Townships
Bolton-le-Sands

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

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1914

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132-136

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'Townships: Bolton-le-Sands', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8 (1914), pp. 132-136. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53282 Date accessed: 01 October 2014.


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BOLTON-LE-SANDS

Bodeltone, Dom. Bk.; Bothelton, 1200; Boulton, 1226; Boelton, 1249; Bouelton, 1256; Bolton, 1297.

As its name implies, this township borders on the sands of Morecambe Bay, the waters of which make steady encroachments on the land, so that at Red Bank the hill has been worn away to show a precipitous cliff on the seaward side. The surface rises from the marshy lands near the coast, then falls and again rises, the village of Bolton, with the parish church, being in the hollow. There is a detached part, Beaumont Cote, to the south-east of the chief part of the township. The village is in the centre of the township, with Hatlex and Inglebreck to the south, and Bolton Holmes, Thwaite and Hawkshead in the north. The area measures 1,580 acres, (fn. 1) and in 1901 there was a population of 902. Some changes in boundaries have been made, the Cote having been added to Slyne in 1887. (fn. 2)

The principal road is that from Lancaster to Carlisle, going north through the village, from which point other roads branch off—south-west to Hest Bank, south-east to Halton and east to Nether Kellet. The main line of the London and NorthWestern railway runs north-east through the township, and has a station named Bolton-le-Sands. The Lancaster and Preston Canal also passes through, a little to the east of the railway.

The pleasant-looking village skirts the main road for a considerable distance, having a tree-clad hill to the east. It has become a summer holiday resort to some small extent. About 1820 Dr. Whitaker described it as 'one of the neatest, best built, and pleasantest villages among many on this favoured shore.' (fn. 3) Hawkshead, in pleasantly wooded lands to the north-east of the village, was about sixty years ago owned by — Walmsley; it is now the property of Mr. Henry Joseph Coulston. (fn. 4)

The soil is a light loam, overlying gravel. There are no manufactures.

The township is governed by a parish council. In former times there was a customary division into four quarters—Church, Middle, North or Town, and Holmes. (fn. 5)

Manors

Earl Tostig held BOLTON in 1066 as part of his Halton lordship; it was then assessed as four plough-lands. (fn. 6) Half a plough-land in 1094 belonged to the church, (fn. 7) and forms the rectory manor afterwards held by the Archdeacons of Richmond and Bishops of Chester, and now by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 8) The remainder (fn. 9) was in 1212 held by seven persons as two and a half plough-lands in drengage; they or their ancestors had formerly paid 40s. and rendered certain customs, but these being released they paid an increment of 26s. 8d., or 5 marks in all. (fn. 10) In the Pipe Roll of 1201 are recorded increments of 20s. from the vill and 6s. 8d. from the mill. (fn. 11) Shortly before this Richard I had released the men of Bolton from suit to his mill by the Lune, receiving in return an increased rent of 26s. 8d. (fn. 12) ; but it is not quite clear whether there were two separate increments of this amount, or whether the Pipe Roll entry is an apportionment of the increment levied by Richard. The latter seems the more probable, for in the farm of the county in 1226 the assized rent of Bolton was 46s. 8d. and of the mill there 20s., making only the 5 marks of 12 12. (fn. 13)


Bishopric of Chester. Gules three mitres with labels or

An extent of the manor and church of Bolton, as held by the Archdeacon of Richmond, was compiled about 1320. The manor-house was out of repair. In demesne were 88 acres of arable land (by poles of 20 ft.), valued at 12d. an acre; also meadow and pasture land. The rector had 2 acres of woodland for fuel, and land in Over Kellet worth 13s. 4d. a year. Nine tenants are named, paying rents amounting to 30s. 10d. and doing suit of court. There was also a bondman, who had toft and croft and 4 acres of land, paying 4s. 3d. rent, acting as reeve at the will of the lord and rendering merchet. (fn. 14)

It is impossible to trace the various subdivisions of the manor. (fn. 15) In 1297 the Earl of Lancaster was found to have held two messuages, with 29¼ acres of land, in demesne; there was a water-mill which rendered 40s. a year (fn. 16) ; and the free tenants were Ranulf son of William de Dacre, holding 4 oxgangs of land and rendering 9s. 10d.; William son of Simon, 2 oxgangs for 6s.; John son of Eda, similarly; the heir of Franceys, (fn. 17) 12 acres for 11s. 8d.; the Prior of Lancaster and Thomas Travers, each 9s. 10d. for their moieties of two fees formerly held by Durbald and by Adam son of Gilbert. (fn. 18) It is possible that the Dacre tenement, which does not again occur, is a duplication of part of the lastnamed. (fn. 19) The Lancaster family had some estate in Bolton. (fn. 20)

The divisions appear to be more carefully stated in the extent of 1324. At that time John Travers held the fourth part and the eighth part of the vill which had belonged to Adam son of Gilbert and William Durbald respectively. John Franceys held the fourth part (fn. 21) by the service of 11s. 8d.; Simon de Bolton held the eighth part by 6s. 2d.; John son of Eda held the like; and the Prior of Lancaster held six messuages and various lands, formerly of the fee of Adam son of Gilbert and William Franceys, rendering 10s. The Abbot of Furness held the hamlet of Crouholme and Clomore, formerly of the same fee, by the service of 1s. 6d.; William son of James held 2 acres of John Travers, part of William Durbald's fee, by 3d. rent; Serle de Wedholme and Maud his wife held 11 acres of John Travers and John Franceys by a rent of 12d.; and John de Harrington held the hamlet of Serleholme by 16d. rent. (fn. 22)

The process of subdivision went on rapidly, and in 1346 the principal tenants were John Franceys, holding a fourth part of the vill in socage by a rent of 11s. 8d. as before; the Prior of Lancaster, holding another fourth part by 9s. 10d.; Cecily de Southworth, representing Travers, holding land by 8s. 8d. rent; John son of Simon de Bolton, holding by 5s. 6d. rent. A large number of smaller tenants held the remainder; they included the Abbot of Furness (who had Woodholme), John de Barton and John de Harrington. The land held by the Earl of Lancaster in demesne had been increased by a purchase from Simon de Thornbrandhead. (fn. 23) The mill was held in shares; Cecily de Southworth held a moiety and an eighth, John Franceys a fourth and Simon de Bolton the other eighth part; they paid for it 33s. 4d. in all. (fn. 24)

The Franceys' fourth part of the manor was acquired by the Washingtons (fn. 25) and the Lawrences of Ashton. (fn. 26) The Travers' part (fn. 27) seems to have descended to Singleton of Brockholes (fn. 28) and Starkie of Lancaster (fn. 29) ; it included part of Hatlex. It may have been acquired by the Jervis family (fn. 30) of Slyne. The Boltons appear to have sold their inheritance in the 15 th century. (fn. 31) The Harrington estate descended to the Lords Mounteagle, who called it a manor (fn. 32) ; it seems to have been sold to Croft of Claughton. (fn. 33) William de Slene obtained land in 1313, (fn. 34) and this was probably the nucleus of the estate of Southworth. of Highfield. (fn. 35)

The Earls of Derby had a manor in Bolton (fn. 36) sold in parcels in 1604. (fn. 37) The estate or manor of the Abbots of Furness (fn. 38) descended for a time like Beaumont in Skerton, but BEAUMONT COTE (fn. 39) was acquired by the Cole family, who recorded a pedigree in 1665. (fn. 40) It descended to the Butlers of Kirkland, (fn. 41) who added Cole to their surname, and has since descended with Kirkland and Nether Kellet. (fn. 42)

The mill occurs at various times. (fn. 43)

In addition to Furness Abbey and Lancaster Priory (fn. 44) the canons of Cartmel (fn. 45) and Cockersand (fn. 46) had land in Bolton. The names of Marshal (fn. 47) and Chaffer (fn. 48) occur among the 15th-century landowners, and the inquisitions show a few others. (fn. 49) The most noteworthy of the later names is that of Stout, (fn. 50) for one of the family, William Stout, a Lancaster tradesman, 1665–1752, has left an autobiography giving many particulars of his early life and his kinsfolk. (fn. 51) He states that his father rebuilt the house at Bolton Holmes, in which his father and grandfather had lived for a century previously. There were then only about 12 acres of land; but, he says, 'my father and mother were very industrious in their children's infancy, and in a few years had improved their estate to the double what it was when they were married; the lands thereabout being much more valuable then by the benefit of a large marsh or common, which maintained many thousand sheep: the marsh then extending half way westward from our house to Priestskear, and from Bare in the south, round about the Knoll end in Lindeth to Arnside Well, except a narrow inlet for the tide in Keer, but not sufficient to receive any boat or barque of burden. My father then could have kept 100 sheep all summer on that marsh, and about the seventh month yearly the high tides brought the sheep's dung and sea tangle to the side, which was gathered by the inhabitants—every house at the Sands side knowing how far their liberties for gathering extended.' (fn. 52) The marsh was in 1677 'washed away,' (fn. 53) and the value of the farm was much diminished, but the father bought other lands, particularly at Hatlex. (fn. 54) William Stout was educated at the free school at Bokon, but was ' very much taken off the school, especially in the spring and summer season, plough-time, turf-time, hay time and harvest, in looking after the sheep, helping at plough, going to the moss with carts, making hay, and shearing in harvest.' A writing master came in winter. About 1743 William Stout left Lancaster and went to live at Hatlex, where he died early in 1752. (fn. 55) Bolton Holmes seems to have descended with the main line of the family till 1846. (fn. 56)


Cole of Cote. Vert on a fesse argent three lions' heads erased gules.

Thomas Jenkinson as a 'Papist' registered his small estate at Bolton and Aldcliffe in 1717. (fn. 57)

The common lands consist of about 4 acres of waste, at Thwaite Brow, on which the owners of cattle used to turn them out without stint. This produced quarrels and at a township meeting about 1829 it was resolved that the herbage should be let by auction, the rent going to some public purpose. The rent is now applied to relieve the rates. (fn. 58)

The history of the parish church has been told above. The only other place of worship is the Roman Catholic church of St. Mary of the Angels, consecrated and opened in 1884; the mission had been commenced in 1868. (fn. 59) At the indulgence in 1672 a licence was applied for by the Presbyterians for Robert Hall's house at Bolton, but nothing is known as to the continuance of the congregation. (fn. 60)

Footnotes

1 The Census Rep. 1901 gives 1,530 acres, including 14 of inland water; also 10 acres of tidal water and 2,094 of foreshore.
2 Loc. Govt. Bd. Order 19997.
3 Richmondshire, ii, 282.
4 For this family see Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc), v, 255.
5 Roper, Churches, &c., of North Lancs. ii, 3.
6 V.C.H. Lancs. i, 288b.
7 Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 290, 294.
8 In right of the bishopric of Chester.
9 It is possible this was the whole, for Simon (? rector) was one of the tenants; but according to Roger of Poitou's charter the tenure of the church land should have been free alms.
10 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 95, reading deletis for doletis. The tenants were Gamel de Bolton, Dawe (then in the king's custody), Agnes, Thomas, Gilbert, Godith and Simon.
Some of these seem to be identical with owners named in a confirmation by King John to Adam son of Adam de Kellet in 1204—viz. of their part of Greveholme and Dritern (now Dertren) by Adam son of Alan and Godith his wife, Thomas le Rous (Rufus) and Siegrith his wife, Gilbert de Bolton and Serot his wife, Michael son of Alden de Bolton, Adam son of William de Bolton and Agnes daughter of Roger de Bolton, Cal. Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 141.
The Furness Chartulary contains the grants thereby confirmed. Gamel de Bolton gave the fourth part of Grevcholme and Dritern, being of his demesne, to Adam son of Adam son of Orm de Kellet, at 18d. rent; and Adam son of William de Bohon with the consent of Walter his brother gave another fourth part, also at 18d. rent. The bounds went from Meresbeck to Ramshead Ford and thence to Dritern Pool; from this pool to the sea-shore; Add. MS. 33244, fol. 35, 34. Then Agnes daughter of Roger de Bolton gave Adam de Kellet a fifth part of the third of the same place at 2d. rent; Thomas le Rous and Siegrith his wife, Gilbert de Rolton and Serot his wife, Adam son of Alan and Godith his wife, Michael son of Alden de Bolton, made like grants, so that the whole of this third part was acquired by Adam; ibid. Dritern Pool is stated to descend between Dritern and Wedholme.
11 Farrer, op. cit. 130; it is here that the service from Bolton is called drengage. The same increment appears in subsequent years in the Pipe Roll.
12 Lanc. Ch. (Chet Soc.), ii, 259–62. This is an account of a pleading of 1321, by which the Prior of Lancaster sought to recover tithe from the mill which had been built in Bolton, in lieu of the sum lost to him through withdrawal of suit from the Lune mill. This tithe had formerly been paid to him, but had been withdrawn. It was now restored.
13 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 140. In 1246–8 Bolton mill paid 26s. 8d.; ibid. 169. This seems to have been the rate in later years; ibid. 220.
14 Ibid, ii, 39–42, from Registrum Honoris de Richmond, App. 68.
15 About 1216 the wife of Gamel de Bolton was of the king's gift; her land was worth 3s. yearly; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 118. A few years later (before 1226) Sara (Serot) de Bolton was also of the king's gift; her land was worth a mark; ibid. 130.
Henry son and heir of Robert son of Agnes had lands in Bolton in 1242–3; Close, 56, m. 3. Henry son of Robert de Bolton granted land to Thomas de Coupmanwra or Capernwray for 45s. 9d. given 'in my great need'; Lanc. Ch. i, 241.
Ellis de Bolton died about April 1249 holding in chief of the king 2 oxgangs of land in Bolton by a free rent of 5s. 10d., doing suit to county and wapentake. There were in each oxgang 20 acres of arable land and 4 acres of meadow. He held the whole in demesne and ploughed with his own plough. His heir was Simon, his eldest son, of full age; ibid. 175. The relief paid was equal to the annual rent; ibid. 184. He may be the Ellis de Thorbrandhead who had a son Simon; Furness Chartul. Their estate was afterwards purchased by the Earl of Lancaster, as shown later.
Thomas Roud, brother and heir of Ralph son of Adam de Bolton, paid 20s. as relief on succeeding in 1248; Excerpta e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), ii, 38; Close, 62, m. 9, He died about 1261, but the record has been lost; his nephew and heir William paid 23s. 4d. as relief; ibid. 354; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 226. If 5s. 10d. was the free rent for 2 oxgangs, 23s. 4d. would show a tenement of one plough-land.
Henry son of Godith de Bolton died in or before 1261 holding 2 oxgangs of land and the eighth part of a corn mill of the king by the yearly service of 9s. 2d.; John his son and heir was of full age; ibid. 228. Henry son of Gilbert de Bolton was one of the jurors.
The composition of the rent is explained by that paid by Simon son of Michael de Bolton, who died in 1264 or 1265 holding 2 oxgangs of land of the king by a rent of 5s. 10d. and the eighth part of the mill by 40d.—i.e. 9s. 2d. in all. His son and heir William was aged thirty; ibid. 233; Excerpta e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), ii, 423. The 40d. shows that 26s. 8d. was still the rent paid for the mill.
Ralph son of Adam son of William de Bolton granted Walter de Bolton son of William the Clerk all the land of Calfholme and Southpool as far as the bounds of Sereholme, together with an oxgang of land in Bolton, at a rent of two spears or 3d.; Add. MS. 33244, fol. 40. Land in the same place was given by William son of William son of Walter the Mason to Gervase the Clerk of Bolton at 10d. rent; ibid. This Gervase, in another grant by Ralph son of Adam son of William de Bolton, is called son of Simon, a former rector; ibid. 41.
A number of grants by Adam son of Gilbert de Bolton to Thomas de Coupmanwra are recorded in Lanc. Ch. i, 177– 203. Thomas Roud (or Thomas son of Adam son of William de Bolton) also gave land to the same Thomas; ibid. 204–21. A large number of field-names may be collected from these grants: e.g. Wiches or Withes, Thistlebreck, Ingmire, Inglebreck, Graythwaite, Gunnulfrys, Gunnulfkelders, Haltonsty, Flokeresty in Wedholmmire, Braithmire, Natwraymire, the Heaning next the Cringlebroghan, Maldebroghanes, Hawkshow, Hawkswell, Dimples, Monksflat and Rigsummerild.
16 Three grants in Bolton to Earl Edmund are recorded in the Great Coucher of the duchy. (1) Dodi daughter of Ellis de Thorbrandshead released to him all her right in the tenement formerly belonging to her husband John son of Adam; i, fol. 61, no. 8. (2) Geoffrey son of Adam de Bolton released his share of the water mill, with suit, &c.; ibid. 77, no. 69. (3) William son of Thomas de Hest released his land on Inglebreck, one head thereof abutting on Kellet field; ibid. 78, no. 76.
17 The heir was perhaps John son of William Franceys, of whom it was found that Adam son of Roger de Calfholme had held an acre by 1d. rent. Adam, who had been hanged for felony, held another half acre of Thomas Travers; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 320.
18 Ibid, i, 295–6. William, John (son of Henry) and Adam have occurred in the preceding note. Durbald seems to have been the surname of William the heir of Thomas Roud; William was the son of Henry Durbald of Bolton; Lanc. Ch. i, 246. From the next paragraph of the text it would appear that he was the William Franceys who gave land to Thomas de Coupmanwra and to Lancaster Church; ibid. 234–5.
19 Yet it appears that the words 'Prior of Lancaster' have been cancelled to make way for Dacre. The rents given amount to 53s. 2d., to which must be added 40s. for the mill, or 93s. 2d. in all. Ranulf de Dacre and Joan his wife confirmed a grant of land in Calfholme made to Furness Abbey; Add. MS. 33244, fol. 43.
The pleadings give little information. In 1277 Cecily widow of Ralph de Kellet claimed dower in 40 acres in Bolton and Slyne against Thomas Travers and Aline his wife; De Banco R, 21, m. 95 d. In 1292 Thomas Travers obtained a recognition of his right from Geoffrey son of Adam de Bolton; Assize R. 408, m. 20 d. At the same time Adam son of John de Ramshouth complained that Robert son of Henry de Bolton and Christiana widow of Jordan del Holmescales had disseised him of land, but the verdict was against him; ibid. 6. The Ramshouth family occur again in 1333; De Banco R. 294, m. 11; 297, m. 170. Also in 1357; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 6, m. 1 (John de Ramsouth and Amice his wife).
Agnes daughter of Thomas de Bolton demanded a messuage and lands in 1304 against Thomas de Calfholme; De Banco R. 151, m, 174. Thomas de Calfholme in 1311 claimed an acre against Cecily widow of Jordan de Calfholme; ibid. 187, m. 66. William son of John Othewell claimed against Thomas de Bolton, William son of John de Cartmel and Olive his wife in 1331; Assize R. 1404, m. 26 d. William son of James de Bolton did not prosecute his claim against Simon de Bolton and others in 1337; ibid. 1424, m. 11 d. At the same time Thomas son of William Willeson made a claim for land in Bolton against William and John sons of William de Bolton, who stated that plaintiff's father, William son of William son of Robert de Bolton, had granted the land to them; ibid. 8.
20 This is shown indirectly in pleadings. In 1246 Simon son of Michael and Ralph son of Adam claimed 60 acres against William de Lancaster; Assize R. 404, m. 13. See also the account of the rectors.
21 Except 9½ acres in the king's hands.
John Franceys acquired land, &c, in Cockshoots, Strikesfold and Whitlands before 1321 from William son of Jordan de Bolton and Simon son of Gilbert son of Walter de Bolton and Adam son of Agnes de Hatlex; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L H26, 676, 683, 1067.
22 Dods. MSS. cxxxi, fol. 42b. A number of other tenants are recorded: William son of James, 2d.; William son of Cecily, 4d.; Thomas de Ramshaw, 10d.; Roger the Smith, 10d.; John son of Jordan, 10s. (? 10d.); John de Woodholme (of John Travers), 3d.; Adam son of Maud (of John Travers and John Franceys), 6d.; William de Hatlex (of the same), 6d.; William son of William (of John Travers), 2d.; Adam son of Eda (of the same), 7d.; Simon son of Gilbert (of the same), 4d.; Roger de Calfholme (of the same), 6d. The sum of the rents is given as 52s. 5d.
In 1330 John son of Roger the Smith gave William son of John Franceys (this John being a witness) his messuage and all his land, meadow and turbary in Bolton, also land which belonged to him through the death of Alice widow of James de Bolton, and the reversion of the dower of Helen widow of Roger his father; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L 677.
William son of James de Bolton was pardoned for his share in the death of William de Kellet (1321) on account of his having served in the wars in Scotland; Coram Rege R. 298, Rex m. 10 d.
23 Surv. of 134.6 (Chet. Soc), 64, 74– 80. Many of the tenants are the same as those of 1324 recorded above.
24 Add. MS. 32103, fol. 151. The other tenants here recorded seem to be those of the earl's demesne land in Bolton. They were William del Well, 16s. 8d.; also for land formerly held by John le Romeyn, Nicholas de Slene, 3s. 8d.; Thomas Taylor, 6d.; Cecily Southworth, 5s.; John de Barton, 11s.; and for part of the marsh Nicholas de Slene and others paid 1s.
25 In 1350 Lambert son of Geoffrey de Wyresdale was accused of the abduction of Agnes daughter of John Franceys of Bolton; Assize R. 443, m. 3 d. (From the next note it appears that he married her.) A little later a like complaint was made against Robert and Thomas de Washington; ibid. 434, m. 4. Then in 1353 Thomas son of Robert de Washington complained of disseisin by Agnes the daughter of John Franceys; ibid. 435, m. 26. Robert Franceys in 1355 claimed a debt from Agnes widow and executrix of Robert de Washington; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 4, m. 26 d.; 5, m. 8 d.
Another Robert de Washington made several purchases in Bolton between 1375 and 1388, and Thomas de Calfholme released his claim on a piece of meadow in Wedholmemire abutting on the mill dam; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L 669–73, 679. In 1401 an agreement was made between Edmund son of Robert de Washington on one side and John son of Robert de Washington and Thomas de Burgh on the other; ibid. 689. The seal to this bears the Washington arms. John son of Robert de Washington obtained in 1405 a release of the lands of James son of William son of Cecily de Bolton; ibid. 1076.
26 John Franceys in 1348 demised certain of his lands, &c, to Edmund Lawrence for life at the rent of a rose for six years and then of 100s.; ibid. 685. Agnes daughter of John Franceys married Lambert de Wyresdale, and they quitclaimed to Edmund in 1366; ibid. 688.
The Lawrence family probably succeeded the Washingtons. In 1406 Simon formerly servant of Robert de Washington released all his claim to lands in Bolton to Agnes widow of Edmund Lawrence; ibid. 1077. In 1426 Sir Robert Lawrence agreed to pay Maud Wyresdale of Bolton 10s. a year for her life for the fourth part of the lordship of Bolton, with lands, &c.; ibid. 691.
Robert Lawrence, who died in 1450, had lands in Bolton held by a rent of 2d.; Lancs. Ing. p.m. (Chet. Soc), ii, 56. His son Sir James was in 1490 said to hold the 'manor' by the same rent; ibid. 122, 132. The tenure is not the same as that of Franceys; there were several rents of 2d. payable in 1346.
Lancelot Lawrence of Yealand Redmayne died in 1534 holding six messuages, &c, of the king by knight's service; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 41. This statement is repeated in later inquisitions.
27 See the account of Scale in Skert n. There is a reference to the Travers' holding in Cal. Pat. 1321–4, p. 367. See also Final Conc. ii, 3.
28 Nicholas Singleton had given his lands in Slyne, Bolton, Hatlex and Threlfall to a certain Elizabeth Singleton for her life; they descended to his grandson Richard, who died in 1499, but the tenure was not known; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 52. Richard's grandson Robert in 1525 held the same of the king as of his duchy by a rent of 12d.; ibid, vi, no. 64; x, no. 1.
Thomas Braithwaite in 1615 purchased the manor of Bolton and Hatlex from Thomas Singleton and Mary his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 84, m. 19.
29 Lawrence Starkie died in 1532 holding lands in Bolton, Slyne and Hatlex, as also in many other places, but the tenure is not recorded beyond being of the king as duke by knight's service; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 21.
30 One of Lawrence Starkie's daughters married Humphrey Newton. Brian Newton, possibly a relative, in 1592 sold lands in Bolton Holmes, Hatlex and Slyne to Robert Jervis.
Robert Jervis of Garstang died in 1617 holding a messuage, &c., in Slyne and free rents of 14½. in Bolton of the king in socage. His son James, twenty-six years of age, succeeded; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 270. James died in 1628, leaving a son Richard, only eleven years old, who died in 1634. The heir was Roger Rathmell, aged thirty, son of Richard, son of Elizabeth, sister of the above-named Robert Jervis; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxv, no. 21; xxviii, no. 4.
James Jervis sold a messuage, &c., to George Winder, who died in 1619 holding this and other purchases of the king as duke by knight's service. His heir was his sister Grace, wife of Richard Jackson, of full age; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), ii, 191.
31 In 1381 William de Bolton clerk acquired a messuage from Thomas de Birkhead and Aline his wife; Final Conc. iii, n. Thomas Nelson and Agnes his wife in 1462 purchased from Matthew Bolton and Margaret his wife; ibid. 131. It appears that Matthew Bolton had settled at West Derby, and in 1465 Reginald son and heir of John Conder released to Thomas Nelson of Caton all his right in the said purchase at Woodholme; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 27, m. 11.
There are other traces of the family or families of this name. Christopher Bolton and Margaret his wife had lands in Bolton and Bare about 1463; Final Conc. iii, 133. Anne Hunt, kinswoman and heir of William Bolton, appears to have had this estate in 1506; ibid. 161.
32 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 64; xi, no. 1. The tenure was by knight's service. Lord Mounteagle still held an estate in Bolton in 1597; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 58, m. 200.
33 One John Croft held messuages in Bolton of the king as duke by a rent of 16d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. viii, no. 38. This was the rent paid by John de Harrington in 1346. Again in 1554 Thomas Croft of Claughton purchased the fourth part of three messuages, &c, from John Harrington and Anne his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 1 5, m. 62. They were ' held of the chief lords there in socage,' according to the inquisitions 5 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. x, no. 28; xiii, no. 23. William Croft in 1606 held of the king as duke by a rent of 14d.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc), i, 50–56.
William Thompson of Claughton died in 1566 holding messuages, &c., in Bolton of the queen as of her duchy by the fourth part of a knight's fee; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 32. His son Oliver sold a messuage to James Thompson in 1570; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 32, m. 118. This may have been the messuage held by William Thompson in 1591, when he was succeeded by a daughter Margaret, aged twelve; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xviii, no. 5.
34 Orm son of William son of Simon de Bolton granted an acre in the hamlet of Serholme to William de Slene; Towneley MS. HH, no. 366, 394. A later William held 6 acres in 1346, paying 6d. rent; Survey of 1346, p. 80. William de Slene, who died in 1401, held his land in Bolton of the Abbot of Furness; Towneley MS. DD, no. 1507.
35 Robert Brockholes in 1427 and John Gardiner in 1440 had land in Bolton; Final Conc, lii, 94, 105. In 1480 John Southworth held his land in Bolton by 12d. rent; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), ii, 113. Later the Southworths were stated to hold in socage.
36 The manors of Bolton- le-Moors and Bolton-in-Furness were possessions of the family, but Bolton-le-Sands does not occur in the inquisitions and the origin and tenure of the Derby manor here are unknown. It may have been merely an outlying part of the Nether Kellet estate, or the Lawrence manor already noticed.
37 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 65, no. 43. See the account of Nether Kellet. Among the purchasers' names are William and Edmund Lodge and Henry Chapman. One Mark Lodge died in 1624 holding land of the king, and leaving a son and heir Edward, aged twenty-three; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 746. Henry Chapman died at Hatlex in 1637 holding a messuage of the king; his son and heir Thomas was over fifty; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxx, no. 3.
38 Charters relating to Greveholme and other Furness lands in the north-west of the township have been cited above. Adam de Greveholme gave the abbey his lands there in 1242; Add. MS. 33244, fol. 32. The same Adam gave land on Ramshead in Bolton fields to Christiana daughter of Henry the Dyer of Kirkby in Kendal on her marriage; ibid. 35b. His nephew Adam de Kellet confirmed his gifts to Furness Abbey; ibid. Robert de Boulton also gave a quitclaim; ibid. 36.
In Wedholme or Woodholme Adam son of Gilbert de Bolton gave to Gervase son of Simon land which extended to the mill and mill stream of Bolton; ibid. 37. Gervase was afterwards a benefactor (ibid, 50b), and Ralph son of Adam and Lawrence son of Walter also gave the monks land in Wedholme; ibid. 38. Land in Calfholme and Santhpool as far as the boundary of Serholme was also given; ibid. 39b–43.
Gamel de Bolton gave land on Inglefa reck; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L410. Gilbert son of Gamel confirmed this; Add. MS. 33244, fol. 54. Henry son of Robert de Bolton and nephew of Simon gave land under Hawkshead; ibid. 54b. Other land under Hawkshead was given by Adam son of Gilbert de Bolton to John son of Robert de Scotforth; Towneley MS. HH, no. 301. Orm son of Thore, with the consent of Ralph his heir, gave the monks Rigrinmelsuthen, viz. that land lying between these bounds: From Holme to Ullrefurthebeck, from the junction of this beck and Betha to Fullsyke; Add. MS. 33244, fol. 56. The abbey had also lands in Great and Little Hatlex (Hakelakes); ibid. 58. Andrew de Hatlex and Hugh his son had made a gift to the monks of land in Ramshead field; ibid. 58b. There are many other grants, and in some cases the original charters have been preserved; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 172–3.
39 The heading ' Here begin the charters of Bolton by Beaumont' in Add. MS. 33244, fol. 50, covers miscellaneous grants in various parts of the township, but the first may refer to Cote; by it Ralph son of Adam de Bolton gave to Gervase the Clerk land on Keldbreck. Adam son of Gilbert de Bolton also gave land on Keldbreck lying near the bounds between Slyne and Bolton; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L 406. The position of Cote and the occurrence of Strellas within it suggest that it had been part of Halton (q.v.), but in that case it should not have been within Bolton parish.
In 1628 the manors of Beaumont and Bolton, with the site of the grange and messuages, lands, &c., in Beaumont, Beaumont Cote, Bolton-le-Sands, Over Kellet, Skerton, &c, lately belonging to Furness Abbey were sold by the Crown to Edward Ditchfield and others; Pat. 4 Chas. I, pt. xxxiv. This seems to be the estate purchased by William Harrison in 1643 from John (Bridgeman) Bishop of Chester and others; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 140, no. 28. See the account of Beaumont.
Some part of the Furness estate in Bolton seems to have been granted to Edward Gage and others in 1604; Pat. 2 Jas. I, pt. xix. It may have been this which was purchased by Robert Cole, for he was 'of Cote' in 1625, paying £10 in 1631 as a composition for refusing knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 221. Bishop Gastrell about 1717 found Beaumont Cote the only ancient seat in the parish, it having belonged to the Coles 'time out of mind '; Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc), ii, 549.
40 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc), 88; ' Robert Cole, born in Somersetshire, a clerk in the Duchy office in London, seated himself at Cote,' and died in 1642. His son Thomas was thirty-eight years old in 1665, and had a son of the same name aged fourteen.
41 Thomas Cole of Cote died 12 Jan. 1691–2, aged sixty-five; his widow Jane and son Edmund placed a monument in Bolton Church, recording his praise as ' a good magistrate, a good Christian and a good man.' Edmund the son was high sheriff in 1707; P.R.O. List, 74. Dorothy his daughter and heir carried the Cote estate to her husband Thomas Butler of Kirkland; Baines, Lancs, (ed. 1836), iv, 471. The Cole family had a large house in Lancaster, now the Judges' Lodgings.
42 See the accounts of those townships.
43 The king granted to William Bolton (for life) half a mill, 17 acres of land, &c, in Bolton in Lonsdale in 1399; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xvi, 40. There was a further grant to him in 1401; ibid, xv, 85. In 1553 William Richardson and Agnes his wife had the fourth part of a water mill there; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 14, m. 25.
44 The charters relating to Bolton are numerous; see Lanc. Ch. i, 173–257. Some of them have been cited already. Helewise daughter of Adam son of Gilbert de Bolton gave land by the Overgate, the road leading to Kellet. Thomas de Coupmanwra acquired a considerable estate in various parts of the township, and this he granted to the Benedictines of Lancaster, and in 1273 the alienation was ratified by Edmund son of Henry III. Joan daughter of Anabil daughter of Christiana de Bolton claimed two messuages, &c, in Bolton against the Prior of Lancaster; De Banco R. 141, m. 214 d.
The priory estate passed to Syon Abbey and then to Dalton of Thurnham; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 1.
45 A toft was given by Adam son of Gilbert de Bolton; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 192. See also Lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 90. The tenement in Bolton, Silverdale and Hest, formerly of Cartmel Priory, was granted to Edward Lord Zouche and others in 1605; Pat. 3 Jas. I, pt. xxii.
46 Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), iii, 916–20. The benefactors were Agnes wife of Robert de Bolton, Serota daughter of Roger de Bolton, Simon son of Siegrith de Bolton, Robert son of Agnes de Bolton, Thomas son of Adam de Bolton, Thomas de Bolton and Siegrith his wife. Inglebreck, Whitbreck, Keldbreck, under Laurum by the church, Greythwaite and Smithwithlands occur in the descriptions.
47 James Marshall of Wiswell and Preston died in 1483 holding lands in Bolton, Slyne, Skerton, Torrisholme and ' Daccre ' of the king as duke by a service of 8d. for castle ward; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), ii, 119.
48 In 1445 the three daughters of Thomas Burgh had a dispute concerning shares of land in Bolton, Scotforth and Gressingham. They were (on one side) Margaret wife of William Peirson, Juliana wife of Thomas Hyne and (on the other) Joan wife of Hugh Chaffer, Thomas Chaffer being joined with the last-named; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 8, m. 32 b. Judgement wag given for the Chaffers. In 1484 Richard Gardiner gave a messuage in Bolton to Thomas Chaffer, chaplain, with remainder to John Chaffer and Margaret his wife; Towneley MS. HH, no. 351. Somewhat later (temp. Hen. VII) John Chaffer (son of Hugh son of Thomas son of Alice daughter of Thomas Burgh) complained that John Dockwray of Kendal was withholding deeds; Early Chan. Proc. bdle. 194, no. 32; see also bdle. 216, no. 69. John Chaffer died in 1505 holding three messuages, land, &c, in Bolton, partly of the king as duke by 15d. rent and partly of the Abbot of Furness by 3s. rent. The heir was his son Thomas, under two years old; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 27.
49 Thomas Bradley of Silverdale held land in Bolton of the queen as of her duchy by knight's service in 1586; ibid. xiv, no. 51.
Thomas Jenkinson in 1624 held a messuage, &c, by a similar tenure. Richard his son and heir was forty years of age; Towneley MS. C 8,13 (Chet. Lib.), 699b.
George Yates died in 1631 holding his messuage in socage; his son George, aged twenty-two in 1641, was heir; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, no. 79.
Randle Hawes died in 1634, and was succeeded by his son Thomas, aged thirtyeight; and Thomas Toulmin died in 1638, leaving a son John, aged eighteen. Their tenements were held of the king as duke; Towneley MS. C 8, 13, p. 518, 1179.
50 William Stout in 1590 purchased land in Holmes by the Sands from Thomas Southworth and Anne his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 52, m. 142.
Leonard Stout died in August 1638 holding a messuage in Bolton Holmes of the king, and leaving a son and heir William, aged ten years; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxx, no. 84. His will was proved at Richmond.
51 Printed by John Harland in 1851, with portrait. The father's name is not given, but he appears to have been the above-named William Stout, whose will was proved at Richmond; if so, the dates on page 1 of the Autobiog. must be erroneous.
52 Autobiog. 1–3.
53 At the same time a corresponding marsh was formed south and west of Cartmel; ibid. 6.
54 Ibid. 5; it was bought from Francis Ashton of Hest. In 1850 Hatlex House was owned by Mrs. Alice Hall, and had in it a piece of carved oak furniture with l. s. 1693 upon it, probably the initials of Leonard Stout, brother of William.
55 Ibid. 145.
56 John Stout, owner of Bolton Holmes, died at Lancaster in 1846; the estate was sold soon afterwards. In 1868 it was purchased by Heysham's charity trustees, Lancaster.
57 Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 144.
58 End. Char. Rep. 1899. The molecatcher's wages were at one time paid from the rent. It appears that no lordship of the manor was known in 1829.
59 Liverpool Cath. Annual, 1889, p. 83.
60 Cal. S. P. Dom. 1672, pp. 10,42, 43.