Townships
Layton with Warbreck

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

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1912

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247-251

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'Townships: Layton with Warbreck', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 7 (1912), pp. 247-251. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53230 Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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LAYTON WITH WARBRECK

Latun, Dom. Bk.; Laton, 1236; Layton, xvi cent. Warthebreke, 1279.

This township includes Blackpool with its suburb of South Shore; it has an area of 2,359 acres, but was in 1894 extended so as to include the hamlet of Great Marton, (fn. 1) the area of the new township of Blackpool—the name of Layton having been superseded—being 3,601 acres. (fn. 2) The population of Blackpool was 47,348 in 1901. (fn. 3) The surface, though level, rises somewhat towards the east, and on the higher land is placed the village of Layton, just outside Blackpool. Little Layton is about a mile to the north of it with Warbreck to the west. Whinney Heys is on the extreme eastern border. Layton Hawes was at the south end of the township; horse races used to be held there yearly. (fn. 4)

Roads spread out in all directions from the centre of the Blackpool shore line. There are three approaches to the town by railway: the old line, a branch from the Preston and Fleetwood railway turning off at Poulton with a terminus at Talbot Road, near the North Pier; a second line, coming from the south through Lytham, with a station at South Shore and a terminus near the Tower; and a more direct line from Kirkham, having the same terminus, but a separate station at South Shore. Electric tramways run north to Fleetwood and south to St. Anne's and Lytham.

In 1837 the market house and market field were still known, though the chartered market and fair had long ceased; the cross and stocks had also disappeared. (fn. 5) The cuckstool was still pointed out, and 'riding the stang' had been a custom. (fn. 6) The 'Layton miser,' one John Bailey, was remembered. (fn. 7)

In 1296 a ship from Ireland laden with victuals for the king was driven ashore at Layton; the goods were seized by the people and the king's men were ill-treated. (fn. 8–9)

Manors

In 1066 LAYTON was in the hands of Earl Tostig as part of his Preston lordship. (fn. 10) It was in later times a part of the Warrington fee, and in 1236 it was recorded that the heirs of Sir Emery le Boteler held three knights' fees in Warrington and Layton 'of ancient feoffment,' (fn. 11) Layton being one fee. (fn. 12) Thus their tenure went back to the time of Henry I. Layton was composed of Great and Little Layton, Warbreck, the Pool, and Threfeld, and Great Bispham was the other member of the fee. These, or most of them, are spoken of as separate 'manors.' Great Marton was later added, though the tenure differed. In 1297 William le Boteler held Layton with its members (Great Marton not being included) of the Earl of Lancaster by knight's service, rendering 10s. yearly. (fn. 13) This payment was for castle ward. The manors continued to descend in the same way as Warrington (fn. 14) until 1539–43, when Sir Thomas Butler sold his Layton lordship, with Great Marton included, to John Browne, citizen and mercer of London, (fn. 15) who in 1550 sold to Thomas Fleetwood, (fn. 16) the purchaser of Rossall. It was given to his younger son William, (fn. 17) who, however, afterwards transferred it in 1596 to his brother Edmund. (fn. 18) It descended like Rossall (fn. 19) till 1841, when Sir Peter Hesketh Fleetwood sold to Thomas Clifton of Lytham, (fn. 20) and the late Lady Drummond was lady of the manor.

Edward Fleetwood of Rossall in 1712 claimed the right to keep a court leet and court baron for the manor or pretended manor of Layton, but met with some opposition. (fn. 21)

'In 1835 the sole manorial lord of the parish was Peter Heslteth Fleetwood, who held a court leet and baron for Layton-with-Warbreck and Great Bispham in October at Blackpool, when the usual officers were appointed.' (fn. 22) The courts have long ceased to be held.

Layton Hawes, about which the Botelers had disputes with the Priors of Lytham, (fn. 23) was inclosed under an Act passed in 1767. (fn. 24)

Henry III granted a charter to William le Boteler in 1257 for a weekly market at Layton on Wednesday and an annual fair on the eve, day and morrow of St. Andrew (29 November-1 December). (fn. 25) Free warren in the demesne lands was added by Edward I in 1285. (fn. 26) These rights were called in question in 1292 (fn. 27) and 1498, (fn. 28) but approved.

LAYTON HALL, the old manor-house, appears to have been sold by William Fleetwood in 1592 to Edward Rigby of Burgh in Duxbury, (fn. 29) who died in 1627 holding it of the king by knight's service, together with the tithes of grain in Great and Little Layton, Warbreck and Blackpool, and various messuages and lands. (fn. 30) Somewhat later the hall seems to have become the chief residence of the Rigbys. (fn. 31) After the sale of their estates in 1720 it was purchased by William Clayton of Adlington, and he in 1736 conveyed it to trustees for Thomas Clifton of Lytham. It has since remained in this family. (fn. 32) Manorial rights remaining, if any, are of no value.

FOX HALL has been mentioned in the account of Blackpool above given.

In Little Layton the Botelers of Marton had an estate at one time, (fn. 33) which probably reverted to the lords of the manor. The chief estate there in later times was WHINNEY HEYS, purchased by James Massey (of Carleton) from William Fleetwood in 1575 (fn. 34) and descending to his heirs the Veale family. (fn. 35) A pedigree was recorded in 1664. (fn. 36) Mr. Thornber says: 'The traditions of the neighbourhood introduce us to John Veale, esq., of Whinney Heys, as maintaining this character [of the plain old English gentleman] during the eventful periods of 1715 and 1745, when he acted as a magistrate in the county. His lady, Mrs. Dorothy Veale, with thrifty care, superintended the labours of her household and encouraged by the presence of herself and family the innocent mirth and hilarity of her dependants. From what I can gather of the pursuits of the Rigbys of Layton Hall the family group, partaking of the boisterous mirth and sports too generally practised by the Cavalier party of the unfortunate Charles and his son, formed a striking contrast to the domestic arrangements of Whinney Heys; the one family employing the long winter's night in useful occupations, enlivened with cheerful conversation, the other, according to stories still [1837] repeated, in gambling, cards, dice and the drunken bowl.' (fn. 37) The estate passed by marriage to the Fleetwoods of Rossall.


Veale of Whinney Heys. Argent on a bend sable three calves passant or.

A few other estates occur, but no connected history can be given of them. (fn. 38) Warbreck occurs as a surname. (fn. 39) Lancaster Priory (fn. 40) and Cockersand Abbey (fn. 41) had land in the township.

Borough

Something has been related above concerning the growth of BLACKPOOL. (fn. 42) A local board of nine members was formed in 1853 under an Improvement Act (fn. 43) ; in 1871 the number of members was increased to eighteen. (fn. 44) Five years later, by charter 21 January 1876, the town was incorporated, and the council was to consist of a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen councillors, chosen from six wards. (fn. 45) In 1879 the municipal boundaries were extended to include South Shore and parts of Marton and Bispham. (fn. 46) In 1894 the part of Marton within the borough was united to Layton, and the whole became one township, Blackpool, the old names and limits being obliterated. An increase in the governing body was made in 1898, and the council now consists of a mayor, twelve aldermen and thirtysix councillors, chosen by six wards as formerly. (fn. 47) It became a county borough in 1904. The council has carried out many works for the health and convenience of the people and the beautifying of the town. It owns the gas and electric lighting and power works, also the tramways. A new town hall was built in 1895–1900. A market, built in 1844, was acquired by the local board in 1853 and enlarged in 1872; the free library (fn. 48) was built on the site in 1895, a new market being opened in Lytham Road. A new free library building has recently been given by Mr. Carnegie; a technical school was erected in 1905–6. There are also a court-house, police stations and fire brigade station. A bench of magistrates for the borough was constituted in 1898. A coat of arms was granted in 1899.


Borough of Blackpool. Barry wavy of six sable and or a seagull volant proper, on a chief argent a thunderbolt between a fleur de lis and a lion rampant gules.

There was in the 13th century a chantry chapel in Layton, (fn. 49) but it disappeared, and the existing places of worship in Layton are all modern and due to the rise of Blackpool. In connexion with the Church of England St. John's was erected in 1821 (fn. 50) and rebuilt in 1878 on the old site; a separate parish was assigned to it in 1860. (fn. 51) The patronage is vested in trustees. The incumbent from 1829 to 1846 was the Rev. William Thornber, B.A., whose history of the town written in 1837 has been quoted frequently in the present work. (fn. 52) Holy Trinity, South Shore, built in 1836 and rebuilt in 1895, had a parish assigned in 1871. (fn. 53) Lady Drummond's trustees present the vicars. Christ Church, Blackpool, built in 1866, became parochial in 1871. (fn. 54) St. Paul's, North Shore, was built in 1898–9. These two churches are in the gift of bodies of trustees. There is a mission church, St. Peter's, 1878, connected with Holy Trinity; also another, All Saints', connected with St. John's; and school-chapels at South Shore and Marton Moss.

The Wesleyan Methodists opened a chapel in Bank Hey Street in 1835; this was replaced in 1861–2 by the present Adelaide Street church. (fn. 55) They have now two others in Blackpool and two in South Shore. The United Methodist Free Church opened their first chapel in 1864, (fn. 56) and have since added two others in Blackpool and South Shore. The Primitive Methodists, after meeting for some time in a room, built a church in 1875. (fn. 57) The New Connexion, now joined to the United Methodists, also has a church.

The Baptists held services in a room from 1858 (fn. 58) till Union Chapel was opened in 1861; it was rebuilt in 1904. They have now a second chapel in Blackpool and another in South Shore.

About 1820 the Congregationalists began preaching in Blackpool, and in spite of much opposition were able to open Bethesda Chapel, near Fox Hall, in 1825. A larger building in Victoria Street was built in 1849, and for a time Bethesda ceased to be used, except occasionally by the Methodists; but services there were resumed in 1875. (fn. 59) Another chapel was opened at South Shore in 1885, (fn. 60) and more recently (1901) another in Claremont Park.

A Unitarian chapel was opened in 1875, (fn. 61) and the present church succeeded it in 1883. The Plymouth Brethren, Swedenborgians (New Church) and Salvation Army are also represented at Blackpool.

The Roman Catholic Church of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary was built in 1857 and has been enlarged. (fn. 62) It is served by Jesuits. St. Cuthbert's, South Shore, built in 1880, was succeeded by the present church ten years later. St. Kentigern's, Blackpool, was begun in 1907. These are served by secular priests. There is a convent and boarding school, the Holy Child Jesus, at Little Layton.

The Jews have a synagogue, and there is a Spiritualists' Hall.

Footnotes

1 Loc. Govt. Bd. Order 31813.
By a further Order (36320) made in 1896 the township or civil parish of Blackpool was extended to include the foreshore, 1,334 acres. The detached portion of Bispham known as Bispham Hawes wae added to Layton township in 1883; Loc. Govt. Bd. Order 14712.
2 Census Rep. 1901. This area includes 7 acres of inland water, but not the 75 acres of tidal water (sea) and the foreshore.
3 This includes 7,659 in the added portion of Marton.
4 Thornber, Blackpool, 198.
5 Ibid. 270.
6 Ibid. 276; perhaps by 'cuckstool' the pond was meant.
7 Ibid. 277.
8 –9 Cal. Pat. 1292–1301, p. 216.
10 V.C.H. Lancs, i, 288a.
11 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 145.
12 Ibid. 151; Layton was held in demesne. The fee appears to have been one of 10 plough-lands, made up thus— Layton 6, Great Bispham 4.
13 Ibid. 289, 316.
14 Survey of 1346 (Chet. Soc.), 58; at that time 16s. 8d. was paid for castle ward and 6s. 8d. for sake fee.
See also Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 40, 195; iii, 8, 122; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 113; ii, 73, 82; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 536; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 13. The Layton estate appears from these to have been regarded as a provision for the widows or younger children of the lords of Warrington. In 1299 Isabel widow of Henry le Boteler claimed a messuage and 30 oxgangs of land in Layton as dower; De Banco R. 130, m. 219 d.
John de Haydock and Joan his wife put forward a claim to the manors in 1357; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 6, m. 4 d.
15 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 12 (1539), m. 31; the manors of Pool, Warbreck, Great Marton, Bispham and Little Layton, &c., are named. The remainder of the Layton estate appears to have followed in 1543; see Beamont, quoting Bold D., in Lords of Warrington (Chet. Soc.), ii, 454. Apart from their being named separately there is nothing to show that Pool and Warbreck were independent manors.
16 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 14, m. 276; John Browne and Christina his wife were deforciants, and the estate included the manors of Great Layton, Great Marton, Pool, Warbreck, Bispham and Little Layton, with messuages, lands, windmills, water-mills, dovecotes, rents, 100 acres of alder, &c., in the places named and also in Norcross, Trunnah, Holmes, Stalmine, Staynall, Hamblcton and Rowall. £1,500 is the price named.
Queen Mary in 1554 gave a confirmation of his estate to Thomas Fleetwood, the reason being that Sir Thomas Butler had been indebted to Henry VIII and had pledged and sold his manors in consequence; Pat. 1 Mary, pt. ii, printed in Porter, Fylde, 306–7.
Thomas Fleetwood died in 1576 holding the manors of Great Layton, &c., of the queen as of her duchy by one knight's fee; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xii, no. 2.
17 Fishwick, Bispham (Chet. Soc.), 9, quoting Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. lxxxix, F 2.
William Fleetwood in 1574 made a feoffment of his manors of Great Layton, Marton, Great Bispham, &c.; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 36, m. 181.
A special commission as to the manor was issued in 1588; Lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 343.
18 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 59, m. 125. The deforciants were William Fleetwood and Jane his wife, and the sale included the manors of Great Layton, Great Marton and Great Bispham, with windmill, water-mill and open lands and moor, &c., in Layton and the neighbourhood; also the advowson of Poulton vicarage.
A large number of messuages, with lands, &c., and rights of common, in the same hamlets and townships, were at the same time sold to John Hulton and John Hodgson; ibid. m. 320. John Hulton of Darleys died in 1606 holding lands in Great Layton, the Pool, Warbreck, &c., of the king in chief by knight's service; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 68. A small part of the same appears to have been acquired by John Hodgson, who died in 1630 holding a messuage in Great Layton and another in Little Layton, with common of pasture on the Hawes, &c. The tenure is not recorded. The heir was a grandson Richard (son of Henry son of John), who was sixteen years old; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxv, no. 1. Robert Hodgson, probably a younger son of John, held a messuage in a place called the Pool in Great Layton (i.e. at Blackpool), and died in 1627, leaving a son and heir John, aged sixteen, in 1634; ibid, xxvii, no. 62; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 512. Richard Hodgson in 1630 held a messuage in Little Layton of Sir Paul Fleetwood and another in Great Layton of the king; his heir, a brother William, died in 1631, leaving two daughters, Margaret wife of Richard Bamber and Jane wife of Thomas Elston; ibid. 514.
The feet of fines for 1574 and thereabouts show that William Fleetwood disposed of much of his estate in parcels.
19 Edmund Fleetwood died in l622 holding the manors of Great Bispham, Layton and Marton of the king by the two-hundredth part of a knight's fee; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 315. The manors of Layton and Marton were in the hands of his son Sir Paul Fleetwood in 1653–4; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 153, m. 30. Some later references may be added: 1695— the manors of Great and Little Layton, Warbreck, Great Bispham and Great Marton, &c., by William Fleetwoad and Margaret his wife; ibid. 235, m. 75. 1733—Layton with Warbreck, Great Marton, &c., by Edward Fleetwood; ibid. 312, m. 46. 1759—Layton with Warbreck, &c., by Fleetwood Hesketh; ibid.; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 591, m. 9.
20 Fishwick, op. cit. 18.
21 Ibid. 16; the opponents were freeholders of Bispham.
22 Ibid. 5.
23 From these disputes it appears that the Hawes, chiefly within Layton, extended into Lytham.
Quenilda daughter of Richard son of Roger gave the monks of Lytham her share ia the Hawes of Lytham; D. at Durham, 2 a, 2 ae, 4 ae, Ebor. no. 67. The boundary must have been uncertain, for William le Boteler about 1230 confirmed the two-thirds of the pasture within the Hawes of Lytham which Maud de Stockport had given with her body and Quenilda daughter of Richard ton of Roger had further given; ibid. no. 66. The bounds were finally settled in 1272; ibid. Misc. no. 5454.
The fifth part of half a plough-land in the Hawes between Layton and Lytham, within the fee of William le Boteler, was before 1249 granted to Cockersand Abbey by Thomas de Beetham and Amiria his wife, and the gift was in 1271 confirmed by William; Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), i,158.
The Prior of Lytham complained in 1338 that Sibyl widow of William Boteler of Warrington had seized an anchor at Kelgrimoll (at Greenskar pot), but she asserted that it was taken within Great Layton; De Banco R. 315, m. 287.
In 1509 (?) the prior complained that John Bispham had trespassed, but the defendant said he had used the Hawes, containing 1,000 acres of land within the manor of Layton belonging to Sir Thomas Boteler and adjacent to Lytham; Pal. of Lanc. Sessional Papers, bdle. 4.
For a more violent dispute in 1531–2 see Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 206; ii, 9.
24 Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Soc. vi, 122.
The award was made in 1769: Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc.), i, 56.
25 Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 476; tne name is wrongly given as Robert.
26 Ibid. 1257–1300, p. 326.
27 Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 386. Wreck of the sea was also claimed, as having been an appurtenance of the lordship from the time of William the Conqueror.
28 Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton. 13 Hen. VII.
29 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 54, m. 152. The hall is not specially named, the estate being described as three messuages, &c., in Great and Little Layton, the Pool and Warbreck, together with the tithes and fisheries at Marton and Layton.
30 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvi, no. 5. In 1651 Jane Rigby, daughter of Alexander Rigby of Burgh, farmed the demesne of Layton; Cal. Com. for Comp. iii, 1650. A pedigree was recorded in 1664, the family being described as 'of Layton'; Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 244.
31 In 1671 Alexander Rigby of Layton held messuages, &c., in Great and Little Layton, Marton, Warbreck and Pool, also, though no 'manor' is named, views of frankpledge in Great and Little Layton and Pool (i.e. Blackpool); Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 206, m. 32. An account of this branch of the Rigby family has been given under Duxbury; see also Fishwick, op. cit. 94–105, where there is a pedigree. The estates were sold under a Private Act 1 Geo. I, cap. 45.
32 Ibid. 105. The manor was held by Lady Drummond, widow of T. H. Clifton of Lytham.
33 Richard Boteler in 1323 held land, &c., in Little Layton occupied by Roger le Waleys and Agnes his wife. The tenure is not recorded; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 145. Earlier still, in 1303, Richard Boteler, together with Adam de Walton and Alice his wife, called upon the custodee of William son and heir of Nicholas Boteler (of Rawcliffe) to warrant to them, inter alia, the third part of three messuages and 3 oxgangs of land in Little Layton claimed as dower by Mabel widow of Nicholas; De Banco R. 144, m. 141. In 1315 Nicholas del Marsh and Ellen his wife claimed dower in six messuages and 6 oxgangs of land in Little Layton against Agnes widow of Nicholas Boteler, who called upon Richard son of Richard Boteler to warrant her; ibid, 209, m. 252.
Two other pleas may be cited. In 1320 Maud widow of Ralph de Bickerstath claimed dower in 100 acres of land against Alice widow of Geoffrey de Cuerdale and her daughters Agnes and Margery, while in 1322 she claimed similarly against Thomas Curwen, who held three messuages and half an oxgang of land; ibid. 235, m. 166; 244, m. 15, 135 d.
Cecily widow of Richard le Boteler was in 1336 the wife of Thomas dc Molyneux, and claimed her dower in Little Layton against the above-named Roger le Waleys and Agnes his wife; ibid. 306, m. 268 d.
34 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 37, m. 108. The property is described as messuages, windmill, &c., in Little Layton and Great Bispham. Massey probably acquired further lands; he died before 1600, when his son John had to defend his title against claims put forward by the Fleetwoods, who were desirous of limiting the extent of the sales made by William Fleetwood; Fishwick, op. cit. 10–13, quoting Duchy of Lanc. Plead. 42 Eliz. F 14.
John Massey of Layton recorded a pedigree in 1613; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 79. He died in 1618 holding the capital messuage called Whinney Heys in Little Layton of the king as of his duchy by the twentieth part of a knight's fee, and other lands, &c., there; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 117–19. His heirs were his daughters Ellen wife of Edward Veale, aged thirtysix, and Alice widow of Thomas Bamber, aged thirty-four. The former had four sons, of whom the oldest, John, was about twelve years old.
35 For an account of them see Fishwick, op. cit. 81–93, with a pedigree. The succession appears to be thus: Edward Veale, d. 1650 -s.John, d. 1669 -s. John, d. 1704 -s. Edward, d. 1723 -sister Dorothy, d. 1748. Another sister, Sarah, married Edward son of Richard Fleetwood of Rossall. Their daughter Margaret married Roger Hesketh, who inherited.
A letter of Edward Veale's, lamenting 'the miserable distress of this poor Fylde . . . by reason of the fearful infection' of 1631, is printed in Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 47. About the same time he arrested a man for taking a hawk, called a merlin, belonging to Edmund Fleetwood, who proved unwilling to prosecute; ibid. He was a member of the Presbyterian Classis established in 1646; Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1868), i, 228. A grandson, Edward Veale, was Nonconformist minister at Wapping, dying in 1708.
36 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 321.
37 Blackpool, 87. In a list of the inhabitants of the parish compiled about 1686—the whole number was 385—the first place was taken by Alexander Rigby, esq., his three daughters, ten menservants and three maidservants; and the second by John Veale, gent., his wife, mother, two menservants and two maidservants.
38 Robert Lawrence of Ribbleton, 1524, had land in Layton; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 57.
William Smith died in 1602 holding eight messuages, &c., in Little Layton, also others in Thornton and Ribbleton— perhaps the Lawrence ettate—and leaving a grandson and heir Alexander Smith (son of Henry son of William), aged fifteen. The Layton lands were held of Edmund Fleetwood as of his manor of Great Layton; ibid, xviii, no. 22.
Lawrence Cowborne of Freckleton held messuages and land in Layton and Bispham in 1604 of the Earl of Derby by ½d. rent or (? by correction) of the king as of his duchy by the fortieth part of a knight's fee and 2½d. rent; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc Lancs. and Ches.), i, 32, 45.
The Bambers, who occur in neighbouring townships, held land in Layton. William Bamber of Pool in 1576 obtained messuages, &c., in Layton and Bispham from William Bamber the elder and Edmund his son and heir-apparent; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 28, m. 9. The same William Bamber of Pool in 1579 made an agreement with Richard Bamber of Marton as to a partition of lands; W. Farrer's Deeds. William Bamber died in 1597 holding a messuage and land in Great Layton and Warbreck of the king as duke by the two-hundredth part of a knight's fee. His son and heir Robert was then thirty-seven years old; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), i, 116. This is probably the Robert Bamber of Warbreck. who died in 1624 holding lands by the same tenure, and leaving a son William, aged three; ibid, iii, 462. Richard Bamber died in 1609 holding messuages and land in Great Layton of the king as duke by knight's service; his son and heir John was fortyseven years old; ibid, i, 154. Some further particulars will be found in Fishwick's Bispham, 116–19.
John Anion in 1609 held messuages, &c., in Warbreck of the king as duke by the one-hundredth part of a knight's fee; his heir was his son John, aged twentytwo; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), i, 155. This son seems to be the John Anion who died in 1623 holding by the twohundredth part of a knight's fee. His son and heir John was ten years old; ibid. iii, 435. See Fiahwick, op. cit. 115.
Thomas Jollice in 1618 held a messuage, &c., of the king as duke by the three-hundredth part of a knight's fee; he left a son and heir Robert, aged five; ibid. ii, 111.
John Walsh died in 1624 holding land in Layton of the king and leaving a son Henry; Lancs, and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 74, where some particulars of the family are given.
Robert Crane died in 1627 holding a messuage, &c., in Layton, tenure not recorded; his heir was a grandson Robert (son of Richard son of Robert) Crane, aged fifteen; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvi, no. 31.
Robert Gaulter died in 1631 holding a messuage, &c., in Little Layton of Paul Fleetwood as of his manor of Little Layton. His heir was his brother George, aged forty-four; Towneley MS. C 8, 13, p. 459.
39 Richard Warbreck, 1628, held his messuage in Warbreck of the king by the two-hundredth part of a knight's fee. Thomas, his son and heir, was four years old; ibid. 1309. See Fishwick, op. cit. 119, 125.
40 The priory seems to have had merely an acre, given them by William son of Emery le Boteler, so that they might build a tithe-barn there. This acre lay by the pathway leading from the highroad to the little mere; Lanc. Ch. (Chet Soc.), ii, 438. It was included in the grant of the advowson of Poulton to Thomas Fleetwood in 1554.
41 William le Boteler granted the canons all his part of Threplands, within his demesne of Layton, as marked out by crosses, with right of way to the sea and the pool, excepting 25 acres held by Walter son of Swain (de Carleton) by a rent of 6d.; Cockersand Chartul. i, 155–7. Threplands or Threfelt was between Layton and Marton. The same benefactor gave 20 acres in Withroom, on the west aide towards the mill, and a rent-charge of 40s. from his camera or treasury; ibid, i, 156, 159, 161.
42 Porter, Fylde, 311 62. Further details, particularly with regard to the recent changes, have been supplied by Mr. T. Loftos, town clerk.
43 There are eight later Improvement Acts.
44 Ibid. 339. The title was changed from Layton-with-Warbreck Local Board to Blackpool Local Board in 1868.
45 Ibid. 355–9. The original wards were Claremont, Talbot, Bank Hey, Brunswick, Foxhall and Waterloo.
46 42 & 43 Vict. cap. 199. The part of Bispham included was the detached portion known as Bispham Hawes, south of Layton. The boundaries of the wards were altered.
47 The township boundary was extended in 1896 to include the foreshore.
48 The Free Libraries Act was adopted in 1879.
49 Lanc. Ch. ii, 436.
50 Porter, op. cit. 330.
51 Lond. Gaz. 10 Mar. 1860.
52 A memoir by Mr. C. W. Sutton is prefixed to his tale called Penny Stone, 1886, He was the son of Giles Thornber of Poulton, born about 1805, and educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; B.A. 1828. His History of Blackpool was first printed at Poulton in 1837, and reissued later; it is of great value, both on account of the author's local knowledge and as recording conditions that have long passed away. He wrote other antiquarian essays. He died at Stafford 8 Sept. 1885.
53 Porter, op. cit. 360; Lond. Gaz. 22 Dec. 1871.
54 An iron church was erected in 1861; Porter, op. cit. 341. For district, Lond. Gaz. 28 Mar. 1871.
55 Porter, op. cit. 335.
56 Ibid. 345. They had previously used Bethesda Chapel.
57 Ibid. 359.
58 Ibid. 340. The congregation originated in a division in the Congregational chapel; Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. i, 148.
59 Ibid, i, 137–51; Porter, op. cit. 333, 338.
60 Nightingale, op. cit. i, 162.
61 Porter, op. cit. 359.
62 Ibid. 339; Kelly, Engl. Cath. Missions, 86.