The parish of Urswick

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

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1914

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328-338

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'The parish of Urswick', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8 (1914), pp. 328-338. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53323 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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URSWICK (fn. 1)

Ursewyk, 1160; Urswic, 1202; Hursewic, Ursewic, 1212.

Berretseige, Dom. Bk.; Berdeseia, 1157; Berdeshay, 1291; Berdesay, 1292.

Bodeltun, Dom. Bk.; Bolton, 1299; Boulton, 1304.

Steyntun, Dom. Bk.

Adgareslith, 1212.

The parish of Urswick bends round the north-west and north of Aldingham, having at Bardsea a frontage to Morecambe Bay of nearly 2 miles. The total area is 3,904½ acres, (fn. 1a) and the parish has rights, in common with Aldingham, to Birkrigg, 276 acres. There are no townships, but certain customary divisions are well marked. In 1717 the churchwardens were chosen from four districts: (1) Stainton with Adgarley; (2) Little Urswick, Bolton, Bolton Heads and Beckside; (3) Great Urswick; (4) Bardsea. Stainton was then a 'village,' considered to belong to Leece in Aldingham. (fn. 2) The same division into four parts is still made. Sometimes the parts are arranged in two groups, thus: Great or Much Urswick and Bardsea in the north, with acreages of 1,232 and 828 respectively, and Little Urswick in the south-west, with 1,844½ acres. Little Urswick has three subdivisions: Little Urswick proper, 621 acres, in which are the ancient church and Redmayne Hall; Bolton with Adgarley, 688 acres, to the south; and Stainton, 535½ acres, to the west. The surface is undulating, rising generally from south to north and from east to west; the highest points reach 300 ft. above sea level in Much Urswick and 332 ft. in Stainton.

Each of the subdivisions named has its village or hamlet. That of Bardsea lies on the slope of the hill towards the sea, being well protected from the northerly winds, with Bardsea Park on its north side and Wellwood on the west. To the south are supposed Druidical remains. This part is pleasantly wooded, and West thus wrote of it about 1770. (fn. 3) :—

The site of Bardsea is romantic; the aspect good, and well sheltered by rocks and woods from every blast, having an easy descent to the south, on a bold shore and pleasant beach. The hall is an ancient building, seated on a rock, snug and well sheltered, though it be the highest site in Low Furness. The gardens have been made at vast expense on shelving rocks that rise above each other; the ascent is by steps cut out of the rock. A spacious gravel walk has also been made after the same manner. Vines planted in crevices and conducted along the face of the shelving rocks thrive well.

The village of Much Urswick, set in a sheltered valley, lies round the northern end of a large tarn, formed, according to local tradition, by a sudden subsidence of the earth, the ancient village being submerged at the same time. (fn. 4) The parish church stands alone, a little way from the southern end of the tarn, and the village of Little Urswick is half a mile or more to the south-west of the church.

Bolton has no surviving hamlet, being represented by the remains of an ancient chapel near its northern boundary, while Adgarley is joined to Stainton. Here there are important iron mines, (fn. 5) but they are not now worked; a mineral branch line connected them with the Furness railway. Stone quarries are worked. To the south of Adgarley is Harbarrow, 200 ft. above the sea. On Stainton Green are a number of huge blocks of stone, from which it has been supposed that the place took its name.

The population in 1901 was 1,186. Apart from mining, agriculture is the chief industry. The soil is loam and clay, the subsoil various; the agricultural land is now occupied thus (fn. 5a) ;

Arable land ac.Permanent grass ac.Woods and plantations ac.
Urswick8532,09914
Bardsea17341860

Oats, barley and root crops are grown.

Administration is in the hands of a parish council of eight members.

One of the principal roads leads north-west from Barrow towards Ulverston, passing to the east of the village; it has a branch to Bardsea. Another road, through Stainton and Little and Much Urswick, goes north to join the main road from Dalton to Ulverston.

Though various ancient remains have been observed, (fn. 6) the history of the parish has been without any very noteworthy incident. The beacon is mentioned in 1619, the registers stating that Thomas Fell of Bardsea had taken the tar barrel away. According to the county lay of 1624 Urswick had to contribute £3 6s. towards each £100 levied upon the hundred. (fn. 7) Before the formation of the railway a passenger steamer used to ply between Bardsea and Fleetwood. (fn. 8)

Christopher Urswick, LL.D., one of the more prominent officials of the time of Henry VII, was born in Furness in 1448, being in 15 17 heir male of the Urswicks of Little Urswick. He was one of the fellows of Manchester Church, and held other church preferments. In 1502 he became rector of Hackney, and began the rebuilding of the church. He died in 1522. There was formerly a memorial brass at Hackney commemorating him. (fn. 9)

James Cranke, born at Urswick in 1707, became a successful portrait painter in London. He returned to his native place about 1750, and died there in 1780. (fn. 10) His second son James, born in London in 1746, was an artist of much greater fame; he died at Urswick in 1826. (fn. 11) The Cranke family still continue in the place.

John Bolton, a geologist of note and friend of Adam Sedgwick, was born in the village in 1791; he died in 1873. (fn. 12)

Manors

Although Urswick is not mentioned by name in Domesday Book, it is probable that all the land in it is accounted for in manors held in 1066 by Earl Tostig and Turulf of Ulverston. The former held Bardsea, four ploughlands, and Stainton, two plough-lands, while the latter held Bolton as six plough-lands. (fn. 13) The assessments became reduced by half. Bolton and Stainton were afterwards held with Aldingham by Michael le Fleming, (fn. 14) and by an exchange he acquired Bardsea from the monks of Furness, who had received it as part of their endowment in 1127. (fn. 15) Thus the whole parish came into the hands of the lord of Aldingham, and has since remained within the lordship of Muchland, (fn. 16) the courts of which are now held at Bardsea.

In 1212 it was found that five separate grants had been made by Michael le Fleming and his son William, these no doubt being the origin of the subordinate manors which come under notice in later times. The descent of these manors cannot be described completely, owing to the paucity of evidence.

BOLTON WITH ADGARLEY is traced to a grant of three plough-lands 'in Adgarley' made by Michael in marriage with his daughter Godith. (fn. 17) Soon afterwards it was held by the Copehnd family, which occurs at Whittington and elsewhere in Lonsdale, but the details of the acquisition are not known. The Copelands may have descended from Godith, but part of their estate was acquired by purchase. William son of Walter, whose father had received half a ploughland there in marriage, granted the same to Roger son of Roger de Heaton in free marriage with his sister Agnes, (fn. 18) and in 1235 Richard de Copeland acquired from Roger de Heaton and Agnes his wife 4 oxgangs of land in Bolton, for which he was to render yearly a pair of white gloves or 1d. (fn. 19)

Alan son of Sir Richard de Copeland in 1288 allowed the monks of Furness and their men right of way through his lands in Furness, Lonsdale and Copeland; if any road should be too miry for their wagons to use it they might drive them over dry land adjoining, except through inclosed corn-fields. (fn. 20) Soon afterwards he granted them hunting rights, (fn. 21) and probably he was the Sir Alan de Copeland who arranged for the gift of the manor to the monks. Mabel widow of Alan de Copeland in 1297 claimed dower in 100 acres of land in Urswick held by Richard, vicar of the church, and in the manor of Bolton. (fn. 22)

In 1299 the king's licence was sought to alienate the manor to Furness Abbey. In the consequent inquiry it was found that the manor of Bolton was held in moieties of William de Heaton and John de Kirkby, the former moiety by rendering a pair ot white gloves yearly and the latter by 6d. rent. (fn. 23) It would not be to the king's hurt to allow the alienation of the manor to the abbey, and so licence was given and the monks took possession. (fn. 24) The gift was duly confirmed by Richard son of Sir Alan, but brought great trouble on the new possessors. Sir John de Kirkby, baron of the Exchequer, having married his sister to Richard's son Alan, worried them with lawsuits and distraints to compel them to surrender, and at last the said Alan de Copeland obtained seisin. He was succeeded by his grandson Richard (son of John), from whom the abbot in 1364–82 attempted to recover the manor. (fn. 25) Richard died in 1393 or 1394, when he was succeeded by a son Alan, having made an agreement with the abbot that the manor should revert to the monks in case his own issue failed. Thus Alan the son obtained possession, and Margaret widow of Richard de Copeland received her dower. (fn. 26) The widow seems to be the Margery de Bolton whom Richard married about 1380. In 1392–3 Richard de Copeland made a settlement of tenements in Bolton-Adgarley, apparently on his son Alan's marriage with Kathcrine daughter of Sir John de Hudleston. (fn. 27) But little elsa is known of the Copeland family's connexion with Urswick. (fn. 28)

By Margaret, the daughter and co-heir of the lastnamed Alan, it came to John Broughtonof Broughton, (fn. 29) a settlement being made in 1432, when two-thirds was held by Katherine widow of Alan Copeland and the other third by the above Margaret widow of Richard. (fn. 30) On the forfeiture of Sir Thomas Broughton in 1487 this, like his other manors, was granted to the first Earl of Derby, (fn. 31) from whom, notwithstanding the confiscations of the Commonwealth period, (fn. 32) it has descended to the present earl. (fn. 33) Courts have been held occasionally until recently. (fn. 34)

MUCH URSWICK, or Westby's Lands, was a grant of half a plough-land in marriage made by Michael le Fleming to Ulf son of Eward; a rent of 5s. was to be paid. (fn. 35) The land was before 1187 transferred to Roger son of Augustine de Heaton, (fn. 36) and descended like Heaton in Lonsdale till the end of the 14th century. William son of Michael de Furness about 1260 released Roger de Heaton and his heirs from suit of his court of Aldingham, (fn. 37) and in 1262 Roger de Heaton was found to have held 3 oxgangs of land in demesne and 1 in service of William son of John son of Alexander de Hyton, rendering 6s. 4d. yearly. (fn. 38) In 1288 and later Christiana daughter of Roger son of William de Heaton claimed 4 oxgangs of land in Urswick against William son of William de Heaton, (fn. 39) and in 1292 she continued her claim to 3 oxgangs in 'Alton Urswick in Furness.' Her claim failed, as it was found that her grandfather, five days before his death, being of sound memory, gave this land to his son William and put him in seisin. (fn. 40) William son of William de Heaton and Anilla his wife held the oxgangs of land in 1323. (fn. 41) On the division of the Heaton estates this portion fell to the Westbys of Mowbreck, William Westby and Ellen his wife holding 6 oxgangs of land in Lancaster and Urswick in 1413. (fn. 42) William Westby of Mowbreck died in 1557 holding six messuages, &c., in Urswick of Sir Richard Hoghton in socage by the rent of a grain of pepper. (fn. 43) The tenure is similarly recorded later. (fn. 44) The manor was not noticed by West in 1774, but in 1842 it was described as a 'small tract, commonly called Westby's Lands, for which a customary court is occasionally held.' (fn. 45) The customs of the manor included a 'twenty-penny fine' at each change of tenancy, i.e. a fine of twenty times the lord's rent. The widow of a tenant was entitled to a moiety of the estate during widowhood. At one time the tenants were obliged to carry a load of fish to Mowbreck, but in course of time this service was commuted to a money rent. (fn. 46) The manor is now held in moieties by Mr. J. W. Bourne and the trustees of Mrs. Haigh. (fn. 46a) The hall stood on the eastern side of the tarn.


Westby of Mowbreck. Argent on a cheveron azure three cinquefoils of the field.

A grant of 2 oxgangs of land, to be held by a rent of 32d. yearly, was made by William son of Michael to Gilbert Fitz Reinfred. (fn. 47) This appears to be the tenement which John de Harrington had in Urswick in 1347, when he held it of the king as of the lands formerly William de Coucy's by a rent of 4s. (fn. 48) It no doubt became merged in the Harrington manor of Muchland.

LITTLE URSWICK, or Redmayne Hall, probably represents 2 oxgangs of land granted by Michael to Adam son of Bernulf, to be held by a rent of 32d. (fn. 49) It was afterwards held by a family named Urswick, the descent and ramifications of which are difficult to follow. (fn. 50) Stephen de Urswick was a juror c. 1160. (fn. 51) Simon de Urswick in 1299 proposed to confer his manor of Little Urswick on Furness Abbey, but changed his mind; Orm de Urswick was one of the jurors at the inquiry. (fn. 52) William son of Simon de Urswick was a plaintiff in 1314. (fn. 53)

It is shown in the account of Over Kellet that Adam son of Bernulf had a son Gilbert, who had a son Adam de Capernwray, identical, apparently, with an Adam de Urswick named in 1244. (fn. 54) Adam son of Gilbert granted land in Urswick to Furness Abbey, a gift confirmed by his daughter Elizabeth when widow of Sir Richard le Fleming. (fn. 55) The estates appear to have been divided, (fn. 56) yet lands in Urswick and Over Kellet afterwards came together. John Urswick and Agnes his wife obtained the Spital lands in 1447, (fn. 57) and Thomas grandson of John Urswick died in 1519 holding lands in Trinkeld, Much Urswick, Kirkflat in Little Urswick, Stainton, Ulverston and Over Kellet. His heirs general were his sister Isabel Urswick, James Redmayne and William Bentam. Thomas had sold part at least of his lands to a kinsman William Redmayne, (fn. 58) whose family must have been in possession of the manor of Little Urswick for more than a century (fn. 59) ; in 1436 the feoffees of John Redmayne and Joan his wife granted that manor to William son of John Redmayne and Cecily his wife, a daughter of Sir Thomas Strickland. (fn. 60)


Urswick. Argent on a bend sable three lozenges of the field, each charged with a saltire gules.

William Redmayne died in 1536 holding the manor of Little Urswick, with messuages, lands, &c., of the Earl of Derby by a rent of 3s. 4d. yearly. His heir was a kinsman, William, aged fourteen, in ward to Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham. (fn. 61) The younger William Redmayne occurs in 1547–8, (fn. 62) and in 1562, as William Redmayne of Twisleton, he made an agreement with Thomas Stanley of London as to the manor of Redmayne's Hall with its appurtenances in Little Urswick. (fn. 63) He had a daughter Frances, who married Leonard Babthorpe, (fn. 64) a barrister and a steadfast Roman Catholic, afterwards ruined by the heavy fines imposed upon him for religion and by the stoppage of his professional practice during the Elizabethan persecution. (fn. 65) The Redmayne manor and estates were in 1571 the subject of a fine between Leonard Babthorpe, plaintiff, and Richard Wycliffe, citizen and goldsmith of London, and Frideswide, his wife, deforciants. (fn. 66)

Richard Greenacres of Worston near Clitheroe, who had married Christiana, one of the daughters of Leonard Babthorpe, in 1593 acquired from his father-in-law the manor of Little Urswick, with messuages and lands there and at Trinkeld in Ulverston. (fn. 67) Leonard had another daughter Edith; and in 1629 a moiety of the manor of Little Urswick was sold by Edith Robinson and Martin Robinson to Leonard Park, Thomas Fell and others. (fn. 68) The Greenacres appear to have before that dispersed their estate in parcels, (fn. 69) and in 1616 Thomas Fell died holding Redmayne's Hall of the Earl of Derby by 20d. rent-half of the old rent of the manor; Thomas, his son and heir, was thirty-six years of age. (fn. 70) From that time the manor disappears from view.

BARDSEA may represent the remaining alienation made by Michael le Fleming in granting one ploughland in Urswick to Gamel the Forester, who was to render 10s. yearly. (fn. 71) Adam son of Gamel gave 2 oxgangs of land in Bardsea to Conishead Priory. (fn. 72) One plough-land would be only half of the ancient manor of Bardsea; but it is possible that some free tenant was already in possession of the remainder when the monks of Furness, as formerly told, transferred it to Michael le Fleming, and that his descendants used the local surname.

Of the Bardsey family or families very little is known. (fn. 73) Randle de Bardsey attested a Copeland charter before 1130. (fn. 74) William son of Roger occurs in 1202. (fn. 75) Roger de Bardsey in 1246 accused two persons of being concerned in the death of his brother Robert. (fn. 76) Gilbert son of Randle son of one Roger de Bardsey about 1260 granted his lordship of Bardsea to his son Adam and male issue by a charter attested by William de Furness and confirmed in 1282 to Adam's son John by John de Cansfield, lord of Aldingham, and Susan his wife. A rent of 7s. 9d. was due to the lord of Aldingham. (fn. 77)

Another Gilbert de Bardsey, as Gilbert son of Margaret daughter of Robert de Boyvill, gave all his lands in Bardsea to Furness Abbey in 1278; a rent of 8d. was due for them to William son of Daniel son of William de Bardsey. (fn. 78) The senior William de Bardsey had had another son Roger (with a son William) and a daughter Agnes. (fn. 79) Adam son of Daniel de Bardsey was plaintiff in 1292, (fn. 80) and was perhaps the Adam who in 1304 claimed a tenement in Urswick as heir of his great-grandfather William de Bardsey. (fn. 81) Others of the name occur. (fn. 82)

In 1302 the Abbot of Furness granted to Adam son of John de Urswick the wardship of Hugh son of Adam de Bardsey, under age. (fn. 83) Hugh was probably of age in 1306 when he made a claim against the abbot in respect of waste in his lands at Urswick. (fn. 84) In 1348 William de Bardsey, perhaps as trustee, granted two plough-lands in Bardsea to Adam de Bardsey and Isabel his wife for life, John de Bardsey putting in his claim. (fn. 85) Two years later Alexander Abbot of Furness and some of his monks and servants were charged with breaking and entering the house of Adam de Bardsey at Bardsea, and abducting his son Thomas, whom they imprisoned at Dalton. (fn. 86) Thomas in 1353 complained of an assault by the abbot's sumpter man at Bardsea. (fn. 87)

Similar disconnected notices occur down to the time of Henry VIII, (fn. 88) when William Bardsey was in possession. He had an elder son John, (fn. 89) whose widow Anne is named in 1535 (fn. 90) ; and in 1536 a younger son Nicholas was contracted to marry Cecily Curwen of Grassgarth. (fn. 91) Nicholas, who made a feoffment of the manor of Bardsea in 1573, (fn. 92) proved to be the last of the male line. His elder daughter Dorothy married James Anderton of Clayton, and in 1582 a settlement of the manor and lands was made by Nicholas Bardsey, James Anderton and Dorothy his wife, Lawrence Salkeld and Elizabeth his wife. (fn. 93)

James Anderton obtained the stewardship of the royal manor of Muchland in 1591. (fn. 94) Land in Urswick was included in a feoffment made by him and Dorothy his wife in 1602. (fn. 95) In 1614 and later there was much disputing concerning the bounds of the manor and a right of way over Bardsea Moor. (fn. 96) The inquisition after the death of James Anderton in 1630 recites that Nicholas Bardsey had held the manor of Bardsea, a moiety of four messuages, &c., in Ulverston with Roshead, two messuages, &c., in Lindale, and a free fishery in Leven, and that after his death in 1588 the said James and his wife Dorothy entered. Dorothy died 5 May 1627. The manor was held of the king as of his manor of Muchland by knight's service. (fn. 97) The manor of Bardsea was named in later Anderton settlements, (fn. 98) and the family occasionally resided in the place, (fn. 99) which after the sale of Clayton in 1683 became their seat. Their religion probably made them offensive to their neighbours, one of whom at least was anxious that the persecuting laws should be put in force against them for his own ends. Miles Dodding of Conishead wrote thus in 1682 (fn. 100) :—'If Madam Anderton of Bardsea with her sons, Mr. Thomas Polwhele and Baskerville and the rest of their family be convicted [as recusants] it would not be amiss to humble them, for they are very ill neighbours and highly injurious to me. When you send any officers on this side let them call at my house and I will put them in a way how to get something, for though they have few goods, yet rather than go to gaol they will assign part of their estate to pay the king's due.' On the other hand 'Mr. Anderton of Bardsea' had the favour of James II, being placed on the commission of the peace in 1687. (fn. 101)

About 1705, or earlier, Bardsea was sold by the Andertons to Lord Molyneux (fn. 102) for a hunting seat. (fn. 103) It was again sold in 1732 to Christopher Wilson of London. (fn. 104) The lands were enfranchised by Molyneux and Wilson, and the manor ceased to exist, (fn. 105) though it nominally descended with Conishead till the sale of Colonel Braddyll's estates about 1850. The hall is the property of a kinsman, Mr. Henry Richmond Hoghton Gale. (fn. 106)

The church of Urswick probably had a manor or share of the manor. This would pass with the rectory to the Abbot of Furness, who in 1298 as rector claimed 3 oxgangs of land in Urswick against Richard de Barnard Castle, vicar. The vicar replied that it was his lay fee, but the abbot said that his predecessor, Abbot Alexander, in the time of Richard I had alienated it. (fn. 107) At Bardsea the Knights Hospitallers had land, William son of Roger de Bardsey being tenant in 1202 (fn. 108) ; he gave his right, (fn. 109) together with an oxgang of land, to Conishead Priory, which house received other lands in the same part of Urswick. (fn. 110) A close called the Spital, with lands adjacent, is mentioned in 1447 and 1520 (fn. 111) The possessions of Furness Abbey have been mentioned several times.

The Flemings of Coniston had an estate in Much and Little Urswick, probably by descent from Eliza beth wife of Richard le Fleming, in 1276–8. (fn. 112) The tenure is not recorded in the inquisition of 1522, but in 1561 the four messuages, &c., were stated to be held of the queen as of the late earldom of Wiltshire, i.e. the lordship of Muchland, in socage by a rent of 7d. (fn. 113) Part of the estate was in 1569 sold to William Sawrey, clerk. (fn. 114) After the death of William Fleming in 1649 his estate in Urswick appears to have been included in the portion of a sister who married Sir Jordan Crosland, for the husband complained of wrongful sequestration by the Parliamentary authorities. (fn. 115) Harrington (fn. 116) and others (fn. 117) are named.

The freeholders in 1600 were named as John Sawrey, Thomas Fell, Christopher Garner, John Garner and Walter Curwen. (fn. 118) John Marshall of Stainton in 1631 compounded for refusing knighthood by a fine of £10. (fn. 119) John Wilkinson of Stainton in Furness, whose lands were declared forfeit and placed in the Act for sale in 1652, was allowed to compound with the Parliament by a fine of £59 18s. (fn. 120)

The custom of tenant right 'time out of mind' used in the queen's lordship of Furness came into notice in a dispute between Roland Cockenscale and William Cockenscale in 1577. The plaintiff was son of Robert son of Thomas Cockenscale, and claimed by descent. The defendant, who claimed in right of William Sawrey, purchaser from William Fleming, denied that there was a single lordship called Furness, there being many manors in it. He submitted that though 'the supposed custom of tenant right' was used in the marches of Scotland, the people of Lancashire were 'chargeable to serve the queen as other parts of the realm.' (fn. 121)

Church

The church of ST. MARY (fn. 121a) stands at the south end of Great Urswick village, and consists of a chancel 25 ft. 6 in. by 23 ft. 6 in. with north vestry, nave 62 ft. 3 in. by 22 ft. 6 in., south porch 8 ft. 6 in. by 8 ft. and west tower 16 ft. 3 in. by 13 ft., all these measurements being internal. Externally the chancel, nave and tower are all of equal width, the building forming a parallelogram 118 ft. by 30 ft. The church is of considerable antiquity, but the walls being covered with rough-cast outside and plaster within (fn. 121b) it is difficult to arrive at any very definite conclusion regarding the date of the masonry, which is apparently much older than the windows with which it is pierced. These are either later insertions at different periods or modern, with perhaps the exception of the narrow window on the south side of the chancel, which may be of 13th-century date. This is probably the date of the greater part of the building, but in the course of taking down the north wall of the chancel in 1909 to provide space for the organ some fragments of old wrought stone were found, including a piece of the shaft of a pre-Conquest cross with interlaced ornament. The interior went through the changes usual in the 18th century, when the pulpit stood in the middle of the south side and a ceiling was erected; but in 1826–7 the pews were rearranged, the pulpit removed to the north-east corner and a west gallery, 16 ft. deep, erected. In 1845 the nave roof was slated, and in 1850 the chancel and vestry were partially rebuilt.

The chancel roof, which is slightly lower than that of the nave, is modern, boarded on the inside, and with overhanging eaves. The east wall has been rebuilt in rubble, without rough-cast, and the east window is a restoration of the old one taken out in 1850, the tracery of which was given back to the church in 1908. The window is a pointed one of three trefoiled lights with a transom at the springing and flowing tracery in the head, probably of late 14th or early 15th-century date. On the south side at the east end is a modern two-light pointed window, replacing an original one of similar design taken out in 1850, the tracery of which is now set up against the south wall of the churchyard, and further west is the lancet window already mentioned, restored on the outside and probably lengthened, its height being about 7 ft. The opening is 12 in. in width, splaying out inside to 3 ft. The interior wide splaying jambs of both these windows, as well as those of the window on the north side, were stripped of their plaster in 1908, and were found to be of red sandstone in large blocks. In the south wall is a piscina with circular floreated bowl projecting from the wall, and between the windows a pointed priest's door with plain chamfered jambs and head without label, and square-headed on the inside. On the north side at the east end is a restored two-light pointed window with perpendicular tracery, to the west of which a modern doorway leads to the vestry. The north vestry window appears to be the two-light squareheaded window formerly in the north chancel wall. The chancel arch is pointed and of a single plain square order springing from plain chamfered imposts 7 ft. 6 in. high, and is 11 ft. 4 in. wide. The arch and jambs, which are 3 ft. 6 in. in depth, the thickness of the wall between the chancel and nave, were stripped of plaster at the same time as the chancel windows, and on the inside of the jambs near the west angle two small canopied niches were discovered 12 in. high by 3 in. wide, with cable moulding along the angles. On the south side of the arch is a plain squint, 12 in. square, recently opened out.

The nave has four windows on the south side and three on the north, of different types and periods and irregularly spaced. On the south the first window from the east is a tall single light 12 in. wide, of yellow stone, going up to the eaves; the second a pointed window of two trefoiled lights with quatrefoil in the head, apparently of 14th-century date and of red sandstone; the third is a square-headed window of two plain lights, a later insertion perhaps of the 18th century; next to the porch is a modern twolight pointed window of red sandstone with quatrefoil in the head, while above the porch is a circular window inserted to light the gallery. On the north side the diversity is no less great, the easternmost window near the pulpit being till recently about 9 ft. high and 2 ft. 3 in. wide, without division; it was an old window lengthened both at top and bottom, probably, when the pulpit was put in its present position. It is now restored to its former size and a mullion added. The second window, which is close to it, is an original square-headed opening of two trefoiled lights of yellow stone, with an external label; while the third, which is at the west end, is a modern window, similar to that near the pulpit before its recent restoration, but of two lights and of slightly greater width and height, lighting both the gallery and the space below. In the south-east corner of the nave, in the angle of the chancel wall, 7 ft. 6 in. above the floor and carried by an iron pier, was a gallery pew, erected in 1759 by Christopher Wilson of Bardsea Hall, and generally known as the Bardsea Pew. It was approached by a wooden staircase from the chancel by a doorway pierced through the upper part of the chancel wall, and measured 10 ft. by 8 ft., being divided into two compartments, the smaller for the servants on the east side. It was taken down in 1910. The ceiling, which was probably put up in 1751, (fn. 122) has also been removed; it concealed an open timbered roof, now opened out, on one of the beams of which is cut the date 1598. On the east wall within the roof space over the chancel arch are the remains of various mural decorations. (fn. 123) The porch is old, but a later addition, the walls not being bonded into those of the nave. It has a roundarched outer doorway of red sandstone with plain chamfered jambs and head, (fn. 124) and a similar but higher inner doorway. There are stone seats on each side, and the roof has a plain gable without coping and overhanging eaves.

The west tower is of two stages and very massive in appearance, with low diagonal buttresses of three stages, a vice in the north-east angle and an embattled parapet moulded round the merlons and embrasures. Externally the walls, like those of the rest of the building, are rough-cast, and the dressings are of red sandstone. The west door has a segmental arch, without label, and with plain chamfered jambs and head, and above is a three-light pointed window of yellow stone with trefoiled lights and perpendicular tracery and hood mould. The belfry windows are square-headed of three lights with hood moulds, the lights on the west side being trefoiled and the others plain. Below the belfry windows the north, south and east sides are plain, but on the west, immediately above the string course, which divides the tower into two stages, are three niches, in the northernmost of which is a Pietà in red sandstone. The tower arch is built up.

The font now used is a modern Gothic one dating from 1827. The old octagonal font of red sandstone was then taken away, but was preserved and restored to the church about 1905. The sides are quite plain and curve inwards to the base, which is square and in a separate piece. The pulpit is an 18th-century 'three-decker,' but all the fittings of the chancel, including the reredos, altar rails, stalls and organ-case, were erected in 1909. They are of oak and in the Renaissance style, the whole of the lower part of the east wall below the window, being panelled, and harmonize well with the plain interior of the building. The old altar piece, a painting of the 'Last Supper,' by James Cranke the elder, has been reinstated.


St. Mary's Church, Urswick

There is a 13th-century flat tombstone, found about 1850, with a floreated cross and pair of shears, inscribed 'Hic jac[e]t Amicia filia Johan[n]is Francissi,' and there are brasses to Dorothy Butler, who died in 1687, and to James Barwick, who died in 1695, with a rhyming inscription.

There is some ancient glass in the two south windows of the chancel, the lancet light being made up of about forty small fragments of glass probably of 14th-century date mixed up with modern. Two shields with the arms of Furness and Citeaux are for the greater part modern. (fn. 125) In the two-light modern window are five ancient shields with the arms of local familits, four of which, however, are imperfect and made up with modern glass. (fn. 126)

There are three bells. The oldest is probably of 15th-century date, and is inscribed 'maria + wilelmus de haryngton dominus de aldyngham et domina margareta uxor elus +' (fn. 127) ; the second is inscribed 'I. Fleming, R. Briggs, W. Tomlinson, Ch. Wardens, 1711,' and may have been cast at Kendal by A. Rudhall (fn. 128) ; and the third, by Luke Ashton of Wigan, is dated 1724, and inscribed with the names of ' Henry Houlme, vicar, James Shaw, John Conskell, Church Wardens.' It was recast by Taylor of Loughborough in 1907, the inscription being retained in facsimile.

The silver plate consists of a chalice and cover paten of 1571 with the maker's mark A K (linked), the knob of the cover inscribed with the initials W.S. and the date 1571; a plate of 1750–1, 10 in. in diameter, used as a paten, given by Christopher Wilson in 1751, and bearing his name, arms and date, and the maker's mark of Samuel Herbert & Co.; a silver-gilt paten of 1851, presented by Mr. George Rimington; and a flagon of 1877, given by Mrs. Rimington, and inscribed 'Presented to the parish church of St. Mary, Urswick, a.d. 1877.'

The registers begin in 1608. The first volume (1608–95) has been printed. (fn. 129)

Two yew trees were planted in the churchyard in 1855, one on each side of the principal entrance gate at the west end. The churchyard was extended on the south-west side in 1906.

Advowson

The church of Urswick appears to have been the mother church of Ulverston and Pennington, (fn. 130) and probably of Aldingham also. Its advowson must have belonged to the lords of Furness, for it came to the abbey without any special grant, so far as known (fn. 131) ; it was confirmed to them by the pope in 1194. (fn. 132) The church was appropriated to the abbey in 1228, (fn. 133) and a vicarage was ordained, a stipend of 12 marks being assigned by decree of the Archdeacon of Richmond in 1288. (fn. 134) After the suppression of the abbey the patronage was exercised for some time by the Crown, acting through the chancellor of the duchy, but was afterwards claimed and exercised by the freeholders, the tithes having been purchased by the landowners. (fn. 135) The 'resident landowners' are now the patrons.

In 1291 the value of the rectory was only £ 5 6s. 8d., and this was reduced to 40s. after the raid by the Scots in 1322. The vicarage, valued in 1291 at £5, was afterwards excused from taxation on account of its poverty. (fn. 136) The ninth of corn, wool, &c., in 1341 was estimated at 67s. 6d. (fn. 137) The rectory was valued at £20 a year in 1527 (fn. 138) and at £21 in 1535, (fn. 139) when the vicarage was worth £7 17s. 4d. clear. (fn. 140) In 1650 the rectory and vicarage were estimated as worth £60 and £20 a year respectively. (fn. 141) The vicar's income was certified as £20 5s. in 1717. (fn. 142) Every householder in the parish then paid 2d. to the vicar, once in three years, as a due for cera panis. (fn. 143) The net value of the vicarage is now £200. (fn. 144)

The following have been incumbents:—

Rector
InstitutedNamePatronCause of Vacancy
c. 1160Daniel le Fleming (fn. 145) Abbot of Furness
Vicars
oc. 1230William de Boyvill (fn. 146)
28 Oct. 1260William de Melmerby (fn. 146a) Abbot of Furness
oc. 1297Richard de Barnard Castle (fn. 147)
oc. 1351John (fn. 148)
15 July 1361Bro. John Fisher (fn. 149) Abbot of Furness
3 Aug. 1380William Normand (fn. 150) "
William Walton
26 July 1445John Woodhouse (fn. 151) Abbot of Furnessd. W. Walton
oc. 1535Thomas Harrison (fn. 152)
Thomas Hartley
11 Jan. 1546–7William Sawrey (fn. 153) Hugh and Walter Askewd. T. Hartley
— June 1554Henry Woodburn (fn. 154) The Queen
30 Sept. 1557Thomas Dobson (fn. 155) King and Queen[d. H. Woodburn]
oc. 1562William Sawrey (fn. 156)
24 Nov. 1579James Sayer (fn. 157) The Queend. W. Sawrey
22 May 1585William Lindow (fn. 158) "d. J. Sayer
29 Jan. 1620–1Nicholas Marshall, M.A. (fn. 159) Robert Curwen, &c.d. W. Lindow
1 Oct. 1660George Inman (fn. 160) Sir Jordan Crosland
6 Oct. 1681Thomas Inman, B.A. (fn. 161) Ant. Turner, &c.d. G. Inman
21 Sept. 1696Richard Swainson (fn. 162) The freeholdersres. T. Inman
6 June 1714Henry Holme (fn. 163) "res. R. Swainson
21 Dec. 1747John Addison, B.A. (fn. 164) "d. H. Holme
17 Sept. 1788William Ashburner (fn. 165) "d. J. Addison
26 Apr. 1800John Bailes"res. W. Ashburner
8 June 1805William Ponsonby (fn. 166) "res. J. Bailes
30 Oct. 1841Matthias Forrest, B.A. (fn. 167) "d. W. Ponsonby
1861James Gale, B.A. (fn. 168) "d. M. Forrest
2 Apr. 1878Robert Burland Billinge"res. J. Gale
21 Jan. 1903.Thomas Norton Postlethwaite, B.A. (fn. 169) "res. R. B. Billinge

There were ancient chantry chapels (fn. 170) at Bolton (fn. 171) and Bardsea, (fn. 172) fragments of the former remaining to the present day, as already stated. Nothing much is known of them; if they were regularly served down to the Reformation a staff of three priests would be required for Urswick. This is the number shown by the visitation list of 1548; in that of 1554 there were four names, and in 1562 two. (fn. 173) Later there was probably only one resident minister in the parish, and he was sometimes master of the free school also. (fn. 174) Trinity Church, Bardsea, was built in 1843, and had a separate district assigned to it in 1854. There is a school-chapel at Stainton.

The only other place of worship is the Congregational church at Stainton; an iron chapel was opened in 1873 and the present building in 1902. (fn. 175)

The free grammar school was founded in 1580. William Marshall left an endowment for a school at Urswick or Much Hadham, at the discretion of his executors, and on the petition of the people the former place was chosen. (fn. 176) The 'cock penny' used to be paid to the master at Shrovetide. 'Adjoining the school, on the upper side of the green, the remains may yet be seen of the ancient cock-pit, in which on every Shrove Tuesday the vicar of the parish presided in his gown and bands, as master of the ceremonies.' (fn. 177)

Charities

Apart from the schools at Urswick and Bardsea (fn. 178) the only endowed charity is a charge of £10 a year granted in 1625 by John Preston of the Abbey for the maintenance of poor people who were unable to work or maintain themselves and their families. He intended his gift to relieve his estate from any poor rate. A like benefaction for Aldingham and Dalton became void in 1810 because the overseers found it was more profitable to charge the estates with poor rate than to take the sums due under the benefaction; and about 1894 Mr. Victor Cavendish, then in possession of the Preston estates, refused to pay the Urswick £10 because he paid rates. Later he withdrew his objection, and gave the official trustees securities to provide for the continuance of the charity. The money used to be distributed by the churchwardens and overseers in sums of 5s. to £1. (fn. 179)

Footnotes

1 For parish map see Aldingham, ante.
1 a 3,899 acres, including 15 of inland water; Census Rep. 1901. There are also 131 acres of tidal water and 1,249 of foreshore.
2 Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 545.
3 Antiq. of Furness, p. xxvi.
4 Roper, Churches, Castles, &c., of North Lancs. (1880), i, 124; North Lonsd. Mag. i, 146. The women of the village asked the priest of the church to pray for a plentiful supply of water, and in reply a copious stream filled the beck. When it was rendered muddy by the rains the women were again dissatisfied, and taunted the priest with failure. Then a deluge and earthquake followed, and the tarn was formed, engulfing the discontented villagers.
5 'Ore mines' in Adgarley are mentioned in 1653; Cal. Com. for Camp. v, 3267.
5 a Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
6 For the stone walls see Furness Lore, 88; Cumb. and Westmld. Antiq. Soc. (new ser.), vii, 72.
A curious tripodal vessel of copper was found by Thomas Kilner near the church in 1774, and in 1798 a coin of Otho was dug up by John Holme of Little Urswick; West, Furness (ed. Close), 9, 10.
7 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 23.
8 Jopling, Furness, 22.
9 Dict. Nat. Biog. By his will (P.C.C. 23 Maynwaryng) he desired to be buried before the image of St. Austin in Hackney Church; no 'solemn dinner nor dole' was to be made and the funeral expenses were not to exceed 20 marks. The minor legacies were chiefly to various poor people, to religious houses and to friends. Special provision was made for dowries 'towards the marriage of poor maidens' in various places where he had held benefices. His nephews William Redmayne and John Aburgh are named. In the north gifts were made to Furness Abbey, the friars of Lancaster and the repairs of 'my school' at Lancaster.
10 J. Richardson, Furness Past and Present, ii, 30.
11 Dict. Nat. Biog.; Cumb. and Westmld. Antiq. Soc. (new ser.), vi, 128, with portraits.
12 J. Richardson, op. cit. ii, 31–3.
13 V.C.H. Lancs. i, 289.
14 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 83.
15 Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 307, 310, 315; dated 1157–8. After the exchange the monks claimed wreck of the sea and other rights in Bardsea and Urswick; Furness Couch. (Chet. Soc.), i, 71. The charter of Michael le Fleming is given; ibid, ii, 454.
16 See the account of Furness.
17 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 83. The name Adgarley is rarely used, except in conjunction with Bolton. In later times Little Urswick was said to be held of the lord of Bolton.
18 Kuerden MSS. iii, H 6; v, fol. 113b. Richard was son of Alan de Copeland; Furness Couch. ii, 517. This Alan may be the Alan son of Ketel to whom William son of Michael granted 2 oxgangs of land in Much Urswick in exchange for Simonshole, also half an oxgang in Windhill for 32d. rent; confirming half a plough-land in Bolton and half an oxgang in Adgarley; ibid, i, 73; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 168.
19 Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 67.
20 Furness Couch. ii, 514.
21 Ibid. 519. It was perhaps the same Alan who engaged himself to pay the monks 5s. a year on the Conversion of St. Paul, the anniversary of his father Richard, for the souls of his father and mother (Joan), but the monks at the same time resigned their claim to a messuage and land in Adgarley; ibid.
22 De Banco R. 121, m. 101 d., 113; 123, m. 66; 125, m. 76 d.
23 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 302. The petitioners were Richard Lumbard and John de Feghesergh, who had recently acquired it. They were probably Sir Alan's trustees; Furness Couch. ii, 515, 526.
24 Ibid. 516–17; Cal. Pat. 1292–1301, p. 422.
25 De Banco R. 418, m. 154 d.
26 This narrative is from the Furness Coucher, ii, 526–36.
27 Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 212b, 221, 222b.
28 There is a statement of the title of Alan de Copeland in 1302 in Assize R. 418, m. 9.
Alan son of Richard son of Alan de Copeland in 1309–12 claimed seven messuages, 3½ oxgangs of land, &c., against Richard de Barnard Castle, vicar, alleging that his grandfather Alan had given them while of unsound mind. The defendant alleged that he received the tenement from Richard, plaintiff's father; De Banco R. 174, m. 2d.; 183, m. 389; 193, m. 78 d.
29 A statement drawn up by William Thornburgh about 1550 alleged that Margaret daughter and co-heir of Alan son of Richard Copeland was twice married: (1) to Roland Kirkby and (2) to John Broughton, with issue by both marriages. The heir of the former marriage was Elizabeth daughter of William Kirkby, who married—Bradley and died without issue. Petitioner was heir of the second marriage; Kuerden MSS. iii, K 9b.
30 Final Conc. iii, 97. As early as 1346 the Broughton family were connected with the parish, Christopher de Broughton at that time having a rent of 1s. from Urswick; Q.R. Memo. R. 122, m. 89 d. So also in 1378; Final Conc. iii, 6.
31 Pat. 4 Hen. VII. The tenure is not recorded in the Derby inquisitions.
32 There was in 1654 an agreement between the Parliament's trustees and William Rawlinson and William his son respecting the manor of 'Boulton-cumAlderley'; Com. Pleas Recov. R. Trin. 1654, m. 10.
33 The manor is named in various fines and recoveries, e.g. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdles. 118, no. 1 (1632); 175, m. 143 (1665); 201, m. 37 (1678); 260, m. 53 (1708); 276, m. 67 (1715); Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 540, m. 11 (1735); 623, m. 1a (1776).
34 West, Furness (ed. 1774), 143; Richardson, Furness Past and Present, ii, 36.
35 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 83.
36 Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 437. In 1202 Roger de Heaton acknowledged that his 4 oxgangs of land were held of Ulf de Hyton and Alexander his son by a rent of 5s. 4d yearly; Final Conc. i, 21. Ulf de Hyton is probably the Ulf son of Efward of the text.
Roger son of Roger de Heaton in 1227 acknowledged the right of the Abbot of Furness to land in Querneberg; ibid. 51. Another agreement between the monks and Adam son of Roger de Heaton is printed in Furness Coucher, ii, 452.
37 Add. MS. 32104, no. 421.
38 Lancs. Inq, and Extents, i, 231.
39 De Banco R. 70, m. 22; 86, m. 106 d. The defendant replied that he held three of the oxgangs by his father's charter.
40 Assize R. 408, m. 16 d. The grandfather put his son in seisin by his servant John, who delivered to one Ralph, 'the common man,' acting as the son's attorney. After three days' possession Ralph was ejected by John de Cansfield as chief lord of the fee, but William de Heaton after his father's death made terms with him and secured possession.
41 Final Conc. ii, 55.
42 Ibid, iii, 71.
43 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. x, no. 17.
44 e.g. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 35.
45 F. Evans, Furness, 87.
46 The customs are printed in Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 644.
46 a Information of Mr. William Butler of Dalton.
47 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 83. For another grant by William son of Michael see Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L 377.
48 Inq. p.m. 21 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 53.
49 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 83.
50 There is a volume upon them by Thomas A. Urwick: Records of the Family of Urswyk, Urswick, or Urwick, 1893; note by Mr. Gaythorpe.
51 Farrer, op. cit. 311.
52 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 302–3.
53 De Banco R. 206, m. 238.
54 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 158.
55 Furness Couch. i, 73; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 168.
56 See the accounts of Claughton, Over Kellet, Upper Rawcliffe and Coniston; also Nicholson and Burn, Westmorland, i, 155.
57 See note 111 below.
58 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 17. The lands in Much Urswick and Stainton were held of Henry Earl of Wilts, and Cecily his wife, Marchioness of Dorset; that at Kirkflat of the Earl of Derby. His grandfather Thomas as heir of John Urswick had held a small close called the Spital and all the land called Spital Land in Urswick. His mother Mary is named as still living and his wife Elizabeth. The above-named Christopher Urswick is called son and heir, being over sixty in 1520; Isabel the sister fifty, James Redmayne sixteen and William Bentam fifteen. Their relationship is not explained. From the ages given it would appear more likely that Christopher was the brother, not the son, of Thomas. In Christopher's will William Redmayne is described as 'my nephew.'
59 For the family see W. Greenwood, Redmans of Levens, 196–7. The pedigree there given, but not fully proved, reads: John Redmayne -s. William -s. John -s. William, d. 1536 -s. James, d.v.p. -s. William -da. Frances, m. L. Babthorpe.
No hint is given as to the acquisition of Little Urswick Manor by this family.
60 Sizergh D.
61 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. viii, no. 34. The exact kinship of the heir is not stated, but William Redmayne had granted to Maud Barton, formerly wife of James his son and heir, a messuage in Gressingham for her life.
Supposed sons of the elder William were Dr. John Redman, first master of Trinity Coll, Camb., 1546–51, and Thomas Redman, master of Jesus Coll., Camb., 1559–60.
62 Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 98; i, 229.
63 Com. Pleas D. Enr. Trin. 4 Elir.; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 24, m. 23.
64 Foster, Yorks. Visit. 600.
65 Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc), iv, 184; Foley, Rec. S. J. iii, 201; Morris, Troubles of our Cath. Forefathers (Ser. 3), 82.
66 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 33, m. 134. See also Chan. Proc. (Ser. 2), 26 (6).
67 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdles. 55, m. 120; 56, m. 51. For the pedigree see Whitaker, Whalley, ii, 116.
68 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 113, no. 12.
69 George Garner (or Gardner) in 1597 purchased from them a messuage and land; ibid. bdle. 58,111. 271.
Thomas Hodgson died in 1608 holding a messuage, &c., in Little Urswick lately purchased from Richard Greenacres and Christiana his wife. The tenement was held of the king as of his manor of Muchland by a rent of 15d. The heir was a son John, aged thirty-three; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 201.
John Dawson died in 1610 also holding a messuage purchased from the Greenacres, and held of the king as of his manor of Muchland by 8½d. rent. The heir was a grandson William (son of William) Dawson, aged four; ibid. 269.
70 Ibid. 174; Richardson, Furness Past and Present, ii, 33.
71 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 83. Gamel the Forester of Kendal occurs about 1216; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 440.
72 Dugdale, Man. vi, 557.
73 Trans. Cumb. and Westmld. Antiq. Soc. (new ser.), vi, 175. The arms are given.
74 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 178.
75 Final Conc. i, 17; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 178.
76 Assize R. 404, m. 22 d.
77 Hornby Chapel D. The confirmation recites the original deed, in which the boundaries are thus defined: Beginning at midstream in Leven over against the Whitegrete in Cartmel, thence in a line west as far as the white cross and by the road to Furness as far as the Sletehaw; thence by Urswick fields to the top of Birkrigg, descending by the new wall to Appletree brow, to the three standing stones, and to the Whitescarr in Seawood (marina silva); thence down to four oak trees called the Four Brothers, and to the sands and the mid-stream of Levens; so back to the starting-point.
The homage of a Randle de Bardsey in Egton was granted to Furness Abbey in 1248; Beck, Annales Furn. 212; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 192, 171, Emma daughter of Randle granted an oxgang of land to Conishead Priory; Dugdale, Mon. v, 557.
78 Furness Couch. ii, 447.
79 Ibid. 443–4; William gave half an oxgang of land to his son Roger, who was to pay 8d. rent, and Agnes gave her brother Roger all her land at Pichtil in Bardsea field. Roger gave the monks of Furness land at the coal-pits in Oldfield, an assart at the head of a valley called Gill and an acre between Werewood and Buckdale in 1269; ibid. 445.
80 Assize R. 408, m. 28 d.
81 De Banco R. 151, m. 202 d.; 162, m. 104.
82 Agnes daughter of Siegrithde Bardsey in 1291 made a claim against Adam son of Simon del Flash; Assize R. 1294, m. 8 d., 11 d. Adam son of William de Bardsey in 1318 released certain rights in Angerton to the monks of Furness; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L 389. Adam de Bardsey was plaintiff in 1319; De Banco R. 230, m. 105 d. Adam son of William de Bardsey occurs about the same time; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 169. One or more of the name appear as attesting charters, &c., during the 14th century; Furness Couch. ii, 308, 430, &c. Thomas de Bardsey also occurs in 1331; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, ii, 233.
83 Furness Couch. ii, 449.
84 De Banco R. 159, m. 207 d.
85 Final Conc. ii, 126. Adam and Isabel also obtained land in Kirkby Ireleth; Furness Couch. ii, 323.
86 Assize R. 443, m. 3 d. Cf. V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 120b, where the date is given as 1357 (in error).
87 Assize R. 435, m. 11. It was perhaps the same Thomas who was living in 1399; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 180.
88 Margaret daughter of William de Bardsey was wife of Thomas son of Richard Fleming in 1373; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xii, App. vii, 4. William Bardsey is named in 1404 and 1411 and his executors in 1430–1; Furness Couch. ii, 351; Final Conc. iii, 69, 70, 125. Christopher Bardsey attested a deed in 1410, was a juror in 1431, and was defendant in 1443; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvi, App. 170; Feud. Aids, iii, 92; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 5, m. I. Richard Bardsey in 1476 granted all his lands in Bardsea and Tatham to feoffees; ibid. 45, m. 14. Christopher and William Bardsey occur in the time of Henry VIII; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 74 (1517); Duchy of Lanc. Plead. iv, B 1 (1527); xx, B 2. Christopher's will, dated 1529, shows that William Bardsey was his son and heir; note by Mr. H. Ince Anderton, who has supplied many other references here used.
89 John was murdered in 1533; L. and P. Hen. VIII, vi, 1124.
90 Pal. of Lanc. Writs of Assize, 27 Hen. VIII.
91 Ibid. 30 Hen. VIII. Nicholas was then 'son and heir.' He had a younger brother George. William Bardsey and Nicholas his son were in 1541 accused of detaining £8 due to Nicholas Thornburgh of Hampsfield; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 170, m. 3. William Bardsey and Anne his wife, widow of Ralph Gidlow, were plaintiffs in 1542; ibid. 175, m. 7, 7 d.
John Fell in 1558 acquired four messuages, &c., a water mill and a rent of 23s. 8d. out of the manor of Bardsea from William Bardsea and Nicholas his son and heir; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 20, m. 76.
92 Ibid. bdle. 35, m. 221; the manor of Bardsea, with sixty messuages, water mill, lands, &c., in Bardsea, Ulverston and Cartmel, and a free fishery in the Leven.
Nicholas had a dispute with Peter Mount as to Sheepcotegarth or Craghouse in Bardsea; Duchy of Lanc. Plead, ccxii, M 8. He died 1 Aug. 1588, according to the later inquisition cited below. For his descendants see West, Furness (ed. 1774), 206. The pedigree of a junior Bardsey family was recorded at London in 1634; Visit. (Harl. Soc), 45. Another family occurs in Leicestershire.
93 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 44, m. 16. Dorothy and Elizabeth were the two daughters of Nicholas.
94 Cal. S. P. Dom. 1591–4, p. 10. He was also receiver of Furness Abbey and had other offices.
95 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 64, no. 233. This land was perhaps an independent purchase by James Anderton, and not part of the Bardsey estates.
96 Exch. Dep. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 16, 17; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 321, m. 5.
97 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvii, no. 56.
98 In 1631; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 120, no. 27, by James Anderton, Anne his wife and James his son. Also in 1654 and 1674; ibid. bdles. 156, m. 182; 192, m. 82.
99 The Urswick registers show that Nicholas son of James Anderton was baptized there in 1613. 'Mr. William Anderton of Bardsea' and 'Christopher Anderton, esq.,' were buried in 1691 and 1694 respectively. Christopher was the last heir male of the Andertons of Clayton. His elder sister Dorothy was the widow of Thomas Singleton of Staining, his younger sister Mary, to whom he left Bardsea, was unmarried; information of Mr. Anderton.
100 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 133.
101 Ibid. xii, App. vii, 203.
102 C. W. Bardsley, Chron. of Ulverston, 91; the vendor is stated to have been Mary Anderton, spinster.
The purchaser was William Lord Molyneux, who succeeded his father in 1700 and died in 1718; Chan. Proc. 1714–58 (Reynardson), bdle. 1757, no. 4. Mary Anderton went to live at Aldcliffe, where she died in 1709; her will (dated 1706) makes no mention of any property in Bardsea. This note is due to Mr. Anderton.
103 West, op. cit. p. xlix. West says it was purchased 'last century'; i.e. before 1701.
In 1717 there were seven 'Papists' in the parish, no doubt the household at Bardsea; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. ii, 543.
104 A fine of 1732 respecting the manor of Bardsea, with dovecote, &c., and lands also in Urswick, Ulverston and Cartmel, fixes the date. The deforciants included Lord Molyneux, Thomas Molyneux, Sir Rowland Stanley, &c.; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F, bdle. 307, m. 36.
The sale was duly enrolled; Piccope MSS. (Chet. Lib.), iii, 244.
105 F. Evans, Furness, 87.
106 Sarah daughter and heiress of Christopher Wilson married John Gale of Highead Castle and died in 1774, leaving two sons—Wilson, who assumed the name of Braddyll, and (Lieut.-Genl.) Henry Richmond. The latter had an estate in Bardsea and in 1814 was succeeded by his eldest son William, high sheriff in 1847. At his death in 1865 his son, the present owner, came into possession. See pedigree in Burke's Landed Gentry.
Wilson Braddyll of Conishead held the manor of Bardsea in 1781; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 634, m. 9 (recovery).
107 De Banco R. 125, m. 54. The land of 'Quernesberhe,' in dispute with the Heaton family, belonged to the church; Furness Couch. ii, 453. See note 36 above.
108 Final Conc. i, 17. William released an acre of land to the Prior of the Hospitallers. The Hospitallers' land in Bardsea occurs again in 1292; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 375.
109 Dugdale, Mon. v, 557. He mentions the croft on which stood the house of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.
110 Mentioned in foregoing notes. The priory had in 1535 rents of £5 13s. 11d. from Bardsea; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 271.
111 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. x, App. iv, 225; a grant by William Lord Harrington to John Urswick and Agnes his wife of the Spital lands and a pasture between the king's highway called Streetgate on the south side and pasture called Swartmoor on the north and between the lands of Sir John Pennington and Conishead Priory to west and east respectively.
112 De Banco R. 15, m. 58 d.; 27, m. 103 d.
113 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 42; xi, no. 49. A settlement of this part of the estate was made in 1536; David son of Hugh Fleming was to have it for life; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 11, m. 65.
114 Ibid. bdle. 31, m. 75.
115 Royalist Camp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 91–4.
116 Alice widow of Adam de Harrington in 1309 claimed dower in 2 oxgangs of land in Urswick, and Henry son and heir of Adam de Harrington was called to warrant the possessor; De Banco R. 179, m. 278 d.; 181, m. 163 d.
117 In 1371 Richard Whitefoot, in right of his wife Alice, sister and heir of John son of Thomas del Vicars, claimed a messuage, &c., in Urswick against Adam de Hampsfield; ibid. 441, m. 358.
118 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 231.
119 Ibid. 220.
120 Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3121; Index of Royalists (Index Soc), 45. There is another Stainton in Seathwaite.
121 Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. cvi, C 12.
121 a It is also called St. Mary's-in-theFields, and St. Mary and St. Michael's may have been the full title; Postlethwaite, Notes on Urswick Ch. 53. Though within the limits of Little Urswick it is called in old records the church of Much Urswick.
121 b Since this was written the walls have been stripped inside (1911) and a doorway discovered in the middle of the north wall. Part of a cross shaft was found in the wall; it is dated by Professor Collingwood about 850–70. No part of the existing fabric appears to be older than the beginning of the 13th century, though probably built on an earlier foundation.
122 In 1751 a proposal to put up a ceiling was defeated, but that date with the initials i.r. is cut on one of the timbers of the roof; Trans. Cumb. and Westmld. Antiq. Soc. (new ser.), vi, 199.
123 Ibid. 198.
124 'Until about 1850 the present outer doors stood where the inner ones now are'; ibid. 195.
125 See Furness Lore (Trans. Barrow Naturalists' Field Club, iii, 1900), 105–7. 'A description of the ancient painted glass shields of arms in Urswick Church.'
126 There are eight shields in all, but two are now blank and the third is almost wholly modern. They are described in Furness Lore, 105.
127 There are a facsimile of the inscription and a full description of the bell in Furness Lore, 100–4.
128 Ibid. 102.
129 Lancs. Par. Reg. Soc. xxix (1907). Transcribed by Henry Brierley.
130 Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 362; a claim by the monks of Furness about 1200.
131 When the monks gave Urswick to Michael le Fleming in exchange for other lands they excepted the church; Furness Couch. ii, 455. Michael nevertheless appears to have laid claim to the advowson, and his son was presented to it to make peace; ibid. 457. Other disputes took place; ibid. i, 75. When Henry son of Harvey obtained the wardship of the heir of William son of Michael he about 1205 set up a claim to the advowson of Urswick Church, but soon acknowledged his mistake and withdrew; ibid. ii, 452.
132 B.M. Harl. Chart. 83, A 22; Furness Couch. iii, 642.
133 Ibid. 653; 'save the chapel just as it was' may refer to Bolton.
134 Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc), ii, 545; note by Canon Raines. The date is doubtful, and should perhaps be 1228. From later records it appears that the vicar had a dwelling-house and all the tithes except from grain, viz. wool, lamb, pig, goose, hay, hemp, flax and small tithes. A mortuary was payable on the death of a householder. If a woman belonging to the parish married outside it the vicar received 5s. compensation.
135 In 1650 the vicarage was still 'presentative from the Duchy of Lancaster'; but the tithes were owned by Fleming of Rydal, Anderton of Bardsea and the parishioners; Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 138. Sales of tithes were made by the Crown in 1607; Pat. 5 Jas. I, pt. xvii (Bardsea), pt. xx (Urswick).
In 1717 the patronage was vested in 'great numbers of the inhabitants, among whom the tithes and right of patronage (were) divided by purchase and descent'; Gastrell, loc. cit.
136 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 328.
137 Inq. Nonarum (Rec. Com.), 36. The glebe was valued at 10s. a year. Lands wasted by the inroads of the Scots accounted for the remainder of the diminution, 29s. 2d.
138 Duchy of Lanc. Rentals and Surv. bdle. 5, no. 15.
139 Valor Eccl. v, 270.
140 Ibid. 272. The mansion-house and glebe were worth 6s. 8d.; small tithes, £3 10s.; Easter R., &c., £4 6s. 8d. The vicar was liable for payment of synodals and procurations, 6s.
141 Commonw. Ch. Surv. ut sup.
142 Gastrell, op. cit. ii, 543. The glebe brought in £4 5s.
143 Ibid.; N. and Q. (Ser. 10), v, 490; vi, 113. It was a levy for providing candles and blessed bread. It ceased at the commutation of tithes.
144 Carlisle Dioc. Cal.
145 Furness Couch. ii, 455, 457. He was also rector of Aldingham.
146 Dugdale, Mon. vi, 1194 (1230); Furness Couch. ii, 518 (c. 1260). Boyvill was seneschal of the abbot in 1234; Beck, Annales Furn. 199. He was at Urswick when the vicarage was ordained.
146 a Furness Couch. iii, 655; deed of presentation.
147 Richard, or Richard de Castro Bernardi, occurs as party to numerous pleadings from 1297 to 1319; De Banco R. 121, m. 101 d.; 174, m. 2d.; 230, m. 105 d. He was Dean of Furness in 1302; ibid. 144, m. 319. His son Randle is named in 1304; ibid. 153, m. 118 d.
148 He was charged with an assault on William de Bolton; Assize R. 431, m. 3. He may be the 'John lately vicar' named in Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), i, 81.
149 From Torre's Reg. 1885.
150 Ibid.; described as a 'chaplain.' He occurs again in 1400 and 1405; Cal. Pat. 1399–1401, p. 263; Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), L 1076.
In two Bolton deeds of 1392 one Richard de Freres is described as 'vicar,' but 'of Urswick' is not added; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 221, 222b.
151 Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 375.
152 Valor Eccl. v, 272. It is possible that he was identical with the Thomas Hartley here given as the next vicar.
153 Act Bks. at Chester Dioc. Reg. The last Abbot of Furness had on 25 Mar. 1535 granted the next presentation to Christopher Proctor and William Burrough, who in 1541 transferred to Hugh and Walter Askew. Sawrey is named in the visit. list of 1548 and in pleadings of the time; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 231, 245.
154 Act Bks. No reason is assigned for the vacancy, but from the date it may be surmised that Sawrey was displaced as a married man. Woodburn occurs in the visit, list of 1554.
155 Act Bks. A Thomas Dobson is named in the visitation lists of 1548, 1554 and 1562 as at Ulverston. At the last of these he appeared and subscribed.
156 Sawrey's name reappears in the visit, list of 1562. The name is also given as Sawer.
157 Act Bks.
158 Act Bks. He was 'a preacher' (Lindall) in 1610; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 7. He was buried at Urswick 24 Jan. 1620–1; Reg.
159 Act Bks. The patrons were Robert Curwen, Christopher Gardner, Thomas Fell and Thomas Marshall. The Inst. Bks. P.R.O. begin at this point; the local entries are printed in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes.
Marshall was educated at St. Edmund Hall, Oxf.; M.A. 1617; Foster, Alumni. He was also master of the free school. When the Presbyterian Classis was established in 1646 he did not become a member of it, and in 1650 was reported to be 'scandalous in life and negligent in both his callings' as vicar and schoolmaster; Commonw. Ch. Surv. loc. cit. He had been sequestered in 1646, but appears to have retained possession all through the Commonwealth period; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 43.
160 He was probably the George Inman who entered St. John's Coll., Camb., in 1647; Mayor, Admissions, i, 83. A 'Mr. Inman' was master of Urswick School about 1655; ibid. 157. One George Inman was curate of Cartmel Fell in 1659; Plund. Mins. Accts. ii, 297.
161 The patrons were Anthony Turner, vicar of Dalton, Thomas Marshall, John Cockenskell, Christopher Gardner, Thomas Fell (Redmayne Hall) and William Postlethwaite. They were described as the impropriators.
Thomas Inman was educated at St. John's Coll., Camb.; B.A. 1672. He was 'conformable' in 1689; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 230. He was master of the school.
162 The patrons acted as 'rector and parishioners.' This vicar removed to Hawkshead. In 1702 the church was reputed to be properly furnished. The Lord's Supper was administered thrice a year at least.
163 There was a contested election. Holme was presented by forty-two persons, while twenty-three others adopted a different nominee, one Alexander Bagot The latter party 'yielded to the greater number, who had likewise much the greater share in the tithes and patronage appendant'; Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 544–5.
Holme was also master of the school in 1733. A new vicarage-house was acquired in his time, the old one, 'in all appearance never . . . sufficient for a vicar to live in,' having fallen down.
164 The patrons were Christopher Wilson and others. John Addison was educated at Queen's Coll., Oxf.; B.A. 1732; Foster, Alumni.
165 The patrons were 'the inhabitants.'
166 Also master of the school.
167 Educated at Queens' Coll., Camb.; B.A. 1835.
168 Educated at Trinity Coll., Camb.; B.A. 1857. He was son of William Gale of Bardsea.
169 Educated at Trinity Coll., Camb.; B.A. 1878. The editors are indebted to Mr. Postlethwaite for information on a number of points concerning the church and parish. He has published Some Notes on Urswick Ch. (1906). This pamphlet contains a list of briefs, terriers, extracts from the church books, and lists of churchwardens.
170 No endowed chantries were known in 1547.
171 By an agreement between the monks of Furness and Sir Richard son of Alan de Copeland the chantry of the chapel of Bolton was allowed. The offerings and other income of the chapel were to be given to the mother church, and Sir Richard and his heirs were to render to Urswick Church 4 lb. of wax yearly on St. Michael's Day; Furness Couch. ii, 518.
172 In 1404 inquiry was made as to land acquired from Hugh de Bardsey by John formerly vicar of Urswick, for which the vicar and his successors were to find a chaplain to celebrate every Friday at St. John's Chapel in Bardsea for the souls of Hugh and his family. It was alleged that William, then vicar, had withdrawn this service; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), i, 81.
173 These details are from the visit, lists in the Dioc. Reg. at Chester.
For the church goods in 1552 see Chet. Misc. (Chet. Soc. new ser.), i, 21.
174 This was the case even in 1650.
175 Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. i, 269. It was a branch from the Dalton Church. Preaching began in 1871.
176 End. Char. Rep. 1899; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1547–80, p. 641. The endowment was a rent-charge of £15 on Kenwick Hall Farm in Norfolk. The school was by the charter of 1585 to be called the Free Grammar School of Queen Elizabeth. It is now a public elementary school.
177 Richardson, Furness Past and Present (1880), ii, 30. The remains are still visible.
178 The school at Urswick has an endowment of £19 18s. 8d.; that at Bardsea one of £16 a year.
179 Official inquiries were made in 1820 and 1898; the report (1899) of the latter, from which the details in the text have been taken, includes a reprint of the 1820 report.
Bishop Gastrell has a note of two sums of £8 for the poor, existing in 1717; Notitia, ii, 546.