R. 438, m. 13 d. Another
John Leyland and Cecily his wife occur
in 1387 and 1422; Final Conc. iii, 30, 81.
||Ibid. ii, 135, 148. This estate
seems to have been afterwards held by
Lord Mounteagle; Duchy of Lanc. Inq.
p.m. v, no. 64. In 1560, however, his
Preston lands were held as part of the
lordship of Hornby; ibid, xi, no. 1.
||William Pelle son of Adam in 1303
claimed a messuage and 1¼ acres against
Ismania Pelle, who had entry by Richard
Pelle, to whom Adam had demised when
(so it was alleged) he was of unsound
mind; De Banco R. 148, m. 43; Assize
R. 420, m. 5.
||A Thomas Wall occurs in the guild
of 1415; Preston Guild R. 7. The
family did not attain any prominence till
the first half of the 16th century, when
two brothers Lawrence and Evan Wall
acquired estates; Add. MS. 32109, fol.
119. Fines of 1556 and later refer to
their possessions; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F.
bdle. 17, m. 126; 25, m. 183, &c. At
the guild of 1562 Thomas Wall was
mayor, Evan his brother was a seneschal
and Lawrence clerk of the guild, while
Anthony son of William (apparently
deceased) and heir of Evan Wall was
enrolled; Preston Guild R. 20. See a
||In 1319–20 Roger son of Henry son
of Wasce de Cuerdale granted half a burgage to John son of Geoffrey de Walton;
Towneley MS. OO, no. 1096. William
de Walton and Alice his wife made a
settlement in 1386; Final Conc. iii, 27.
John de Walton, a mercer, was living
in the time of Richard II, and acquired
messuages, &c., in Preston and Ashton;
Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 226. He made a
feoffment of his lands in the townships
just named and in Fishwick in 1407;
Harl. MS. 2042, fol. 167b. He occurs
again in the time of Henry V and his
widow Agnes in 1419; Kuerden MS. ii,
fol. 224. Henry Walton of Marsden in
1437–8 released his right in the family
estates to Richard son of John Walton of
Preston; ibid. A little later, in 1444–5,
the feoffees gave lands to John Breton and
Agnes his wife—apparently the widow
above-named—with remainders to
Richard Walton of Preston, &c.; ibid,
Various members of the family or
families occur in the pleadings about this
time; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 8, tn. 13,
31b; 9, m. 10b, 16, 19b. A William
Walton, spicer, and Joan his wife were
living in 1465; Kuerden MSS. iv, P 120,
John Highfield (temp. Edw. IV) made
claims against John the son and Isabel
the widow of Richard Preston and against
John the son and Joan the widow of
William Walton; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R.
23, m. 6.
James son of Richard Walton was a
burgess in 1459; Preston Guild R. 11.
In 1485–6 the feoffees gave to James son
of Richard Walton certain burgages, &c.;
Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 227.
James the son of Richard occurs from
1462 onwards, but was dead in 1499,
when his widow Ellen and son James
are named; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D.
(P.R.O.), L 1059 (the collection contains
other Walton family deeds).
From pleadings of 1528–32 the latter
James appears to have had two sons
Richard and Thomas, the latter settling
at Bermondsey, while Richard was succeeded by his son James, called 'the
younger,' and his lands were in part the
rectory lands, held on lease from the Dean
and Chapter of the New College of
Leicester by a rent of 13s. 4d.; Duchy
Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii,
The elder and the younger James
Walton were aldermen of the guild of
1542; Preston Guild R. 15. In 1544
James Walton the elder purchased two
messuages or burgages, &c., from John
Stodagh; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle.
12, m. 132.
In 1558 Richard son and heir of James
Walton—'the younger' according to the
Guild Roll—gave lands in Preston and
Fishwick to George Walton his brother;
Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 227. Grace widow
of James Walton and Richard their son
and heir appear in 1564; ibid.
Richard Walton died in 1569 holding
certain burgages and a horse-mill of the
queen in socage as of her manor of East
Greenwich; other burgages and lands, &c.,
in. Preston, Fishwick and Ashton of the
queen by a rent of 7s. James, the son
and heir, was only four months old;
Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 26.
James Walton died in 1598 holding the
same estate, and leaving a son Richard
ten years old; ibid, xvii, no. 66. Richard
Walton was an alderman of the guild of
1622, and his sons James and William
were then enrolled; Preston Guild R.
James Walton died in 1635 holding
the estate described; his son and heir
Richard was only two years old; Duchy
of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvii, no. 34. Richard
died the same year, leaving an infant
sister Anne as heir; ibid, xxviii, no. 63.
Anne afterwards married Edward French.
Besides this main line there were other
branches of the family well known in
||Fishwick, op. cit. 274–6.
James Werden, mercer, died in 1607
holding burgages, &c., in Fishergate, Hepgreave, Cawsey Meadow and Great
Avenham of the king in free burgage by
2d. rent; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.
Lancs, and Ches.), i, 97. He left a son
and heir Edmund, aged twelve. His will
is recited in the inquisition.
||In 1325–6 William son of Paulin
de Preston claimed land against John son
of Roger del Wich and against John son
of Adam del Wich; De Banco R. 260,
m. 50. John (perhaps the second of
these) in 1328 purchased a messuage in
Preston from Adam Agnesson and Amery
his wife; Final Conc, ii, 70. Adam son
of Adam del Wich appears in 1335 and
1348; Towneley MS. OO, no. 1117;
Kuerden MSS. iii, P 7. A Roger son of
John de Wich was in 1339 pardoned for
the death of William son of Nicholas de
Preston. He had broken out of prison at
Lancaster and had abjured the realm;
Cal. Pat. 1338–40, p. 337. John del
Wich was a bailiff of Preston in 1347,
and Roger del Wich was mayor in 1366;
OO, no. 1105, 1116.
Alice widow of John del Wich recovered a messuage, mill, &c., in July
1351 against Roger son of Roger de
Birewath; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 1,
m. 4. At the same time Roger del Wich
and Ellen daughter of Adam del Wich
were defendants in a Mirreson suit; ibid.
The messuage of Roger del Wich escheated
to the duke for felony, and in 1359 was
regranted to Roger and his heirs at a rent
of 2s.; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 340.
||Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 49.
Anthony Wall, the grandson and heir of
Evan (already named), terminates the
descent. He acquired Chingle Hall in
Whittingham by his mother, Ann Singleton. He died in 1601 holding nine
messuages, a windmill and lands in
Preston (tenure not stated), and lands in
Whittingham and Haighton; Duchy of
Lanc. Inq. p.m. xviii, no. 6. William
his son and heir, then aged eight, died at
Whittingham in 1626, leaving a son
William, eight years of age; ibid, xxvi,
||Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 323.
Their arms are Argent a bend gules
between three boars' heads couped sable
armed argent. For the later descents
see Fishwick, Preston, 241.
In 1664 the Walls of Moor Hall also
recorded a pedigree; Dugdale, op. cit. 324.
They were descended from the abovementioned Lawrence, brother of Evan
Wall. Further descents may be seen in
Fishwick, op. cit. 243–4.
||Dugdale, Visit. 25. Their arms
were entered as Argent a pair of waterbougets sable, on a chief of the field three
fleurs de lis of the second. One of the
later members of the family is supposed
to be the 'brave Banastre,' innkeeper,
who entertained 'Drunken Barnaby';
Fishwick, op. cit. 350.
||Dugdale, op. cit. 40. Blundell of
Preston differenced the arms of Blundell
of Ince by changing their canton into
argent with a squirrel sejant gules.
Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 93, 95. See
also Fishwick, op. cit. 323–7.
||Oliver Breres purchased a messuage
and land in Preston in 1544 from
Humphrey Newton and Etheldreda his
wife, and made a further purchase in
1564 in conjunction with Elizabeth his
wife, from Richard Greenacres; Pal. of
Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 135; 26,
m. 58. Oliver Breres and John his son
and heir were at the guild of 1562;
Preston Guild R. 20.
Oliver died in 1572, leaving as heir his
above-named son John, then twenty-seven
years of age, and husband of Elizabeth
daughter of William Lister. The site of
the Grey Friars, the church, belfry, cemetery, &c., was held of the queen by
knight's service; a kiln house, horsemill, windmill, &c., were held of the
mayor and burgesses by free burgage;
there were also lands in Bowland; Duchy
of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 13. Oliver's
widow Cecily was living in 1592; Exchequer Dep. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and
In 1608–9 Oliver Breres of Hamerton,
Mary his wife, Thomas his brother and
Bridget his wife conveyed toRogerLangton
of Preston a burgage in the market-place
with 1½ acres appurtenant, the house of
the Friars Minors or Grey Friars and
lands therewith, with right of turbary in
Penwortham Moss, and a windmill in
Preston; Piccope MSS. (Chet. Lib.),
xiv, 73. From other deeds (p. 74) it
appears that the burgage referred to was
the Castle Inn. For the Langton family
see the account of Broughton.
||Dugdale, Visit. 12; they were a
branch of the Ashtons of Croston, whose
arms, Argent a cheveron between three
chaplets gules, they differenced with a
||Ibid. 82; see also Fishwick, op. cit.
329. They bore the arms of Chorley of
||Dugdale, Visit. 112. The family
was descended from Matthew French,
rector of North Meols, whose son Edward,
as already stated, married Anne daughter
and heir of James Walton of Preston.
No arms were exemplified.
||Dugdale, Visit. 137; a branch of
the family of Whitehill in Goosnargh.
They differenced the arms of Hesketh of
Rufford with a canton argent.
||Ibid. 142. They bore arma Or a
cross quarter-pierced and five cinquefoils vert. An account of the family,
with pedigree and abstracts of deeds, appeared in the Pal. Note Bk. iv, 163, 188,
221. Among other local names appear
the Rushy heys, the Knoll heys (between
a venella called Ribbleton Lanc on the
south and a road called Daykergate on the
west), Rawmoors and Farthing Hill.
Luke Hodgkinson, who had adhered
'to the forces raised against the Parliament in the first war,' compounded for
his 'delinquency' in 1649. He had a
horse-mill and some land in Preston;
Royalist Comp. P. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and
Ches.), iii, 231.
Two of the name, Luke and Henry
Hodgkinson, were attainted for taking
part in the rebellion of 1715; Fishwick,
op. cit. 66; Preston Guild R. 169. For a
Lancashire Jesuit named Charles Hodgkinson, 1700–70, see Foley, Rec. S. J.
||Dugdale, Visit. 164; they came
from Welch Whittle and bore arms
Argent a lion passant gules, on a chief or
three acorns vert.
||Ibid. 167; see the account of
||Ibid. 178. Their arms were Argent
an eagle double-headed displayed vert.
||A branch of the family of Legh of
Lyme, whose arms, Gules a cross engrailed argent, they differenced with a
canton or; ibid. 182.
||Ibid. 184; a Walton-le-Dale family.
A continuation of the pedigree may be
seen in Fishwick, op. cit. 234. There is
also printed the inventory of the goods of
Edmund Lemon, 1609, showing the shop
fixtures and household stuff of a prosperous
townsman; ibid. 226–30. By William
Lemon's will the estates went in 1724 to
his kinsman John Winckley; ibid. 232.
No arms were exemplified in 1664.
||Dugdale, Visit. 212, where no
arms are given. Adam Mort, mayor,
killed when Preston was captured by
the Parliamentarians in 1643, has been
mentioned. The family occurs also in
Leigh and Hulton. What became of the
Preston branch is not dear; Fiihwick,
op. cit. 323.
From the Royalist Comp. P. (iv, 196–8)
it appears that Adam Mort of Preston was
the third son of Adam Mort of Tyldesley
and in 1622 married Elizabeth daughter
of Seth Bushell of Preston. The younger
Adam had two children (Seth and Janet),
who petitioned the Sequestration Commissioners in 1651, Seth's estate having
been 'secured for acts of delinquency
supposed to have been done by him.'
||Dugdale, Visit. 233. Their arms are
Ermine three lozenges conjoined in fesse
sable, quartering Kay and Parkinson.
||Ibid. 259; they traced their ancestry
to 'William Shaw of Shaw Hall in Leyland,' and bore arms Argent a cheveron
ermine and a canton gules. The pedigree is continued to the present date by
Fishwick, op. cit. 341. A junior branch
acquired the manor of Fishwick (q.v.).
||Dugdale, Visit. 334. See further in
the account of Brockholes.
||Thomas Addison, haberdasher, and
his three sons were burgesses in 1582;
Preston Guild R. 44. Thomas Batty Addison was recorder of the borough till his
death in 1874.
||William Patten and his two sons were
members of the guild in 1642; ibid. 101.
||a Tne inheritance passed by an heiress
to the Stanleys of Bickerstaffe and so to
the Earls of Derby; see the account of
Thornley in Chipping.
||Richard and Thomas, sons of Thomas
Pedder, deceased, were burgesses in 1682;
ibid. 173. The Pedders were bankers and
acquired great wealth and many estates in
the neighbourhood, remaining till the bank
stopped payment in 1861.
Abram (Blackburn, 728) gives the descent
thus: Thomas Pedder, d. 1680 -s. Richard,
d. 1726 -s. Richard, d. 1762 -s. Edward,
d. 1818 -s. Edward of Walton-le-Dale,
d. 1835. The last-named had brothers
Thomas and James. James Pedder of
Ashton Lodge died in 1846.
Colonel Charles Denison Pedder served
in the Crimean War; Hewitson, Preston,
||Fishwick, op. cit. 350–3.
||The Walmesleys seem to have inherited the estate of the Walls of Moor
Hall above-mentioned. A fine was made
in 1739–40 concerning thirty-four messuages, lands, &c., in Preston, Fulwood,
Haighton and other places, the deforciants
being Lawrence Wall and Elizabeth his
wife, Nicholas Walmesley, Elizabeth his
wife and Margaret Wall; Pal. of Lanc.
Feet of F. bdle. 322, m. 118. Four years
later the same estate appears to have been
divided between Nicholas Walmesley and
Elizabeth his wife on one side and John
Hardman and Margaret his wife on the
other; ibid. bdle. 330, m. 63. From the
pedigree in Fishwick (op. cit. 244) it
would seem that Elizabeth and Margaret
were daughters and co-heirs of James Wall,
elder brother of the Lawrence named.
||John Cross made a purchase of
lands in 1773; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F.
bdle. 400, m. 150.
Notices of the families of Prichard and
Grimshaw are given in Fishwick, op. cit.
||Some cases have been already named.
The lands of Thomas Shepherd of Preston
were declared forfeit in 1652 and sold;
Index of Royalists (Index Soc.), 44; Cal.
Com. for Comp. iv, 3134. In 1649
Thomas Vavasour compounded for his
'delinquency' in taking arms against the
Parliament 'in both wars'; ibid. iii,
2012. This surname does not occur in
the Guild Rolls. Two-thirds of the estate
of Grace Wilkinson, deceased, had been
sequestered for her recusancy, and a discharge was granted in 1655; ibid, v,
3220. She was perhaps the Grace
Wilkinson named in connexion with land
in Whittingham in 1598; Ducatus Lanc.
(Rec. Com.), iii, 397.
||Richard Jackson and Anne Hodgkinson; Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath.
Non-jurors, 97, 155.
||Hewitson, Preston, 471–5, where
the monuments are described. One of
the incumbents, Robert Harris, B.D.,
formerly Fellow of Sidney Sussex Coll.,
Camb., held it for the long period of
sixty-four years, from 1797 to 1862.
The vicar of Preston is patron.
Descriptions of this and other modern
churches with lists of incumbents will be
found in Fishwick, op. cit. 153, &c.
Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb.
||The site was formerly known as
Patten Field. The money for it was
raised by subscriptions and the sale of
pews. It had at one time the most
influential congregation in the town;
Hewitson, op. cit. 475–6.
A parish was assigned to it in 1844;
Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb. The vicar of Preston
||The original cost was defrayed from
'the million grant.' The spire was added
in 1852. A tombstone in the graveyard
commemorates Richard Turner (1846) as
'author of the word Teetotal, as applied
to abstinence from intoxicating liquors';
Hewitson, op. cit. 478. The parish was
formed in 1844; Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb.
The vicar of Preston it patron.
||This church also was built from the
parliamentary grant; Hewitson, op. cit.
478. The parish was formed in 1844;
Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb. The vicar of Preston
||Hewitson, op. cit. 481. The mission
room in Savoy Street originally belonged
to the Methodists, but was sold by them
in 1880; ibid. The patronage is vested
||The builders styled themselves the
'Primitive Episcopal Church'; they were
unable to pay for it. It was first a
chapel of ease to the parish church, but
consecrated in 1841 for an independent
parish; Hewitson, op. cit. 485–92. The
vicar of Preston presents. The district
was created in 1844; Lond. Gaz. 20 Feb.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 485. The patronage is vested in trustees.
||The cost was defrayed by the Hyndman fund, and Miss Hyndman's trustees
are patrons; ibid. 484.
||The origin of the church is interesting. A number of poor working men
began subscribing for a new church for a
clergyman who, as curate, had endeared
himself to them; it was therefore called
the 'poor man's church'; ibid. 492.
The patronage is vested in trustees.
||Ibid. 493. The parish was formed
in 1860; Lond. Gaz. 3 Aug. Simeon's
Trustees are patrons.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 495–7. The
church occupies the site of the old Baptist
chapel, 1783. After being purchased in
1859 it was used for service till 1866 and
then pulled down for the erection of the
present church, opened in 1868. The
parish was formed in 1869; Lond. Gaz.
16 Apr. The vicar of St. James's presents.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 495. The parish
was formed in 1866; Lond. Gaz. 2 Jan.
The patronage is exercised alternately by
the vicar of Preston and the trustees of
||Hewitson, op. cit. 497. The parish
was formed in 1871; Lond. Gaz. 4 July.
The vicar of Preston presents alternately
with the incumbent of St. Peter's.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 483. The Bishop
of Manchester collates.
||Ibid. 498. The parish was formed
in 1885. The Bishop of Manchester
||Trustees have the patronage at
present, but it will go to the Bishop of
St. Philip's, 1871, and St. Barnabas's,
1872, were school chapels of ease to St.
Thomas's and St. Paul's, but have been
disused for service since St. Jude's was
||It was built by those connected with
St. Philip's chapel of ease, who were dissatisfied with St. Jude's Church.
||The Methodist preachers first visited
Preston about 1777; Hewitson, op. cit.
||Preston was included in Colne
circuit in 1776, in Blackburn in 1787,
and became head of a circuit in 1799.
Wesley visited the town in 1780, 1781,
1784 and 1790; Fishwick, Preston,
||This was afterwards sold and used
as a warehouse; Hewitson, op. cit. 520.
||Ibid. 521; lists of ministers are
||Ibid. 526. In 1868 this church
became the head of a second circuit in
||In St. Mary Street (1865) and
Acregate Lanc. There are also some
||Ibid. 536. In addition to those
named in the text there was an
iron chapel in Fylde Road from 1879
||Ibid. 534–5. The congregation
which first built Orchard Chapel were
known as Protestant Wesleyan Methodists; Hardwick, Preston, 483.
||B. Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. i,
21–47. The author, of whose work great
use has been made in the present history,
has since 1888 been minister of Cannon
||This building was turned into
offices and shops; it was at the western corner of Chapel Street and Fishergate.
||Nightingale, op. cit. i, 48–60. The
first minister, William Manning Walker,
had been, the minister of the Unitarian
congregation. Another notable pastor
was Richard Slate, 1826–61, author of a
Life of Oliver Heywood, &c.
||Nightingale, op. cit. i, 60–66.
||W. Shaw, Fishergate Baptist Ch.
(Preston, 1883). It is an error to regard
these Baptists as belonging to the
Arminian or General denomination.
||Some of the Preston Baptists were
members of this congregation, which
dates back to about 1635.
||The cause appears to have been a
struggling one; it was 'in a low condition' in 1794; Rippon, Reg. 7.
||St. Saviour's Church stands on the
site of it; see above. The (Harris)
Institution was used for service pending
the erection of Fishergate Church.
||The Fishergate congregation was
augmented by a small Scotch Baptist
church formed about 1829. Hardwick
(quoting Baines) calls themSandemanians;
they had a room in Church Street and
from 1845 occupied a small chapel in
||This section acquired a chapel
called St. Mark's, built in 1826 for the
Calvinistic Methodists of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, who had previously met
in Cannon Street; Baines, Lancs. Dir.
1825, ii, 488.
||This and other information as to the
Baptists is due to the Rev. Dr. Whitley,
minister of the Fishergate Church.
||It was built originally for the New
Connexion of Methodists about 1814, but
was in 1819 sold to a 'body of semiEpiscopalians,' and called St. Paul's; the
service followed the form of the Established Church, but the minister was not
ordained; Baines, op. cit. Afterwards
the Wesleyans had it, then the Baptists
||Hardwick (quoting Baines) states
that this congregation sprang up in 1833
and met in Cannon Street.
||Hardwick, Preston, 482.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 537.
||The celebrated Nonconformist, Isaac
Ambrose, formerly vicar, resided in the
town from 1662 till his death in 1664.
There is evidence of other Nonconformists
living and preaching there; Nightingale,
op. cit. i, 9, 68. In 1689 licences for
two Nonconformist meeting-places were
granted; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App.
John Turner, the minister in 1715,
who was 'a Calvinist of the most strict
and rigid form,' actively assisted the
government forces during the Jacobite
occupation of the town, he and his congregation being employed by General
Wills as scouts; Nightingale, op. cit. i,
||Hewitson, op. cit. 515–17. Mr.
Nightingale, however, brings evidence to
show that Unitarianism did not prevail
till about 1770; op. cit. i, 22–3.
||A meeting-place was registered in
1689; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv,
231. The registers begin in 1660 and
the minutes of the Fylde (now Preston)
monthly meeting in 1700; Fishwick, op.
cit. 172. George Fox visited Preston
several times, but it is not recorded that
he preached there.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 517–19.
||Zoar Chapel, named above.
||The Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion and the Methodist New Connexion
have been mentioned. Hardwick (op. cit
483) states that a Primitive Episcopalian
Chapel was built in Gorat Street in 1837
for Mr. Aitkin's New Christian Society.
Nothing is known of this now, and there
may have been some confusion with the
original of St. James's Church.
||Mass appears to have been said at
Cottam, Tulketh, Broughton and Fishwick.
||The story that a chapel existed there
as early as 1605 is not supported by any
definite evidence. It could not have remained in use during the Commonwealth
In 1689, however, we learn that 'the
soldiers unslated the Popish chapel,' so
that one had been opened, perhaps in the
time of James II; Hewitson, Bellingham
The Jesuits served the Preston mission.
'Mr. Gray,' i.e. Gilbert Talbot, afterwards Earl of Shrewsbury, was in charge
in 1701, with a salary of £10; Foley,
Rec. S. J. v, 320. A house at the lower
end of Friargate was used about that time
and is supposed to have been that purchased by Fr. Alexander Leigh in 1733;
it was called Greystocks and St. Mary's
is on the site of it. The first chapel of
the name was built in 1761. 'The
greatest caution was used; the chapel was
built behind the front houses in Friargate
so as to be quite shut out from view.
The mysterious building was carried on in
the name of Mr. Clifton of Lytham, and
passed by the name of the "New Building"'; ibid, v, 395. In 1750 the priest
in charge had a stipend of £40 and 520
'customers'; the numbers of those confirmed and of Easter communicants were
274 and 940 in 1784 and 488 and 1,302
in 1793 5 ibid, v, 321–5.
||Gillow, Bibl. Diet. of Engl. Cath. ii,
146; Foley, op. cit. viii, 719.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 501–2. The
chapel, a small plain building, has been
lined with marble.
||Ibid. 503–6. Joseph Dunn, S.J.
(vere Earpe), was priest in charge from
1776 till his death in 1827, and won a
high position in the town. The House
of Recovery and the gasworks were due
to him; Gillow, op. cit. ii, 143–7.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 507. It was the
first church in Preston which had a spire.
The school for boys was opened in a
building erected as a 'hall of science' by
||Ibid. 508. The dedication was due
to a remarkable cure attributed to the use
of St. Walburge's oil; N. and Q. (Ser. 1),
x, 186. The church stands, it is believed,
on or near the site of the old Hospital of
St. Mary Magdalene.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 508. St. Augustine of Canterbury is the patron; see
Gillow, op. cit. ii, 481–3.
||Hewitson, op. cit. 515. A schoolchapel served from 1862 till 1874.
||Ibid. 513. The 'Martyrs' named
are St. Thomas of Canterbury and St.
Alban. A school-chapel was opened in
1865 and the church in 1867, but this
was not completed till 1888.
||The last-named community occupy
Lark Hill, formerly the residence of
Samuel Horrocks, cotton spinner, M.P.
for Preston 1804–26. The English
Benedictine nuns of Ghent, driven from
their house by the Revolution in 1792,
resided in Chapel Street till 1812, when
they removed to Staffordshire.