The parish of Garstang

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

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1912

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291-300

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'The parish of Garstang', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 7 (1912), pp. 291-300. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53240&strquery=garstang Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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GARSTANG

Nether Wyresdale; Holleth; Cleveley (Part); Cabus; Winmarleigh; Nateby; Garstang; Kirkland; Barnacre-With-Bonds; Catterall; Claughton; Bilsborrow; Pilling;

The parish of Garstang has an area of 28,881 acres, and the population in 1901 numbered 5,896, (fn. 1) employed for the most part in agriculture, though there are some scattered factories.

The northern boundary is peculiar, Holleth being quite detached from the main body of the parish and having a small part of its area within the parish of Cockerham, in which also is contained about threefourths of Cleveley. Some evidences of the Roman occupation have been found. (fn. 2) Before the Conquest only three manors existed—Garstang, Catterall and Claughton—and these three, with the addition of Bilsborrow, were all the townships existing in 1327–41. (fn. 3) It was only slowly that the other townships became separate. In 1624 the county lay was apportioned as follows: Garstang, £10 5s. 3¼d.; Catterall, £1 13s. 7¾d.; Claughton, 18s. 9¾d.; and Bilsborrow, £1 4s. 6¼d., making a total contribution of £14 2s. 3d. towards the £100 levied upon the hundred. (fn. 4) The older fifteenth was of similar proportions. (fn. 5) The townships had by that time become distinct, (fn. 6) and Bishop Gastrell in 1717 reckoned them as eleven, arranged in four quarters—Garstang, Claughton, Barnacre and Wyresdale; Pilling was in the first-named quarter. (fn. 7)

Garstang is midway between Preston and Lancaster, on the ancient road to Scotland, and has thus witnessed many stirring events, such as the devastating raid by the Scots in 1322, (fn. 8) but ancient remains are scanty. (fn. 9)

There was a visitation of the plague in 1349–50. (fn. 10) In 1444 William Marsden and others were charged with having broken into a fulling mill at Garstang and stolen forty ells of woollen cloth called russet, value 40s., the goods of John Ingoll. (fn. 11)

Leland, journeying north about 1535, says: 'After I rode over Brock water, rising a vi miles off in the hills on the right hand and goeth at last into Wyre. Calder rising about the same hills, goeth also into Wyre; I rode over it. By the town's end of Garstang I rode over a great stone bridge on Wyre ere I came to it. Wyre rises a viii or ten miles from Garstang out of the hills on the right hand and cometh by Greenhalgh, a pretty castle of the lord of Derby's, and more than half a mile thence to Garstang in Amounderness. Some saith that Garstang was a market town. (fn. 12)


GARSTANG

GARSTANG

The district was hostile to the Reformation (fn. 13) and favourable to the king's cause in the Civil War though some companies were raised for the other side. (fn. 14) Greenhalgh Castle was one of the two important fortresses remaining till 1645 to give trouble to the Parliamentarians. Their historian gives the following account of its surrender:—

Colonel Dodding with his regiment, with Major Joseph Rigby's companies, laid close siege to Greenhalgh Castle, keeping their main guard at Garstang town, into which [castle] were gotten many desperate Papists. Their governor was one Mr. Anderton. They vexed the country thereabouts extremely, fetching in the night time many honest men from their houses, making a commodity of it. They sallied out oft upon the Leaguers and killed some. They stood it out stoutly all that winter. The country was put to extraordinary charges in maintaining the northern men, who made a prey without pity, such abundance of provision they weekly destroyed. The Leaguers had thought to have undermined the castle and blown it up with gunpowder, and great cost was spent about it to pioneers, but to no effect; the ground was so sandy it would not stand. At last this Anderton died, and them there within being thereby discouraged, they were glad to come to a composition to deliver it up upon conditions—which were, that they might go to their own houses and be safe. It was ordered that the castle should be demolished and made untenable and all the timber taken out of it and sold, which was done. And so it lies ruinated. . . . It was very strong, and builded so that it was thought impregnable with any ordnance whatsoever, having but one door into it, and the walls of an exceeding thickness and very well secured together. (fn. 15)

Celia Fiennes, who passed through this 'little market town' about 1700, was here 'first presented with the clap bread which is much talked of, made all of oats.' (fn. 16)

In the Jacobite rising of 1715 (fn. 17) the town clerk, Roger Muncaster, joined their forces, as did several others of the district. Muncaster was executed at Preston, and three of the local men at Garstang on 14. February 1715–16. (fn. 18) Though Prince Charles Edward and his army passed through in 1745, (fn. 19) it does not appear that they secured any adherents in this parish.

A century ago the district was famous for its cattle, which were of a peculiar breed, 'of a smaller size than the Lancashire, of elegant shape and beautifully curled hair, with wide spreading horns and straight backs.' The Wyre then supplied the inhabitants with plenty of fine soft water, and afforded good diversion to the angler as abounding with trout, chub and gudgeon and in springtime with smelts. (fn. 20)

The following table (fn. 20a) shows the manner in which the agricultural land is now employed:—

Arable land ac.Permanent grass ac.Woods and plantations ac.
Barnacre-with-Bonds943,804½394
Bilsborrow43821
Cabus451,28517½
Catterall671,0822
Claughton483,138298
Garstang423
Holleth5928515
Kirkland4883930
Nateby841½1,18343
Pilling2,8742,24833
Winmarleigh6041,23460½
Nether Wyresdale102,853½157
4,733½19,1961,050

Church

The church of ST. HELEN (fn. 21) stands on the south side of Churchtown village, close to the right bank of the River Wyre, about 1½ miles to the south-west of the town of Garstang, and consists of a chancel with north and south aisles and north vestry, clearstoried nave with north and south aisles, south chapel, south porch, and west tower. (fn. 22)

The earliest parts of the building are the pier and responds on the north side of the chancel and the piers of the nave arcades, which are of 13th-century date, indicating a church at that period of about the same length and width as at present. This early building, however, would probably be without clearstory, and would terminate at the west end with a gable, from a window in which the nave would be lighted. The chancel may have been originally without a south aisle, but there is no evidence of this, as the arcade on that side is of later date, probably work of the 14th century, to which period the chancel arch belongs. The chancel was most likely entirely reconstructed at this period and a south aisle added, the pier and responds on the north side being retained perhaps by reason of the beauty of the work, which is unusually good for this part of the country, or possibly for merely structural reasons. In the 15th century, (fn. 23) and again in the 16th century, (fn. 24) the church was largely rebuilt, the whole of the outside walls belonging to these periods, a chapel added on the south side of the south aisle of the nave and a tower erected at the west end, the building assuming in a large measure its present appearance. The windows are all of this last date with perpendicular tracery, with the exception of those at the west end of the nave aisles, which are of 14th-century date and may have been originally in the south quire aisle. The small irregularly-shaped two-story vestry at the north-east corner of the building is apparently of 16th or early 17th-century date, and a gabled hearsehouse against the west side of the porch was probably erected in the middle of the 18th century. In 1746 an inundation of the Wyre overflowed the churchyard and so much injured the church that it was thought that it would be necessary to take it down and entirely rebuild it, but on inspection the building was found to be structurally sound, so that restoration alone was necessary.

In 1811 the walls of the nave and chancel were raised and a clearstory erected in place of the gabled dormer windows which had before existed, and the whole of the building was at the same time re-roofed and ceiled. A more thorough restoration took place in 1865–8, (fn. 25) when the square pews and galleries which had been erected in the previous century were removed, the nave re-seated, and the roofs opened out, the interior then assuming its present appearance.

The walls are of rubble masonry with ashlar dressings, finishing with a plain ashlar parapet to the aisles and chapel, but the chancel and nave roofs, which are of flat pitch, have overhanging eaves. The chancel roof is slightly lower than that of the nave, and their east gables being unmarked by a cross or other apex stone, an appearance of flatness is produced. The external appearance of the church has no doubt lost much of its distinction by the removal of the old higher-pitched roofs.

The chancel is 36 ft. 9 in. long by 19 ft. 3 in. in width, and has a five-light pointed window with perpendicular tracery, moulded jambs and head, and external hood mould with carved terminations. The line of the 15th-century roof shows on the exterior of the gable, the east wall of the 1811 clearstory being simply built above it. The wall on the north side of the chancel for a distance of 13 ft. from the east end is of 15th-century date, with a pointed doorway to what was probably a vestry built at the east end of the original shorter aisle, but which is now part of the aisle itself. West of this is an arcade of two pointed arches of two chamfered orders springing from a central eight-shafted pier with moulded base and carved capital, and from a respond of similar detail at the east end. At the west end the arch dies into the wall, stopping with a four-leaved flower, but the 13th-century respond still remains set back within the later masonry. The detail of the pier and responds is very good, the bases having the water moulding, and the caps, which are 12 in. deep, being carved with stiff-leaved foliage. The capital of the west respond is 3 ft. lower than the others, the height of which to the top of the capitals is 8 ft. 3 in., it having probably been mutilated and built up in the later walling. The north aisle, which is 12 ft. 10 in wide, is the full length of the chancel, and is lighted by two three-light pointed windows with perpendicular tracery on the north side and a similar one at the east end. Below the east window, close to the floor level, is a square-headed opening, now built up 19 in. high by 6½ in. wide, splaying to 2 ft. 9 in. inside, the sill of which is 2 ft. 4 in. above the ground on the outside, the purpose of which is not clear. On the south side of the chancel is a 6 ft. length of wall containing a piscina with trefoil head and projecting bowl moulded on the underside, and beyond an arcade of two pointed arches of two chamfered orders springing from an octagonal pier with moulded capital and base, and from semi-octagonal responds. On the east wall to the south of the chancel window is a moulded corbel or bracket, 11 in. deep, square on plan, with a four-leaved flower ornament, 5 ft. above the floor. The south chancel aisle, which is 13 ft. 4 in. wide and has a pointed south door with moulded jambs and head, is about 9 in. less in length than the chancel, and, like the north aisle, is lighted by two three-light pointed windows with perpendicular tracery on the south side and one at its east end. The chancel is separated from the aisles by modern oak screens, and has two clearstory windows, similar to those of the nave, on either side. The roof is a modern timber one of four bays and the floor is tiled, the aisles being paved with flags.


Plan of Garstang Church

The chancel arch is of two orders each with the wave moulding, springing from similar responds having modern caps, but retaining their original moulded plinths, which are mutilated, on either side for a former screen. In the pier south of the chancel arch facing east is a segmental-headed doorway with hollow-chamfered jambs and head, which led formerly to a stone staircase, the underside of three of the steps of which are still visible above the opening. The lower steps have been removed and a skew passage-way cut through the masonry to the nave, the pier having been rebuilt and the staircase done away with. Previous to the restoration of 1868 the south aisle was blocked from floor to ceiling by a large stone 'vault,' and a faculty had to be obtained for its removal, the materials being used in the restoration of the church.

The nave, which is 55 ft. 6 in. long by 21 ft. 9 in. wide, has an arcade of five pointed arches of two chamfered orders on each side, springing from circular piers 2 ft. in diameter, with plain moulded capitals and bases. On the north side the height of the piers to the top of the capitals is 10 ft. 3 in., but on the south the height is 6 in. less, and the top member of the cap is octagonal in plan instead of circular as in the north. The north-east respond is half-octagonal, but the others are of the same type as the piers, those at the west being something less than half a circle, and the westernmost pier on the north side leans badly to the west. The arches are of later date than the piers, belonging probably to the 15thcentury rebuilding. All the stonework of the arcade, both of piers and arches, has been re-chiselled. There are three square-headed clearstory windows of three pointed lights on each side, and the roof, which is of five bays, is modern. The north aisle is 13 ft. 3 in. wide, and has two pointed three-light windows, with perpendicular tracery on the north side and a pointed doorway in the second bay from the west, of two hollow-chamfered orders and external hood mould, above which is a niche with a crocketed canopy, now much worn. The west window is of red sandstone, with three trefoiled lights and straight bar tracery and quatrefoils in the head, but without a hood mould. At the west end of the south aisle, which is 12 ft. wide, is another pointed sandstone window of three cinquefoiled lights, with quatrefoil tracery, the mullions crossing in the head; both these windows, which, as already mentioned, are of 14thcentury date, have plain chamfered details. The south aisle is open to the chapel at its eastern end by two wide pointed arches of two chamfered orders springing from an octagonal pier and responds, to the west of which and 13 ft. from the west wall is the south doorway, with segmental head and square splayed jambs. The chapel, formerly the chantry ot the Blessed Virgin, is 33 ft. 3 in. by 12 ft. 8 in., the floor being raised two steps above that of the nave. In the south wall is a piscina with trefoiled head and wide chamfered jambs, and the roof is the original flat one of oak divided into seven bays by moulded beams, with intermediate moulded pieces, forming in all twenty-one squares. On the south wall are stone corbels, lower than the crown of the window arches, carrying portions of an older beam moulded on the edges, above which, carved along the wallplate, is the inscription 'SANCTA MARIA ORA P[RO] NOBIS DEMON SCRIBIT IBI CVNCTA LOCVTA SIBI A o D[OMI]NI MoDoXXIX HOC OPVS AGITAT IN TEMPLO GENTES CAVEANT SIMVL ESSE LOQVENTES.' The chapel has two pointed windows of three trefoiled lights, and with perpendicular tracery and external hood moulds on the south side, and on the east a window of later date, with four-centred arch and three plain pointed lights.

The porch is 12 ft. 10 in. by 8 ft. 6 in. wide, with a stone seat on each side, and open outer arch of two chamfered orders 6 ft. wide by 10 ft. high, with plain gable above set between the higher wall of the south chapel and the wider gable of the hearsehouse, which is flush with it.

The west tower, the centre line of which is about 2 ft. to the south of that of the nave, is 11 ft. square inside, and has a projecting vice with stone spirelet in the north-east corner, and diagonal angle buttresses on the west side of six stages going up to the string immediately below the belfry windows, which are of two trefoiled lights under a square labelled head. The embattled parapet has been rebuilt apparently in the 18th century and is poor in detail. There is a clock on the north side towards the village, but, except for a small square-headed window to the ringing chamber, the north and south walls below the belfry are quite plain. The west door has a pointed arch of two hollow-chamfered orders and external label, and the window above is a pointed one of three trefoiled lights with perpendicular tracery. The tower arch is of two chamfered orders, the outer one dying into the wall at the springing.

The north-east vestry is built of large blocks of squared stone, in contrast to the rubble masonry of the rest of the building, and is entered from the north chancel aisle by a four-centred arched doorway. It measures internally 10 ft. 6 in. square, with a bay window 3 ft. 6 in. deep on the east side, and is now open to the roof, the original upper floor having been removed. (fn. 26)

The pulpit is of oak, dated 1646, with a new stem and top mould, and is a good piece of Jacobean woodwork with square moulded panels. At the east end of the north quire aisle are preserved portions of oakwork said to have been originally round the stalls, bearing the inscription 'Bona consuetudo excutiat quod mala extruxit. Minus semper dicito qua facias.' The stalls themselves have been restored, four of the six on each side having carved misericordes. There is a good 18th-century brass chandelier in the nave, (fn. 27) but the font and the rest of the fittings are modern.

There is a ring of six bells by T. Mears of London, 1828.

The plate consists of a chalice (fn. 28) of 1658 inscribed 'Garstang,' with the maker's mark T C linked; a chalice inscribed 'Garstang 1690' without date letter, but with the maker's initials R M thrice repeated; a paten of 1719 without inscription; two flagons of 1795, both inscribed 'The gift of Isabella Pedder, wife of John Pedder, vicar of Garstang, for the use of that church, 1795'; and a paten of 1872–3 without inscription.

The registers begin in 1567, but there are gaps from January to June 1601, January to March 1609, September to December 1653, and from April 1659 to December 166o. (fn. 29)

The churchyard, which lies principally on the north and south sides, is entered from the village at the north-west corner, and is bounded on the west and south-east by a line of beech trees. On the south side are the base and octagonal stump of a cross, the latter 2 ft. 6 in. high, and further west an 18thcentury pedestal sundial, the plate dated 1757, with the name of John Miller, Preston, and the motto 'Pereunt et imputantur.' On the east side is a stone slab, much mutilated and worn, with the raised fulllength figure of a man with hands clasped.

Advowson

The advowson of the church of Garstang was held by the Lancaster family as appurtenant to their manor or fee of Nether Wyresdale, and in 1204–5 Gilbert Fitz Reinfred and Helewise de Stuteville were able to prove their right against the rector of St. Michael's, who alleged that Garstang was a chapelry to which he should appoint. (fn. 30) Gilbert afterwards granted the advowson to Cockersand Abbey, (fn. 31) and the canons held the church and rectory down to the Dissolution. Queen Mary, in refounding the Savoy Hospital in 1556–8, included the advowson of Garstang, (fn. 32) and the master of the hospital in 1558, immediately after Elizabeth's accession, demised it to Christopher Anderton of Lostock for ninety-nine years. (fn. 33) Afterwards the advowson appears to have been acquired absolutely, and was in 1679 sold by Sir Charles Anderton of Lostock to Silvester Richmond, a Liverpool physician, (fn. 34) whose son and namesake in 1740 sold to Richard Pedder of Preston. (fn. 35) It has since descended in this family, the present patron being the vicar, the Rev. John Wilson Pedder. (fn. 36)

The rectory was in 1291 valued at £26 13s. 4d. a year, but after the incursion of the Scots in 1322 this was reduced to £10 (fn. 37) ; an increase to £12 was recorded in 1341. (fn. 38) The valuation of 1535 was only £19. (fn. 39) After the Dissolution the Crown leased the rectory out apart from the advowson, (fn. 40) and in 1604–5 sold it to Lawrence Baskervill. (fn. 41) It appears to have been purchased by Robert Bindloss of Borwick, (fn. 42) who also acquired the lessees' interest, (fn. 43) and in 1622 the tithe corn was farmed for a gross sum of £274. (fn. 44) A rent of £40 was paid to the Crown, and this was part of the queen's income. (fn. 45) The main portion of the rectory passed to Standish of Standish by marriage, and has since descended with this manor. (fn. 46)

A vicarage was ordained in 1241 by John Romaine, then Archdeacon of Richmond. The vicar was to have the tithes, &c, of Claughton, which included the hamlets of Douansargh and Heyham, the oblations of the entire parish at Christmas, Easter and the patronal feast, with mass pennies and other dues. The vicar was to be responsible for the due celebration of divine service, the payment of the archdeacon's dues, Peter's pence, &c. A residence was allotted to him at Philiptoft, by the churchyard, also an oxgang of land in the town fields of Garstang exempt from tithes. (fn. 47) The vicar's income was in 1291 taxed as £13 6s. 8d., reduced after 1322 to £5. (fn. 48) In 1535 the gross value was estimated as £14 8s. 8d., (fn. 49) by 1650 this had advanced to £60, (fn. 50) and by 1717 to £73 10s. (fn. 51) At the present time the net value is £266 a year. (fn. 52)

The names of some of the early rectors are known, Robert occurring about 1190–1206, (fn. 53) both singly and in conjunction with Henry (fn. 54) ; also William somewhat later. (fn. 55)

The following have been vicars:—

InstitutedNamePatronCause of Vacancy
oc. 1277–8Benedict (fn. 56)
29 May 1281Roger de Cockersand (fn. 57) Archbishop of York
oc. 1330William de Skipton (fn. 58)
oc. 1341William de Lonersale (fn. 59)
oc. 1147William deCaton (fn. 60)
c. 1356Richard Pacock (fn. 61)
21 Oct. 1380Richard de Preston (fn. 62) Cockersand Abbey
oc. 1385Roger Pacock (fn. 63)
16 Mar. 1395–6Thomas de Green (fn. 64) Cockersand Abbey
? 14.10Robert Lancaster
16 Nov. 1421Robert CarringtonCockersand Abbeyd. R. Lancaster
3 Aug. 1422Roger Garnet"
14 Feb. 1422–3Robert Overton"res. R. Garnet
29 Sept. 1429Thomas Hoton (fn. 65) "res. R. Overton
oc. 1461 (?)Henry — (fn. 66)
oc. 1481John Bradford (fn. 66a)
oc. 1500John Woods (fn. 67)
oc. 1508 Thomas Bowland (fn. 67a)
c. 1515 John Lancaster (fn. 68)
oc. 1535James Dugdale (fn. 69)
Oct. 1545Richard Preston, M.A. (fn. 70) John Kechynd. last inc.
18 Jan. 1558–9James Anderton (fn. 71) Christopher Andertond. last inc.
28 July 1562Hugh Anderton, B.C.L. (fn. 72) The Queenres. J. Anderton
10 Mar. 1574–5George Ainsworth (fn. 73) Bishop of Chester
2 Feb. 1609–10George Mitton, B.A.James Andertond. G. Ainsworth
17 Feb. 1620–1Augustine Wildbore, D.D. (fn. 74–5) Master of Wards.
Apr. 1645Christopher Edmundson (fn. 76)
29 Nov. 1654Isaac Ambrose, M.A. (fn. 77) Master of Savoy
3 June 1663Robert Ditchfield, B.A. (fn. 78) Bishop of Chesterdepr. I. Ambrose
28 July 1677Henry Patten, M.A. (fn. 79) The King
6 Jan. 1678–9Robert Hunter (fn. 80) Silvester Richmondd. Rt. Ditchfield
9 Mar. 1679–80Richard Richmond, M.A. (fn. 81) "res. R. Hunter
28 Nov. 1684Richard Wroe, D.D. (fn. 82) Richard Richmondres. R. Richmond
ro Mar. 1696–7Robert Styth, B.A. (fn. 83) Sarah Richmond, &c.res. R. Wroe
4 Apr. 1698Henry Richmond, B.A. (fn. 84) "res. R. Styth
1 Mar. 1706–7Thomas Waring, M.A. (fn. 85) Richard Richmond, &c.res. H. Richmond
4 Mar. 1722–3Thomas Hayward, M.A. (fn. 86) Silvester Richmondd. T. Waring
14 July 1731Legh Richmond (fn. 87) "res. T. Hayward
1 June 1750Thomas Hunter, M.A. (fn. 88) "res. L. Richmond
3 Sept. 1755James Pedder, B.A. (fn. 89) Richard Pedderres. T. Hunter
29 June 1772James Fisher (fn. 90) James Pedderd. J. Pedder
22 Aug. 1794John Pedder, M.A. (fn. 91) John Pedderres. J. Fisher
27 July 1835James Pedder, M.A. (fn. 92) James Pedderd. J. Pedder
Feb. 1856John Pedder, M.A. (fn. 93) John Pedderd. J. Pedder
18 Oct. 1859Wilson Pedder, M.A. (fn. 94) Richard & Thomas Pedderd. J. Pedder
14 July 1891John Wilson Pedder, M.A. (fn. 95) J. W. Pedderd. W. Pedder

Before the Reformation the vicars appear to have been, as a rule, canons of Cockersand; one or two became abbots, but nothing is known of them further. The services of the church, its chantries, and the chapels at Garstang and Pilling would normally require five priests, or a nominal staff of six should the vicar be non-resident or only occasionally resident. In the visitation list of 1554 six names appear, but in that of 1562 only two are given, the non-resident vicar and the curate, who appeared but did not subscribe. (fn. 96) The story during the remainder of Elizabeth's reign is unknown; probably the vicar or a curate was in sole charge. The religious people in general probably remained Roman Catholic. An incident in 1600 shows the popular sympathies. The Bishop of Chester having sent a pursuivant to arrest 'some obstinate recusants' in and near Kirkland, the vicarage was attacked during the night by a number of armed men and shots were fired at the house to intimidate the vicar and pursuivant. (fn. 97)

In view of the state of the people, one of the four 'King's Preachers' had already been stationed at Garstang, (fn. 98) and later the famous Puritan Isaac Ambrose held the office there. In 1619 Anne wife of John Butler of Kirkland was presented to the Bishop of Chester 'for being of bold, insolent and offensive behaviour in maintaining of popish superstition and making choice of popish recusants to be her servants'; and two of the gentry, Edward Kirkby and Bartholomew Jackson, did 'offensively keep argument in maintaining of popery and disgracing of the profession of the Gospel, especially on the Sabbath day.' (fn. 99)

Under Bishop Bridgeman an effort at improvement was made, for a curate of Pilling is named in 1639. (fn. 100) Even under the Commonwealth the only resident ministers were the vicar and the curate of Pilling, and the latter had been silenced. (fn. 101) Isaac Ambrose is the only vicar of eminence, and after his expulsion in 1662 the list contains no name requiring comment, except that of the non-resident Wroe. The parish was not neglected. (fn. 102) The diary of Thomas Parkinson, curate 1723–5, shows that 'prayers were then said in the church on all Wednesdays and Fridays, and all saints' days and holy days throughout the year.' The communicants were numerous, being 236 on Good Friday and 285 on Easter Day, 1723. (fn. 103) Soon afterwards the vicars appear to have resided, so that with curates at Garstang and Pilling the normal staff was raised to three.

In 1755 the churchwardens made a religious census and recorded 461 Protestant families, 154 Papist, and 18 Dissenters. (fn. 104) The number of 'Papists' in the parish reported to the Bishop of Chester increased from 230 in 1717 to 837 in 1767. (fn. 104a)

There were two chantries. The principal was that of St. Mary, at the altar on the south side of the church. It was founded by Margaret Rigmaiden, one of the daughters and co-heirs of John Lawrence of Ashton near Lancaster, for a priest to celebrate for the souls of her ancestors, a stipend of £5 6s. 8d. being allowed out of her hereditary lands. Her heir John Rigmaiden about 1547 refused to pay the stipend, and so the chantry ceased. (fn. 105) This refusal was probably due to a desire to save the endowment from confiscation; if so it did not succeed, for in 1606–7 a grant was made by the Crown of 'Ashton's lands' belonging to a chantry in Garstang Church. (fn. 106) The other chantry was that of the Brockholes family, which may have been the one they were bound to maintain by the tenure of Claughton. Nothing but a stipend of 40s. belonged to it; Henry Hey was the incumbent in 1547. (fn. 107)

Charities

Official inquiries into the charities of the parish were made in 1824 and 1898. (fn. 108) Apart from several small educational endowments, amounting in all to £l33, (fn. 109) the poor receive money doles out of a gross total of £82 16s. 3d. available.

Elizabeth Caton of Cabus in 1728 left £30 for money or cloth for the poor of the whole parish. John Caton of Claughton in 1720 left £40 for the poor, and Christopher Caton of the same place in 1721 left another £40 for the poor of Claughton. With these sums Round Meadow in Forton was purchased, and in 1824 part of the rent was spent in cloth at Martinmas and part in money at Christmas. Margaret Blackburn of Scorton in Nether Wyresdale in 1718 bequeathed £50 to the poor of this township and £40 'for the learning of poor children.' (fn. 110) John Jenkinson in 1733 left £20 for the poor of the same township, and Henry Barton in 1784 left the rescue of his personal estate, which residue amounted to £354, for the poor of Nether Wyresdale and Claughton in equal shares. These sums, with assistance from the Caton estate, were used to purchase the Cook Green Farm in Forton. These charities have long been administered together. The landed estate was sold in 1886 and the proceeds, £1,400 invested in consols, yield, with the interest on £24 in the savings bank, (fn. 111) £38 10s. 8d. a year. This income is apportioned thus: Claughton, £20 10s.; Scorton, £11; Garstang, £5 10s. 8d.; trustees' allowance, £1 10s. 'The original trusts are partly for clothing, but the distribution is now made in money . . . . It has long been customary to confine the Caton charities to Roman Catholics.'

William Baylton in 1679 gave to trustees Dimples Field in Barnacre and Calder Field in Catterall for the poor of Barnacre and of Garstang and Catterall, and added £60 in money, which was spent on land in Forton. The estate is intact and produces £l6 15s. 7d. a year, with a prospect of increase. In 1898 it was the custom 'to distribute £10 to the poor, £6 to hospitals, £4 each to four public elementary schools, and to reserve the balance for expenses.' (fn. 112)

A rent-charge of £4 on land in Claughton granted by Elizabeth Parker in 1757 in fulfilment of the wish of her father Joseph Chorley is given thus: £1 in Catterall, £1 in Claughton and £2 in Preston to poor persons not in receipt of poor law relief.

Margaret Catterall, widow, in 1868 left £100 to the incumbent and churchwardens of St. Lawrence's, Barton, for the poor of Bilsborrow, the interest to be given in either money, clothing or food. The income is £2 10s. a year. (fn. 113)

John Corless in 1721 left £20 to the poor of Garstang, the interest to be given in wheat. The capital was in 1756 spent on the town hall, and £1 a year has since been given from the funds of the town, 1s. each being given to twenty poor widows or others on St. Thomas's Day. Elizabeth Vasey in 1811 bequeathed £20 for gifts of 1s. each to poor widows of Garstang on Christmas Day. The trustee died insolvent about 1858, and the capital was lost.

Gregory Sturzaker of York left £50 for the poor of Winmarleigh. This is now considered to be represented by a rent-charge of £2 on a farm in the township, part of the late Lord Winmarleigh's estate. It is distributed by two of the farmers in small doles at Christmas time.

Footnotes

1 This does not include any in Cleveley.
2 Pal. Note-Bk. v, 15.
3 Subs. R. of 1332; Inq. Nonarum, 37.
4 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 23.
5 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 19; Garstang paid £6, Catterall 19s. 8d., Claughton 11s., and Bilsborrow 14s. 4d. towards the hundred's total of £56 4s. 8d.
6 A schedule of tenants in the manor of Nether Wyresdale in 1604 names Barnacre and Bonds as separate townships; Fishwick, Garstang (Chet. Soc), 47–8.
7 Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc), ii, 409.
8 John the Tailor of Kirkland, flying from the Scots, complained of being robbed near the Lostock in Leyland; Coram Rege R. 254, m. 42.
9 Fishwick, op. cit. 2–4.
10 Engl. Hist. Rev. v, 526, 528. The archdeacon of Richmond alleged that 2,000 had died, but the jury allowed only £3 out of his claim for £13 for probate dues.
11 Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 6, m. 22b.
12 Itin. v, 97.
13 The patent rolls of the early years of James I show a number of sequestrations for recusancy in the parish, e.g. Oliver Cottam in Barnacre and Bilsborrow; Pat. 6 Jas. pt. xxi.
In 1630–2 the following compounded by annual fines for the two thirds of their estates liable to sequestration for recusancy: Barnacre—John Bee £2, Robert Layfield £3; Catterall—Robert Shireburne £20; Kirkland—John Butler £3 6s. 8d.; Pilling—John Bradshaw (for his wife) £5, Thomas Dalton £3 6s. 8d.; Winmarleigh—Thomas Molyneux £5; Wyresdale—William Baines £2, Thomas Parkinson £3, William Parkinson £2 13s. 4d.; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxiv, 175, &c.
Large numbers refused to sign the Protestation of 1641; Fishwick, op. cit 264–72. For the case of William Capes see Cal. S. P. Dom. 1638–9, pp. 156, 171.
14 'Mr. Fyfe that dwelt at Woodacre, Mr. Christopher White of Claughton, Mr. Whitehead of Garstang town; these raised their companies within Garstang parish'; War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc), 42.
15 War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc), 60. The date of surrender is not given, but it was in or after May 1645. The defender was Capt. Nicholas (son of James) Anderton of Clayton; Castlemain, Cath. Apology; Foley, Rec. S. J. iii, 779.
16 Through England on a Side-saddle, 156. Kuerden's account of his tour through this part of Lancashire notices the watermill and the 'fair stone bridge' at the entry into Garstang; Loc. Glean. Lancs, and Ches. i, 217.
17 The Highland army passed through the 'small market-town' on 9 Nov.; Patten, Hist, of Rebellion (ed. 1745), 79.
18 Fishwick, op. cit. 70–3. Muncaster was executed at Preston on 27 Jan.; those at Garstang were Joseph Wadsworth and Thomas Goose of Catterall and Thomas Cartmell of Claughton. Others who joined were John Leyburne of Nateby, Edward Sykes of Nether Wyresdale and Thomas Walmesley of Bilsborrow. The place of execution is uncertain; one tradition gives it as Stocks Lane End in Catterall, but another as Lancaster Lanc, about half a mile north of Garstang; Hewitson, Our Country Churches, 474.
19 Advancing 27 Nov., retreating 13 Dec. At the former date the treasure chest is said to have been stolen by some of the people, but was restored after a threat to put all the inhabitants to the sword; Hewitson, loc. cit.
20 Cooke, Lancs. (1805), 122–3. 'Drunken Barnaby' thus notices the local cattle:
'Veni Garstang, ubi nata
Sunt armenta fronte lata.'
20 a Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
21 So called circa 12OO (note 30).
22 Cf. Glynne, Lancs. Churches (Chet. Soc), 24; Hewitson, Our Country Churches, 449–62; Whitaker, Richmondshire, ii, 453.
23 In 1403 the king ordered the chief forester of Myerscough to deliver four 'keisnes' to the parishioners of Garstang for the repair of the church; D. of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xv, 51 d. (pt. ii).
24 Thomas Graystock in 1561 left 6s. 8d. towards the building of the new aisle; Richmond Wills (Surtees Soc), 151.
25 'A restoration committee was formed in 1864. . . . It took about five years to complete the work'; Hewitson, Northward, 44.
26 In 1836 the vestry underwent some repairs, and over the ceiling was discovered a small room. In it were some of the brasses now on the church walls' (Fishwick, Hist. of Garstang, 92). A list of the mural tablets and inscriptions is given by Fishwick. They are chiefly of 17th and 18th-century date. The earliest brass commemorates George Ainsworth, who was vicar from 1575 to 1610.
27 It was given by the contractor for the 1746 restoration; Baines, Lancs, (ed. 1836), iv, 460.
28 The churchwardens in 1680 gave a report on the state of the church and its furniture. There were a silver chalice and two pewter flagons. Visit. Ret. at Chester.
29 Some extracts are given in Fishwick's Garstang (Chet. Soc), 127–40. The vestry books go back to 1734; ibid. 125.
30 Gilbert (who was grandson of Reinfred) said that the advowson of the church of St. Helen of Garstang belonged to his wife Helewise, who had not been summoned. She was the daughter and heir of William de Lancaster by Helewise (de Stuteville), the other defendant to the claim on behalf of St. Michael's. This Helewise said she claimed nothing except as dower, and called Gilbert and Helewise his wife to warrant her; Assize R. 1039, m. 3. The date is known by an entry in the Pipe Roll, stating that Matthew the Physician owed 10 marks for the summoning of a jury to decide whether the church of Garstang was a chapel of St. Michael's or not; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 192. The jury stated that St. Helen's had always been regarded as a mother church, and pointed out that it had never been regarded as in the king's gift (as St. Michael's was) in inquiries made in the time of Henry II and of John himself when Count of Mortain; Curia Regis R. 32, 36.
31 Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc), i, 278; the gift was made for the souls of Kings Henry and Richard, also of King John, the grantor and his wife, with the consent of William de Lancaster his heir. The date is about 1215, in which year King John ratified it; ibid. 46. Helewise de Stuteville also concurred; ibid. 279. William de Lancaster confirmed his father's gift and added 4 oxgangs of land; ibid. 280.
William Archdeacon of Richmond approved the gift, reserving the right to ordain a vicarage; ibid. 281. Gregory IX confirmed it in 1232; ibid. 25.
The Abbot of Cockersand was rector in 1246, when he claimed an oxgang of land as the free alms of his church and not the lay fee of Jordan son of Thorfin; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lanes, and Ches.), i, 106. Jordan relinquished his claim; Cockersand Chartul. i, 276.
32 Anderton D. (Mr. C. J. Stonor).
33 Ibid. The list of vicars shows that Christopher Anderton presented in 1559. In 1650 another Christopher Anderton, 'a Papist delinquent,' was patron; Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 149.
34 Fishwick, op. cit. 83, citing Pedder D. An account of the Richmond family is given ibid. 83–6.
35 Ibid. 86.
36 The descent is thus given: Richard Pedder –9th s. James (vicar, 1755–72) -s. John (vicar, 1794–1835) -s. James (vicar, 1835–56) -bro. John (vicar, 1856–9) -bros. Thomas and Richard, of whom the latter survived; he was of Preston and Finsthwaite House, Ulverston, d. 1891 -bro. Wilson (vicar, 1859– 91) and his son John Wilson, present vicar, who has afforded the editors this and other information.
37 Pope.Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 307, 327.
38 Inq. Nonarum (Rec. Com.), 37. The contribution of Garstang was recorded as £9 6s. 8d., Claughton £1 13s. 4d., Catterall £1 6s. 8d and Bilsborrow £1; the glebe also produced £1 6s. 8d.; a total of £14 13s. 4d. Waste due to the destruction made by the Scots accounted for the £12 reduction. Claughton (and perhaps also the glebe) appertained to the vicarage.
39 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 261.
40 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xiv (1), 609; a grant by the Court of Augmentations in 1539. A lease for twenty-one years was made to Edward Turner in 1588; Pat. 30 Eliz. pt. xv.
41 Pat. 2 Jas. I, pt. xvii.
42 Though it does not appear that the lay rector was in any way responsible for the church services, complaint was made in 1621 that Sir Robert Bindloss refused to keep a curate in the rectory of Garstang which he had purchased, so tfeat six hundred persons were destitute of services; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1619–23, p. 283.
Sir Robert Bindloss of Borwick and Rebecca his wife made settlement of the rectory of Garstang, &c, in 1650 and 1660; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 149, m. 38; 165, m. 4.
43 Fishwick, op. cit. 88, citing 'Exch. Bills and Answers, Jas. I,' no. 156.
44 Ibid. 89.
45 Pat. 2 Chas. I, pt. iv (14 Mar.).
46 Fishwick, op. cit. 90. About 1717 Lady Standish, a Papist, [was] impropriator of six townships and Mr. Butler of the other four; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc), 409.
47 Cockersand Chartul. i, 282–3.
48 Pope Nich. Tax. 307.
49 Valor Eccl. v, 263; the manse and demesne lands were worth 2s. clear, tithes of grain £8 13s. 4d. and of wool, &c, £1 13s. 4d., other small tithes and dues as in the Easter roll £4. The vicar was liable for synodals 2s. and procurations 3s. 5d.
In 1571 the vicar was alleged to claim 'plough pence' and 'house money, otherwise called smoke money or smoke pence, 'belonging to the rectory; Fishwick, op. cit. 88.
50 Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), 149–50; the vicaragehouse and 3 acres of glebe were worth £3 a year, Stout House, on the glebe, worth £13 6s. 8d., but then detained by John Greenwood of Lancaster under a lease from Dr. Wildbore; tithes of Claughton £45.
51 Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 408; glebe £14, tithes of Claughton £46 10s., modus for tithe hay £1, Easter reckonings £5, and surplice fees £7. This value had increased to over £80 a year' by 1725; ibid. 409. The glebe land measured 16 or 17 acres. A terrier of 1736 is in the Visit. Ret.
The glebe is situated partly in Kirkland (the vicarage, &c), but chiefly in Garstang (Stout House).
52 Manch. Dioc. Dir.
53 R. de Garstang was a surety to the monks of Wyresdale for the chaplain of St. Michael's between 1194 and 1199; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 338. He is no doubt the Robert de Garstang who attested a Conishead charter about 1190; ibid. 361. Robert rector of Garstang and Paulin his brother also occur; Cockersand Chartul. i, 291. See also Lanc. Ch. (Chet. Soc), i, 57; ii, 387 (dated 1205–6).
Paulin was perhaps the ancestor of Edmund de Wedacre living in 1340; De Banco R, 321, m. 294.
54 Robert and Henry, rectors of Garstang, made an agreement as to the tithes of Bilsborrow with Robert the Clerk of Preston, the latter releasing his claim; Cockersand Chartul. i, 334.
55 Lanc. Ch. ii. 362 (dated 1230), 429. William de Lancaster (III), sending greeting and sincere love to William rector of Garstang, directed him to render his homage and service for land in Nateby to Gilbert the Clerk; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 77. About 1260 one William was 'chaplain' of Garstang; Cockersand Chartul. i, 292.
56 Benedict vicar of Garstang attested Claughton charters; Add. MS. 32104, no. 933. 1309. In 1278 he complained of a ditch in Garstang, made by John le Tailor, but died about that time; Assize R. 1238, m. 31; 1239, m. 39. Also Dep. Keeper's Rep. xlvi, App. 166.
57 York Reg. Wickwane (Surteeg Soc), 119; collated by reason of the archbishop's vuitation. He was a priest.
Roger vicar of Garstang in 1292 made a claim against Henry de Haydock and William the White, executors of the will of Adam de Brockholes, and recovered 40s.; Assize R. 408, m. 98. He may be the Roger afterwards Abbot of Cockersand; Chartul. i, p. xxii.
58 He claimed 50s. as owing by John de Bardsey, Thomas de Southworth and Gilbert de Howath; De Banco R. 283, m. 280 d.
59 John de Pleasington in 1341 complained that William de Lonersale, vicar of Garstang, had broken down his hedges and trespassed in his corn and grass there; De Banco R. 327, m. 151.
60 Ibid. 352, m. 537 d.
61 Complaint was made that he kept greyhounds and dogs for hunting foxes and hares, to the hurt of the deer; Duchy of Lane. Forest Proc. bdle. 1, no. 20, m. 3.
62 This and some later institutions are taken from Whitaker, Richmondshire, ii, 453, citing Torre's MSS.
Richard de Preston was vicar in 1382; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1468.
63 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), i, 91.
64 Thomas Green became Abbot of Cockersand in 1410; Chartul. i, p. xxii.
65 In 1444 a monition was issued against the vicar of Garstang for nonresidence; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 373. Thomas Hoton as vicar in 1467–8 witnessed the last will of Roger Dugdale, who left one of his animals for the repair of Garstang Bridge; Richmond Wills (Surtees Soc.), 5.
66 Kuerden MSS. iv, G 4. The date is erroneous.
66 a Cockersand Chartul. iii, 113 3, &c. He was a canon of the abbey and vicar as late as 1497.
67 Ibid. 1144. He also was a canon of Cockersand.
67 a Named in a settlement by Ralph Catterall recited in Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 4.
68 In a return made to the king in 1527 it was stated that Garstang Rectory, appropriated to Cockersand Abbey, was worth £20 a year and the vicarage £10. The latter had been held by John Lancaster, one of the canons of the house, for twelve years and more; Duchy of Lanc. Rentals, bdle. 5, no. 15. In 1524 Lancaster had some dispute with John Brockholes, John Rigmaiden, Robert Pleasington the elder and Richard Cottam; the award was that, after anyone died, his representatives should give the vicar, for the solemn singing, 1d. if unable to give the rector a mortuary, 2s. if able to give a mortuary, and 3s. if a gentleman; Add. MS. 32105, no. 823.
In 1520 Robert Walhill was 'parish priest,' or curate in charge; Fishwick, op. cit. 217. In 1524 Adam Astley was 'curate'; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. v, no. 62.
69 Valor Eccl. v, 263.
70 Act Bks. at Chester, 1502–76, fol. 23b. In 1538 the Abbot of Cockersand granted the next presentation to Sir William Poulet and John Kechyn; Church Papers in Dioc. Reg. Chester. The Church Papers and Act Bks. have supplied the later vicars, where no other references are given. Accounts of the various incumbents will be found in Fishwick, op. cit. 145–200; Baines, Lancs. (ed. Croston), v, 421–4. Richard Preston was still vicar in Sept. 1557; Catterall D. (W. Farrer); also in 1558–9, according to Piccope, Wills (Chet. Soc.), iii, 74; but there must be a mistake in the date.
71 In old pedigrees 'James Anderton, priest,' is named as a brother of Peter Anderton of Anderton; e.g. Harl. MS. 1549, fol. 22. In the Visit. List of 1562 he was said to be at Oxford, but the entry (though James is named) may refer to the next vicar.
72 Of this vicar nothing seems to be known except that he joined with Christopher Anderton, the patron, in granting a lease of the vicarage to Thomas Anderton; Fishwick, op. cit. 146, citing Pedder D. Hugh Anderton graduated from St. Mary Hall, Oxf.; B.A. 1566, B.C.L. 1572; Foster, Alumni. From an agreement dated 1583 between John Bold, farmer of the vicarage, and Thomas Brockholes of Claughton it appears that a grant of the vicarage was made in 1581 by Thomas and Hugh Anderton of Chorley during the life of the said Hugh Anderton, B.C.L.; Add. MS. 32105, fol. 228b. There is therefore something doubtful about the time and manner of Ainsworth's succession.
73 The bishop collated by lapse. George was a younger brother of Henry Ainsworth, the Brownist.
In a return made in 1590 he was described as 'no preacher'; S. P. Dom. Eliz. xxxi, 47. A similar report was made of him about 1610, but at that time one of the king's preachers had been stationed at Garstang; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 8.
74 –5 From this time the institutions are recorded in the Inst. Bks. P.R.O. printed in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, i, 95, &c.
Dr. Wildbore was vicar of Preston 1626–30, and of Lancaster 1630 onwards. Both benefices were sequestered by the Parliament, he being a Royalist. He died in 1654.
76 It is improbable that Edmundson had any legal title to the vicarage, as Dr. Wildbore was sequestered only for 'delinquency,' but he is styled vicar in the registers. He was approved by the Assembly of Divines as 'godly and orthodox,' and required to officiate as vicar and preach diligently, having for his pains therein the vicarage–house, &c.; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 3. He was a member of the Classis in 1646, and signed the 'Harmonioui Consent' in 1648; he was approved as 'a diligent painful minister' in 1650; Commonw. Ch. Surv. 150. Edmundson's title ceased on the termination of the sequestration by Dr. Wildbore's death in 1654, and the people petitioned that Ambrose, who had long had the office of king's preacher in the neighbourhood, should be appointed, 'there being a great necessity of such a reverend and able man among us in regard to the extraordinary profaneness, lukewarmness, popery and several strange heresies so much abounding'; Fishwick, op.cit. 168. Edmundson was presented to Hawkshead in 1657 (Plund. Mins. Accts. ii, 182, 307), probably conformed in 1662, and died at Hawkshead in 1675.
Hiet Edmundson, son of Christopher, entered St. John's Coll., Camb., in 1661, aged seventeen; he was described as 'of Oldham.' He graduated B.A. in 1664, and became vicar of Deeping; Mayor, Admissions to St. John's, i, 149; Wilson, Sedbcrgk Reg. 85.
77 Vicar of Preston 1639–57. He was presented to Garstang 1 Sept. 1654, and the appointment was ratified 29 Nov.; Plund. Mins Accts. ii, 54. On the restoration he obtained a new presentation from the king; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xlvi, App. 19. He was deprived for nonconformity in 1662 and retired to Preston.
78 The bishop presented by lapse. This vicar, who was of St. Mary Hall, Oxf., B.A. 1662 (Foster), appears to have had a doubtful title. In 1676 the king presented Richard White, M.A., to the vicarage; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xlvi, App. 121. Ditchfield died at Garstang in July 1677.
79 The king presented 'by reason of simony or other cause'; Patten was instituted, but his title must have been faulty, as the next vicar was presented as successor to Ditchfield. Henry Patten matriculated at Oxford in 1664 (Foster, Alumni), but the source of his degree is not known.
80 Hunter was curate of Liverpool 1670–88; he probably occupied Garstang till Richard Richmond was of proper age.
81 In the Inst. Bks. P.R.O. and the Church Papers the date is given as in the text; in the Act Bks. as 30 Oct. 1679. For this vicar see the accounts of the rectors of Sefton (1684–1721) and Walton (1690–1721).
82 Also Warden of Manchester (q.v.l 1684–1718.
83 The patrons were Sarah, Richard, Silvester and Henry Richmond and Richard Houghton. Styth was one of the curates of Liverpool, and occupied Garstang for twelve months only, till Henry Richmond (one of the patrons) was ready.
84 Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; B.A. 1695; Foster, Alumni. He became one of the rectors of Liverpool in 1706.
85 Educated at Christ Ch., Oxf.; M.A. 1688; Foster.
86 Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1719; Foster. He was head master of Warrington Grammar School, and held Garstang only until the patron's son was of age for institution.
87 Son of the patron. He resigned Garstang on being presented to the rectory of Stockport, 1750–69; Earwaker, East Ches. i, 396, 372. His grandson, of the same name, wrote the Dairyman's Daughter, &c.
88 Educated at Queen's Coll., Oxf., but left without graduating. He had Balderston chapel, but resided at Garstang Visit. Ret. In 1771 the degree of M.A. was granted by the University for his Philosophical Character of Lord Bolingbroke. He wrote other works. From 1755 till his death in 1777 he was vicar of Weaverham, Cheshire. See Fishwick, op. cit. 193–7; Dict. Nat. Biog.
89 The patron is described as 'of Preston, linen draper'; the vicar was his son. He was educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; B.A. 1753;' Foster. A 'threatening letter' by him, addressed to the priest at Claughton, is printed by Hewitson op. cit. 460.
90 The patron, an infant, was son of the late vicar.
91 The patron presented himself in this and some following cases. John Pedder was educated at Trinity Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1794.
92 Educated at Christ's Coll, Camb.; M.A. 1829.
93 Educated at St. John's Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1829.
94 Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1842, vice–principal of Wells Theological Coll. 1842–7, vicar of Compton Dando 1847; J.P. for Lancs.
95 Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1876.
96 Visit. Lists at Ches. Dioc. Reg. The church 'ornaments' remaining in 1552 were scanty; Fishwick, op. cit. 81–2.
97 Cal. S. P. Dom. 1598–1601, pp. 466–7. Over ninety persons were summoned before the justices.
98 This is evident from the story; see also Cal. S. P. Dom. 1633–4, p. 467.
99 Visit. presentments at Chester. Several persons were in trouble in 1624 for taking part in a funeral in which the corpse was set down at crosses by the wayside, with obeisance to the same in superstitious manner,' and was 'buried without the minister's aid or any prayers made'; Fishwick, op. cit. 274.
100 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 124. The vicar wag non-resident, holding Lancaster also. Ambrose was king's preacher from 1635, and resided at Garstang till his appointment to Preston; Fishwick, op. cit. 163.
101 Commonw. Ch. Surv. 150. The visit. list of 1691 shows a vicar (non-resident), a curate and a second curate at Pilling.
102 In 1680 the churchwardens reported 'many Papists, or reputed for to be, and some Quakers'; Visit. Ret.
103 Parkinson, Old Ch. Clock (ed. 1880), 188–9; at Eastertide 1724 the communicants numbered about 740. See also Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 532.
104 Visit. Ret. at Chester.
104 a Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xviii, 217.
105 Raines, Chantries (Chet. Soc.), 199; there was no plate.
106 Pat. 4 Jas. I, pt. xiii.
107 Raines, op. cit. 201. An inquiry was made into the matter in 1561. John Rigmaiden, then aged thirty-six, produced the will of Margaret Rigmaiden, dated 19 June 1516. She directed her trustees to set aside 8 marks a year 'to hold and keep therewith a sufficient and able priest to read and sing in the said church of Garstang continually for ever, in manner following: That is to wit, to say mass three days in every week, and Placebo and Dirige with three lessons every ferial day, the commemoration, Pasch time and octaves precipue only except; and also every year to make a solemn obit with note and mass of Requiem in like wise for my husband's soul, my soul, all our parents' and friends' souls; and also help to maintain and keep divine service in the said church every Sunday and holy day at matins, masses and evensong in his surplice as oft as there shall happen to be company to do the said service with note.' Her son Richard Rigmaiden was the first priest appointed; on his death John Pye succeeded, and dying was followed by Thomas Lawrenson (1543), who was cantarist for two years or more. It was then that John Rigmaiden, deceased, refused to pay, and Lawrenson died in Holborn of the plague about 1550; Duchy of Lanc. Special Com. 33.
108 The report of the 1898 inquiry, issued in 1899, contains also the report of 1824.
109 The Sunday school attached to the parish church his also a small endowment.
110 The will declares, 'though I exclude no sort of poor from partaking of my charity, yet still I would have poor Catholics preferred before others.'
111 The origin of this sum has not been ascertained.
112 Barnacre has half, Catterall and Garstang each a quarter of the income.
113 Protestant Nonconformists are admitted to the distribution, but Roman Catholics excluded.